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  • 1.
    Akinbomi, Julius
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Fermentative hydrogen and methane productions using membrane bioreactors2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of energy as a stimulant for economic growth and environmental sustainabilityof any nation has made the focus on green fuels, including fermentative hydrogen (bioH2) andmethane (bioCH4), to be a priority for the World’s policy makers. Nigeria, as the most populousAfrican country, with worsening energy crisis, can benefit from the introduction of the bioH2 andbioCH4 technologies into the country’s energy mix, since such technologies have the potential ofgenerating energy from organic wastes such as fruit waste.Fruit waste was studied in detail in this work because of its great economic andenvironmental potential, as large quantities of the wastes (10–65% of raw fruit) are generatedfrom fruit consumption and processing. Meanwhile, bioH2 and bioCH4 productions involvinganaerobic microorganisms in direct contact with organic wastes have been observed to result insubstrate and product inhibitions, which reduce the gas yields and limit the application of thetechnologies on an industrial scale. For example, in this study, the first experimental work todetermine the effects of hydraulic retention times and fruit mixing on bioH2 production fromsingle and mixed fruits revealed the highest cumulative bioH2 yield to be equivalent to 30% ofthe theoretical yield. However, combining the fermentation process with the application ofmembrane encapsulated cells and membrane separation techniques, respectively, could reducesubstrate and product inhibitions of the microorganisms. This study, therefore, focused on theapplication of membrane techniques to enhance the yields of bioH2 and bioCH4 productions fromthe organic wastes.The second experimental work which focused on reduction of substrate inhibition,involved the investigation of the effects of the PVDF membrane encapsulation techniques on thebioH2 and bioCH4 productions from nutrient media with limonene, myrcene, octanol and hexanalas fruit flavours. The results showed that membrane encapsulated cells produced bioCH4 fasterand lasted longer, compared to free cells in limonene. Also, about 60% membrane protectiveeffect against myrcene, octanol and hexanal inhibitions was obtained. Regarding bioH2production, membrane encapsulated cells, compared to free cells, produced higher average dailyyields of 94, 30 and 77% with hexanal, myrcene and octanol as flavours, respectively. The finalpart of the study, which was aimed at reducing product inhibition, involved the study of theeffects of membrane permeation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on the bioreactor hydrodynamicsin relation to bioH2 production. The investigation revealed that low transmembrane pressure of104Pa was required to achieve a 3L h-1m-2 critical flux with reversible fouling mainly due to cakelayer formation, and bioH2 production was also observed to restart after VFAs removal.The results from this study suggest that membrane-based techniques could improve bioH2and bioCH4 productions from fermentation media with substrate and product inhibitions.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd. Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    När vårdande och lärande sammanfaller: Patienters, studenters och handledares erfarenheter av möten på en utbildningsvårdavdelning inom psykiatrisk vård2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    When students learn caring during clinical practice, the usual point of departure is thatcaring and learning coexist, as separate and parallel phenomena. There is, however, a needto study how caring and learning relate to one another, as well as when and how theyconverge. The aim of this dissertation is to describe how caring and learning converge inthe encounters between students and patients, in a dedicated educational unit withinpsychiatric care, as experienced by students, patients, and supervisors. Describing howsupervisory support can facilitate this is another aim. A reflective lifeworld approach basedon phenomenological philosophy has been applied. Data were collected through interviews,participant observations with follow-up interviews, and narrative diaries.The result shows that caring and learning converge in those encounters between studentsand patients which are characterized by reciprocity, wherein the patient’s narrative is thepoint of departure, complemented by the student’s listening and inquiring attitude. It ishere, that the desire for and pursuit of health and understanding, give the reciprocalinteraction power. The common desire of those involved to know, to become accustomedto the new and unfamiliar, as well as the presence of a feeling of responsibility for oneanother, create questions which in turn create opportunities wherein students and patientsare available to one another.The dissertation shows that learning in a caring context can be complex. Despite theirbeing prerequisites for one another, competition and conflicts can occur when the caringand learning perspectives are not equally attended to. When they are placed counter to oneanother, there is a risk that reciprocal interaction is hindered, which can cause loneliness forall involved. For convergence to occur most propitiously, those involved must exist in acaring and learning togetherness. Responsible and present supervisors are needed, whocreate possibilities for the perspectives to converge through maintenance and monitoring, sothat caring and learning receive equal space.A didactic concept has been developed based on the dissertation’s result, focusing on themeaning of creating forums where students’, patients’, and supervisors’ caringconsiderations and reflections can intertwine.

  • 3.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Development of thermoplastic biocomposites based on aligned hybrid yarns for fast composite manufacturing2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in natural fibres as reinforcement for composite materials has been steadily increasing due to their attractive mechanical properties and the possibility of making more eco-friendly materials. Currently, various alternatives are being introduced for commercial applications, as fibres such as hemp, jute and flax exhibit properties, which make them appropriate for structural composite components. Biocomposites offer reductions in weight and cost and have less reliance on foreign oil resources, making them attractive. Several investigations have revealed that the full utilisation of fibre mechanical properties in the final composites can be exploited, provided an aligned fibre orientation is chosen. In fact, a major challenge for natural fibre reinforced composites is to achieve high mechanical performance at competitive prices. The use of commingled/hybrid yarns is one of the more promising methods for manufacturing structural thermoplastic composites.

    Commingled yarns of thermoplastic and reinforcing fibres offer a potential for cost-effective production of composite parts, thanks to reduced applied pressures and impregnation times during processing. Besides economic advantages, there is also direct control over fibre placements and ease of handling of fibres in yarn process. The yarn technologies provide homogenous distribution of reinforcing fibre and matrix. Variation in natural fibre properties has been a major problem facing composite manufacturers, compared to carbon and glass fibres that have well-defined production processes. This issue can be addressed by regenerated cellulose fibres. These fibres can be reproduced easily with high surface evenness and even quality, making it possible to get consistent results, which is not possible with natural fibres. Combination of natural and regenerated cellulose fibre brings together the best of both materials. The end result is a product with superior properties, which could not be obtained by the individual components.

    This thesis describes the development of aligned hybrid yarns with low fibre twist, for high performance natural (hemp) and man-made (Lyocell) cellulose fibre-reinforced biocomposites, suitable for use in structural or semi-structural applications. The properties of composites in terms of fibre orientation, off-axis angle and alkali treatment were investigated, focusing on determining void%, water absorption, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties. The results show that combining hemp and Lyocell in PLA composite leads to the reduction of moisture absorption and can improve the mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the composites were highly affected by the fibre direction. The alkali treatment on hemp fibre improved the mechanical properties of the composites.

  • 4.
    Bakare, Fatimat Oluwatoyin
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Development of biocomposites from lactic acid thermoset resins and cellulose fibre reinforcements2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesis of polymers from renewable origin has been reported by many authors and it has been found out that it has enormous potential and can serve as alternative to conventional thermoplastics and thermosets in many applications. The use of these renewable resources will provide sustainable platforms to substitute fossil fuel-based materials. To date, efforts made to produce 100% bio-based thermosetting materials have yet to be achieved. Many studies have been reported on increasing the renewability ratio of thermoset materials produced.

    A lot of reports have been made on the synthesis of thermoplastic resins from lactic acid for biomedical applications such as tissue engineering but only few reports have been made on composite applications. The issue of high melt viscosity of thermoplastic resins from lactic acid has been of paramount problem because of its difficulty in impregnation into fibre reinforcement. Bio-based thermoset resins have been produced for composite applications from plant oils and improved mechanical properties have been achieved.

    In this thesis, an alternative route for synthesis of lactic acid based thermoset resins have been explored to solve the above problem. Thermoset resins were synthesized from lactic acid with different co-reactants and were characterized using NMR, FT-IR, DSC, DMA and TGA. Their rheological properties were also investigated. The resins were reinforced with natural and regenerated cellulose fibres in non-woven and woven form, and with different fibre alignment and fibre loading. The resulting composites were characterized by mechanical testing regarding tensile, flexural and impact strength, and by SEM analysis regarding morphology.

    The results showed that these composites could possibly be used in automobile, transport, construction and furniture applications, particularly for interior purposes. The resins produced were found to be promising materials for composite production due to the good mechanical properties achieved.

  • 5.
    Björk, Lars
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    How reproductive is a reproduction?: Digital transmission of text-based documents2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Heritage institutions today increasingly rely on digital formats for access, use and re-useof their collections. Books and other text-based documents, previously accessed on locationin libraries are now transferred into digital format and managed, distributed, andengaged as binary encoded representations.

    The thesis addresses the relation between the source document and its reproduction, asconditioned by the digitisation process. This process can be described as based on twosequences of conversion; from analogue to digital format during the procedure of capture,and back to analogue as the digital resource is represented. In a study of the digitisationprocess it might therefore be tempting to place a focus on the technical aspects. However,the thesis demonstrates that underpinning the digitisation process we find assumptionsand ideals concerning the actual defining features of documents and also of their capacityto be informative. An analysis of the digitisation process, has consequently to considerboth the technical parameters in place during the conversion as well as the theoreticalassumptions that have guided its design and operation.

    Based on two empirical studies – an analysis of the components in the digitisation processand an interview study with researchers who rely on digital resources – this thesisseeks to outline a conceptual framework that structures the relation between the sourcedocument and its reproduction, as conditioned by the digitisation process. Boundary objecttheory provides a theoretical underpinning and is supported by two concepts thatare developed in the critical analysis of document and information theory: modes of representation(referring to the ways in which the source document is represented as a digitalresource) and informative configuration (referring to the ways in which the users engagewith the digital resource, given a specific interest).

    The thesis contributes to the theoretical development within the fields in Library & InformationScience that are concerned with document and information theory, but also inareas such as knowledge organisation and the application of digital technology within theheritage sector at large. The thesis also indicates some of the possibilities and limitationsof boundary object theory as applied to the study of documents in digitisation processes.

  • 6.
    Cronqvist, Marita
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Yrkesetik i lärarutbildning - en balanskonst2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to examine and to increase the understanding of how student teachers implicitly (in action) and explicitly (through oral and written statements) express and learn professional ethics and what these expressions reveal about professional ethics. Previous research has indicated that professional ethics as phenomenon is difficult to separate and to view in the meeting between pedagogue and child. Professional ethics is often unspoken and based on personal feelings and not on formulated knowledge. In this study professional ethics is examined as the student teacher´s lived practice in the meeting with the child. The study is based on life-world theory and Reflective Life-world Research (RLR). This means for example that the phenomenon of professional ethics is examined as it present itself to student teachers and that the researcher must make efforts to be open to the phenomenon, reflect on it and to bridle preunderstandings. Ten student teachers with different orientations to preschool and elementary school have been followed, eight of them from second to fourth semester in periods when university courses and school-based education meet. Empirical data is collected from interviews, observations and different written statements. Findings are presented in three parts: Part 1 presents the issues for each individual student teacher. In part 2 the essence of professional ethics is formulated as seven elements of meaning: 1) that ambiguity requires an approach to responsibility, 2) that external factors can be obstacles, 3) that relationships and learning are interwoven, 4) that experiences should be for a child´s best interest, 5) that inclusion should be available to every child, 6) that authority should be exercised through an atmosphere of joy, respect and safety, and 7) that development occurs when theory and practice meet in reflection. Part 3 is a theoretical presentation. Reflection, self-reflection, judgment and student teachers as role models emerge as the primary tools of professional ethics. These tools are dependent on each other and intertwine cognition and emotion, experiences, theories and practice. In addition to the essence of professional ethics, my conclusion is that learning about professional ethics is based on the student teacher´s life world and takes place in a lifelong learning process. Consequently, teacher education needs to support meta-learning (learning how to learn) and build education on the student teacher´s individual life world as a resource. The student teachers as role models are developed through virtuous actions continuously being performed and through teacher educators acting as role models. Judgment and phronesis are also developed in practice through student teachers´ experiences of balancing between various factors in the complex situation. Since learning is developed in practice and from experiences, school-based education becomes valuable in order to stimulate learning. Another conclusion is that experiences must be discussed and analyzed thoroughly and systematically in education. In this process reflection is crucial. Based on the findings, a didactic model, Didethics, has been created in order to implement ethics in the same way as content (subject) and methods are included in didactics. Through asking questions, the model implements ethics, links it with content and methods and follows ethics through the planning, implementation and evaluation of the learning process.

  • 7.
    Darcy, Laura
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd. Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ. CHILD.
    The everyday life of young children through their cancer trajectory2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The young child’s experiences of living with cancer are crucial to providing evidence based care. The overall aim of this thesis was to explore and describe experiences of health and functioning in the everyday life of young children with cancer, over a three year period from diagnosis, to provide insights and suggestions to improve evidence based care.

    The first and second papers in the series of four for this thesis used a qualitative content analysis to describe the child’s experiences shortly after diagnosis and six and 12 months later. The third paper used mixed methods to identify a comprehensive set of ICF-CY codes describing everyday health and functioning in the life of the young child with cancer. The fourth paper used the identified comprehensive set of ICF-CY codes to follow changes in everyday health and functioning over the study’s entire three year period from diagnosis.

    Entry into the health-illness transition was characterised by trauma and isolation. Health and functioning in everyday life was utterly changed and physical difficulties were at their peak. The passage through transition was characterised by an active striving on the part of the child to make a normal everyday life of the cancer experience. Difficulties affecting health and functioning in everyday life decreased and changed during the trajectory, though feelings of loneliness prevailed. A new period of stability in the child’s post treatment life was seen from two years after diagnosis and onwards, with (re)-entry to preschool/school and other social activities. However, an increase in difficulties with personal interactions with others and access to, and support from healthcare professionals was seen. Variances were seen within individual children’s’ trajectories.

    In summary it can be stated that the everyday life of young children with cancer changes over time and health care services are not always in phase with these changes. Young children living with cancer want to be participatory in their care and to have access to their parents as protectors.

    They need access to and ongoing contact with peers and preschool. Although physical difficulties in living an everyday life with cancer reduce over time, new difficulties emerge as the child post cancer treatment re-enters society. A structured follow-up throughout the cancer trajectory and not just during active treatment is necessary. A child-centered philosophy of care would guide the child towards attainment of health and well-being.

    Both the child’s own perspective and a child’s perspective as described by adults caring for them should be seen on a continuum, rather than as opposites. This view could help ensure that young children become visible and are listened to as valuable contributors to care planning. Knowledge of health-illness transition can be useful in illustrating everyday health and functioning through long term illness trajectories.

  • 8.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Integration of filamentous fungi in ethanol dry-mill biorefinery2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial production of bioethanol as a replacement to gasoline is well-established worldwide, using starch- or sugar-rich substrates. Additionally, the bioethanol plants produce animal feeds derived from fermentation leftovers. The biorefinery character of bioethanol plants can be enhanced via process diversification. This entails the production of more value-added products, which can be accomplished by including edible filamentous fungi as the second biocatalysts while taking advantage of the available equipment for cost-effective inclusion. The process diversification can be achieved either via valorisation of the process leftovers or via inclusion of other residual substrates.

     

    In dry-mill biorefineries, baker’s yeast is unable to consume residual pentose sugars and other more complex substrates in the process leftovers so called whole stillage and thin stillage. Edible ascomycetes and zygomycetes fungi can be used to accomplish yeast and consume those residual substrates in stillage as well as from external substrates of lignocellulosic origin, e.g. spent sulphite liquor and wheat straw. The conversion of these substrates to ethanol, and biomass rich in protein, lipids, respective essential amino acids and fatty acids as well as chitosan was investigated in this thesis.

     

    Among the filamentous fungi studied, Neurospora intermedia was the best ethanol producer from thin stillage. Process developments included primary shake-flasks experiments, followed by pilot scale-up using 26 L, 2.3 m3 and 80 m3 bioreactors. The 26 L bioreactor, as a bubble column led to similar performance as an airlift bioreactor, and also a continuous mode could be successfully used instead of a batch process. By using a dilution rate of 0.1 h-1, around 5 g/L of ethanol and 4 g/L of biomass rich in protein, lipids, amino acids and fatty acids essential to humans were obtained. The inclusion of the process can potentially lead to a spent medium lower in solids and viscosity which may facilitate the energy-intensive evaporation and drying steps as well as the water recycling back to the process. By applying a two-stage cultivation with whole stillage, up to 7.6 g/L of ethanol could be produced using 1 FPU cellulase/g suspended solids and 5.8 g/L of biomass containing 42% (w/w) crude protein. In the first stage (ethanol production), N. intermedia was used, while Aspergillus oryzae was the biocatalyst in the second stage for further biomass production. Both strains were able to degrade complex substrates both in liquid and solid fraction of whole stillage. The extrinsic substrates included spent sulphite liquor and pretreated wheat straw slurry. When the former was used, up to around 7 g/L of Rhizopus sp. could be obtained in a 26 L airlift bioreactor. The biomass was rich in protein and lipids (30–50% and 2–7% on a dry weight basis, respectively). The monomers of the latter were continuously filtered for production of biomass under simultaneous saccharification fermentation and filtration. Biomass yields of up to 0.34 g/g of consumed monomeric sugars and acetic acid were obtained.

     

    The inclusion of the process for valorisation of thin stillage can potentially lead to the production of 11,000 m3 ethanol and 6,300 tonnes of biomass at a typical facility producing 200,000 m3 ethanol/year.

  • 9.
    Garrote Jurado, Ramon
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT. Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik, Stockholm University.
    Educational Software in Engineering Education2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contributes to the quality of engineering education and the accessibility of education worldwide by promoting computer-enhanced teaching and learning. It uses the epistemology of John Dewey (1859-1952) and the action research methodology first advanced by Kurt Lewin (1890-1947). A mixed methods approach that combines qualitative case studies with quantitative research methods is used.

    In the first of three case studies engineering students working on their final degree projects participated. To elicit interaction, a learning management system (LMS) was used and the students were strongly encouraged to discuss various aspects of their work.

    The second case focused on the barriers to a wider utilization of educational software in engineering education. The case is delimited to lecturers at the School of Engineering at the University of Borås. The investigation focuses on the lecturers’ reluctance to use educational technology and the slow uptake of new pedagogical methods in engineering education.

    The third case study covers three subsets of participants. A course intended to improve lecturers handling skills and motivation to utilize educational software in a pedagogically sound manner was given in Cuba, Guatemala and Peru.

    The first case demonstrated that computer-enhanced collaborative learning can improve the learning experience and performance of engineering students. The second case showed that LMS tools that facilitate traditional methods are used routinely, whereas lecturers often refrain from using features intended to facilitate collaboration and the creation of communities of learners.

    The third case study investigated the use of a complete course package, with all course material and software contained on the same USB drive (LiveUSB Mediated Education, LUME). It is asserted that LUME can facilitate constructivist pedagogical methods and help overcome the reluctance of lecturers to utilize educational software in a pedagogical sound way.

  • 10.
    Högberg, Karin
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd. Högskolan i Jönköping, HHJ. ADULT.
    Web-based counselling to patients with haematological diseases2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with haematological diseases are entitled to supportive care. Considering organisational and technological development, support in the form of caring communication provided through the web is today a possible alternative. The aim of this thesis was to examine the usefulness and importance of a web-based counselling service to patients with haematological diseases. The basis for the thesis was a development project funded by the Swedish Cancer Society, which provided an opportunity to offer patients communication with a nurse through a web-based counselling service.

    Four studies were performed from a patient perspective. Study I had a cross-sectional design, measuring occurrence of anxiety and depression, and these variables’ associations to mastery, social support, and insomnia among patients with haematological diseases. Study II was a qualitative content analysis focusing on conditions for provision and use of the web-based counselling service. Study III used a qualitative hermeneutical approach to focus on patients’ experiences of using the counselling service. Study IV was a qualitative deductive analysis examining how communication within the web-based counselling service can be caring in accordance to caring theory.

    The results revealed that females of 30-49 years of age are vulnerable to experiencing anxiety. Low sense of mastery and support are associated with anxiety and/or depression. Being able to self-identify the need for support as well as appreciate the written medium are necessary conditions for the web-based counselling service to be used. The counselling service must also be part of a comprehensive range of supportive activities and web-based services to be useful. The main importance of the communication is that the patient’s influence on the communication is strengthened, and that the constant access to individual medical and caring assessment can imply a sense of safety. When patients share their innermost concerns and search for support, nursing compassion and competence can substantiate in explicit written responses.

    A conclusion is that there is a caring potential in communication within a web-based counselling service. To make this form of communication possible, nurses should take possession of and ensure that this medium for communication is offered to patients. Nurses should also increase their knowledge of caring communication in writing and how this possibly can impact patients.

  • 11.
    Jansen, Barbara
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Composing over time, temporal patterns: in Textile Design2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this thesis investigates through practice a new field of textile design exploring the visual effects of moving light as a continuous time-based medium. Thereby, the textile design pattern reveals its composition, not in one moment of time any more, but in fact over time. The thesis consist of four parts: a solo exhibition at the Textile Museum in Borås from 17th February- 28th March 2015, five posters, an interactive thesis including 48 films (download file) and present thesis book. The artefacts displayed in the thesis show a varying range of examples which explore aesthetical possibilities of how light can be integrated as an active part into textile structures, ranging from weaving to braiding techniques, both hand crafted, as well as industrial produced. Thereby three main groups of experiments: colour flow, rhythm exercise, sound_light experiment explore and discuss a range of different time-based expressions. Thus define and establish relevant new design variables and notions, whilst working with time-based design processes. In the following descriptions of these experiments two forms of writing have been used to describe the experiments. One is purely descriptive, neutral form to describe the experiments as such, whereas text titled Research Diary Notes includes reflections and personal comments on the experiences during work on the experiments. The interactive thesis and the exhibited artefacts are an invitation to view new textiles expressions and are an initial guide on the road toward future time-based design works, particularly in the area of light emitting textiles.

  • 12.
    Kabir, Maryam M
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Bioprocessing of Recalcitrant Substrates for Biogas Production2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of anaerobic digestion (AD) as a sustainable waste management technology is growing worldwide, due to high energy prices as well as increasingly strict environmental regulations. The growth of the AD industry necessitates exploring new substrates for their utilisation in AD processes. The present work investigates the AD of two recalcitrant biomass: lignocelluloses and keratin-rich residues. The complex nature of these waste streams limits their biological degradation; therefore, suitable pre-processing is required prior to the AD process.In the first part of the study, the effects of organic solvent pre-treatments on bioconversion of lignocelluloses (straw and forest residues) to biogas were evaluated. Pre-treatment with N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) resulted in minor changes in the composition of the substrates, while their digestibility significantly increased. Furthermore, due to the high cost of the NNMO, the effect of pre-treatment with the recycled solvent was also explored. Since it was found that the presence of small traces of NMMO in the system after the treatment has inhibitory effects on AD, pre-treatments of forest residues using other organic solvents, i.e. acetic acid, ethanol, and methanol, were investigated too. Although pre-treatments with acetic acid and ethanol led to the highest methane yields, the techno-economical evaluation of the process showed that pre-treatment with methanol was the most viable economically, primarily due to the lower cost of methanol, compared to that of the other solvents.In the second part of the work, wool textile wastes were subjected to biogas production. Wool is mainly composed of keratin, an extremely strong and resistible structural protein. Thermal, enzymatic and combined treatments were, therefore, performed to enhance the methane yield. The soluble protein content of the pre-treated samples showed that combined thermal and enzymatic treatments had significantly positive effects on wool degradation, resulting in the highest methane yields, i.e. 10–20-fold higher methane production, compared to that obtained from the untreated samples.In the last part of this thesis work, dry digestion of wheat straw and wool textile waste, as well as their co-digestion were studied. The total solid (TS) contents applied in the digesters were between 6–30% during the investigations. The volumetric methane productivity was significantly enhanced when the TS was increased from 6 to 13–21%. This can be a beneficial factor when considering the economic feasibility of large-scale dry AD processes.

  • 13.
    Karlsson, Katarina
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd. Jönköping University.
    "Jag är rädd, jag vill till mamma": Yngre barns, föräldrars och sjuksköterskors levda erfarenheter av nålprocedurer ivården2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of the thesis is to create knowledge about what it means for younger children toundergo needle-related medical procedures (NRMPs), and what caring support in relation to this meansbased on nurses’, parents’, and younger children's perspectives.

    Methods: The first and second papers used descriptive phenomenological analysis to describe themeanings of supporting younger children during NRMPs from the perspective of nurses (Ι) and parents(ΙΙ). The third and fourth papers used lifeworld hermeneutic analysis to explain and understand theconsequences related to NRMPs (ΙΙΙ) and support (ΙV) during these procedures from younger children’sperspectives. Data has been collected by participant observations and lifeworld interviews documented byvideo-recorded observations, field notes, and audio-recorded interviews. In total 60 people participated,fourteen nurses, twenty-five parents, and twenty-one children.

    Main results: The results show that an important consequence for children of procedures with needles isexperiences of fear. The child's fear affects how the child is able to manage the procedure and the supportthe child gets from adults is crucial to whether the child's fear increases or decreases.

    The support consists of giving support or receiving support. Parents support the child by safeguarding andprotecting the child during the needle-related procedure; they “keep the child under the protection of theirwings,” sometimes very close and sometimes a little further out under the wingtips. Nurses support thechild by starting from individual child’s experiences and needs; they "balance on a tightrope" in anunpredictable situation. In the meeting between the child, the parents, and the nurses, the adults areguided by the child in what forms of support are provided. This continues until the needle-related medicalprocedure is completed and the child can walk proud and strong from the procedure with a feeling that "Ican handle this.”

    Conclusions: Children’s need for support during needle-related medical procedures is primarily tied tochildren’s experiences of fear. For the child to experience a caring support, adults need to understandchildren’s experiences of fear as well as children’s need for support and what form the support shouldtake. A caring support develops dialectically between children and adults in a circular movement. In such adialectic, the child guides the adult and vice versa. That children have the capability of guiding adultsduring needle-related medical procedures shows that they are active and participating. Here it becomesclear that there is no objective location of the phenomenon of support. Support can therefore only bestudied as a lived experience of those who need it.

  • 14.
    Landahl, Karin
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    The Myth of the Silhouette: On form thinking in knitwear design2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents and discusses the results of foundational experimental designresearch in the field of fashion design methodology, with a particular focus onknitwear. The research explored and broadened the foundations of form-thinkingin the design process for knitwear and knitting, with the objective of developingalternative form-concepts and working methods relevant to practitioners andstudents active in the field.

    Knitting is not simply designing using yet another technique; it is designing from adifferent perspective. When making a knitted item, no material has to be preparedbeforehand, as material and item can be created at one and the same time. Thus,the prevalent distinction between form and material as two separate parameters inthe design process for knitwear can be questioned. Hence, developing the designprocess for knitwear by focusing on alternative ways of understanding the notionof form is of great significance as regards further developments in the wider field ofknit and knitwear design.

    The key aim of the research was to replace the silhouette – used as a guidingprinciple in form thinking – with the notion of invariants, which define what wedo as we knit a given garment. The notion of invariants used in this thesis comesfrom topology, and refers to properties that do not change under non-destructivetransformations. The form of the garment is then given by basic invariants, whichdefine what we build and how we build it. As these properties do not changeunder non-destructive transformations, they do not suggest a specific silhouettewith regard to ready-made garments, but rather a more fundamental form, whichcharacterises the garment throughout making and use. Employed in this way,the notion of an invariant introduces a form of concrete geometry which focusesdirectly on the specifics of making.

    Several initial experiments are described in brief, and this is followed by a discussionof the three more elaborate design experiments which led to the development of atheoretical framework. This is then exemplified with the last design experiment, inwhich theory informs the set-up, and consequently shows the design potentials ofthe suggested method.

  • 15.
    Lindberg, Jenny
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Att bli bibliotekarie: Informationssökning och yrkesidentiteter hos B&I-studenter och nyanställda högskolebibliotekarier2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to deepen the knowledge on information seeking among Swedish library and information science (LIS) students and newly employed academic librarians, as well as on how information seeking is attributed meaning in the shaping of professional identities. The aim also includes understanding and problematising the relationship between educational and professional practice. The thesis reports on two empirical studies. The first set of empirical material was produced in five focus groups with 25 participating students (2005-2006). The second set off material was produced through 17 individual, semi-structured interviews with academic librarians (2007). The material was analysed from a sociocultural perspective, focusing on the tools, activities, relations and cognitive authorities of study-related and work-related information seeking. An overall analysis of the material was also undertaken, drawing on the discursive negotiation of professional objects and key narratives.

    The main results show the complexity of LIS students’ and novice librarians’ approaches to information seeking. As students’ information seeking is situated in the practice of higher education, they need to focus on the use and production of academic texts, and on framing the concept of information seeking analytically. At the same time many students are strongly oriented towards the professional practice of library work, striving to develop a technical expertise enabling them to meet the presumed expectations of library users. These sometimes colliding interests are illustrated by students’ accounts of uncertainty before working life, sometimes expressed as “a gap between theory and practice”. Most new-coming librarians are also focused on the information needs of the library users. Some participants express that library managers encourage individual information monitoring, on a voluntary basis, of for example LIS research, but the organisational incentives for such activities are scarce. However, Journal clubs function as infrastructures for collective learning and information sharing, related to the pedagogical aspects of library work. A common trait of the two groups is the normative and somewhat sceptical attitude towards easily accessible tools for information seeking such as Google.

    In the analysis four professional identities are identified: an academically oriented, a technically oriented, a communicatively oriented, and a conservatively oriented identity. All four are present in both educational and work practices. Regarding the relationship between the two practices, the results show that academically and communicatively oriented participants often experience themselves as able to re-contextualise their information seeking capabilities when entering working life, while the technically and conservatively oriented participants tend to understand the transition as one of discontinuity.

  • 16.
    Lindqvist, Rickard
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Kinetic garment construction: remarks on the foundations of pattern cutting2015Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fashion designers are presented with a range of different methods for pattern cutting, and the interest in this field has grown rapidly over the past few years. This growth is both due to the publication of a number of works dealing with the subject in different ways and the fact that a growing number of designers emphasise cutting in their creative practices.

    Though a range of methods and concepts for pattern cutting are presented, the main body of these methods, both traditional and contemporary, is predominately based on a theoretical approximation of the body that is derived from horizontal and vertical measurements of the body in an upright position: the tailoring matrix. As a consequence, there is a lack of interactive and dynamic qualities in methods connected to this paradigm of garment construction, from both expressional and functional perspectives.

    This work proposes and explores an alternative paradigm for pattern cutting that includes a new theoretical approximation of the body as well as a more kinetic method for garment construction that, unlike the prevalent theory and its related methods, takes as its point of origin the interaction between the anisotropic fabric and the biomechanical structure of the body. As such, the research conducted here is basic research, aiming to identify fundamental principles for garment construction. Based on some key principles found in the works of Geneviève Sevin-Doering and in pre-tailoring methods for constructing garments, the proposed theory for – and method of – garment construction was developed through concrete experiments by cutting and draping fabrics on live models.

    Instead of a static matrix of a non-moving body, the result is a kinetic construction theory of the body that is comprised of balance directions and key biomechanical points, along with an alternative draping method for dressmaking. This methodology challenges the fundamental relationship between dress, garment construction, and the body, working from the body outward, as opposed to the methods that are based on the prevalent paradigm of the tailoring matrix, which work from the outside toward the body. This alternative theory for understanding the body and the proposed method of working allows for diverse expressions and enhanced functional possibilities in dress.

  • 17.
    Löfström, Tuwe
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT. Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    On Effectively Creating Ensembles of Classifiers: Studies on Creation Strategies, Diversity and Predicting with Confidence2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    En ensemble är en sammansatt modell som kombinerar prediktionerna från flera olika modeller. Det är välkänt att ensembler är mer träffsäkra än enskilda modeller. Diversitet har identifierats som en viktig faktor för att förklara varför ensembler är så framgångsrika. Diversitet hade fram tills nyligen inte definierats entydigt för klassificering vilket resulterade i att många heuristiska diverstitetsmått har föreslagits. Den här avhandlingen fokuserar på hur klassificeringsensembler kan skapas på ett ändamålsenligt (eng. effective) sätt. Den vetenskapliga metoden är huvudsakligen inspirerad av design science-paradigmet vilket lämpar sig väl för utveckling och evaluering av IT-artefakter. Det finns sedan tidigare många framgångsrika ensembleralgoritmer men trots det så finns det fortfarande vissa frågetecken kring vilken roll diversitet spelar vid skapande av välpresterande (eng. effective) ensemblemodeller. Några av de frågor som berör diversitet som behandlas i avhandlingen inkluderar: Vad skall optimeras när man söker efter en delmängd av de tillgängliga modellerna för att försöka skapa en ensemble som är bättre än ensemblen bestående av samtliga modeller; Hur väl fungerar strategin att söka efter sådana delensembler; Hur skall neurala nätverk tränas för att fungera så bra som möjligt i en ensemble? Bidraget i avhandlingen inkluderar flera studier som utvärderar flera olika sätt att finna delensembler som är bättre än att använda hela ensemblen, inklusive ett nytt tillvägagångssätt som utnyttjar en kombination av både diversitets- och prestandamått. Resultaten i de första studierna ledde fram till att det underliggande antagandet som motiverar att söka efter delensembler undersöktes. Slutsatsen blev, trots att det fanns flera delensembler som var bättre än hela ensemblen, att det inte fanns något sätt att identifiera med tillgänglig data vilka de bättre delensemblerna var. Vidare undersöktes hur neurala nätverk bör tränas för att tillsammans samverka så väl som möjligt när de används i en ensemble. Slutsatserna från den undersökningen är att det är möjligt att skapa välpresterande ensembler både genom att ha många modeller som är antingen bra i genomsnitt eller olika varandra (dvs diversa). Insikter som har presenterats i litteraturen under de senaste åren diskuteras och relateras till resultaten i de inkluderade studierna. När man skapar konfidensbaserade modeller med hjälp av ett ramverk som kallas för conformal prediction så finns det flera frågor kring hur data bör utnyttjas på bästa sätt när man använder ensembler som behöver belysas. De frågor som relaterar till konfidensbaserad predicering inkluderar: Hur kan data utnyttjas på bästa sätt för att åstadkomma mer effektiva konfidensbaserade prediktioner med ensembler; Hur påverkar obalanserad datade konfidensbaserade prediktionerna när man använder conformal perdiction? Bidragen inkluderar två studier där resultaten i den första visar att det mest effektiva sättet att använda data när man har en baggingensemble är att använda sk out-of-bag estimeringar. Resultaten i den andra studien visar att obalanserad data behöver hanteras med hjälp av en klassvillkorad konfidensbaserad modell för att undvika en stark tendens att favorisera majoritetsklassen.

  • 18.
    Mohsenzadeh, Abas
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Computational studies of nickel catalysed reactions relevant for hydrocarbon gasification2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable energy sources are of great importance, and will become even more important in the future. Gasification of biomass is an important process for utilization of biomass, as a renewable energy carrier, to produce fuels and chemicals. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were used to investigate i) the effect of co-adsorption of water and CO on the Ni(111) catalysed water splitting reaction, ii) water adsorption and dissociation on Ni(111), Ni(100) and Ni(110) surfaces, as well as iii) formyl oxidation and dissociation, iv) hydrocarbon combustion and synthesis, and v) the water gas shift (WGS) reaction on these surfaces.

    The results show that the structures of an adsorbed water molecule and its splitting transition state are significantly changed by co-adsorption of a CO molecule on the Ni(111) surface. This leads to less exothermic reaction energy and larger activation barrier in the presence of CO which means that far fewer water molecules will dissociate in the presence of CO.

    For the adsorption and dissociation of water on different Ni surfaces, the binding energies for H2O and OH decrease in the order Ni(110) > Ni(100) > Ni(111), and the binding energies for O and H atoms decrease in the order Ni(100) > Ni(111) > Ni(110). In total, the complete water dissociation reaction rate decreases in the order Ni(110) > Ni(100) > Ni(111).

    The reaction rates for both formyl dissociation to CH + O and to CO + H decrease in the order Ni(110) > Ni(111) > Ni(100). However, the dissociation to CO + H is kinetically favoured. The oxidation of formyl has the lowest activation energy on the Ni(111) surface.

    For combustion and synthesis of hydrocarbons, the Ni(110) surface shows a better catalytic activity for hydrocarbon combustion compared to the other surfaces. Calculations show that Ni is a better catalyst for the combustion reaction compared to the hydrocarbon synthesis, where the reaction rate constants are small.

    It was found that the WGS reaction occurs mainly via the direct pathway with the CO + O → CO2 reaction as the rate limiting step on all three surfaces. The activation barrier obtained for this rate limiting step decreases in the order Ni(110) > Ni(111) > Ni(100). Thus, the WGS reaction is fastest on the Ni(100) surface if O species are present on the surfaces. However, the barrier for desorption of water (as the source of the O species) is lower than its dissociation reaction on the Ni(111) and Ni(100) surfaces, but not on the Ni(110) surface. Therefore the direct pathway on the Ni(110) surface will dominate and will be the rate limiting step at low H2O(g) pressures. The calculations also reveal that the WGS reaction does not primarily occur via the formate pathway, since this species is a stable intermediate on all surfaces.

    All reactions studied in this work support the Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) principles.

  • 19.
    Nilsson, Linnéa
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Textile Influence: exploring the relationship between textiles and products in the design process2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile materials and textile design are a part of countless products in our surroundings,as well as diverse design fields and industries, each of which has very different materialtraditions and working methods. The aim of this thesis is to add to our understandingof the relationship between textiles and products in the design process, and to explorehow textiles enter and influence product design processes and how products functionin textile design processes. A further aim is to examine the effect of new textiletechnology, such as smart textiles and 3D printed textiles, on this dynamic.

    This thesis is the result of an interplay between theoretical work, experimentalpractice-based projects, and observation of design practice, and it presents two typesof results: Firstly, descriptions of how the relationship can manifest itself in the designprocess, which give a broad picture of the relationship between textile and productand in so doing add to our understanding of textiles as design materials and highlightsome of the additional complexities and possibilities for the design process that comewith new forms of textiles. Secondly, this thesis presents ways of describing thedynamics between textiles and products in the design process, with the intention ofopening up for reflection on how we design, and can design, with textiles. Here, themain outcome is a theoretical framework which examines the relationship from botha product design and a textile design perspective, and includes methods and questionsthat can be used to explore and define how textiles and products meet in the designprocess.

  • 20.
    Pagés Diaz, Jhosané
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Biogas from slaughterhouse waste: Mixtures interactions in co-digestion2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Global environmental concerns connected to the use of fossil fuels have forced the development ofalternative sustainable energy technologies. The application of anaerobic digestion, from waste streams thatcurrently have no use, can be utilized for bioenergy production. Due to the high protein and fat content,slaughterhouse waste has a high potential for biogas production. However, potential inhibitory compoundscan be formed during the degradation of the proteins and lipids, which can make the process sensitive andprone to failure. One of the ways to overcome these problems is co-digestion with carbohydrate-rich cosubstratesi.e., a mixture of agro-wastes with low protein/lipid content. This also leads to a better nutritionalbalance and enhanced methane yield due to the positive mixture interactions.

    In this study, four different waste fractions, i.e., solid cattle slaughterhouse waste (SB), manure (M),various crops (VC), and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) were investigated in monodigestionand co-digestion processes. Different mixture ratios were prepared, and the methane yield (YCH4),the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), and a kinetic parameter (k0) were determined using the batchdigestion assays at thermophilic conditions (55oC). The SB had a lower degradation rate and lower SMAcompared with those of the other samples. In order to investigate the effect of the temperature, a selectedmixture ratio was also digested at mesophilic conditions (37oC), which resulted in a decrease in YCH4 and inthe kinetic parameters, specific methane production rate (rsCH4), and k0, by up to 57% compared to thoseobtained at the thermophilic conditions. During the next part of the work, a four-factor mixture design wasapplied aiming to obtain possible synergetic or antagonistic effects. The performance of the process wasassessed using YCH4and rsCH4as the response variables. Mixing all four of the substrates resulted in a 31%increase in the YCH4compared to the expected yield calculated on the basis of the methane potential of theindividual fractions and 97% of the theoretical methane yield, clearly demonstrating a synergistic effect.Nevertheless, antagonistic interactions were also observed for certain mixtures. In order to maximize boththe response variables simultaneously, a response surface method was employed to find the optimalcombination for the substrate mixture.

    The impact of the mixture interactions, obtained in the batch operation mode, was also evaluated undersemi-continuous co-digestion. Digestion of the SB as the sole substrate failed at an organic loading rate of0.9 gVS L-1d-1, while stable performance with higher loadings was observed for mixtures that displayedsynergy earlier during the batch experiments. The combination that showed the antagonistic effects resultedin unstable operation and poor representation of methanogens. It was proved that synergetic or antagonisticeffects observed in the batch mode could be correlated to the process performance, as well as to thedevelopment of the microbial community structure during the semi-continuous operation.

    In the last part of the work, the response of the methanogenic biomass to the consecutive feeding applied inthe batch assays was evaluated regarding process parameters such as YCH4, SMA, and degradation kinetics.The objective was to examine whether there is a possibility to correlate these findings to the expectedprocess performance during the long-term operation. Digestion of the SB alone showed a total inhibitionafter the second feeding, which is in correlation with the failure observed during the semi-continuous mode.Furthermore, enhanced SMA was observed after the second feeding in those mixtures that showed synergyin the previous batch assays as well as a good process performance during the semi-continuous operation.

  • 21.
    Palmér, Lina
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd. Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap (HV).
    Amning och existens: Moderskap, sårbarhet och ömsesidigt beroende vid inledande amning2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of the thesis is to create knowledge about what it means for women to initiate breastfeeding and what consequences these meanings have from an existential perspective.

    Approach and method: A lifeworld approach based on the epistemology of phenomenology and hermeneutics was used. Lifeworld interviews and meaningoriented analysis in accordance with the chosen lifeworld approach were performed. A synthesis and a philosophical analysis were carried out that facilitates an understanding of the existential meaning of initial breastfeeding and its consequences as a whole.

    Main findings: Initiating breastfeeding, when it functions well, entails an existential challenge, a movement from a bodily performance to an embodied relationship with the infant and with oneself as a mother. When breastfeeding is experienced as being severely difficult, it entails an existential lostness as a mother, forcing her into a constant fight with herself, the infant, and others in order to find her way into motherhood. Severe breastfeeding difficulties can evoke existential vulnerability, forcing the mother to continue breastfeeding despite the difficulties, while hoping to be confirmed as a good mother; a fear of breastfeeding may be a consequence. Existential security is a necessary condition for continued breastfeeding whilst insecurity and fear of breastfeeding can lead to ceased attempts to breastfeed when experiencing severe initial difficulties. Initial breastfeeding and motherhood are intertwined in a way that affects the woman’s existence as a mother.

    Conclusions: Initial breastfeeding is a complex phenomenon that is more than just a biological adaptation or a cultural issue; it touches on and evokes existential aspects of being a woman and a mother. Though anchored in both biology and culture, breastfeeding cannot be reduced to one or the other: it is both. There is a struggle between biology and culture that has existential consequences for women’s experiences of breastfeeding, the breastfeeding decision, and the women’s existence as a mother. There is a need for health professionals to look beyond the statistics of breastfeeding and consider the existential dimensions of breastfeeding-as-lived when encountering mothers wanting to breastfeed.

  • 22.
    Rajendran, Karthik
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Industrial Bioprocess Developments for Biogas and Ethanol Production2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Current biofuels face a noteworthy misfortune on commercialization because of its economiccomparison with low-cost fuel from the oil reserves. To compete with gasoline as a fuel, thebiofuels need to be economically feasible and demonstrated on a large-scale. Biogas and ethanolhave a great potential as commercial biofuels, even though it has difficulties, for example, highcapitalinvestment, absence of demonstrated innovations, and availability of raw materials and soforth. This thesis focuses on different application-driven bioprocess developments for improvingthe techno-economic feasibility of the biogas and ethanol industries.

    The biogas industry was studied from three different perspectives:

    1) Modeling approach in which a Process Simulation Model (PSM) model was developed forpredicting the biogas productions, as exploiting new substrates is vital for a biogas industrygrowth. The PSM model was created using Aspen Plus® which includes 46 reactions of differentphases in the Anaerobic Digestion (AD) processes. It also contains certain important processparameters, thermodynamics, rate-kinetics, and inhibitions involved in the AD processes. PSMwas a library model for the AD processes, which was validated against the laboratory andindustrial data. The validation showed that the PSM predicted the biogas production about 5% inexcess, which could ease the biogas industry to predict biogas from new substrates.

    2) Simulation approach to study the imperative components affecting the profitability of theplant. For this purpose, a local municipality plant was studied under distinct situations. The choiceof upgrading method, capacity, cost of waste and its processing, number of digesters used, etc.were exploited. The results showed that the collection and transportation fee, landfilling fee, andthe reduced operation of a plant were the main considerations in influencing its profitability.Moreover, it was identified that for bigger cities the decentralization strategy could beat theexpense of collection and transportation of waste, and the plant could obtain a 17.8% return oninvestment.

    3) Rethinking digester technology in which the cost of the digester was significantly lessenedusing a cutting-edge textile, which was principally intended for developing countries. The digestercost played an important role in consuming biogas for different applications. The textile digesterwas tested on a laboratory scale, followed by field tests in different countries including India,Indonesia, and Brazil. Textile digesters cost one-tenth of the conventional digesters, and thepayback was more or less between 1–3 years, when replacing the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)and kerosene as a cooking fuel for households.

    When it comes to ethanol, the first generation ethanol production using grains was financiallypossible with a payback of about 13 years. Nonetheless, with the fluctuation of the oil prices, theethanol industries need to look for alternative sources of revenues. Different retrofits wereconsidered, including the effect of thin-stillage/whole-stillage to ethanol and biomass, in additionto the integration of the first and second generation ethanol production. The results revealed that4% additional ethanol could be obtained when the thin-stillage was converted into ethanol andfungal biomass, while the payback was reduced to 11.5 years. The integration of the first andsecond generation ethanol production revealed that it has a positive influence on the overalleconomics of the process with a payback of 10.5 years. This could help the ethanol industries toconsider a revamp for a better environmental, economic, and energy efficient process.

  • 23.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Properties and performance of regenerated cellulose thermoset biocomposites2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Biocomposites have been developed to address the sustainability issues of nonrenewableresource based materials. These composites are often produced by reinforcing natural fibres in petroleum based thermoset resins or thermoplastic polymers. Thermoplastic polymers from renewable resources are commercially available, whereas thermoset resins are predominantly derived from crude oil resources. Cellulose fibres have significant importance and potential for polymer reinforcement in lightweight composites. Natural fibres are chemically diverse and their properties vary largely which makes it difficult for them to be used in several applications. The natural fibre based products are limited by their characteristic odour emissions. These issues of natural fibres can be addressed by partly manmade fibres i.e. regenerated cellulose fibre which with little or no compromise in the environmental benefits of the natural fibres can be produced from biomass origin. Natural fibres and their composites have been observed and researched closely for many decades. Study of regenerated cellulose fibres and their composites is, on the other hand, relatively new. Regenerated cellulose fibres are prospective reinforcing material in the composite field due to their even quality and high purity. These fibres have good mechanical properties and also address the odour emission issue of the natural fibres. The development of biocomposites from regenerated cellulose fibre and thermoset resin synthesized from renewable resources has therefore been viewed with considerable interest.

    This thesis describes the development of biocomposites from regenerated cellulose fibres (lyocell and viscose) and thermoset resins synthesized from renewable resources (soybean oil and lactic acid). The performance and the properties of the composites were evaluated. Chemical surface treatments, alkali and silane, were performed on the fibres in order to improve the performance of the composites. Hybrid composites were also produced by mixing of two types of reinforcement in order to complement one type of fibre with other. The developed composites were evaluated through mechanical, thermal, viscoelastic and morphological properties among others. The results showed that the regenerated cellulose fibre thermoset biocomposites have reasonably good properties. Fibres before and after treatment were studied in detail. The silane treatment on these fibres improved the mechanical properties of the composites as the silane molecules act as a link between the fibre and resin which gives the molecular continuity across the interface region of the composite.

  • 24.
    Åkerfeldt, Maria
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Electrically conductive textile coatings with PEDOT:PSS2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In smart textiles, electrical conductivity is often required for several functions, especially contacting (electroding) and interconnecting. This thesis explores electrically conductive textile surfaces made by combining conventional textile coating methods with the intrinsically conductive polymer complex poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS).

    PEDOT:PSS was used in textile coating formulations including polymer binder, ethylene glycol (EG) and rheology modifier. Shear viscometry was used to identify suitable viscosities of the formulations for each coating method. The coating methods were knife coating, pad coating and screen printing. The first part of the work studied the influence of composition of the coating formulation, the amount of coating and the film formation process on the surface resistivity and the surface appearance of knife-coated textiles. The electrical resistivity was largely affected by the amount of PEDOT:PSS in the coating and indicated percolation behaviour within the system. Addition of a high-boiling solvent, i.e. EG, decreased the surface resistivity with more than four orders of magnitude. Studies of tear strength and bending rigidity showed that textiles coated with formulations containing larger amounts of PEDOT:PSS and EG were softer, more ductile and stronger than those coated with formulations containing more binder. The coated textiles were found to be durable to abrasion and cyclic strain, as well as quite resilient to the harsh treatment of shear flexing. Washing increased the surface resistivity, but the samples remained conductive after five wash cycles.

    The second part of the work focused on using the coatings to transfer the voltage signal from piezoelectric textile fibres; the coatings were first applied using pad coating as the outer electrode on a woven sensor and then as screen-printed interconnections in a sensing glove based on stretchy, warp-knitted fabric. Sensor data from the glove was successfully used as input to a microcontroller running a robot gripper. These applications showed the viability of the concept and that the coatings could be made very flexible and integrated into the textile garment without substantial loss of the textile characteristics. The industrial feasibility of the approach was also verified through the variations of coating methods.

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