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  • 9451. Weller, T.
    et al.
    Haider, Jutta
    Lunds Universitet.
    Where do we go from here?: An opinion on the future of LIS as an academic discipline in the UK2007In: Aslib Proceedings: New Information Perspectives, Vol. 59, no 4-5, p. 475-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current situation of academic LIS research, specifically in the UK and to provide some thoughts considering the future of the discipline. According to the opinion of the authors, this situation is characterised by a lack of cohesion, the need for justification of academic research in terms of its immediate applicability to the professional education of practitioners, and a disjuncture between the information profession and information research. The paper attempts to offer introductory thoughts regarding these circumstances. Design/methodology/approach - The current situation is briefly reviewed and commented on from the authors' viewpoint. Aspects of Pierre Bourdieu's study of the university as a hierarchically structured field of forces are considered. Some reference is made to previous literature. Findings - The paper advances the view that the role of academic LIS research, debate and theory formation needs to be strengthened and that this needs to be reflected in the curriculum more strongly. Originality/value - The paper attempts to highlight consistently overlooked contributing factors, and thus aims to shift the perspective towards role and position of LIS research within academia, rather than vis-à-vis the professional education it is connected to. It aims to stimulate discussion of the current situation, of how it can be perceived, and of ways to address it. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

  • 9452. Wennberg, Pär
    et al.
    Andersson, Henrik
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Wireklint Sundström, Birgitta
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Patients with suspected hip fracture in the chain of emergency care: An integrative review of the literature2018In: International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma NursingArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 9453.
    Wennberg, Pär
    et al.
    Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    Möller, Margareta
    University Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro and School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Kenne Sarenmalm, Elisabeth
    Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    Fascia iliaca compartment block as a preoperative analgesic in elderly patients with hip fractures - effects on cognition.2019In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Impaired cognition is a major risk factor for perioperative delirium. It is essential to provide good pain control in patients with hip fractures and especially important in patients with severely impaired cognitive status, as they receive less pain medication, have poorer mobility, poorer quality of life and higher mortality than patients with intact cognition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between preoperative pain management with nerve blocks and cognitive status in patients with hip fractures during the perioperative period.

    METHODS: One hundred and twenty-seven patients with hip fractures participating in a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial were included in this study. At hospital admission, a low-dose fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) was administered as a supplement to regular analgesia. Cognitive status was registered on arrival at hospital before FICB and on the first postoperative day using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Changes in cognitive status from arrival at hospital to the first postoperative day showed a positive, albeit not significant, trend in favour of the intervention group. The results also showed that patients with no or a moderate cognitive impairment received 50% more prehospital pain medication than patients with a severe cognitive impairment. FICB was well tolerated in patients with hip fractures.

    CONCLUSION: Fascia iliaca compartment block given to patients with hip fractures did not affect cognitive status in this study. Patients with a cognitive impairment may receive inadequate pain relief after hip fracture and this discrimination needs to be addressed in further studies.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number 2008-004303-59 date of registration: 2008-10-24.

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  • 9454.
    Wennberg, Pär
    et al.
    Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    Norlin, Rolf
    Capio Movement, Halmstad, Sweden; Department of Orthopedics, Örebro University Hospital, and Örebro University.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Sarenmalm, Elisabeth Kenne
    Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    Möller, Margareta
    University Health Care Research Centre, Region Örebro, and School of Health Sciences, Örebro University.
    Pre-operative pain management with nerve block in patients with hip fractures: a randomized, controlled trial.2019In: International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing, ISSN 1878-1241, E-ISSN 1878-1292, Vol. 33, p. 35-43, article id S1878-1241(18)30001-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Pain management in patients with hip fractures is a major challenge for emergency care. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the supplementation of pre-operative analgesia with low-dose fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) compared with placebo would improve pain relief in patients with hip fractures.

    METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted on 127 patients. At hospital admission, a low-dose FICB was administered to patients with hip fractures as a supplement to regular pre-operative analgesia. Patients with and without cognitive impairment were included. The instruments used were a visual analogue scale (VAS), a numerical rating scale and a tool for behavior related pain assessment. The primary endpoint was the change in reported pain on movement from hospital admission to two hours after FICB.

    RESULTS: The intervention group showed improved pain management by mean VAS score for pain on movement compared with the control group (p = 0.002).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the use of low-dose FICB as a pain-relieving adjuvant to other analgesics when administered to patients with a hip fracture.

  • 9455. Wennman, I
    et al.
    Klittermark, P
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Lernfelt, B
    Kihlgren, M
    Gustafsson, C
    Hansson, PO
    The clinical consequences of a pre-hospital diagnosis of stroke by the emergency medical service system. A pilot study.2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 20, no 48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There is still a considerable delay between the onset of symptoms and arrival at a stroke unit for most patients with acute stroke. The aim of the study was to describe the feasibility of a pre-hospital diagnosis of stroke by an emergency medical service (EMS) nurse in terms of diagnostic accuracy and delay from dialing 112 until arrival at a stroke unit. Methods Between September 2008 and November 2009, a subset of patients with presumed acute stroke in the pre-hospital setting were admitted by EMS staff directly to a stroke unit, bypassing the emergency department. A control group, matched for a number of background variables, was created. Results In all, there were 53 patients in the direct admission group, and 49 patients in the control group. The median delay from calling for an ambulance until arrival at a stroke unit was 54 minutes in the direct admission group and 289 minutes in the control group (p < 0.0001). In a comparison between the direct admission group and the control group, a final diagnosis of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA) or the sequelae of prior stroke was found in 85% versus 90% (NS). Among stroke patients who lived at home prior to the event, the percentage of patients that were living at home after 3 months was 71% and 62% respectively (NS). Conclusions In a pilot study, the concept of a pre-hospital diagnosis of stroke by an EMS nurse was associated with relatively high diagnostic accuracy in terms of stroke-related diagnoses and a short delay to arrival at a stroke unit. These data need to be confirmed in larger studies, with a concomitant evaluation of the clinical consequences and, if possible, the level of patient satisfaction as well.

  • 9456. Werling, M
    et al.
    Thorén, A-B
    Axelsson, C
    [external].
    Herlitz, Johan
    [external].
    Treatment and outcome in post-resuscitation care after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest when a modern therapeutic approach was introduced.2007In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 40-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The outcome among patients who are hospitalised alive after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is still relatively poor. At present, there are no clear guidelines specifying how they should be treated. The aim of this survey was to describe the outcome for initial survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest when a more aggressive approach was applied. PATIENTS: All patients hospitalised alive after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the Municipality of Göteborg, Sweden, during a period of 20 months. RESULTS: Of all the patients in the municipality suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was attempted (n=375), 85 patients (23%) were hospitalised alive and admitted to a hospital ward. Of them, 65% had a cardiac aetiology and 50% were found in ventricular fibrillation. In 32% of the patients, hypothermia was attempted, 28% underwent a coronary angiography and 21% had a mechanical revascularisation. In overall terms, 27 of the 85 patients who were brought alive to a hospital ward (32%) survived to 30 days after cardiac arrest. Survival was only moderately higher among patients treated with hypothermia versus not (37% versus 29%; NS), and it was markedly higher among those who had early coronary angiography versus not (67% versus 18%; p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: In an era in which a more aggressive attitude was applied in post-resuscitation care, we found that the survival (32%) was similar to that in previous surveys. However, early coronary angiography was associated with a marked increase in survival and might be of benefit to many of these patients. Larger registries are important to further confirm the value of hypothermia in representative patient populations

  • 9457.
    Wernberg, Anna
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Lärandets objekt: vad elever förväntas lära sig, vad görs möjligt för dem att lära och vad de faktiskt lär sig under lektionerna2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis reports the results from a study focused on the objects of learning. The aim is to analyse and describe how objects of learning are handled in three learning studies. The first question concerns how different aspects of learning is carried out in terms of the intended, enacted and lived objects of learning and their interrelations. The second question concerns the differences and similarities between an object of learning and a learning objective. The theoretical framework for the analysis of this study as well as for the planning instructions is variation theory. The theoretical assumption is that learning is always the learning of something, so as the ability to learn presupposes an experience of variation. Thus, the learner must discern variation in a dimension that corresponds to that aspect in spite of the background of invariance in other aspects of what is to be learned (i.e. the object of learning). In a classroom discourse, the teachers’ as well as the students’ activities constitute the space of learning, which refers to the learning opportunities the students are given, i.e. the enacted object of learning. The intentional object of learning describes the teachers’ intention with the lesson. The lived object of learning is what they actually learn. The object of learning is the compound of two aspects: the direct and the indirect object of learning. The former is defined in terms of content whereas the latter refers to the kind of capability that the students are supposed to develop. The method used is learning study, which can be seen as a hybrid between a design experiment and lesson study. A learning study is theoretically grounded which primary focus is on an object of learning. Here, the teachers and the researcher worked together and had equal status in the group. The objects of learning were chosen by the teachers. The findings should be seen as implications on students’ learning can be understood, depending on how an object of learning is constituted by a teacher in terms of the intended, enacted and lived objects of learning. Another finding is a contribution to the discussion of how teachers’ competences should be constituted.

  • 9458. Werner, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Kander, Kristofer
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Electrocardiogram interpretation skills among ambulance nurces2014In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 262-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To describe ambulance nurses' practical electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation skills and to measure the correlation between these skills and factors that may impact on the level of knowledge. METHODS: This study was conducted using a prospective quantitative survey with questionnaires and a knowledge test. A convenience sample collection was conducted among ambulance nurses in three different districts in western Sweden. The knowledge test consisted of nine different ECGs. The score of the ECG test were correlated against the questions in the questionnaire regarding both general ECG interpretation skill and ability to identify acute myocardial infarction using Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman's rank correlation. RESULTS: On average, the respondents had 54% correct answers on the test and identified 46% of the ECGs indicating acute myocardial infarction. The median total score was 9 of 16 (interquartile range 7-11) and 1 of 3 (IQR 1-2) in infarction points. No correlation between ECG interpretation skill and factors such as education and professional experience was found, except that coronary care unit experience was associated with better results on the ECG test. CONCLUSIONS: Ambulance nurses have deficiencies in their ECG interpretation skills. This also applies to conditions where the ambulance crew has great potential to improve the outcome of the patient's health, such as myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest. Neither education, extensive experience in ambulance service nor in nursing contributed to an improved result. The only factor of importance for higher ECG interpretation knowledge was prior experience of working in a coronary care unit.

  • 9459.
    Westerbotn, Margareta
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University, Box 5605, 114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kneck, Åsa
    Sciences Karolinska Institutet, Division of Nursing, Department of Neurolobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Sweden.
    Hovland, Olav Johannes
    University of Agder, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, Institute of Health and Nursing Science, Postbox 422, 4604 Kristiansand, Norway.
    Elrond, Malene
    University College Sjælland (UCSJ), Sygeplejerskeuddannelsen, Ingemannsvej 17, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark.
    Pedersen, Ingrid
    University College Lillebaelt, 5220 Odense SØ, Denmark.
    Lejonqvist, Gun-Britt
    Arcada University of Applied Sciences, Jan-Magnus Janssons plats 1, 00550 Helsingfors, Finland.
    Dulavik, Johild
    Faculty of Natural and Health Sciences, Department of Nursing, University of the Faroe Islands, Jónas Broncksgøta 25, Fo 100 Tórshavn, Faroe Islands.
    Ecklon, Tove
    University College Lillebaelt, Department of Nursing, Svendborg, Baagoesalle 8 b, 5700 Svendborg, Denmark.
    Nilsson, Inga-Lill
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Sigurdardottir, Árún K.
    School of Health Sciences, University of Akureyri, Nordurslod, 600 Akureyri, Iceland.
    Taking part in Nordic collaboration; nursing students' experiences and perceptions from a learning perspective: A qualitative study2015In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 712-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SummaryBackground Nordic networking of different kinds has a long tradition aiming to increase collaboration and understanding between citizens in different countries. Cultural competence in relation to health care and nursing is important for clinical nurses and is a central issue in nurse education. Objective To gain an understanding of what nurse students experienced and learned during an intensive course in diabetes together with students and nurse educators from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the Faroe Islands. Methods In 2012, an intensive course within the Nordic network, Nordkvist, was conducted in Faroe Islands with the theme “Nursing — to live a good life with diabetes”. To answer the objective of the study, 26 students conducted written reflections based on two questions. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Through meetings with nurse students and educators from the Nordic countries the intensive course strengthened the students' identification with the nursing profession. The students gained new perspectives on diabetes, such as how complex it can be to live with a chronic illness. Because of the difficulties in understanding one another and because of different mother tongues, the students gained a better understanding of patients' vulnerability in relation to hospital jargon and how it felt to be in an unfamiliar place. Conclusions The intensive course increased the students' personal and professional growth, cross-cultural competence, and their identification with nursing. Students' understanding of health care in the Nordic countries improved as similarities and differences were recognized.

  • 9460. Westin, Lars
    et al.
    Sundler J, Annelie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Berglund, Mia
    Students' experiences of learning in relation to didactic strategies during the first year of a nursing programme: a qualitative study.2015In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In university undergraduate nursing programmes, didactic strategies that enable students to learn nursing skills, solve problems and develop reflective and critical thinking and practice are needed. The aim of this study was to explore how different didactic strategies support nursing students' experiences of learning during the first year of a reconstructed nursing curriculum.

    METHODS: This study employed a qualitative approach. The data were gathered through written narratives that were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: Nursing students' experiences of learning through different didactic strategies, were evident in the text. These perspectives were organised into the following themes: To focus on the patient perspective and paying more attention to others, Learning from discussions and reflections on one's own learning, Training for the professional role and becoming more courage, and Gaining insights into nursing and increasing one's self-awareness. The education increased the students' self-awareness, which helped them to pay greater attention to patients and their relative. During the learning process, the students became more courageous, reflected and discovered their shortcomings.

    CONCLUSION: Stated didactic strategies supported a broad base of knowledge on nursing and the professional role of nurses. Educators are challenged to strengthen meaningful learning in nursing and to facilitate the progression of nursing programmes.

  • 9461.
    Westman, J.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bonander, N.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, C.J.
    Improved sugar co-utilisation by encapsulation of a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain in alginate-chitosan capsules2014In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Two major hurdles for successful production of second-generation bioethanol are the presence of inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic media, and the fact that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally utilise pentoses. There are recombinant yeast strains that address both of these issues, but co-utilisation of glucose and xylose is still an issue that needs to be resolved. A non-recombinant way to increase yeast tolerance to hydrolysates is by encapsulation of the yeast. This can be explained by concentration gradients occuring in the cell pellet inside the capsule. In the current study, we hypothesised that encapsulation might also lead to improved simultaneous utilisation of hexoses and pentoses because of such sugar concentration gradients. Results In silico simulations of encapsulated yeast showed that the presence of concentration gradients of inhibitors can explain the improved inhibitor tolerance of encapsulated yeast. Simulations also showed pronounced concentration gradients of sugars, which resulted in simultaneous xylose and glucose consumption and a steady state xylose consumption rate up to 220-fold higher than that found in suspension culture. To validate the results experimentally, a xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae strain, CEN.PK XXX, was constructed and encapsulated in semi-permeable alginate-chitosan liquid core gel capsules. In defined media, encapsulation not only increased the tolerance of the yeast to inhibitors, but also promoted simultaneous utilisation of glucose and xylose. Encapsulation of the yeast resulted in consumption of at least 50% more xylose compared with suspended cells over 96-hour fermentations in medium containing both sugars. The higher consumption of xylose led to final ethanol titres that were approximately 15% higher. In an inhibitory dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, freely suspended yeast cells consumed the sugars in a sequential manner after a long lag phase, whereas no lag phase was observed for the encapsulated yeast, and glucose, mannose, galactose and xylose were utilised in parallel from the beginning of the cultivation. Conclusions Encapsulation of xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae leads to improved simultaneous and efficient utilisation of several sugars, which are utilised sequentially by suspended cells. The greatest improvement is obtained in inhibitory media. These findings show that encapsulation is a promising option for production of second-generation bioethanol.

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  • 9462.
    Westman, J
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Mapelli, V.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzen, C.J.
    Flocculation causes inhibitor tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 2nd generation bioethanol production2014In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 80, no 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yeast has long been considered the microorganism of choice for second generation bioethanol production due to its fermentative capacity and ethanol tolerance. However, tolerance towards inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic materials is still an issue. Flocculating yeast strains often perform relatively well in inhibitory media, but inhibitor tolerance has never been clearly linked to the actual flocculation ability per se. In this study, variants of the flocculation gene FLO1 were transformed into the genome of the otherwise non-flocculating laboratory yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D. Three mutants with distinct differences in flocculation properties were isolated and characterised. The degree of flocculation and hydrophobicity of the cells were correlated to the length of the gene variant. The effect of different strength of flocculation on the fermentation performance of the strains was studied in defined medium with and without fermentation inhibitors as well as in media based on dilute acid spruce hydrolysate. Strong flocculation aided against the readily convertible inhibitor furfural, but not against less convertible inhibitors, such as carboxylic acids. During fermentation of dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, the most strongly flocculating mutant with dense cell flocs showed significantly faster sugar consumption. The modified strain with the weakest flocculation showed a hexose consumption profile similar to the non-transformed strain. These findings may explain why flocculation has evolved as a stress response, and can find application in fermentation-based biorefinery processes on lignocellulosic raw materials.

  • 9463.
    Westman, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ethanol production from lignocellulose using high local cell density yeast cultures. Investigations of flocculating and encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Efforts are made to change from 1st to 2nd generation bioethanol production, using lignocellulosics as raw materials rather than using raw materials that alternatively can be used as food sources. An issue with lignocellulosics is that a harsh pretreatment step is required in the process of converting them into fermentable sugars. In this step, inhibitory compounds such as furan aldehydes and carboxylic acids are formed, leading to suboptimal fermentation rates. Another issue is that lignocellulosics may contain a large portion of pentoses, which cannot be fermented simultaneously with glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this thesis, high local cell density has been investigated as a means of overcoming these two issues. Encapsulation of yeast in semi-permeable alginate-chitosan capsules increased the tolerance towards furan aldehydes, but not towards carboxylic acids. The selective tolerance can be explained by differences in the concentration of compounds radially through the cell pellet inside the capsule. For inhibitors, gradients will only be formed if the compounds are readily convertible, like the furan aldehydes. Conversion of inhibitors by cells close to the membrane leads to decreased concentrations radially through the cell pellet. Thus, cells closer to the core experience subinhibitory levels of inhibitors and can ferment sugars. Carbohydrate gradients also give rise to nutrient limitations, which in turn trigger a stress response in the yeast, as was observed on mRNA and protein level. The stress response is believed to increase the robustness of the yeast and lead to improved tolerance towards additional stress. Glucose and xylose co-consumption by a recombinant strain, CEN.PK XXX, was also improved by encapsulation. Differences in affinity of the sugar transporters normally result in that glucose is taken up preferentially to xylose. However, when encapsulated, cells in different parts of the capsule experienced high and low glucose concentrations simultaneously. Xylose and glucose could thus be taken up concurrently. This improved the co-utilisation of the sugars by the system and led to 50% higher xylose consumption and 15% higher final ethanol titres. A protective effect by the capsule membrane itself could not be shown. Hence, the interest in flocculation was triggered, as a more convenient way to keep the cells together. To investigate whether flocculation increases the tolerance, like encapsulation, recombinant flocculating yeast strains were constructed and compared with the non-flocculating parental strain. Experiments showed that strong flocculation did not increase the tolerance towards carboxylic acids. However, the tolerance towards a spruce hydrolysate and especially against furfural was indeed increased. The results of this thesis show that high local cell density yeast cultures have the potential to aid against two of the major problems for 2nd generation bioethanol production: inhibitors and simultaneous hexose and pentose utilisation.

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  • 9464.
    Westman, Johan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Mapelli, Valeria
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    High local cell density for efficient 2nd generation bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9465.
    Westman, Johan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Mapelli, Valeria
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Together we are strong: Yeast flocculation for efficient fermentation of toxic hydrolysates2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9466.
    Westman, Johan O.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Together we are strong! Second generation bioethanol production by flocculating and encapsulated yeast2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9467.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Babikondu, Ramesh Babu
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Encapsulation-Induced Stress Helps Saccharomyces cerevisiae Resist Convertible Lignocellulose Derived Inhibitors2012In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 11881-11894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of macroencapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS8066 to withstand readily and not readily in situ convertible lignocellulose-derived inhibitors was investigated in anaerobic batch cultivations. It was shown that encapsulation increased the tolerance against readily convertible furan aldehyde inhibitors and to dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, but not to organic acid inhibitors that cannot be metabolized anaerobically. Gene expression analysis showed that the protective effect arising from the encapsulation is evident also on the transcriptome level, as the expression of the stress-related genes YAP1, ATR1 and FLR1 was induced upon encapsulation. The transcript levels were increased due to encapsulation already in the medium without added inhibitors, indicating that the cells sensed low stress level arising from the encapsulation itself. We present a model, where the stress response is induced by nutrient limitation, that this helps the cells to cope with the increased stress added by a toxic medium, and that superficial cells in the capsules degrade convertible inhibitors, alleviating the inhibition for the cells deeper in the capsule.

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  • 9468.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzen, CJ
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Characterization of Domsjö flocculating yeast strain2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9469.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Phenotypical and Physiological Characterization of a Flocculating Yeast Strain2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9470.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzen, Carl Johan
    Inhibitor tolerance and flocculation of a yeast strain suitable for second generation bioethanol production2012In: Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0717-3458, E-ISSN 0717-3458, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Robust second generation bioethanol processes require microorganisms able to ferment inhibitory lignocellullosic hydrolysates. In this study, the inhibitor tolerance and flocculation characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCUG53310 were evaluated in comparison with S. cerevisiae CBS8066. Results: The flocculating strain CCUG53310 could rapidly ferment all hexoses in dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, while CBS8066 was strongly inhibited in this medium. In synthetic inhibitory media, CCUG53310 was more tolerant to carboxylic acids and furan aldehydes, but more sensitive than CBS8066 to phenolic compounds. Despite the higher tolerance, the increase in expression of the YAP1, ATR1 and FLR1 genes, known to confer resistance to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors, was generally smaller in CCUG53310 than in CBS8066 in inhibitory media. The flocculation of CCUG53310 was linked to the expression of FLO8, FLO10 and one or more of FLO1, FLO5 or FLO9. Flocculation depended on cell wall proteins and Ca2+ ions, but was almost unaffected by other compounds and pH values typical for lignocellulosic media. Conclusions: S. cerevisiae CCUG53310 can be characterised as being very robust, with great potential for industrial fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates relatively low in phenolic inhibitors.

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  • 9471.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzen, Carl Johan
    Proteomic Analysis of the Increased Stress Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Encapsulated in Liquid Core Alginate-Chitosan Capsules2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 12-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS8066 encapsulated in semi-permeable alginate or alginate-chitosan liquid core capsules have been shown to have an enhanced tolerance towards complex dilute-acid lignocellulose hydrolysates and the lignocellulose-derived inhibitor furfural, as well as towards high temperatures. The underlying molecular reasons for these effects have however not been elucidated. In this study we have investigated the response of the encapsulation on the proteome level in the yeast cells, in comparison with cells grown freely in suspension under otherwise similar conditions. The proteomic analysis was performed on whole cell protein extracts using nLC-MS/MS with TMT® labelling and 2-D DIGE. 842 and 52 proteins were identified using each method, respectively. The abundances of 213 proteins were significantly different between encapsulated and suspended cells, with good correlation between the fold change ratios obtained by the two methods for proteins identified in both. Encapsulation of the yeast caused an up-regulation of glucose-repressed proteins and of both general and starvation-specific stress responses, such as the trehalose biosynthesis pathway, and down-regulation of proteins linked to growth and protein synthesis. The encapsulation leads to a lack of nutrients for cells close to the core of the capsule due to mass transfer limitations. The triggering of the stress response may be beneficial for the cells in certain conditions, for example leading to the increased tolerance towards high temperatures and certain inhibitors.

  • 9472.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Car Johan
    Encapsulated vs. free yeast: A comparative proteomic study2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the search for a replacement for fossil fuels, due to their depletion as well as an increased concern about our environment, 2nd generation bioethanol comes out as one of the most promising alternatives. There are challenges in several steps of lignocellulose processing – especially due to the formation of for yeast inhibitory compounds during pretreatment and hydrolysis. It has previously been shown that encapsulation of the yeast in membranes made of an alginate gel enables the yeast to survive otherwise toxic hydrolysates. The physiological changes arising from encapsulation are however largely unknown, although it has been shown that the macromolecular composition of the yeast changes during prolonged cultivation. In this study we have therefore performed a comparative proteomic study of yeast grown in capsules and in suspension in anaerobic batch cultivations.

  • 9473.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Inhibitor tolerance and flocculation: Characterization of a yeast strain suitable for 2nd generation bioethanol production2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Robust second generation bioethanol processes require microorganisms able to obtain high yields and production rates while fermenting inhibiting hydrolysates. However, tolerance towards inhibitors like, carboxylic acids, furan aldehydes and phenolic compounds, is still an issue and the factors contributing to improved tolerance are not well known. In this study, the constitutively flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CCUG 53310, with good ability to ferment toxic hydrolysates, was compared with S. cerevisiae CBS 8066 in order to characterize the mechanisms of flocculation and the fermentative performance in different inhibitory media. The flocculation of CCUG 53310 depended on cell wall proteins and was partly inhibited by mannose. The flocculating cells also exhibited a significantly higher hydrophobicity than the cells of the non-flocculating strain CBS 8066, which might contribute to the flocculation. The flocculating strain was more tolerant to carboxylic acids and furan aldehydes, but more sensitive to phenolic compounds. Surprisingly, the expression increase of YAP1, ATR1 and FLR1, known to confer resistance against lignocellulose-derived inhibitors, upon addition of various inhibitors to the fermentation medium, was less in CCUG 53310 than in CBS 8066 in most cases. This indicates that the flocculating strain experienced the cultivation conditions as less stressful. The flocculation in itself is a likely cause of this by creating subinhibitory local levels of inhibitors for most cells, allowing the cells in flocs to experience a lower collective stress level.

  • 9474.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Inhibitor tolerance by high local cell density Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9475.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Investigations of the inhibitor tolerance of encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9476.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Physiological consequences of encapsulating Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A proteomic approach2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9477.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Physiologiccal consequenses of high local cell density saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9478.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Talebnia, Farid
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Together we are strong! Inhibitor tolerance conferred by good neighbors?2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9479.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ylitervo, Päivi
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzen, Carl Johan
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Effects of encapsulation of microorganisms on product formation during microbial fermentations2012In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 96, no 6, p. 1441-1454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the latest developments in microbial products by encapsulated microorganisms in a liquid core surrounded by natural or synthetic membranes. Cells can be encapsulated in one or several steps using liquid droplet formation, pregel dissolving, coacervation, and interfacial polymerization. The use of encapsulated yeast and bacteria for fermentative production of ethanol, lactic acid, biogas, l-phenylacetylcarbinol, 1,3-propanediol, and riboflavin has been investigated. Encapsulated cells have furthermore been used for the biocatalytic conversion of chemicals. Fermentation, using encapsulated cells, offers various advantages compared to traditional cultivations, e.g., higher cell density, faster fermentation, improved tolerance of the cells to toxic media and high temperatures, and selective exclusion of toxic hydrophobic substances. However, mass transfer through the capsule membrane as well as the robustness of the capsules still challenge the utilization of encapsulated cells. The history and the current state of applying microbial encapsulation for production processes, along with the benefits and drawbacks concerning productivity and general physiology of the encapsulated cells, are discussed.

  • 9480. Wibring, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Christensson, Lennart
    Lingman, Markus
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Prehospital factors associated with an acute life-threatening condition in non-traumatic chest pain patients - A systematic review.2016In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 219, p. 373-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chest pain is a common symptom among patients contacting the emergency medical services (EMS). Risk stratification of these patients is warranted before arrival in hospital, regarding likelihood of an acute life-threatening condition (LTC).

    AIM: To identify factors associated with an increased risk of acute LTC among patients who call the EMS due to non-traumatic chest pain.

    METHODS: Several databases were searched for relevant articles. Identified articles were quality-assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network checklists. Extracted data was analysed using a semi-quantitative synthesis evaluating the level of evidence of each identified factor.

    RESULTS: In total, 10 of 1245 identified studies were included. These studies provided strong evidence for an increased risk of an acute LTC with increasing age, male gender, elevated heart rate, low systolic blood pressure and ST elevation or ST depression on a 12-lead ECG. The level of evidence regarding the history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris or presence of a Q wave or a Left Bundle Branch Block on the ECG was moderate. The evidence was inconclusive regarding dyspnoea, cold sweat/paleness, nausea/vomiting, history of chronic heart failure, smoking, Right Bundle Branch Block or T-inversions on the ECG.

    CONCLUSIONS: Factors reflecting age, gender, myocardial ischemia and a compromised cardiovascular system predicted an increased risk of an acute life-threatening condition in the prehospital setting in cases of acute chest pain. These factors may form the basis for prehospital risk stratification in acute chest pain.

  • 9481. Wibring, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Lingman, Markus
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Symptom description in patients with chest pain-A qualitative analysis of emergency medical calls involving high-risk conditions.2019In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 28, no 15-16, p. 2844-2857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the symptoms descriptions and situational information provided by patients during ongoing chest pain events caused by a high-risk condition.

    BACKGROUND: Chest pain is a common symptom in patients contacting emergency dispatch centres. Only 15% of these patients are later classified as suffering from a high-risk condition. Prehospital personnel are largely dependent on symptom characteristics when trying to identify these patients.

    DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive.

    METHODS: Manifest content analysis of 56 emergency medical calls involving patients with chest pain was carried out. A stratified purposive sampling was used to obtain calls concerning patients with high-risk conditions. These calls were then listened to and transcribed. Thereafter, meaning units were identified and coded and finally categorised. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative studies guidelines have been applied.

    RESULTS: A wide range of situational information and symptoms descriptions was found. Pain and affected breathing were dominating aspects, but other situational information and several other symptoms were also reported. The situational information and these symptoms were classified into seven categories: Pain narrative, Affected breathing, Bodily reactions, Time, Bodily whereabouts, Fear and concern and Situation management. The seven categories consisted of 17 subcategories.

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients with chest pain caused by a high-risk condition present a wide range of symptoms which are described in a variety of ways. They describe different kinds of chest pain accompanied by pain from other parts of the body. Breathing difficulties and bodily reactions such as muscle weakness are also reported. The variety of symptoms and the absence of a typical symptomatology make risk stratification on the basis of symptoms alone difficult.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study highlights the importance of an open mind when assessing patients with chest pain and the requirement of a decision support tool in order to improve risk stratification in these patients.

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  • 9482.
    Wibring, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Department of Prehospital Emergency Care, Region Halland, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Carl
    Department of Prehospital Emergency Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Lundgren, Peter
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Towards definitions of time-sensitive conditions in prehospital care2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 28, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Prehospital care has changed in recent decades. Advanced assessments and decisions are made early in the care chain. Patient assessments form the basis of a decision relating to prehospital treatment and the level of care. This development imposes heavy demands on the ability of emergency medical service (EMS) clinicians properly to assess the patient. EMS clinicians have a number of assessment instruments and triage systems available to support their decisions. Many of these instruments are based on vital signs and can sometimes miss time-sensitive conditions. With this commentary, we would like to start a discussion to agree on definitions of temporal states in the prehospital setting and ways of recognising patients with time-sensitive conditions in the most optimal way.

    MAIN BODY:

    There are several articles discussing the identification and management of time-sensitive conditions. In these articles, neither definitions nor terminology have been uniform. There are a number of problems associated with the definition of time-sensitive conditions. For example, intoxication can be minor but also life threatening, depending on the type of poison and dose. Similarly, diseases like stroke and myocardial infarction can differ markedly in terms of severity and the risk of life-threatening complications. Another problem is how to support EMS clinicians in the early recognition of these conditions. It is well known that many of them can present without a deviation from normal in vital signs. It will most probably be impossible to introduce specific decision support tools for every individual time-sensitive condition. However, there may be information in the type and intensity of the symptoms patients present. In future, biochemical markers and machine learning support tools may help to identify patients with time-sensitive conditions and predict mortality at an earlier stage.

    CONCLUSION:

    It may be of great value for prehospital clinicians to be able to describe time-sensitive conditions. Today, neither definitions nor terminology are uniform. Our hope is that this commentary will initiate a discussion on the issue aiming at definitions of time-sensitive conditions in prehospital care and how they should be recognised in the most optimal fashion.

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  • 9483. Widebäck, Göran
    Mitt i byn? Om möjligheterna för folkbiblioteket att nå en central position i dagens samhälle2003Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 9484. Widell, Anita
    et al.
    Carlsson, Eva
    Läsprojekt i årskurs 32006Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 9485. Widmark, Wilhelm
    Kurslitteratur som e-bok: ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Stockholms universitetsbibliotek och eLib2002Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 9486. Wien, Charlotte
    et al.
    Nelhans, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. (Co-affil, University of Southern Denmark)).
    Fernandes, Sofia
    Metrics & Machines2020In: LIBER Webinar, LIBER's Innovative Metrics Group , 2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This webinar, presented on 6 March, was organised by LIBER's Innovative Metrics Group. The webinar looked at why metrics is currently such a hot topic in academia, and at how new text mining technology could deepen our understanding of the ‘knowledge potential’ of research.

    • A recording of the webinar is available on YouTube: https://youtu.be/8RoID6R7hYQ

    In the first presentation, Dr Charlotte Wien (Professor of Scholarly Communication at the University Library of Southern Denmark) addressed the question 'Why Metrics?'.

    "Metrics are currently the subject of many heated academic debates. Researchers want fair assessment while decision makers need simple ways of overseeing research and its sea of complexity. So far no ‘one size fits all’ standard performance measure has been established. The methods and theories of various scientific disciplines — plus differences in scopes, aims, publication traditions, and so on — has made it virtually impossible to establish metrics covering all disciplines, providing justice to research and at the same time establishing the overview so much in demand. But why is it in demand? What brought us here?"

    The second presentation from Gustaf Nelhans (Senior Lecturer at the Swedish School of Library and Information Science) looked at connections between metrics and text mining.

    "Traditionally, citation analysis and text mining cover two distinct fields. One is used as an indicator of some property of ‘quality’ while the other intends to read texts at a massive scale. In this lecture, we will investigate the possibility of adding the semantic content of texts to the study of citations and argue that this opens for new means of research in the field. 

    Our line of reasoning is that words are used in a specific or more general way, and their meaning changes through use. Correspondingly, we argue that the meaning of a cited reference is defined by its use. Using machine learning and so-called ‘word embeddings’, we create a conceptual space of cited documents using a window of text around the references to extract the “meaning” of the cited document. By visualising the results, we can explore literature in its cited context, meaning that we can characterize research based on how it is used, rather than based on content. The reflexive question here is: in what way can these metrics help unveil the “knowledge potential” of published research by looking at its use?"

    The webinar was hosted by Sofia Fernandes, Open Research Manager at the University of Exeter.

  • 9487.
    Wigert, H
    et al.
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Nilsson, Christina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. Institute of Health and Care Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Dencker, A
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Begley, c
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Jangsten, E
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Sparud-Lundin, C
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Mollberg, M
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Patel, H
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Women's experiences of fear of childbirth: a metasynthesis of qualitative studies2020In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 15, article id 1704484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Women’s experiences of pregnancy, labour and birth are for some pregnant women negative and they develop a fear of childbirth, which can have consequences for their wellbeing and health. The aim was to synthesize qualitative literature to deepen the understanding of women’s experiences of fear of childbirth.

    Methods: A systematic literature search and a meta-synthesis that included 14 qualitative papers.

    Results: The main results demonstrate a deepened understanding of women’s experiences of fear of childbirth interpreted through the metaphor “being at a point of no return”. Being at this point meant that the women thought there was no turning back from their situation, further described in the three themes: To suffer consequences from traumatic births, To lack warranty and understanding, and To face the fear.

    Conclusions: Women with fear of childbirth are need of support that can meet their existential issues about being at this point of no return, allowing them to express and integrate their feelings, experiences and expectations during pregnancy, childbirth and after birth.

    Women with fear after birth, i.e., after an earlier negative birth experience, need support that enables them to regain trust in maternity care professionals and their willingness to provide them with good care that offers the support that individual women require. Women pregnant for the first time require similar support to reassure them that other’s experiences will not happen to them.

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  • 9488. Wiirman, Ants
    et al.
    Johannisson, Jenny
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Makten över kulturpolitiken2008In: KulturSverige 2009: Problemanalys och statistik / [ed] Svante Beckman, Sten Månsson, Linköping: SweCult & Linköpings universitet , 2008, p. 15-19Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9489. Wijk, H
    et al.
    Öhlen, J
    Lidén, E
    German Millberg, L
    Jacobsson, C
    Söderberg, S
    Berg, L
    Engström, Å
    Höglund, I
    Lepp, Margret
    Lindström, I
    Nygren, B
    Person, C
    Petzäll, K
    Skär, L
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Söderlund, M
    Verksamhetsförlagd utbildning på avancerad nivå: ny utmaning för specialistutbildningar för sjuksköterskor2009In: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, E-ISSN 1890-4238, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 41-43Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to discuss challenges in the development of Specialist Nursing Educations as a result of the 2007 Swedish Higher Education Reform: the implementation of the so-called Bologna process. Certain challenges follow this reform, particularly since the specialist nursing programmes will be part of the second cycle of the higher education system, and it will be possible to combine the professional degree with a masters degree (one year). Possible strategies in four areas related to the Specialist Nursing Education are discussed: integration of researchbased knowledge, experienced-based knowledge, improvement knowledge, and strategies for collaboration between university institutions and clinics. Specific didactical issues are raised.

  • 9490.
    Wikandari, R.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Millati, R.
    Cahyanto, M.N.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Biogas production from citrus waste by membrane bioreacto2014In: Membranes, ISSN 2077-0375, E-ISSN 2077-0375, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 596-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid acidification and inhibition by d-limonene are major challenges of biogas production from citrus waste. As limonene is a hydrophobic chemical, this challenge was encountered using hydrophilic polyvinylidine difluoride (PVDF) membranes in a biogas reactor. The more sensitive methane-producing archaea were encapsulated in the membranes, while freely suspended digesting bacteria were present in the culture as well. In this membrane bioreactor (MBR), the free digesting bacteria digested the citrus wastes and produced soluble compounds, which could pass through the membrane and converted to biogas by the encapsulated cell. As a control experiment, similar digestions were carried out in bioreactors containing the identical amount of just free cells. The experiments were carried out in thermophilic conditions at 55 °C, and hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The organic loading rate (OLR) was started with 0.3 kg VS/m3/day and gradually increased to 3 kg VS/m3/day. The results show that at the highest OLR, MBR was successful to produce methane at 0.33 Nm3/kg VS, while the traditional free cell reactor reduced its methane production to 0.05 Nm3/kg VS. Approximately 73% of the theoretical methane yield was achieved using the membrane bioreactor.

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  • 9491. Wikandari, R.
    et al.
    Millati, R.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pretreatment of Lignocelluloses With Solvent N-Methylmorpholine N-oxide2016In: Biomass Fractionation Technologies for a Lignocellulosic Feedstock Based Biorefinery / [ed] S.I. Mussatto, Elsevier Inc. , 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three decades after N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO) was first introduced as a solvent for direct cellulose dissolution, the usage of NMMO in the fiber-making industry has flourished throughout the world. This success attracts the attention of researchers working in lignocellulosic biomass fractionation to use NMMO as an agent for lignocellulosic pretreatment in biofuel production. The present chapter presents the current status of NMMO for the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for further fermentation to biofuels.

  • 9492.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Effect of fruit flavors on anaerobic digestion: inhibitions and solutions2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruits are among the most important commodities in global trading due to its fundamental nutritional values. In 2012, the fruits supply was 115 kg/person/year, however, only 50 % of the fruits reached their consumers and the rest ended up as waste during the long fruit supply chain. The waste from fruits is mostly dumped or burned, creating a serious environmental problem. A more sustainable handling of the waste is therefore highly desirable. One of them is conversion of the fruits wastes into biogas through anaerobic digestion. One challenge with the conversion of fruits wastes into biogas is the presence of antimicrobial compounds in the fruits, which reduce the biogas yield or even cause a total failure of the process. Fruit flavors have been reported to have antimicrobial activity against several microorganisms and being responsible for the defense system in the fruits. However, there is only scarce information about the effect of fruit flavors on anaerobic digesting microbia. The objectives of the present thesis were: 1) to investigate the inhibitory activity of the fruit flavors on anaerobic digestion; 2) to remove the flavor compound by pretreatment; and 3) to protect the cell from the flavor compounds using a membrane bioreactor. The inhibitory activity of the fruit flavors was examined from different groups of flavors by adding a single flavor compound into the batch anaerobic digesting system, at three different concentrations. Among the flavors added, myrcene and octanol were found to exhibit a strong inhibitory activity, with 50 % reduction of the methane production at low concentrations, ca. 0.005–0.05 %. These flavors can be found in oranges, strawberries, grapes, plums, and mangoes. The other flavors tested showed moderate and low inhibitory activity, which might not affect the anaerobic digestion of the fruits wastes. In order to overcome the inhibitory effects of the fruit flavor, two approaches were proposed in this thesis, namely, fruit flavor removal by leaching pretreatment and cell protection from fruit flavor using a membrane bioreactor. Orange peel waste and D-limonene were used as a model of fruit waste and inhibitor, respectively. The leaching pretreatment uses solvent to extract the limonene from the orange peel. The methane yield increased by 356 % from 0.061 Nm3/kg VS to 0.217 Nm3/kg VS, by pretreating the peel using hexane with peel and a hexane ratio of 1:12 at room temperature for 10 min. Alternative to limonene removal, the cells were encased in a hydrophilic membrane, which is impermeable to hydrophobic limonene. This method yielded more than six times higher methane yield, compared to the free cell. At the highest organic loading rate, examined in this work, 3 g VS/L/day, the methane yield of the reactor containing the free cell was only 0.05 Nm3/kg VS, corresponding to 10 % of the theoretical yield, whereas 0.33 Nm3/kg VS methane yield was achieved using a membrane bioreactor corresponding to 75 % of the theoretical yield.

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  • 9493.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Gudipudi, S.
    Pandiyan, I.
    Millati, R.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Inhibitory Effect of Fruit Flavors on Methane Production During Anaerobic Digestion2013In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 145, no IFIBiop, p. 188-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve biogas production from fruit wastes, the inhibitory effects of fruit flavors on anaerobic digestion were investigated. Batch anaerobic digestion was performed for 30 days using synthetic medium and thermophilic sludge. Three groups of flavor compounds i.e. aldehydes (hexanal, nonanal, and E-2-hexenal), terpenes (car-3-ene, α-pinene, and myrcene), and alcohol (octanol) at concentration of 0.005%, 0.05%, and 0.5% were examined. All the flavor compounds showed inhibitory effect on methane production. The highest methane reduction was obtained at addition of 0.5% of flavor compounds. For terpenoids, the presence of 0.5% of car-3-ene, myrcene, and α-pinene reduced 95%, 75%, and 77% of methane production, respectively. For aldehydes, addition of 0.5% concentration resulted in more than 99% methane reduction for hexanal and E-2-hexenal, and 84% methane reduction for nonanal. For alcohol, the presence of 0.5% octanol decreased 99% methane production.

  • 9494.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Gudipudi, S
    Pandiyan, I
    Yanti, H
    Millati, R
    Niklasson, C
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Biogas production from fruit wastes: fruit flavors as booster or inhibitors?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve biogas production from fruit waste, investigation of effect of fruit flavors on biogas production was carried out. The work was performed in batch anaerobic digestion using synthetic medium and thermophilic bacteria for 30 days. Twelve different flavors belonging to aldehydes (hexanal, nonanal, and E-2- hexenal), terpenes (carene, α-pinene, and myrcene), alcohol (octanol), lactone (furanone), and esters (methyl butyrate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, and hexyl acetate) were tested. Anaerobic digestion without addition of flavors was used as reference. For aldehyde groups, hexanal and nonanal showed inhibition effect at concentration of 0.005% whereas E-2-hexenal required higher concentration i.e. 0.05% to show its effect. Addition of 0.5% of hexanal, nonanal, and E-2-hexenal resulted in lower biogas production than that of the corresponding reference by factor of 276, 317 and 434%, respectively. Similar to aldehydes, all terpenes group showed inhibition at concentration of 0.005%. Addition of 0.5% of carene, α-pinene, and myrcene decreased biogas production by factor of 300, 255, and 330%, respectively compared to the reference. Moreover, in the presence of 0.5% of octanol and furanone reduced biogas production by factor of 433 and 183%, respectively compared to the reference. On the contrary, higher biogas production was obtained by addition of all esters tested. Methyl butyrate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, and hexyl acetate at concentration of 0.5% increased biogas production by factor of 291, 717, 542, and 640%, respectively compared to the reference. In conclusion, most of flavor compounds are inhibitor for biogas production for the exception of ester groups.

  • 9495.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Millati, R.
    Lennartsson, P.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Harmayani, E.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Isolation and Characterization of Zygomycetes Fungi from Tempe for Ethanol Production and Biomass Applications2012In: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291, Vol. 167, no 6, p. 1501-1512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed fungal cultures used for making tempe, a fermented soy bean food, were screened for biomass conversion. Thirty-two zygomycetes strains from two tempe cultures were isolated and identified as Rhizopus, Mucor, Rhizomucor, and Absidia species based upon morphology. The dry weight biomass of these strains contained 49% to 63% protein and 10-24% chitosan. The strains with the best growth performance were selected and registered at Culture Collection of Gothenburg University as Rhizomucor CCUG 61146 and Rhizomucor CCUG 61147. These strains were able to grow both aerobically and micro-aerobically. Their ethanol yields were 0.38-0.47, 0.19-0.22, and 0.31-0.38 g/g on glucose, xylose, and a mix sugars consisting of cellobiose, glucose, xylose, arabinose, galactose, and mannose, respectively. The biomass yield of the strains varied between 65 and 140 mg dry weight/g glucose.

  • 9496.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    et al.
    Gadjah Mada University.
    Millati, Ria
    Gadjah Mada University.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pretreatment of lignocellulose with solvent – NMMO2016In: Biomass Fractionation Technologies for a Lignocellulosic Feedstock Based Biorefinery / [ed] Mussatto, S.I., USA: Elsevier, 2016, 1, p. 255-279Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9497.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nguyen, Huong
    Millati, Ria
    Niklasson, Claes
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Improvement of Biogas Production from Orange Peel Waste by Leaching of Limonene2015In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limonene is present in orange peel wastes and is known as an antimicrobial agent, which impedes biogas production when digesting the peels. In this work, pretreatment of the peels to remove limonene under mild condition was proposed by leaching of limonene using hexane as solvent. The pretreatments were carried out with homogenized or chopped orange peel at 20–40°C with orange peel waste and hexane ratio (w/v) ranging from 1 : 2 to 1 : 12 for 10 to 300 min. The pretreated peels were then digested in batch reactors for 33 days. The highest biogas production was achieved by treating chopped orange peel waste and hexane ratio of 12 : 1 at 20°C for 10 min corresponding to more than threefold increase of biogas production from 0.061 to 0.217 m3methane/kg VS. The solvent recovery was 90% using vacuum filtration and needs further separation using evaporation. The hexane residue in the peel had a negative impact on biogas production as shown by 28.6% reduction of methane and lower methane production of pretreated orange peel waste in semicontinuous digestion system compared to that of untreated peel.

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  • 9498. Wikandari, Rachma
    et al.
    Sari, Noor Kartika
    A'yun, Qurrotul
    Millati, Ria
    Cahyanto, Muhammad Nur
    Niklasson, Claes
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Effects of Lactone, Ketone, and Phenolic Compounds on Methane Production and Metabolic Intermediates During Anaerobic Digestion.2015In: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291, Vol. 175, no 3, p. 1651-1663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruit waste is a potential feedstock for biogas prodn. However, the presence of fruit flavors that have antimicrobial activity is a challenge for biogas prodn. Lactones, ketones, and phenolic compds. are among the several groups of fruit flavors that are present in many fruits. This work aimed to investigate the effects of two lactones, i.e., γ-hexalactone and γ-decalactone; two ketones, i.e., furaneol and mesifurane; and two phenolic compds., i.e., quercetin and epicatechin on anaerobic digestion with a focus on methane prodn., biogas compn., and metabolic intermediates. Anaerobic digestion was performed in a batch glass digester incubated at 55 °C for 30 days. The flavor compds. were added at concns. of 0.05, 0.5, and 5 g/L. The results show that the addn. of γ-decalactone, quercetin, and epicathechin in the range of 0.5-5 g/L reduced the methane prodn. by 50 % (MIC50). Methane content was reduced by 90 % with the addn. of 5 g/L of γ-decalactone, quercetin, and epicathechin. Accumulation of acetic acid, together with an increase in carbon dioxide prodn., was obsd. On the contrary, γ-hexalactone, furaneol, and mesifurane increased the methane prodn. by 83-132 % at a concn. of 5 g/L. [on SciFinder(R)]

  • 9499.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    et al.
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Gadjah Mada University.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rapid anaerobic digestion of organic solid residuals for biogas production using flocculating bacteria and membrane bioreactors - a critical review2019In: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, ISSN 1932-104X, E-ISSN 1932-1031, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 1119-1132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive and sustainable alternative for stabilizing solid organic waste and producing biogas or biomethane. However, it is carried out by slow-growing bacteria and archaea and it normally demands a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20-60 days in the bioreactor. Although high-rate AD methods and technologies have been developed, they are normally applied to liquid wastes such as wastewater. In this work, the theory and latest developments in high-rate digestion of organic solid wastes are reviewed. The process is accomplished by running the AD in a two-stage operation. The first stage involves dissolving the solid materials in water, using robust hydrolytic bacteria. The effluent is then filtered to remove any undigested material, which in some cases contains inhibitory compounds. The filtrate is then fed to bioreactors containing high cell density ADs such as flocculating bacteria (granules) or membrane bioreactors (MBR) to protect the sensitive and very slow-growing methanogen. Different approaches to overcoming problems faced in the first stage of digestion are proposed in this review. These problems include slow digestion of lignocellulosic biomass or failure of digestion due to inhibition problems for feedstocks containing toxic compounds, and rapid acidification for easily degradable substrates. The principle, technology, benefits and drawbacks, and factors affecting the efficacy of each type of high cell-density reactor are presented. (c) 2019 Society of Chemical Industry and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 9500.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Youngsukkasem, S.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Millati, R.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Performance of semi-continuous membrane bioreactor in biogas production from toxic feedstock containing D-limonene2014In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 170, p. 350-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel membrane bioreactor configuration containing both free and encased cells in a single reactor was proposed in this work. The reactor consisted of 120 g/L of free cells and 120 g/L of encased cells in a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane. Microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) and d-Limonene were used as the models of substrate and inhibitor for biogas production, respectively. Different concentrations of d-Limonene i.e., 1, 5, and 10 g/L were tested, and an experiment without the addition of d-Limonene was prepared as control. The digestion was performed in a semi-continuous thermophilic reactor for 75 days. The result showed that daily methane production in the reactor with the addition of 1 g/L d-Limonene was similar to that of control. A lag phase was observed in the presence of 5 g/L d-Limonene; however, after 10 days, the methane production increased and reached a similar production to that of the control after 15 days.

187188189190191192193 9451 - 9500 of 10045
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