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  • 1.
    Hashemi Sanatgar, Razieh
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    FDM 3D printing of conductive polymer nanocomposites: A novel process for functional and smart textiles2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to get the benefitof functionalities of fused deposition modeling(FDM) 3D printed conductive polymer nanocomposites (CPC) for the developmentof functional and smart textiles. 3D printing holds strong potential for the formation of a new class of multifunctional nanocomposites. Therefore, developmentand characterization of 3D printable functional polymers and nanocomposites areneeded to apply 3D printing as a novel process for the depositionof functional materials on fabrics. This method will introduce more flexible, resource-efficient and cost-effectivetextile functionalization processes than conventional printing process like screen and inkjet printing. The goal is to develop an integrated or tailored production process for smart and functional textiles which avoid unnecessary use of water, energy, chemicals and minimize the waste to improve ecological footprint and productivity.

    The contribution of this thesis is the creation and characterization of 3D printable CPC filaments, deposition of polymers and nanocomposites on fabrics, and investigation of the performance of the 3D printed CPC layers in terms of functionality. Firstly, the 3D printable CPC filaments were created including multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and high-structured carbon black (Ketjenblack) (KB) incorporated into a biobased polymer, polylactic acid (PLA), using a melt mixing process. The morphological, electrical, thermal and mechanical properties of the 3D printer filaments and 3D printed layers were investigated. Secondly, the performance of the 3D printed CPC layers was analyzed under applied tension and compression force. The response for the corresponding resistance change versus applied load was characterized to investigate the performance of the printed layers in terms of functionality. Lastly, the polymers and nanocomposites were deposited on fabrics using 3D printing and the adhesion of the deposited layers onto the fabrics were investigated.

    The results showed that PLA-based nanocomposites including MWNT and KB are 3D printable. The changes in morphological, electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of nanocomposites before and after 3D printing give us a great understandingofthe process optimization. Moreover, the results demonstrate PLA/MWNT and PLA/KB as a good piezoresistive feedstock for 3D printing with potential applications in wearable electronics, soft robotics, and prosthetics, where complex design, multi-directionality, and customizability are demanded. Finally, different variables of the 3Dprinting process showed a significanteffect on adhesion force of deposited polymers and nanocomposites onto fabrics which has been presented by the best-fittedmodel for the specific polymer and fabric.

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  • 2.
    Hashemi Sanatgar, Razieh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Campagne, Christine
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Adhesion of polymers on textile fabrics using 3D print technology with fused deposition modelling technique2015In: Proceedings of the 9th Aachen-Dresden International Textile Conference, 2015, p. 198-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Hashemi Sanatgar, Razieh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT.
    Campagne, Christine
    ENSAIT.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Investigation of the adhesion properties of direct 3D printing of polymers and nanocomposites on textiles: Effect of FDM printing process parameters.2017In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 403, p. 551-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, 3D printing as a novel printing process was considered for deposition of polymers on synthetic fabrics to introduce more flexible, resource-efficient and cost effective textile functionalization processes than conventional printing process like screen and inkjet printing. The aim is to develop an integrated or tailored production process for smart and functional textiles which avoid unnecessary use of water, energy, chemicals and minimize the waste to improve ecological footprint and productivity. Adhesion of polymer and nanocomposite layers which were 3D printed directly onto the textile fabrics using fused deposition modeling (FDM) technique was investigated. Different variables which may affect the adhesion properties including 3D printing process parameters, fabric type and filler type incorporated in polymer were considered. A rectangular shape according to the peeling standard was designed as 3D computer-aided design (CAD) to find out the effect of the different variables. The polymers were printed in different series of experimental design: nylon on polyamide 66 (PA66) fabrics, polylactic acid (PLA) on PA66 fabric, PLA on PLA fabric, and finally nanosize carbon black/PLA (CB/PLA) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes/PLA (CNT/PLA) nanocomposites on PLA fabrics. The adhesion forces were quantified using the innovative sample preparing method combining with the peeling standard method. Results showed that different variables of 3D printing process like extruder temperature, platform temperature and printing speed can have significant effect on adhesion force of polymers to fabrics while direct 3D printing. A model was proposed specifically for deposition of a commercial 3D printer Nylon filament on PA66 fabrics. In the following, among the printed polymers, PLA and its composites had high adhesion force to PLA fabrics.

  • 4.
    Hashemi Sanatgar, Razieh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT.
    Campagne, Christine
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Investigation on the effect of different variables of 3D printing process on adhesion of polymers to fabrics2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, 3D printing as an alternative to conventional printing processes like inkjet printing and screen printing was considered for deposition of polymers on fabrics. The 3D printing process parameters were optimized to deposit film and patterns on fabric. Different parameters such as extruder temperature, platform temperature and printing speed showed significant various effects on adhesion force of polymers to fabrics.

  • 5.
    Hashemi Sanatgar, Razieh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Cayla, Aurelie
    Campagne, Christine
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Morphological and electrical characterization of conductive polylactic acid based nanocomposite before and after FDM 3D printing2018In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 136, no 6, p. 1044-1053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    3D printing holds strong potential for the formation of a new class of multifunctional nanocomposites. Therefore, both the nanocomposites and 3D printing communities need to make more collaborations and innovations for developing and processing of new polymers and composites to get benefit of functionalities of 3D printed nanocomposites. The contribution of this paper is the creation of 3D printable filaments from conductive polymer nanocomposites using a melt mixing process. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and high-structured carbon black (Ketjenblack) (KB) were incorporated into polylactic acid. The percolation threshold of MWNT composites is 0.54 wt.% and of KB composites is 1.7 wt.% by four-point resistance measurement method. In the similar melt mixing process, there was no dependence of diameter of produced 3D printer filaments on the MWNT loading, instead the diameter was dependent on the KB loading and increased with increasing the filler amount. The conductivity of extruded filaments from 3D printer in low filler contents decreases with increasing extruder temperature, yet in higher filler contents there is no effect of extruder temperature on conductivity. Finally, the resistance decreases exponentially with the increase of cross sectional area of 3D printed tracks.

  • 6.
    Tadesse, Melkie Getnet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hashemi Sanatgar, Razieh
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Quality inspection and sensory evaluation for smart textile fabric surface by skin contact mechanics2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer preferences for textile products are largely determined by sensory characteristics.  The main aim of this project is to measure the comfort of smart fabric using subjective & objective methods by measuring the tactile sensations arise through the triggering of sensory receptors in or near the skin surface by the contact of the fabric surface with the skin.

    The objective data of fabric surface will be acquired by VHX patterns microscope & KES system. Analysis & modelling of mechanical properties smart textiles will be made to study the interaction of fabric with the wearer in terms of tactile properties.

    An investigation on the psycho-sensorial comfort will be conducted using subjective methods; the result will be comprehensive list of descriptors for each sensation. By analysing the relation of design factors with the results of quality inspection & evaluation, different combinations of design factors on the requirement of end users will be provided.

     

     

    Keywords: skin contact mechanics, smart textiles, KES, VHX, human perception

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