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  • 1. Benedikt Maria Köhnlein, M.
    et al.
    Abitbol, T.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Materials and Surfaces, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Osório Oliveira, A.
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Magnusson, M. S.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Papermaking and Packaging, 114 28 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, K. H.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Sofie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hakkarainen, M.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bioconversion of food waste to biocompatible wet-laid fungal films2022In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 216, article id 110534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fungus Rhizopus delemar was grown on bread waste in a submerged cultivation process and wet-laid into films. Alkali or enzyme treatments were used to isolate the fungal cell wall. A heat treatment was also applied to deactivate biological activity of the fungus. Homogenization of fungal biomass was done by an iterative ultrafine grinding process. Finally, the biomass was cast into films by a wet-laid process. Ultrafine grinding resulted in densification of the films. Fungal films showed tensile strengths of up to 18.1 MPa, a Young's modulus of 2.3 GPa and a strain at break of 1.4%. Highest tensile strength was achieved using alkali treatment, with SEM analysis showing a dense and highly organized structure. In contrast, less organized structures were obtained using enzymatic or heat treatments. A cell viability assay and fluorescent staining confirmed the biocompatibility of the films. A promising route for food waste valorization to sustainable fungal wet-laid films was established. © 2022 The Authors

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  • 2.
    Brancoli, Pedro
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Changes in carbon footprint when integrating production of filamentous fungi in 1st generation ethanol plants2017In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrating the cultivation of edible filamentous fungi in the thin stillage from ethanol production is presently being considered. This integration can increase the ethanol yield while simultaneously producing a new value-added protein-rich biomass that can be used for animal feed. This study uses life cycle assessment to determine the change in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when integrating the cultivation of filamentous fungi in ethanol production. The result shows that the integration performs better than the current scenario when the fungal biomass is used as cattle feed for system expansion and when energy allocation is used. It performs worse if the biomass is used as fish feed. Hence, integrating the cultivation of filamentous fungi in 1st generation ethanol plants combined with proper use of the fungi can lead to a reduction of GHG emissions which, considering the number of existing ethanol plants, can have a significant global impact.

  • 3.
    Bulkan, Gülru
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rajendran, Karthik
    Department of Environmental Science, SRM University-AP, Amaravati 522502, India.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Techno-Economic Analysis of Bioethanol Plant By-Product Valorization: Exploring Market Opportunities with Protein-Rich Fungal Biomass Production2020In: Fermentation, E-ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 6, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The feasibility of dry-grind bioethanol plants is extremely dependent on selling prices of ethanol and by-products, known as Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), and sold as animal feed. Increasing the amount and quality of the by-products can widen potential feed and food markets and improve the process economy and robustness to price fluctuations of ethanol and grain. In this study, the techno-economic analysis of a bioethanol plant was investigated. Integration of edible filamentous fungi into the process leading to the conversion of sidestreams into ethanol and protein-rich fungal biomass for food and feed applications was considered, and its impact was investigated. Sensitivity analysis considered variations on process capacity, on the price of grain and ethanol, and on the price of fungal biomass considering its use for various animal feed (e.g., pig and fish) and human food markets. Selling the fungal biomass in the human food market resulted in 5.56 times higher NPV (net present value) than the base case bioethanol plant after 20 years. Integration of a low-performing strain towards ethanol, followed by the usage of the fungal biomass in the food sector, was found to be the most resistant scenario to the low ethanol selling price and increasing grain price. This study showed that the competitiveness of ethanol plants in the fuel market could be reinforced while meeting the increasing demand for protein sources.

  • 4.
    Bulkan, Gülru
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Removal of organic micro-pollutants using filamentous fungi2020In: Current Developments in Biotechnology and Bioengineering: Emerging Organic Micro-pollutants / [ed] Sunita Varjani, R.D. Tyagi, Christian Larroche, Ashok Pandey, Huu Hao Ngo, Elsevier, 2020, p. 363-395Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bulkan, Gülru
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Retrofitting analysis of a biorefinery: Integration of 1st and 2nd generation ethanol through organosolv pretreatment of oat husks and fungal cultivation2021In: Bioresource Technology Reports, ISSN 2589-014X, Vol. 15, article id 100762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was dedicated to techno-economic analysis of an integrated 1st and 2nd generation biorefinery, where the organosolv pretreated oat husk and thin stillage is valorized through filamentous fungi and baker yeast. By this strategy, process economy can benefit from multiple value-added products including lignin (80% purity), and protein-rich biomass as feed/food ingredients. Ethanol recovery of organosolv pretreatment benefits the already existing equipment in 1st generation ethanol plant. The best results shows that the integration of 10 tons/h oat husk into a process using 18.8 tons/h grains results in increasing ethanol production from 5.2 to 7.5 tons/h, in addition to 1.6 tons/h lignin (80% purity) and 7.6 tons/h fungal biomass. Integrated process is beneficial not only for 2nd but also for 1st generation ethanol production. Selling the fungal biomass as feed and food increased the net present value (NPV) in comparison to conventional ethanol plant by 71% and 7.9-fold, respectively. © 2021 The Authors

  • 6. Bátori, Veronika
    et al.
    Ferreira, Jorge A
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ethanol and Protein from Ethanol Plant By-Products Using Edible Fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae2015In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, Vol. 2015, no nov23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feasible biorefineries for production of second-generation ethanol are difficult to establish due to the process complexity. An alternative is to partially include the process in the first-generation plants. Whole stillage, a by-product from dry-mill ethanol processes from grains, is mostly composed of undegraded bran and lignocelluloses can be used as a potential substrate for production of ethanol and feed proteins. Ethanol production and the proteins from the stillage were investigated using the edible fungi Neurospora intermedia and Aspergillus oryzae, respectively. N. intermedia produced 4.7 g/L ethanol from the stillage and increased to 8.7 g/L by adding 1 FPU of cellulase/g suspended solids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced 0.4 and 5.1 g/L ethanol, respectively. Under a two-stage cultivation with both fungi, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w) crude protein were obtained. Both fungi degraded complex substrates including arabinan, glucan, mannan, and xylan where reductions of 91, 73, 38, and 89% (w/v) were achieved, respectively. The inclusion of the current process can lead to the production of 44,000 m(3) of ethanol (22% improvement), around 12,000 tons of protein-rich biomass for animal feed, and energy savings considering a typical facility producing 200,000 m(3) ethanol/year.

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  • 7.
    Chopda, Rushab
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Biorefining oat husks into high-quality lignin and enzymatically digestible cellulose with acid-catalyzed ethanol organosolv pretreatment2020In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 8, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oat husks are low-value lignocellulosic residues of oat processing that carry an environmental impact. Their polymers (cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) can be converted into a wide variety of value-added products; however, effcient pretreatment methods are needed that allow their fine separation for further tailored valorization. This study pioneered the use of milling-free and low acid-catalyzed ethanol organosolv for the delignification of oat husks, allowing their conversion into three high-quality streams, namely, glucan-rich, lignin-rich, and hemicellulosic compound-rich streams. Temperature, retention time, and solid-to-liquid ratio were found to impact the delignification of oat husks when using a one-factor-at-a-time strategy. The ideal conditions that were found (210 °C, 90 min, and solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:2) culminated into glucan and lignin fractions containing 74.5% ± 11.4% glucan and 74.9% ± 7.6% lignin, respectively. These high-purity lignin fractions open the possibility for higher value applications by lignin, potentially impacting the feasibility of second generation biorefineries. The glucan fraction showed 90% digestibility after 48 h of hydrolysis with 10 filter paper units of enzyme cocktail per gram of glucan. Considering the absence of size reduction and high solid loading, together with the quality of the obtained streams, organosolv pretreatment could be a potential strategy for the valorization of oat lignocellulosic residues. © 2020 by the authors.

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  • 8.
    Fazelinejad, Somayeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Brandberg, Tomas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fungal biomass and ethanol from lignocelluloses using Rhizopus pellets under simultaneous saccharification, filtration, and fermentation (SSFF)2016In: Biofuel Research Journal, ISSN 2292-8782, Vol. 9, p. 372-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic viability of the 2nd generation bioethanol production process cannot rely on a single product but on a biorefinery built around it. In this work, ethanol and fungal biomass (animal feed) were produced from acid-pretreated wheat straw slurry under an innovative simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and filtration (SSFF) strategy. A membrane unit separated the solids from the liquid and the latter was converted to biomass or to both biomassand ethanol in the fermentation reactor containing Rhizopus sp. pellets. Biomass yields of up to 0.34 g/g based on the consumed monomeric sugars and acetic acid were achieved. A surplus of glucose in the feed resulted in ethanol production and reduced the biomass yield, whereas limiting glucose concentrations resulted in higher consumption of xylose and acetic acid. The specific growth rate, in the range of 0.013-0.015/h, did not appear to be influenced by the composition of the carbon source. Under anaerobic conditions, an ethanol yield of 0.40 g/g was obtained. The present strategy benefits fromthe easier separation of the biomass from the medium and the fungus ability to assimilate carbon residuals in comparison with when yeast is used. More specifically, it allows in-situ separation of insoluble solids leading to the production of pure fungal biomass as a value-added product. (C) 2016 BRTeam. All rights reserved.

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  • 9.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Integration of filamentous fungi in ethanol dry-mill biorefinery2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial production of bioethanol as a replacement to gasoline is well-established worldwide, using starch- or sugar-rich substrates. Additionally, the bioethanol plants produce animal feeds derived from fermentation leftovers. The biorefinery character of bioethanol plants can be enhanced via process diversification. This entails the production of more value-added products, which can be accomplished by including edible filamentous fungi as the second biocatalysts while taking advantage of the available equipment for cost-effective inclusion. The process diversification can be achieved either via valorisation of the process leftovers or via inclusion of other residual substrates.

     

    In dry-mill biorefineries, baker’s yeast is unable to consume residual pentose sugars and other more complex substrates in the process leftovers so called whole stillage and thin stillage. Edible ascomycetes and zygomycetes fungi can be used to accomplish yeast and consume those residual substrates in stillage as well as from external substrates of lignocellulosic origin, e.g. spent sulphite liquor and wheat straw. The conversion of these substrates to ethanol, and biomass rich in protein, lipids, respective essential amino acids and fatty acids as well as chitosan was investigated in this thesis.

     

    Among the filamentous fungi studied, Neurospora intermedia was the best ethanol producer from thin stillage. Process developments included primary shake-flasks experiments, followed by pilot scale-up using 26 L, 2.3 m3 and 80 m3 bioreactors. The 26 L bioreactor, as a bubble column led to similar performance as an airlift bioreactor, and also a continuous mode could be successfully used instead of a batch process. By using a dilution rate of 0.1 h-1, around 5 g/L of ethanol and 4 g/L of biomass rich in protein, lipids, amino acids and fatty acids essential to humans were obtained. The inclusion of the process can potentially lead to a spent medium lower in solids and viscosity which may facilitate the energy-intensive evaporation and drying steps as well as the water recycling back to the process. By applying a two-stage cultivation with whole stillage, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol could be produced using 1 FPU cellulase/g suspended solids and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w) crude protein. In the first stage (ethanol production), N. intermedia was used, while Aspergillus oryzae was the biocatalyst in the second stage for further biomass production. Both strains were able to degrade complex substrates both in liquid and solid fraction of whole stillage. The extrinsic substrates included spent sulphite liquor and pretreated wheat straw slurry. When the former was used, up to around 7 g/L of Rhizopus sp. could be obtained in a 26 L airlift bioreactor. The biomass was rich in protein and lipids (30–50% and 2–7% on a dry weight basis, respectively). The monomers of the latter were continuously filtered for production of biomass under simultaneous saccharification fermentation and filtration. Biomass yields of up to 0.34 g/g of consumed monomeric sugars and acetic acid were obtained.

     

    The inclusion of the process for valorisation of thin stillage can potentially lead to the production of 11,000 m3 ethanol and 6,300 tonnes of biomass at a typical facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year.

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  • 10.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Edebo, Lars
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Zygomycetes-based biorefinery: Present status and future prospects2013In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 135, p. 523-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fungi of the phylum Zygomycetes fulfil all requirements for being utilized as core catalysts in biorefineries, and would be useful in creating new sustainable products. Apart from the extended use of Zygomycetes in preparing fermented foods, industrial metabolites such as lactic acid, fumaric acid, and ethanol are produced from a vast array of feedstocks with the aid of Zygomycetes. These fungi produce enzymes that facilitate their assimilation of various complex substrates, e.g., starch, cellulose, phytic acid, and proteins, which is relevant from an industrial point of view. The enzymes produced are capable of catalyzing various reactions involved in biodiesel production, preparation of corticosteroid drugs, etc. Biomass produced with the aid of Zygomycetes consists of proteins with superior amino acid composition, but also lipids and chitosan. The biomass is presently being tested for animal feed purposes, such as fish feed, as well as for lipid extraction and chitosan production. Complete or partial employment of Zygomycetes in biorefining procedures is consequently attractive, and is expected to be implemented within a near future.

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  • 11.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Niklasson, Claes
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Edebo, Lars
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Spent sulphite liquor for cultivation of an edible Rhizopus sp.2012In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 173-188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spent sulphite liquor, the major byproduct from the sulphite pulp production process, was diluted to 50% and used for production of an edible zygomycete Rhizopus sp. The focus was on production, yield, and composition of the fungal biomass composition. The fungus grew well at 20 to 40°C, but 32°C was found to be preferable compared to 20 and 40°C in terms of biomass production and yield (maximum of 0.16 g/g sugars), protein content (0.50-0.60 g/g), alkali-insoluble material (AIM) (ca 0.15 g/g), and glucosamine content (up to 0.30 g/g of AIM). During cultivation in a pilot airlift bioreactor, the yield increased as aeration was raised from 0.15 to 1.0 vvm, indicating a high demand for oxygen. After cultivation at 1.0 vvm for 84 h, high yield and production of biomass (up to 0.34 g/g sugars), protein (0.30-0.50 g/g), lipids (0.02-0.07 g/g), AIM (0.16-0.28 g/g), and glucosamine (0.22-0.32 g/g AIM) were obtained. The fungal biomass produced from spent sulphite liquor is presently being tested as a replacement for fishmeal in feed for fish aquaculture and seems to be a potential source of nutrients and for production of glucosamine.

  • 12.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Airlift bioreactors for fish feed fungal biomass production using edible filamentous fungi2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Airlift bioreactors are generally considered to be better alternatives for cultivation of filamentous fungi in comparison to stirred-tank bioreactors or bubble columns bioreactors. The reason for the former includes fungal growth around all internal parts including impellers, baffles or pH, temperature and oxygen probes limiting mass transfer, whereas the latter is limited by air flow rates that can be applied before the system provides deficient mixing and so mass transfer rates. Spent sulphite liquor, a by-product from the paper pulp industry, was used for cultivation of edible Rhizopus sp., a strain isolated from Indonesian tempeh used as human food, using a 26 L airlift bioreactor. Increasing the aeration rate from 0.15 to 1 vvm led to increased biomass production (1 vs 7 g/L). The aeration rate was also found to influence fungal morphology and metabolite production during batch cultivation. Rhizopus sp. shifted from mycelial suspensions at 0.15 and 0.5 vvm to small compact pellets of regular size at 1 vvm. The production of ethanol and lactic acid, a proof of sub-optimal aeration conditions, was also reduced when increasing the aeration rate from 0.15 to 1 vvm. The produced biomass was found to be composed, on a dry weight basis, of 30-50% protein, 2-7% lipids, and 3-9% glucosamine. Considering the edible character of the fungus used as well as its biomass nutritional characteristics, there is a potential for its use as fishmeal replacement within the increasing aquaculture sector.

  • 13.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Airlift bioreactors for fish feed fungal biomass production using edible filamentous fungi2017In: FFBiotech Symposium, University of Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Improving the biorefinery "status" of ethanol plants with edible filamentous fungi2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Ferreira, Jorge A
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Production of ethanol and biomass from thin stillage by Neurospora intermedia: A pilot study for process diversification2015In: Engineering in Life Sciences, ISSN 1618-0240, E-ISSN 1618-2863, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 751-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dry mill ethanol processes produce ethanol and animal feed from whole grains,where the wastewater after the distillation and separation of solid materials is called“thin stillage.” In this work, similar production of ethanol (3.5 g/L) and biomass(5 g/L) from thin stillage was obtained during batch cultivation of the edible fungusNeurospora intermedia in a 2-m high airlift reactor and bubble column. The fungalbiomass, containing 50% w/w protein and 12% w/w lipids, was rich in essentialamino acids and omega-3 and -6 fatty acids. In a continuousmode of fermentation,dilution rates of up to 0.2 h−1 could be applied without cell washout in the bubblecolumn at 0.5 vvm. At 0.1 h−1, around 5 g/L of ethanol and 4 g/L of biomasscontaining ca. 50% w/w protein were produced. The fungus was able to assimilatesaccharides in the liquid fraction as well as sugar backbones such as xylan andarabinan in the solid fraction. The inclusion of the current process could potentiallylead to the production of 11 000 m3 of ethanol (5.5% improvement vs. normalindustrial process) and around 6300 tons of high-quality biomass for animal feed ata typical facility producing 200 000 m3 ethanol per year.

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  • 16.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Production of Ethanol and Biomass from Thin Stillage Using Food-Grade Zygomycetes and Ascomycetes Filamentous Fungi2014In: Energies, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 3872-3885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A starch-based ethanol facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year also produces ca. 2 million m3 thin stillage, which can be used to improve the entire process. In this work, five food-grade filamentous fungi, including a Zygomycete and four Ascomycetes were successfully grown in thin stillage containing 9% solids. Cultivation with Neurospora intermedia led to the production of ca. 16 g·L−1 biomass containing 56% (w/w) crude protein, a reduction of 34% of the total solids, and 5 g·L−1 additional ethanol. In an industrial ethanol production process (200,000 m3 ethanol/year), this can potentially lead to the production of 11,000 m3 extra ethanol per year. Cultivation with Aspergillus oryzae resulted in 19 g·L−1 biomass containing 48% (w/w) crude protein and the highest reduction of the thin stillage glycerol (54%) among the Ascomycetes. Cultivation with Rhizopus sp. produced up to 15 g·L−1 biomass containing 55% (w/w) crude protein. The spent thin stillage had been reduced up to 85%, 68% and 21% regarding lactic acid, glycerol and total solids, respectively. Therefore, N. intermedia, in particular, has a high potential to improve the ethanol process via production of additional ethanol and high-quality biomass, which can be considered for animal feed applications such as for fish feed.

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  • 17.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Waste biorefineries using filamentous ascomycetes fungi: Present status and future prospects2016In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 215, no sept, p. 334-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filamentous ascomycetes fungi have had important roles in natural cycles, and are already used industrially for e.g. supplying of citric, gluconic and itaconic acids as well as many enzymes. Faster human activities result in higher consumption of our resources and producing more wastes. Therefore, these fungi can be explored to use their capabilities to convert back wastes to resources. The present paper reviews the capabilities of these fungi in growing on various residuals, producing lignocellulose-degrading enzymes and production of organic acids, ethanol, pigments, etc. Particular attention has been on Aspergillus, Fusarium, Neurospora and Monascus genera. Since various species are used for production of human food, their biomass can be considered for feed applications and so biomass compositional characteristics as well as aspects related to culture in bioreactor are also provided. The review has been further complemented with future research avenues.[on SciFinder (R)]

  • 18.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Brancoli, Pedro
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Agnihotri, Swarnima
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A review of integration strategies of lignocelluloses and other wastes in 1st generation bioethanol processes2018In: Process Biochemistry, ISSN 1359-5113, E-ISSN 1873-3298, Vol. 75, p. 173-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    First-generation ethanol plants offer successful, commercial-scale bioprocesses that can, at least partially, replace fossil fuels. They can act as platforms to integrate lignocelluloses, wastes and residuals when establishing 2nd generation ethanol. The present review gathers recent insights on the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic substrates into lot generation ethanol plants, through microbial conversion or cogeneration systems. It shows that, among different lot generation ethanol plants, sugar-based ethanol by-products, dominate integration studies characterized by strong techno-economic and life-cycle assessment components. In comparison, there are fewer studies that focus on grain-derived lignocellulosic residuals and other wastes. There is consensus that integrating second generation feedstocks into first generation plants can have positive techno-economic and environmental impacts. In addition to realizing production of ethanol from 2nd generation feedstocks, these possibilities can impact waste management by establishing relevant biorefineries and circular economy. They can also supply a wide range of renewable products. Considering the potential of this waste management strategy, further research on these and many other substrates is needed. This will shed light on the effect of the integration, the relevant types of microorganisms and pretreatments, and of other physical parameters on the effectiveness of running lot generation plants with integrated second generation feedstocks.

  • 19.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lennartsson, Patrik
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Partial or complete inclusion of Zygomycetes fungi in biorefineries2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lennartsson, Patrik
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Thin stillage utilization by edible Ascomycetes and Zygomycetes for an improved ethanol2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lennartsson, Patrik
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Zygomycetes-based biorefineries2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Biorefining of low-value streams and residuals with edible filamentous fungi2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved human lifestyle and industrialization has led to unsustainable linear economies with overexploitation of resources and waste accumulation. Hence, the need of a paradigm shift from linear to circular economies where wastes are considered as resources. Microbial conversion has been among the waste management strategies attracting immense research and development interest. This is related to the diversity of the microbial world that opens the possibility to convert a wide range of low-value substrates into a panoply of value-added products. For instance, filamentous fungi are able to growth on substrates of variable composition, where a nutritious macroscopic filamentous structure, easily recovered from the medium, is produced as a result of nutrient assimilation. If edible filamentous fungi are used for the valorization of municipal and industrial sidestreams, residuals and wastes, a positive impact can be attained on e.g. the establishment of circular economies and concomitantly on the environment, and on shortage concerns of protein sources due to population growth forecasts. The talk will give an overview of the type of substrates that can be used and value-added products that can be produced through fungal conversion. Examples will include sidestreams and residuals from bioethanol, dairy, fish, paper and pulp, and agricultural sectors. Emphasis will also be given to industrial integration strategies of fungal-based processes that can lead to new value-added products, increased production yields and energy savings.

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  • 23.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Improving the economy of lignocellulose-based biorefineries with organosolv pretreatment2020In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocellulose-based processes for production of value-added products still face bottlenecks to attain feasibility. The key might lie on the biorefining of all lignocellulose main polymers, that is, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Lignin, considered an impediment in the access of cellulose and normally considered for energy recovery purposes, can give a higher contribution towards profitability of lignocellulosic biorefineries. Organosolv pretreatment allows selective fractionation of lignocellulose into separate cellulose-, hemicellulose- and lignin-rich streams. Ethanol organosolv and wood substrates dominated the research studies, while a wide range of substrates need definition on the most suitable organosolv pretreatment systems. Techno-economic and environmental analyses of organosolv-based processes as well as proper valorization strategies of the hemicellulose-rich fraction are still scarce. In view of dominance of ethanol organosolv with high delignification yields and high-purity of the recovered cellulose-rich fractions, close R & D collaboration with 1st generation ethanol plants might boost commercialization. 

  • 24.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Varjani, S.
    Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382010, India.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A Critical Review on the Ubiquitous Role of Filamentous Fungi in Pollution Mitigation2020In: Current Pollution Reports, ISSN 2198-6592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Propose of Review: Anthropogenic activities are saturating wastewater treatment plants and the environment with an increasing range of organic and inorganic compounds, impairing ecosystems and health. Filamentous fungi, with characteristic filamentous growth, array of extracellular and intracellular enzymes, production of surfactants, cell wall biosorption properties, and symbiotic momentum, can contribute to a paradigm shift on the perception of anthropogenic pollution. This review provides a critical analysis of the main bottlenecks for feasible filamentous fungus-including processes and proposes a holistic approach for pollution mitigation using filamentous fungi. Recent Findings: Filamentous fungi can convert ordinary sidestreams into, e.g., feed proteins and biofuels. Economic and environmental studies support integration in established processes. Intersectoral initiatives, and economic and environmental studies, need to be motivated to increase the range of processes. Although massively studied, the transfer of fungal processes for the removal of micropollutants into real matrices is difficult. It needs to be supported by omics technologies for the study of microbial networks, and by efficient analytical techniques to clarify detoxification potential. The area can benefit from knowledge integration from fungal growth in ordinary sidestreams, and from economic and environmental studies. Summary: The interest in filamentous fungi for pollution mitigation is corroborated by an overwhelming amount of research; however, no full-scale applications are currently known. Environmental pollution is a reality and production of ordinary sidestreams and micropollutant-rich wastewaters continuous. The establishment of filamentous fungal processes needs collaboration among governmental authorities, industries, and academics in order to tackle knowledge gaps within the area and propose a holistic approach.

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  • 25.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Post-treatment of Fungal Biomass to Enhance Pigment Production2019In: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new post-treatment method of fungal biomass after fermentation is revealed. The post-treatment strategy was utilized to produce pigments as an additional valuable metabolite. Post-treatment included incubation at 95% relative humidity where the effects of harvesting time, light, and temperature were studied. Pigment-producing edible filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia cultivated on ethanol plant residuals produced 4 g/L ethanol and 5 g/L fungal biomass. Harvesting the pale biomass after 48 h submerged cultivation compared to 24 h or 72 h increased pigmentation in the post-treatment step with 35% and 48%, respectively. The highest pigment content produced, 1.4 mg/g dry fungal biomass, was obtained from washed biomass treated in light at 35 °C whereof the major impact on pigmentation was from washed biomass. Moreover, post-treated biomass contained 50% (w/w) crude protein. The post-treatment strategy successfully adds pigments to pre-obtained biomass. The pigmented fungal biomass can be considered for animal feed applications for domestic animals.

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  • 26.
    Karimi, Sajjad
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Agnihotri, Swarnima
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Evaluating three fungal biomasses grown on diluted thin stillage as potential fish feed ingredients2023In: Bioresource Technology Reports, ISSN 2589-014X, Vol. 24, article id 101677Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin stillage holds promise as a substrate for cultivating filamentous fungi. The suspended solids content of thin stillage directly influences biomass production. However, little attention has been given to its effects on fungal cultivation and composition, which is the focus of the current study. Various thin stillage dilutions were used to cultivate Zygomycete and Ascomycetes. Biomass and nutrient uptake were monitored during the cultivation. The harvested biomass was analyzed to assess nutrient composition in relation to fish dietary requirements. Thin stillage diluted to 75 % significantly enhanced fungal biomass production, with increases of 160 %, 213 %, and 235 % for A. oryzae, R. delemar, and N. intermedia, respectively. The harvested fungal biomass boasted approximately 50 % protein content, constituting 45 % essential amino acids. These findings underscore the potential of cultivating fungi in diluted thin stillage to boost biomass production and its high-quality nutritional composition positions it as a valuable candidate for fish feed formulations.

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  • 27.
    Karimi, Sajjad
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The application of fungal biomass as feed2021In: Encyclopedia of Mycology, Elsevier, 2021, p. 601-612Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Karimi, Sajjad
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran.
    Soofiani, N. M.
    Department of Natural Resources, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 8415683111, Iran.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lundh, T.
    Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kiessling, A.
    Department of Animal Nutrition and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Evaluation of nutritional composition of pure filamentous fungal biomass as a novel ingredient for fish feed2021In: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 7, no 3, article id 152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid growth of aquaculture and the lack of fish meal demand new sustainable ingre-dients. Although fungal biomass is found to be a promising sustainable fish feed supplementation candidate, the characteristics of this protein-rich source are closely influenced by the quality of the applied growth medium. In this work, the nutritional properties of pure filamentous fungal biomass provided from the cultivation of Aspergillus oryzae, Neurospora intermedia and Rhzopus oryzae were evaluated to assess their potential as alternative novel protein sources in fish feed. In this regard, fungal biomass yields of up to 0.19 ± 0.005 (g dry biomass/g substrate glucose) were obtained during submerged cultivation of fungal strains. The pure fungal biomass acquired could contain significant amounts of protein up to 62.2 ± 1.2% (w/w). The obtained protein had a high quality with notable inclusion of essential amino acids such as lysine, arginine, methionine and threonine with comparable concentrations to those of fish meal. Fungal biomass is mainly considered as protein source, however, entitlement of 6.9 ± 0.5, 4.0 ± 0.7 and 17.2 ± 1.1% (w/w) of lipids and ratio of polyunsatu-rated fatty acids (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) of 1.37:1, 1.74:1 and 1.47:1 in A. oryzae, N. intermedia and R. oryzae, respectively, signal health benefits for the fish. Considering the results, protein-rich pure fungal biomass with amino acid composition is greatly compatible with fish meal, and contains essential nutrients such as fatty acids and minerals. This pure biomass constitutes a promising sustainable alternative supplement to be introduced in fish feed industry.

  • 29.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pigment Production by the Edible Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Intermedia2018In: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 4, no 11, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of pigments by edible filamentous fungi is gaining attention as a result of the increased interest in natural sources with added functionality in the food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, used for production of the Indonesian food “oncom”, is one potential source of pigments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the fungus’ pigment production. The joint effect from different factors (carbon and nitrogen source, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2) on pigment production by N. intermedia is reported for the first time. The scale-up to 4.5 L bubble column bioreactors was also performed to investigate the effect of pH and aeration. Pigment production of the fungus was successfully manipulated by varying several factors. The results showed that the formation of pigments was strongly influenced by light, carbon, pH, the co-factor Zn2+ and first- to fourth-order interactions between factors. The highest pigmentation (1.19 ± 0.08 mg carotenoids/g dry weight biomass) was achieved in a bubble column reactor. This study provides important insights into pigmentation of this biotechnologically important fungus and lays a foundation for future utilizations of N. intermedia for pigment production. 

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  • 30.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Production of Fungal Biomass for Feed, Fatty Acids, and Glycerol by Aspergillus oryzae from Fat-Rich Dairy Substrates2017In: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 3, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dairy waste is a complex mixture of nutrients requiring an integrated strategy for valorization into various products. The present work adds insights into the conversion of fat-rich dairy products into biomass, glycerol, and fatty acids via submerged cultivation with edible filamentous fungi. The pH influenced fat degradation, where Aspergillus oryzae lipase was more active at neutral than acidic pH (17 g/L vs. 0.5 g/L of released glycerol); the same trend was found during cultivation in crème fraiche (12 g/L vs. 1.7 g/L of released glycerol). In addition to glycerol, as a result of fat degradation, up to 3.6 and 4.5 g/L of myristic and palmitic acid, respectively, were released during A. oryzae growth in cream. The fungus was also able to grow in media containing 16 g/L of lactic acid, a common contaminant of dairy waste, being beneficial to naturally increase the initial acidic pH and trigger fat degradation. Considering that lactose consumption is suppressed in fat-rich media, a two-stage cultivation for conversion of dairy waste is also proposed in this work. Such an approach would provide biomass for possibly feed or human consumption, fatty acids, and an effluent of low organic matter tackling environmental and social problems associated with the dairy sector.

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  • 31.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Biotechnology.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Value-added products from dairy waste using edible fungi2017In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 59, p. 518-525Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Marhendraswari, M. B. D.
    et al.
    1 Department of Food and Agricultural Products Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Mondylaksita, K.
    1 Department of Food and Agricultural Products Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Millati, R.
    1 Department of Food and Agricultural Products Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Budhijanto, W.
    2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Niklasson, C.
    4 Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Production of edible fungal (Rhizopus delemar CBS 145940) biomass from organosolv-pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) in submerged fermentation2020In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2020, no 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulation of oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB) from palm oil industry poses challenges for the disposal process, which leads to environmental damage. For this reason, valorization of OPEFB fractions to produce edible fungal biomass was carried out in this research. The fungus was Rhizopus delemar CBS 145940, which is an edible fungus, Indonesian indigenous, and is favorable for the production of several end products. Organosolv pretreatment was first conducted on OPEFB using ethanol (50%) as the solvent. Enzymatic hydrolysis was then performed using Cellic® Ctec3 on the pretreated-OPEFB fractions. Hydrolyzates from cellulose-rich fraction, slurry (a mixture of cellulose-rich fraction and hemicellulose-rich fraction), and hemicellulose-rich fraction were used as the cultivation media for fungal growth. The corresponding yield of fungal biomass from each medium was 0.62 ± 0.07 g/g glucose; 0.41 ± 0.02; and 0.61 ± 0.13 g/g fermentable sugars, respectively. These results showed that Rhizopus delemar CBS 145940 could be grown in all the hydrolyzates from the OPEFB fractions. Nevertheless, in order to obtain higher fungal biomass, supplementation of nutrition was needed. © 2020 Institute of Physics Publishing.

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  • 33.
    Mondylaksita, Kinanthi
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Budhijanto, Wiratni
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
    Niklasson, Claes
    Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Millati, Ria
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
    Enhanced volatile fatty acid production from oil palm empty fruit bunch through acidogenic fermentation—A novel resource recovery strategy for oil palm empty fruit bunch2021In: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The glucan-rich fraction, hemicellulosic compounds-rich fraction, and a mixture of both fractions obtained from organosolv pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) were used as substrates to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in acidogenic fermentation. In this study, the effects of medium adjustment (carbon to nitrogen ratio and trace elements supplementation) and methanogenesis inhibition (through the addition of 2-bromoethanesulfonate or by heat shock) to enhance VFAs yield were investigated. The highest VFA yield was 0.50 ± 0.00 g VFAs/g volatile solid (VS), which was obtained when methanogens were inhibited by heat shock and cultivated in a mixture of glucan-rich and hemicellulosic compounds-rich fractions. Under these conditions, the fermentation produced acetic acid as the only VFA. Based on the results, the mass balance of the whole process (from pretreatment and fermentation) showed the possibility to obtain 30.4 kg acetic acid and 20.3 kg lignin with a 70% purity from 100 kg OPEFB. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 34.
    Mondylaksita, Kinanthi
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Millati, R.
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
    Budhijanto, W.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
    Niklasson, C.
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Recovery of high purity lignin and digestible cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunch using low acid-catalyzed organosolv pretreatment2020In: Agronomy, E-ISSN 2073-4395, Vol. 10, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lignocellulosic residue from the palm oil industry, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), represents a challenge to both producing industries and environment due to its disposal diffculties. Alternatively, OPEFB can be used for the production of valuable products if pretreatment methods, which overcome OPEFB recalcitrance and allow tailored valorization of all its carbohydrates and lignin, are developed. Specifically, high-value applications for lignin, to increase its contribution to the feasibility of lignocellulosic biorefineries, demand high-purity fractions. In this study, acid-catalyzed organosolv using ethanol as a solvent was used for the recovery of high-purity lignin and digestible cellulose. Factors including catalyst type and its concentration, temperature, retention time, and solid-to-liquid (S/L) ratio were found to influence lignin purity and recovery. At the best conditions (0.07% H2SO4, 210 °C, 90 min, and S/L ratio of 1:10), a lignin purity and recovery of 70.6 ± 4.9% and 64.94 ± 1.09%, respectively, were obtained in addition to the glucan-rich fraction. The glucan-rich fraction showed 94.06 ± 4.71% digestibility within 18 h at an enzyme loading of 30 filter paper units (FPU)/g glucan. Therefore, ethanol organosolv can be used for fractionating OPEFB into three high-quality fractions (glucan, lignin, and hemicellulosic compounds) for further tailored biorefining using low acid concentrations. Especially, the use of ethanol opens the possibility for integration of 1st and 2nd generation ethanol benefiting from the separation of high-purity lignin. © 2020 by the authors.

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  • 35.
    Mukesh Kumar, Awasthi
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sirohi, R.
    Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Sarsaiya, S.
    Key Laboratory of Basic Pharmacology and Joint International Research Laboratory of Ethnomedicine of Ministry of Education, Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi, Guizhou, China.
    Khoshnevisan, B.
    Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, 100081, Beijing, PR China.
    Baladi, S.
    Department of biosystem engineering, Faculty of agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Khouzestan, Iran.
    Sindhu, R.
    Microbial Processes and Technology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR- NIIST), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, 695 019, India.
    Binod, P.
    Microbial Processes and Technology Division, CSIR-National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR- NIIST), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, 695 019, India.
    Pandey, A.
    Centre for Innovation and Translational Research, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Lucknow, 226 001, India.
    Juneja, A.
    Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, 1304 W. Pennsylvania Avenue, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA.
    Kumar, D.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, 402 Walters Hall, 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY, 13210, USA.
    Zhang, Z.
    College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi Province, 712100, PR China.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A critical review on the development stage of biorefinery systems towards the management of apple processing-derived waste2021In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 143, article id 110972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apple is among the most consumed fruits in the world and the expansion of their processing is increasing the generation of waste such as apple pomace. It finds some applications in food and feed systems, anaerobic digestion, and composting; however it most ends in landfills or in informal disposal. Therefore, waste management strategies that address this waste accumulation need to be explored. This review provides a state-of-art of valorization strategies adopted for recovery of value added products from apple processing-derived waste and discusses on their development stage. The research community has laid most of its efforts on incorporation of apple pomace into feed and food systems and in the development of pectin- and phenolics-extraction methods. Incorporation of apple pomace in feed and food systems is still negligible due to its low protein and high fiber contents. Therefore, coupling apple pomace with microbial conversion for nutritional upgrade could change this scenario. Some environmentally-friendly techniques have been developed for extraction of pectin and phenolics, but major developments are needed on their integration to attain tailored extraction of several compounds. Recovery of value added routes of apple pomace towards production of bio-chemicals are characterized by lack of deep research studies and of a holistic approach. Integrated approach with techno-economic analysis, life-cycle assessment, and inter-sectorial initiatives will possibly reveal the most promising valorization routes. 

  • 36.
    Nair, Ramkumar B
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kalif, Mahdi
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mild-temperature dilute acid pretreatment for integration of first and second generation ethanol processes2017In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 245, p. 145-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of hot-water (100 °C) from the 1st generation ethanol plants for mild-temperature lignocellulose pretreatment can possibly cut down the operational (energy) cost of 2nd generation ethanol process, in an integrated model. Dilute-sulfuric and -phosphoric acid pretreatment at 100 °C was carried out for wheat bran and whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment time and acid type influenced the release of sugars from wheat bran, while acid-concentration was found significant for whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment led up-to 300% improvement in the glucose yield compared to only-enzymatically treated substrates. The pretreated substrates were 191–344% and 115–300% richer in lignin and glucan, respectively. Fermentation using Neurospora intermedia, showed 81% and 91% ethanol yields from wheat bran and stillage-fibers, respectively. Sawdust proved to be a highly recalcitrant substrate for mild-temperature pretreatment with only 22% glucose yield. Both wheat bran and whole-stillage are potential substrates for pretreatment using waste heat from the 1st generation process for 2nd generation ethanol.

  • 37.
    Nair, Ramkumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Evaluating dilute phosphoric acid pretreated wheat bran for ethanol and edible fungal biomass production: A pilot study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of the work:

    The present study reports the application of using dilute phosphoric acid for pretreatment of wheat branbiomass and its subsequent use as an ethanol fermentation substrate for edible fungi, Neurospora intermedia inbench scale (4.5L) and pilot airlift (26L) reactors.

    Approach:

    The optimized pretreatment conditions to release maximum sugar and minimum inhibitor concentrations weredetermined using a statistically modelled experimental setup. The dilute acid pretreatment was scaled up withthe validation of lab results in a biorefinery demo plant (BDP) at Svensk Etanolkemi AB – SEKAB (Örnsköldsvik,Sweden). The structural and physiological changes in the bran biomass during the pretreatment process werealso studied. Bench scale and pilot scale enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass and subsequent ethanolfermentation using edible ascomycetes fungi, N. intermedia were studied using airlift reactors.

    Scientific innovation and relevance:

    With the use of dilute phosphoric acid, the study put forth an alternative strategy to the current use of relativelystronger acids for lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment. The potential use of acid pretreated lignocellulosicbiomass (wheat bran) as an ethanol feedstock, together with the edible fungal cultivation is a first of its kindapproach towards a wider ‘biorefinery’ concept. Improving the co-product (DDGS) quality and ethanol yield inthe existing wheat based ethanol facilities, whereby enhancing the overall ethanol production economics formsthe ultimate aim of the study.

    Results:

    Wheat bran was subjected to dilute acid pretreatment at varying acid concentrations (0.5–3.0% w/v),temperature (150–210◦C), and reaction time (5–20 min). The interaction of multiple factors showed theoptimum pretreatment conditions at acid concentration of 1.75% (w/v), at 190◦C for 10 min. A maximum totalpolysaccharide yield of 0.27 ± 0.01 g/g dry biomass loading, corresponding to 66% of the theoretical maximumwas observed. The effect of the dilute acid pretreatment on the functional groups of the wheat bran cellulosewas determined with 78% reduction in the cellulose crystallinity index. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated slurryfrom the demo plant showed 85% total theoretical yield of polysaccharides. Compared to the untreated branbiomass, an increase of 51% was observed in the ethanol yield following pretreatment, with a total ethanol yieldof 95% theoretical maximum. Similar results were also observed on scaling up the reaction volume in a benchscale (4.5L) and pilot scale (26L) airlift reactors, which will also be presented in detail.

    Conclusions:

    The present work brings out the potential of using phosphoric acid as an efficient pretreatment agent addressingthe long existing problems associated with the sulfur contamination of the feed. Additional advantages relatedto the nutritional enrichment of DDGS (at the existing wheat based ethanol facility), with the use of edibleascomycetes fungi were also achieved. However, techno-economical analyses are required to determine theactual industrial feasibility of the process.

  • 38.
    Nazir, Muhammad Tahir
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mahboubi, Amir
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sar, Taner
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery University of Borås Borås Sweden.
    Production of filamentous fungal biomass with increased oil content using olive oil as a carbon source2022In: Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), ISSN 0268-2575, E-ISSN 1097-4660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    Vegetable oil is more difficult for microorganisms to degrade compared with carbohydrates and protein. Oil-rich waste creates serious environmental and health concerns if it remains untreated. The aim of the work reported here was to evaluate the effects on the nutritional composition of filamentous fungal biomass by growing it in pure olive oil as a carbon source.

    RESULTS

    The growth of different filamentous fungal strains (Aspergillus oryzae, Neurospora intermedia and Rhizopus oryzae) was investigated in pure olive oil. A pre-germination stage of either glucose or yeast extract was necessary for successful fungal growth in olive oil. A. oryzae showed superior performance in comparison with N. intermedia and R. oryzae in terms of biomass growth. The obtained biomass from A. oryzae and N. intermedia was analyzed for protein, fat, ash and alkali-insoluble material, where the presence of olive oil had a steering effect on biomass growth (16 g L−1 with oil versus 4 g L−1 without oil). Nutritional composition of the fungal biomass of A. oryzae contained 0.33% fat and 48% protein when cultivated in medium without olive oil supplementation, while 31% fat and 14% protein contents were observed in the presence of olive oil-containing medium. Similar trends for fat and protein contents were observed for the biomass of N. intermedia. Moreover, microscopy confirmed the presence of oil globules inside the fungal cells.

    CONCLUSIONS

    Fat composition of fungal biomass can be steered through addition of olive oil, which increases the versatility of the produced biomass for various applications, namely in feed, food and biofuel production.

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  • 39.
    Parchami, Mohsen
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Brewing Process Development by Integration of Edible Filamentous Fungi to Upgrade the Quality of Brewer’s Spent Grain (BSG)2021In: BioResources, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 1686-1701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brewer’s spent grain (BSG) is the main solid by-product of the brewing sector. High moisture and nutrient-rich content render BSG easily perishable, leading to waste generation and environmental impacts. BSG has narrow applications in both feed and food sectors due to its composition including high fiber and low protein. Therefore, a processing strategy leading to the nutritional valorization of BSG could widen its applications. In this study, submerged cultivation of edible filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae, Neurospora intermedia, and Rhizopus delemar) was introduced as a strategy to enhance the protein content of BSG. The growth of all strains in BSG increased the protein content of the fermented BSG. The highest increase of protein content (from 22.6% to 34.6%), was obtained by cultivation using A. oryzae and medium supplementation. The protein content increase was followed by a decrease in the content of polysaccharides (up to ca. 50%), namely starch, glucan, xylan, and arabinan. The addition of cellulase resulted in enhanced ethanol production from BSG but led to lower concentration of recovered solids. In conclusion, simple processing of BSG using edible filamentous fungi can lead to quality improvement of BSG, providing potential economic and environmental benefits to the brewing sector.

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  • 40.
    Parchami, Mohsen
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Starch and protein recovery from brewer's spent grain using hydrothermal pretreatment and their conversion to edible filamentous fungi – A brewery biorefinery concept2021In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 337, article id 125409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed at recovering a highly concentrated starch and protein stream from the brewer's spent grain (BSG). The effect of pretreatment temperature and retention time on the solubilization of starch and protein; and the generation of fermentation inhibitors were studied. Then, the application of recovered streams for fungal cultivation was evaluated using different edible fungi Aspergillus oryzae, Neurospora intermedia, and Rhizopus delemar. The hydrothermal pretreatment resulted in the highest solubilized starch concentration, 43 g/L, corresponding to 83% solubilization of initial BSG starch content. The highest protein concentration was 27 g/L (48% solubilization of initial BSG protein content). Cultivation with Neurospora intermedia on the recovered streams from the two best pretreatment conditions, 140 ℃ for 4 h and 180 ℃ for 30 min, resulted in pure fungal biomass with the highest protein content 59.62% and 50.42% w/w, respectively. Finally, a brewery biorefinery was proposed for the valorization of BSG. 

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  • 41.
    Pinheiro, Vanessa Elisa
    et al.
    Univ Sao Paulo.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Betini, Jorge Henrique
    Univ Sao Paulo.
    Kamimura, Eliana Setsuko
    Univ Sao Paulo.
    Polizeli, Maria
    Univ Sao Paulo.
    Utilizing a Novel Fungal Enzymatic Cocktail as an Eco-Friendly Alternative for Cellulose Pulp Biobleaching2021In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. - 16, no - 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzyme cocktails can alter the lignin and hemicellulose content in wood cell walls, improving the bleaching process during pulp production and offsetting the need for toxic chemicals. In this study, brown pulp was biobleached with a mixture of crude fungal extracts rich in xylanase and laccase, respectively produced from Aspergillus tamarii Kita and Trametes versicolor on waste materials. The optimal conditions for biobleaching were a mixture of xylanase and laccase crude extracts (1 to 2 v/v), at a temperature of 36 degrees C and a pH of 5.5. The treated brown cellulose pulp showed a reduction in the Kappa number by 1.83 points, representing an efficiency of 20.3%. In addition, the brightness increased by 4.65 points in comparison to the control. Hence, studies involving the application of the standardized cocktail during the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic residues, e.g., barley residue and sugarcane bagasse, led to the formation of 85 g/L and 25 g/L of reducing sugars, respectively. Moreover, the standardized cocktail caused greater deinking of the recycled paper pulp.

  • 42.
    Rocha-Meneses, Lisandra
    et al.
    Institute of Technology, Chair of Biosystems Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mushtaq, Maryam
    Independent researcher, Canada.
    Karimi, Sajjad
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Orupold, Kaja
    Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 5, 51006 Tartu, Estonia.
    Kikas, Timo
    Institute of Technology, Chair of Biosystems Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56, 51006 Tartu, Estonia.
    Genetic modification of cereal plants: A strategy to enhance bioethanol yields from agricultural waste2020In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulosic biomass has been widely used as a feedstock for biofuel applications due to its low-cost, renewability and abundance. However, the production of liquid biofuels is still costly and inefficient mainly due to the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulosic biomass. It requires expensive pretreatment methods to break down the plant cell wall, and efficient enzymes capable of hydrolysing cellulose into glucose. One possible solution to make bioethanol production cost-effective and, at the same time, increase the energy output from the biomass is genetic engineering. Genetic modification has been reported as an effective strategy to increase productivity, biomass yields and specific traits of various agricultural plants. This paper provides an overview of the potential of cereal-based agricultural waste as a feedstock for bioethanol production. It focuses on the progress of different techniques used in genetic modification (transgenesis, cisgenesis mutagenesis and conventional breeding) to genetically engineer plant cell wall. Utilization of genetic modification of cereal plants is proposed as a solution to high costs and low yields of bioethanol production from cereal-based agricultural waste.

  • 43.
    Rousta, Neda
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Production of L-carnitine-enriched edible filamentous fungal biomass through submerged cultivation2021In: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 358-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The edible filamentous fungi are hot candidate for future supply of functional food and feed with e.g. protein, essential amino acids, and compounds with immunostimulant activity. L-carnitine that plays a crucial role in energy metabolism represents a functional compound normally produced by Zygomycetes filamentous fungus Rhizopus oligosporus in solid-state fermentation. The present study provides the first insights on production of L-carnitine-enriched edible fungal biomass through submerged cultivation of several Ascomycetes and Zygomycetes including Aspergillus oryzae, Neurospora intermedia, Rhizopus oryzae, and Rhizopus oligosporus. A. oryzae with 3 mg L-carnitine yield per gram of fungal biomass, indicates great potential on production of this bioactive compound which is remarkably higher than the other tested fungi in this work and also previous studies. In addition to fungal strain, other factors such as cultivation time and presence of yeast extract were found to play a role. Further studies on submerged growth optimization of A. oryzae in both high-quality recipes and in medium based on low-value substrates are proposed in order to clarify its potential for production of L-carnitine-enriched fungal biomass. 

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  • 44.
    Sar, Taner
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Arifa, VIna Hasna
    Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Hilmy, Muhammad Raihan
    Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Millati, Ria
    Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Organosolv pretreatment of oat husk using oxalic acid as an alternative organic acid and its potential applications in biorefinery2022In: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, E-ISSN 2190-6823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, ethanol organosolv treatment of oat husk and the potential effects of phosphoric acid and oxalic acid as alternatives to sulfuric acid were investigated. These acids were determined as effective as sulfuric acid to obtain high quality lignin and glucan and they can be used instead of sulfuric acid in solvent acidification. To determine the purity and recovery of both lignin and glucan, the effects of initial substrate amount, solid-to-liquid ratio, and amount of washing solutions were also examined using a one-factor-at-a-time strategy. Reducing the amount of washing solutions (water, solvent, or both) negatively affected lignin recovery, but it did not affect glucan recovery. The optimum conditions for pretreatment of the oat husk at higher glucan recovery were obtained with 50% aqueous ethanol acidified with oxalic acid at 210 degrees C for 90 min and solid-to-liquid ratio of 1:2. In the mixture of evaporated glucan-rich and hemicellulose-rich fractions obtained through the optimized condition, 4.62 g/L biomass containing 10.27% protein was produced by the cultivation of Aspergillus oryzae. The fractions obtained from organosolv treatment can be used to obtain value-added products such as biomass production, and thus contributing to a sustainable economy by integrating lignocellulosic substrate residues into the biorefinery.

  • 45.
    Sar, Taner
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A study on the use of olive oil mill wastewater to produce protein-rich fungal biomass2024Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While olive oil is an important food product in the Mediterranean Sea Basin, olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) and olive pomace, which are by-products of olive oil, are released in excessive quantities. OMWW is an important source of environmental pollutants due to its slightly acidic pH, high contents of phenol and chemical oxygen demand (COD). To overcome this problem, it was aimed to investigate the potential use of OOMW as an alternative substrate for biomass production by filamentous fungi in this study. For the cultivation, three edible fungi (Aspergillus oryzae CBS 819.72, Neurospora intermedia CBS 131.92, and Rhizopus delemar CBS 145940) were tested. Among them, A. oryzae was found to be a promising fungus in biomass production containing 14.9% protein. The protein content of the biomass was improved to 44.9% (w/w) by adding a nitrogen source (sodium nitrate) and removing the suspended solids. Concomitantly, 35-44% of COD reduction was also obtained after the fungal cultivation. Thus, the potential use of olive oil mill wastewater for the cultivation of fungal biomass was determined and at the same time, its pre-treatment was provided. However, the content of the obtained fungal biomass should be determined and its usability as feed should be investigated.

  • 46.
    Sar, Taner
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bioprocessing strategies to increase the protein fraction of Rhizopus oryzae biomass using fish industry sidestreams2020In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 113, p. 261-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sidestreams produced during fish processing end in a separation tank where the resulting fractions follow biogas production or wastewater treatment. These streams can alternatively be used for production of protein-rich fungal biomass for e.g. fish feed applications, a product in increasing demand. These streams and upper streams originated during fish processing were used in this study for production of biomass using the edible filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae. The COD of the streams varied between 11 and 54 kg/m3 and, after fungal conversion of organic matter into protein-rich biomass and separation, a reduction of 34–69% was achieved. The stream origin had an effect on the final production and composition of the fungal biomass: 480 kg of biomass containing 33% protein per ton of COD were produced after cultivation in the separation tank streams, while 220 kg of biomass containing 62% protein per ton of COD were produced in upper sidestreams with lower amounts of suspended solids. Changing the initial pH (6.1–6.5) to 5.0 had a negative influence on the amount of biomass produced while medium supplementation had no influence. Thus, fish processing sidestreams can be diverted from biogas production and wastewater treatment to the production of protein-rich biomass for feed applications. 

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  • 47.
    Sar, Taner
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås.
    Conversion of fish processing wastewater into fish feed ingredients through submerged cultivation of Aspergillus oryzae2020In: Systems Microbiology and Biomanufacturing, Vol. 1, no 1, p. Online-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish processing towards production of fillet gives rise to wastewater streams that are ultimately directed to biogas production

    and/or wastewater treatment. However, these wastewater streams are rich in minerals, fat, and proteins that can be converted to

    protein-rich feed ingredients through submerged cultivation of edible filamentous fungi. In this study, the origin of wastewater

    stream, initial pH, cultivation time, and extent of washing during sieving, were found to influence the amount of recovered

    material from the wastewater streams and its protein content, following cultivation with Aspergillus oryzae. Through cultivation

    of the filamentous fungus in sludge, 330 kg of material per ton of COD were recovered by sieving, corresponding to

    121 kg protein per ton of COD, while through its cultivation in salt brine, 210 kg of material were recovered per ton of COD,

    corresponding to 128 kg protein per ton of COD. Removal ranges of 12–43%, 39–92%, and 32–66% for COD, total solids, and

    nitrogen, respectively, were obtained after A. oryzae growth and harvesting in the wastewater streams. Therefore, the present

    study shows the versatility that the integration of fungal cultivation provides to fish processing industries, and should be

    complemented by economic, environmental, and feeding studies, in order to reveal the most promising valorization strategy.

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  • 48.
    Sar, Taner
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Evaluation of fish industry byproducts for protein-rich fungal biomass production2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In connection with the increasing population in the world, the food industry has been developing rapidly and the industrial by-products have become an important problem. Fish industry byproducts are rich in minerals, nitrogen, and fat, and can contribute to environmental pollution if not properly treated. These byproducts are generally evaluated for biogas production and/or follow wastewater treatment. The byproducts can alternatively be utilized for the cultivation of microorganisms and converted to value-added products. For this purpose, two edible filamentous fungi, namely Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae were used to evaluate the production of protein-rich fungal biomass from fish processing byproducts. The amount of fungal biomass and its protein content (35-65%) varied according to the origin of the byproduct within the fish filleting process. Along with the fungal growth and production of a protein-rich product, nitrogen and COD removal of 32–72% and 12–58%, respectively, were achieved. Altogether, cultivation of filamentous fungi can aid to divert fish processing byproducts from biogas production towards production of protein-rich products for animal feed and concomitantly ease wastewater treatment.

  • 49.
    Sar, Taner
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery.
    Ozturk, Murat
    Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Gebze Technical University, Gebze-Kocaeli 41400, Turkey.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    New Insights on Protein Recovery from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater through Bioconversion with Edible Filamentous Fungi2020In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 8, no 10, p. 1210-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Olive oil mills represent an important sector in the Mediterranean Sea Basin but also an environmental hazard due to untreated wastewater. Recovery of nutrients from olive oil mill wastewater(OMWW)as protein-rich microbial biomass can produce novel feed and reduce its chemical oxygen demand; however, low-protein containing products have been reported. New strategies leading to higher protein-containing fungal biomass could renew the research interest on bioconversion for pollution mitigation of OMWW. In this work, through cultivation of edible filamentous fungi(Aspergillus oryzae, Neurospora intermedia, and Rhizopus delemar), a link between the protein content inthe originated fungal biomass, and the addition of nitrogen and medium dilution was established. Addition of nitrogen in the form of NaNO3 reduced the cultivation time from 96 h to 48 h while achieving a similar biomass mass concentration of 8.43 g/L and increased biomass protein content, from w = 15.9% to w = 29.5%. Nitrogen addition and dilution of OMWW, and consequent reduction of suspended solids, led to an increase in the protein content to up to w = 44.9%. To the best of our knowledge, the protein contents achieved are the highest reported to date and can open new research avenues towards bioconversion of OMWW using edible filamentous fungi.

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  • 50.
    Singh, Aprajita
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Karimi, Sajjad
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Vidakovic, Aleksandar
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Dicksved, Johan
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Langeland, Markus
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kiessling, Anders
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Lundh, Torbjörn
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Dietary Filamentous Fungi and Duration of Feeding Modulates Gut Microbial Composition in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)2021In: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 8, article id 728569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in gut microbial composition over time in rainbow trout fed differentially processed diets supplemented with the filamentous fungi Neurospora intermedia were investigated in a 30-day feeding trial. Fish were fed a reference diet, non-preconditioned diet (NPD), or preconditioned (heat-treated) diet (PD), with the same inclusion level of N. intermedia in diets NPD and PD. Gut microbiota were analyzed on day 0, 10, 20, and 30. Gut microbial composition was similar for all diets on day 0, but was significantly different at day 10 and day 20. On day 30, the gut again contained similar communities irrespective of diet. The overall gut microbiota for each diet changed over time. Abundance of Peptostreptococcus and Streptococcus was higher in the initial days of feeding in fish fed on commercial diet, while a significant increase in lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis) was observed on day 30. Feed processing (preconditioning) did not contribute largely in shaping the gut microbiome. These results indicate that dietary manipulation and duration of feeding should be considered when evaluating gut microbial composition in cultured fish. A minimum 30-day feeding trial is suggested for gut microbiome, host and diet interaction studies. Copyright © 2021 Singh, Karimi, Vidakovic, Dicksved, Langeland, Ferreira, Taherzadeh, Kiessling and Lundh.

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