Change search
Refine search result
186187188189190191192 9401 - 9450 of 9576
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 9401.
    Zetterlund, Angela
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Att utvärdera i praktiken: en retrospektiv fallstudie av tre program för lokal folkbiblioteksutveckling2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is placed within the area of library and information science (LIS) known as evaluation research and in particular, the area that relates to theory of evaluation practice. An analysis of previous research reveals that there is a need for conceptualising evaluation activities in the real life of libraries and information services and to reflect further on the conditions for evaluation in various institutional contexts. The aim of this study is to identify evaluation practice in public libraries, delimited to programs for local change and development, and to create an understanding for how this practice reflects institutional conditions within this particular context. The theoretical frame combine concepts from theories of program evaluation, theories of evaluation in library and information service and institutional theory. Evaluation is here considered as an ex post, systematic study with the purpose of describing and judging the merit of the implementation and results of a given activity and intervention. In this study an interpretative approach, based on the principles of hermeneutics and phenomen-ology, is used. The empirical study follows guidelines for qualitative case study and is designed in a retrospective and comparative manner. The study includes three different programs directed towards local change in public libraries, during the period 1986-1999. The sample includes thirty-nine (39) single studies each aimed at evaluating the programs. Data were collected from interviews and program documentation and were analysed on three levels. The first level concentrated on mapping the complex network of evaluation activities and identifying participants and their role in different evaluation processes. The second level was directed towards a clarificat-ion of the activities and subjective meaning of different tasks of evaluation in the context of each single program. On the third level of analysis certain aspects of evaluation practice were compared between the cases, which led to an aggregated description of both the pattern related to single tasks as well as to a more holistic description of the basic approaches through which evaluation practice in these kinds of programs can be understood. One conclusion is that evaluation practice, even in this limited context, is experienced as a com-plex phenomenon filled with contradictions and paradoxes. The main result of this thesis is the identification of a certain pattern, here conceptualised as three strategies. Strategies are labelled participatory evaluation , rational-managerial evaluation and pragmatic-political evaluation . Some remarks are made about in what way this pattern correspond to traditional theories of practice in LIS. One conclusion is that the practice of evaluation has almost nothing in common with scientific-expert approaches, mainly, it is argued, because the basic conditions for such a model do not seem to exist. Another conclusion is that institutional rules and norms are reflected in evaluation practice in varied ways and that evaluation both produces and reproduces the legitimacy of institutional identity. Evaluation cannot and should not be seen as a neutral or technical tool. It is suggested that further research should focus more on problems related to pragmatic-political aspects of evaluation practice as well as going further in the analysis of the deeper interaction between evaluation practice and institutional change.

  • 9402.
    Zetterlund, Angela
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Utvärdering och folkbibliotek: En studie av utvärderingens teori och praktik med exempel från folkbibliotekens förändrings- och utvecklingsprojekt1997Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 9403. Zetterlund, Angela
    et al.
    Lundqvist, Maria
    Futurum.kom: förändringsarbete genom marknadskommunikation2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a report from an ongoing project directed to marketing in Public libraries. The authors outlines the aims and strategy for the marketing effort which is designed in three basic steps: First; the building of a new brand for the libraries, second; conducting a general marketing campaign and third; conducting partial campaigns directed to some selected segments of the population. The project is wide in scope and involves 25 different local libraries in the south-east of Sweden. This papers also presents three different strategies for evaluating the project, and gives a brief description of the theoretical perspecitives as well as the empirical base used in the research. The paper also discuss some of the preliminary results of the marketing campaign this far in the project, especially the results related to the second step; the general marketing campaign.

  • 9404. Zhang, Dafang
    et al.
    Dadkhah, Payam
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    How robustness and resilience support security business2011In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 201-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply chain disruptions may derive from various sources but the antagonistic threats are centered in supply chain disruption. Antagonistic threats are dynamic due to the spiral input, processes and feedbacks which create a very complex situation to analyze, assess and making decision. Beside risks, vulnerability derived from supply chain characteristics is the other issue which should be measured. Antagonistic threats are magnified in such vulnerable supply chains. After 9/11, 2001, the Security and Efficiency of the global supply chain has become an important issue in global transportation. This leads firms to consider Supply chain security as part and parcel of a company’s comprehensive risk-management program. In a security business, it is essential to understand different type risks and evaluate transportation assets, do risk based prioritization, and protect customers through cost effective actions. This could be occurred corresponding to risk management methods. Providing security may occur internally by firms or they outsource it to security providers which could be performed in higher quality or more cost effectively. In this article, we focus on managing the risks and securing the supply chain business with the security theory and strategies in the supply chain and transportation network. In order to discover risks throughout the supply chain, security provider needs to find risk hot spots where the likelihood of risk is higher. We propose two approaches (geographical and elements/process) to seek probable risks. The next step is to take strategies for risk prevention and risk mitigation. Consequently, we connect the security strategies from the literature review and collected information from security business to suggest a suitable model of how to handle the risks and achieve security in a systemic and scientific way.

  • 9405.
    Zhang, Rui
    et al.
    University of Passau.
    Freund, Martin
    University of Passau.
    Amft, Oliver
    University of Passau.
    Cheng, Jingyuan
    DFKI.
    Zhou, Bo
    DFKI.
    Lukowicz, Paul
    DFKI.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Chabrecek, Peter
    Sefar AG.
    A Generic Sensor Fabric for Multi-modal Swallowing Sensing in Regular Upper-body Shirts2016In: Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computers, HEIDELBERG: ACM Digital Library , 2016, p. 46-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate a generic fabric material as basis for resistive pressure and bio-impedance sensors and apply the fabric in a shirt collar for swallowing spotting. A pilot study confirmed the signal performance of both sensor types.

  • 9406.
    Zhang, Yanru
    et al.
    University of Shanghai for Science and Technology.
    Jiménez-Herrera, María
    Universitat Rovira I Virgili.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Cheng, Yunzhang
    University of Shanghai for Science and Technology.
    Not Bad: Passive Leg Raising in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation-A New Modeling Study2017In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 7, p. 665-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To evaluate, using a simulated haemodynamic circulation model, whether passive leg raising (PLR) is able to improve the effect during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); to expose the possible reasons why PLR works or not.

    Materials and Methods: We adapted a circulatory model for CPR with PLR. First we compared cardiac output (CO), coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), blood flow to heart (Qheart), and blood flow to neck and brain (Qhead) of standard chest compression-only CPR with and without PLR; second we simulated the effects of PLR in different situations, by varying the thoracic pump factor (TPF) from 0 to 1; third we simulated the effects when the legs are lifted to the different heights. Finally, we compared our results with those obtained from a published clinical study.

    Results: According to the simulation model, (1) When TPF is in the interval (0,1), CPP, CO, Qheart, and Qhead are improved with PLR, among them with half-thoracic/half-cardiac pump effect (TPF is 0.5), CPP, CO, Qhead, and Qheart increase the most (by 14, 14, 15, and 17%). (2) When TPF is 1 (pure thoracic pump, with an emphysema or extremely thick thorax), PLR has almost no effect on CPP, CO, and Qheart (-1, 2, and 0%), whereas Qhead is increased by 9%; (3) Regardless of whether there is a cardiac or thoracic pump effect, PLR is able to increase Qhead by 9-15%. (4) When the legs are lifted to 30 degrees to the ground, the volume transferred from legs to upper body is 36% of the initial volume in legs; when the legs are lifted to 45 degrees , the volume transferred is 43%; when the legs are lifted to 60 degrees , the volume transferred is 47%; when the legs are lifted to 90 degrees , the volume transferred is 50%.

    Conclusion: Generally PLR is able to achieve improved cerebral perfusion and coronary perfusion. In some extreme situations, it has no effect on cardiac output and coronary perfusion, but still improves cerebral perfusion. PLR could be a beneficial supplement to CPR, and it is not necessary to lift the legs too high above the ground.

  • 9407. Zhang, Zheng
    et al.
    Fyn, Dawn
    Langelotz, Lill
    University of Borås, Centrum för lärande och undervisning.
    Lönngren, Johanna
    McCorquodale, Lisa
    Nehez, Jaana
    Our way(s) to Action Research: Doctoral students' international and interdisciplinary collective memory work2014In: Action Research, ISSN 0264-5122, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 293-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study involved six Swedish and Canadian doctoral students who shared interests in using action research in professional education in different disciplines. We employed Noffke’s three dimensions of action research as a theoretical framework (i.e., the Professional, the Personal, and the Political). Using collective biography as a methodology, we cooperatively examined how our personal and professional agendas and macro-level structures have been shaping our intentions to conduct action research projects in our respective disciplines. The key findings of this international and interdisciplinary collective biography relate our growing awareness of the intimacy between research and life in vari- ous professional and geographic contexts. Collectively addressing our shared frustrations, we celebrated action research as a methodology that attends to the dynamic and concrete lived experiences of our participants in various spatio-temporalities. Reflecting upon the hybridity of our own researcher identities, we were also able to see the intimate relation between ourselves as active citizens and critical action researchers who are determined to take up the challenges and engage in critically oriented action research that could nurture more ‘‘caring,’’ ‘‘empowering,’’ and ‘‘transforming’’ public spheres.

  • 9408.
    Zhou, Bo
    et al.
    DFKI.
    Altamirano, Carlos Andres Velez
    DFKI.
    Zurian, Heber Cruz
    DFKI.
    Atefi, Seyed Reza
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Lukowicz, Paul
    DFKI.
    Textile Pressure Mapping Sensor for Emotional Touch Detection in Human-Robot Interaction2017In: Sensors, Vol. 17, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9409.
    Zhou, Bo
    et al.
    DFKI.
    Cruz, Heber Zurian
    DFKI.
    Atefi, Seyed Reza
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Harvard University.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. Karolinska Institutet.
    Lukowicz, Paul
    DFKI.
    TouchMe: Full-textile Touch Sensitive Skin for Encouraging Human-Robot Interaction2017In: The robotic sense of touch: from sensing to understanding, workshop at the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), May 29-June 3, Singapore, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9410.
    Zhou, Yuyang
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Biswas, Tuser
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Tang, Ren-Cheng
    National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Renai Road, Suzhou 215123, China.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Inkjet Printing of Curcumin-Based Ink for Coloration and Bioactivation of Polyamide, Silk, and Wool Fabrics2019In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 7, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9411. Zhu, Wuming
    et al.
    Börjesson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    DFT and tight binding Monte Carlo calculations related to single-walled carbon nanotube nucleation and growth2010In: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 470-478Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for idealized nucleation processes of (5,5) and (10,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on a 55 atom nickel cluster (Ni-55) showed that it requires a larger chemical potential to grow a carbon island (which is the simplest structure that can lead to formation of the SWCNTs) on the cluster than to extend the island into a SWCNT or to have the carbon atoms dispersed on the cluster surface. Hence, in the thermodynamic limit the island will only form once the (surface of the) cluster is saturated with carbon, and the island will spontaneously form a SWCNT at the chemical potentials required to create the island. The DFT (zero Kelvin) and tight binding Monte Carlo (1000 K) also show that there is a minimum cluster size required to support SWCNT growth, and that this cluster size can be used to control the diameter, but probably not the chirality, of the SWCNT at temperatures relevant to carbon nanotube growth. It also imposes a minimum size of clusters that are used for SWCNT regrowth. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9412. Zhu, Wuming
    et al.
    Duan, Haiming
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Diameter and Chirality Changes of Single-Walled Carbon nanotubes During Growth: An ab-inition Study2009In: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, ISSN 1533-4880, E-ISSN 1533-4899, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 1222-1225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use density functional theory to investigate possible changes of the diameter and chirality of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) during catalyzed growth on a nickel cluster. The interplay of nanotube curvature, defects, and carbon-metal interaction dictates if a change is energetically favorable. We found that, given a sufficiently large Ni cluster, both zigzag and armchair nanotubes tend to increase their diameters during growth. This increase leads to a larger increase in energetic stability for smaller diameter nanotubes. Chirality changes are also demonstrated. Our findings impact on the possibility of using the recently proposed nanotube-seeded continued growth of SWNTs to control their chirality.

  • 9413. Zhu, Wuming
    et al.
    Rosén, Arne
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Changes in single-walled carbon nanotube chirality during growth and regrowth2008In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 128, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9414.
    Zijlstra, Jolande A
    et al.
    Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center.
    Koster, Rudolph W
    Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center.
    Blom, Marieke T
    Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center.
    Lippert, Freddy K
    Emergency Medical Services Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen.
    Svensson, Leif
    Department of Medicine, Centre for Resuscitation Science, Karolinska Institutet.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Kramer-Johansen, Jo
    Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Prehospital Emergency Medicine (NAKOS) and Department of Anaesthesiology, Oslo University Hospital.
    Ringh, Mattias
    Department of Medicine, Centre for Resuscitation Science, Karolinska Institutet.
    Rosenqvist, Mårten
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet.
    Palsgaard Møller, Thea
    Emergency Medical Services Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen.
    Tan, Hanno L
    Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center.
    Beesems, Stefanie G
    Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center.
    Hulleman, Michiel
    Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center.
    Claesson, Andreas
    Department of Medicine, Centre for Resuscitation Science, Karolinska Institutet.
    Folke, Fredrik
    Emergency Medical Services Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen.
    Olasveengen, Theresa Mariero
    Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Prehospital Emergency Medicine (NAKOS) and Department of Anaesthesiology.
    Wissenberg, Mads
    Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte.
    Hansen, Carolina Malta
    Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte.
    Viereck, Soren
    Emergency Medical Services Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen.
    Hollenberg, Jacob
    Department of Medicine, Centre for Resuscitation Science, Karolinska Institutet.
    Different defibrillation strategies in survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.2018In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 104, no 23, p. 1929-1936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in the dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for prehospital defibrillation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. The aim of this study was to study the association between different defibrillation strategies on survival rates over time in Copenhagen, Stockholm, Western Sweden and Amsterdam, and the hypothesis was that non-EMS defibrillation increased over time and was associated with increased survival.

    METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of four prospectively collected cohorts of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients between 2008 and 2013. Emergency medical service (EMS)-witnessed arrests were excluded.

    RESULTS: A total of 22 453 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with known survival status were identified, of whom 2957 (13%) survived at least 30 days postresuscitation. Of all survivors with a known defibrillation status, 2289 (81%) were defibrillated, 1349 (59%) were defibrillated by EMS, 454 (20%) were defibrillated by a first responder AED and 429 (19%) were defibrillated by an onsite AED and 57 (2%) were unknown. The percentage of survivors defibrillated by first responder AEDs (from 13% in 2008 to 26% in 2013, p<0.001 for trend) and onsite AEDs (from 14% in 2008 to 30% in 2013, p<0.001 for trend) increased. The increased use of these non-EMS AEDs was associated with the increase in survival rate of patients with a shockable initial rhythm.

    CONCLUSION: Survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are increasingly defibrillated by non-EMS AEDs. This increase is primarily due to a large increase in the use of onsite AEDs as well as an increase in first-responder defibrillation over time. Non-EMS defibrillation accounted for at least part of the increase in survival rate of patients with a shockable initial rhythm.

  • 9415.
    Zimmerman, Fredrik
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Alternativ utvecklar förmågan till kritisk reflektion2011In: Lärarutbildning och vetenskaplighet, ISSN 1404-0913, no 2, p. 83-98Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I mitt yrke som lärare vid en lärarutbildning får man ibland frågan av nyantag-na studenter om varför man ska lära sig olika teorier. Vad ska man med teori till? Studenten som frågar ser ofta teori som väsenskilt från praktik och vill en-bart ha praktiska svar. Studenten vill att jag ska tala om hur man ska handla i en viss situation. Det handlar oftast om en problematisk situation som kan upp-stå mellan lärare och elev i studentens kommande yrkesliv. Studenten vill inte ha en massa teori om varför denna situation har uppstått eller någon teori om varför hon eller han kan handla på ett visst sätt, utan studenten vill enbart ha svar på hur hon eller han ska handla i denna situation. Det kan handla om hur studenten ska agera i en situation där en elev vägrar att ta av sig sin keps i bör-jan av lektionen. Jag anser att det inte går att svara på frågor av detta slag med ett enkelt svar som beskriver exakt hur studenten ska handla. I denna text kommer jag att svara på frågan om varför man inte kan ge ett ”teorilöst” prak-tiskt svar på frågan om hur man ska agera i en situation där exempelvis eleven inte vill ta av sig kepsen (exemplet förutsätter att skolan där eleven går har ordningsregeln att elever inte får bära keps inomhus. Om detta är en bra eller dålig regel är dock en annan diskussion). Jag kommer i texten nedan argumen-tera för varför man behöver teori. Framförallt kommer jag att föra en argumen-tation om varför man som lärarstudent behöver lära sig flera olika teoretiska synsätt. Det vill säga varför det är utvecklande att lära sig flera alternativ.

  • 9416.
    Zimmerman, Fredrik
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Borde Peter Singer dra en annan slutsats?2007In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 3-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9417.
    Zimmerman, Fredrik
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Både flickor och pojkar vinner på en pluggkultur2018In: Skolledaren, ISSN 0037-6515, no 5, p. 17-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9418.
    Zimmerman, Fredrik
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Den svårföränderliga killkoden2008Report (Other academic)
  • 9419.
    Zimmerman, Fredrik
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Det tillåtande och det begränsande: En studie om pojkars syn på studier och ungdomars normer kring maskulinitet2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Girls preform generally better than boys in school. In many schools the dominant norms of masculinity are a hinder for boys to preform in school. Schools with a dominating “anti school culture” or a “effortless achievement culture” among the boys are examples of this. These norms of masculinity are also a hinder for girls to show their ability in different subjects. The overall aim of the thesis is to study boy’s view on studying and it´s relation to norms of masculinity. It also focuses on the question if the ability to study is gendered. The collecting of data was done through an ethnographic inspired study where 15 group interviews and different kind of observations was used. Two classes, class 9d and 9e, in year nine in a secondary school was followed during a three-month period. Class 9d consisted of 20 pupils (13 girls and 7 boys) and 9e consisted of 19 pupils (9 girls and 10 boys). Around half of the pupils came from a working class home and the other half had parents with collar professions. Around one forth of the pupils had a history of immigration in the family In conclusion a “study culture” was dominating among the boys. The norm among both the girls and the boys was that you should study. Boys could openly study ambitious without any social cost. With a social cost I mean being teased, ridiculed or losing status in the social context. This norm was beneficial for both girls and boys at the school. The result shows that challenging a “anti school culture” or a “effortless achievement culture” is of great importance for both sexes. Despite their being at dominant “study culture” among the boys, girls on average still preform better than boys. This was because the ability to study was gendered. So even if boys were “allowed” to study as ambitious as girls without any social cost, they haven’t developed the same ability to do so because of different social expectations on girls and boys. In other words, did parallel and contradicting norms exist at the school. Some norms were “allowing” boys to study ambitious, other norms was “limiting” and a hinder for boys to do this.

  • 9420.
    Zimmerman, Fredrik
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Hur kan lärare motverka en antipluggkultur bland pojkar2019In: Paideia, ISSN 1904-9633, no 17, p. 15-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utifrån frågan varför pojkar generellt presterar sämre i skolan än flickor har det gjorts flera studier i skolor med en dominerande ”antipluggkultur” eller en dominerande ”ingen ansträngningskultur” bland pojkarna. Dessa studier visar att de normer som konstrueras bland pojkar försvårar deras möjligheter att studera. Denna artikel fokuserar på en studie utförd på en skola med en dominerande ”pluggkultur” bland pojkarna. I texten framläggs hur lärarna har bidragit till att konstruera en ”pluggkultur”. Utifrån pojkarnas egna utsagor har lärarna bidragit till att skapa dominerande normer bland pojkarna som de själva hävdar gynnar deras studier. Normer kan vara hindrande, men detta specifika fall visar att normer även kan upplevas som möjliggörande. 

  • 9421.
    Zimmerman, Fredrik
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Hur nationalstaten förlorar makt i globaliseringen2007In: Perspektiv på demokrati. En vänbok till Hans Lindfors., Högskolan i Borås. Institutionen för pedagogik. , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9422.
    Zimmerman, Fredrik
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Inledning: perspektiv på demokrati2007In: Perspektiv på demokrati. En vänbok till Hans Lindfors., Högskolan i Borås. Institutionen för pedagogik. , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9423.
    Zimmerman, Fredrik
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Pojkar i skolan: Vad lärare och andra vuxna behöver veta för att fler pojkar ska lyckas i skolan2019Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Pojkar har under flera decennier presterat sämre i skolan än flickor, och betygsgapet ökar. Detta är ett av skolans tydligaste likvärdighetsproblem. I den här boken ges en översikt över olika fenomen som bidrar till att pojkar som grupp presterar sämre i skolan än flickor. Utifrån dessa diskuteras hur lärare och andra vuxna kan bidra till att bryta den negativa trenden och få fler pojkar att lyckas i skolan.

    Orsakerna kring pojkars sämre resultat är flera och sammanflätade. Det finns biologiska könsskillnader som missgynnar pojkar i skolan, skillnader som förstärks i det sociala samspelet av vuxna i barnens närhet. En breddad repertoar är en nyckelterm i boken som hänvisar till att pojkar behöver utveckla fler förmågor istället för att begränsas i sin utveckling av de könsnormer och maskulina ideal som påverkar många pojkars liv idag. Fredrik Zimmerman presenterar sin egen forskning på en skola som har en dominerande pluggkultur bland pojkarna. Författaren beskriver hur lärarna arbetar för att frambringa de framgångsfaktorer som enligt pojkarna själva skapar en lärande miljö och hjälper dem att ta ett allt större ansvar för sina studier. Samtidigt får detta arbete en positiv effekt på den allmänna trivseln, vilket visar sig i att även flickorna säger att de trivs bättre i denna skolmiljö.

  • 9424.
    Zimmerman, Fredrik
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Vad är skillnaden mellan att roa sig och att bli road?2009In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 30, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9425.
    Zimmerman, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Rolandsson, Bertil
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Om medborgaren själv får välja2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport har varit att finna och beskriva strategiskt valda medborgargruppers (en invandrargrupp, en ungdomsgrupp och en grupp med äldre landsortsbor) förhoppningar och farhågor inför en ökad e-demokrati i en landsbygdskommun. Texten bygger på en kvalitativ studie gjord i Svenljunga kommun, inom ramen för ett EU-projekt (projektet går under namnet i-COIN). Rapporten beskriver de tydligaste mönster som uppkommit i gruppintervjuer med medborgargrupperna. Ett av de mönster som uppmärksammats är att medborgargrupperna ser positivt på att det går snabbare och enklare att hämta information genom e-service. Det finns dock farhågor att e-service skall medföra en standardiserad, och därmed sämre, kommunikation mellan medborgare och myndighet. Detta skulle i så fall medföra en sämre informationsinhämtning och allt sämre möjligheter för medborgare att påverka. Medborgargruppernas förhoppningar och farhågor har jämförts med intervjusvar från tjänstemän i kommunen. Svaren verkar i stort överensstämma mellan medborgargrupperna och tjänstemännen förutom på vissa punkter. Exempelvis diskuterar tjänstemännen i högre grad än medborgargrupperna att e-servicen måste vara enkel att använda. Medborgargrupperna oroar sig mer än tjänstemännen att e-service skall innebära ett informationsbortfall. Alla tjänstemän och medborgargrupper (förutom ungdomsgruppen) har tron att det är ungdomarna som främst kommer att använda eservice. Ungdomsgruppen visade dock en likgiltighet inför e-demokrati.

  • 9426.
    Zimmerman, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Rolandsson, Bertil
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Oudhuis, Margareta
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Riestola, Päivi
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Theandersson, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bartley, Kristina
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Puaca, Goran
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Perspektiv på demokrati2007Report (Other academic)
  • 9427. Ziyarazavi, Seyed Merat
    et al.
    Andersson, Linda
    Vitalii, Budkevych
    Thach Doan, Thi Cam
    Martinovski, Bilyana
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Intercultural Communication Web Service Design2009In: Proceedings of 16th NIC Conference on Intercultural Communication, Borås, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9428. Åberg, Annika
    et al.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Misbehaving Customers: Are We Creating Frankenstein's Monster in Service Research?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The customer has become an organizational imperative, a “sovereign ruler” and orienting both organizational activities and individual subjectivities towards customer needs is therefore not merely a desirable ideal, but in many cases also an explicit norm. There are however few studies that directly address the more fundamental consequences of this customer paradigm. In this conceptual paper we address that there are potential structural conflicts between the customer-orientation/customer ideal and other, often unspoken, operational logics and argue that customer misbehavior emerges as a result of maintaining and reproducing the customer discourse. In addition we broaden the prevailing individual-centric view on misbehavior by bringing forward the structural positions held by customers and customer oriented staff.

  • 9429.
    Åberg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Öhgren, Katrin
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Intervju med Eric B. Svensson, Klippan1983Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Interview with Eric B. Svensson. The interview was conducted by Elisabeth Åberg and Katrin Öhgren, students of the Swedish School of Library and Information Science in Borås, on February 8, 1983.

  • 9430.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Elevers möte med diagram2011In: Matematik - ett grundämne / [ed] Berit Bergius, Göran Emanuelsson, Lillemor Emanuelsson, Ronny Ryding, Göteborgs universitet: Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning (NCM) , 2011, p. 2011-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9431.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Exploring the effects of following different tracks of study in upper secondary education on cognitive test performance2017In: Cognitive abilities and educational outcomes: A festschrift in honour of Jan-Eric Gustafsson / [ed] Monica Rosén, Kajsa Yang Hansen & Ulrika Wolff, Cham, Switzerland.: Springer , 2017, p. 173-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research presented in this chapter explores, using examples from an earlier version of the Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test [the SweSAT], the possible environmental influence on cognitive test performance with respect to the effects of differences in earlier education. Relatively large differences in results between students having attended different tracks of study in upper secondary school have been noticed in the SweSAT. Obviously, this may be due to initial differences when entering these tracks. However, it may also be assumed that different tracks followed in the upper secondary schooling may influence abilities measured by the SweSAT in a different manner. The present study tentatively proposes the effects of track of study both on the observed results in a set of sub-tests and on certain ability factors previously proposed to lie behind performance on the test, after control for marks, at the end of lower secondary education.

  • 9432.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The smaller the better? A review of research on small rural schools in Sweden2009In: International Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0883-0355, E-ISSN 1873-538X, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review of 30 years of research in small rural schools in Sweden includes projects focusing directly upon rural education and rural schools, reports from national agencies, and official statistics. Two main foci were found: (i) the quality of education and pupils’ academic performance, and (ii) the economics of running schools in different types of demographic areas. A concordant picture stands out: (a) there are no indications that small rural schools do not provide an equally good education as other schools, but (b) the higher expenditure per pupil and decreasing population in sparsely populated areas increases the risk of school closures. The importance of the small rural school to the community receives peripheral attention at best in this body of research.

  • 9433.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bergnell Karlsson, Anneli
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta
    Ottosson, Torgny
    Karlsson, Karl Göran
    Norberg, Malin
    Westman, Anna-Karin
    von Zeipe, Hugo
    När Agnes fick va solen så fattade man ju precis": Om illustrationer i undervisning av yngre elever2014In: Resultatdialog, Vetenskapsrådet , 2014, p. 246-254Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9434.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Young primary students making sense of text and illustrations about how refuse can become soil2017In: International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, ISSN 1038-2046, E-ISSN 1747-7611, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1150-1168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Explanatory pictures and models are frequently used in teaching and learning situations. However, it seems to be simply assumed that they are always beneficial. In this article results from an investigation with 16 Swedish pupils aged 7–9 year are presented based on an analysis that has examined how well this assumption holds up. Concepts from multi-modal theory have been used to investigate how young learners deal with illustrations and text from an early reader booklet about composting domestic refuse. The analysis suggests that expectations that illustrationsfacilitate the meaning-making of young pupils may be exaggerated. Although the booklet claimed to provide interactive support between image and text most of the examples show pupils ignoring pictures or misinterpreting vital information about composting in both the verbal and non-verbal material. The illustrations did not compensate for the most crucial deficiencies in the written text. 

  • 9435.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta
    von Zeipel, Hugo
    Illustrations making meaning? Young pupils encountering explanatory pictures and models in science and maths education2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9436.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Karlsson, Karl Göran
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Ottosson, Torgny
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    “Can there be a full moon at daytime?”: Young students making sense of illustrations of the lunar phases.2017In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 101, no 4, p. 616-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching and learning situations nowadays typically build on richly illustrated material or multimodal presentations. Under these circumstances, the transparency of images and models used for explaining various phenomena becomes central. The present study deals with 20 Swedish children, 9–12 years old, discussing an illustration meant to show the cause of the different appearances of the Moon in the sky. The students’ task was to place eight numbered moon phases in the lunar orbit in the image. The illustration in question was chosen (a) because it was of a kind frequently used to explain the lunar phases and (b) because the phenomenon is known to be difficult to understand for students of all ages. The analysis leans on historical and sociocultural approaches as well as on multimodal semiotics. The results show that a majority of students were able to make sense of the most central features of the illustration but that very few spontaneously reasoned in a way that could be interpreted as the intended meaning-making of the cause of the lunar phases. The results also indicate that the simultaneous adoption of two perspectives necessary for understanding the phenomenon was a stumbling block for most of the students.

  • 9437.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Ottosson, Torgny
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    What lies behind graphicacy? Relating students’ results on a test of graphically represented quantitative information to formal academic achievement2006In: Journal of Research in Science Teaching, ISSN 0022-4308, E-ISSN 1098-2736, ISSN 0022-4308, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 43-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on studies carried out on qualitative data an instrument was constructed for investigating how larger numbers of students handle graphics. This test, consisting of 18 pages, each with its own graphic display(s) and a set of tasks, was distributed to 363 students, 15–16 years of age, from five different schools. The format of the questions varied, as did the format of the graphics. As students’ performance was expected to be multidimensional, confirmatory factor analysis was carried out with a structural equation modeling technique. In addition to the identification of a general graphicacy-test factor (Gen) and an end-of-test effect (End0), a narrative dimension (Narr0) was vaguely indicated. This model was then related to a six-factor model of students’ formal academic achievement measured by their leaving certificates from compulsory education. The strongest correlation obtained was between the general graphicacy-test dimension (Gen) and a mathematic/science factor (MathSc0) in the grades model. In addition, substantial relationships were detected between the Gen factor and both an overall school achievement factor (SchAch) and a language factor (Lang0) in the grades model.

  • 9438.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    von Zeipel, Hugo
    Ottosson, Torgny
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Can we take young pupils’ understanding of Illustrations for granted? Investigating multi-modally presented learning-contents in school science and mathematics2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New ways of presenting information have affected both contemporary society and education. School textbooks and other teaching aids for young pupils nowadays typically include, or sometimes entirely build on, illustrations and visual information. During the latest decades our view on literacy has shifted towards also comprising, as a necessity, visual and multimodal literacies Kress (2003). When using visual information in education, the transparency of pictures and models is often regarded as unproblematic. However, transparency is not an innate quality of illustrations and cannot be taken for granted (Pintó & Ametller, 2002). On the contrary, visual information is always coded and interpretations are always related to culture and context, so we must always ask what aspects of illustrations are easily understood by our young pupils’ and what aspects may be stumbling blocks for them.

  • 9439. Ågerfalk, P
    et al.
    Sjöström, J
    Eliasson, E
    Cronholm, S
    [external].
    Goldkuhl, G
    Setting the Scene for Actability Evaluation: Understanding Information Systems in Context2002In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation (ECITE 2002). Jul 15-16, Paris, France, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an approach to the evaluation of information systems based on the concept of information systems actability, which is suggested as an important alternative way to understand the role and pragmatic use of IT-systems within organizations. the reults, empirically informed byt two case studies, show that the suggested approach can effectivly be used to direct evaluators' attention to import aspects of an IT-system related to the social actions performed by its use within a business context.

  • 9440. Ågerfalk, Pär
    et al.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Cronholm, Stefan
    [external].
    Information Systems Actability Engineering: Integrating Analysis of Business Processes and Usability Requirements1999In: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on the Language Action Perspective on Communication Modelling (LAP’99), pp.73–86. Sep 12–13, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9441. Ågerfalk, Pär J.
    et al.
    Aakhus, MarkLind, MikaelUniversity of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Proceedings of the Inaugural Meeting of AIS SIGPrag2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 9442. Ågerfalk, Pär J.
    et al.
    Delugach, HarryLind, MikaelUniversity of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on the Pragmatic Web: Innovating the Interactive Society2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 9443.
    Ågerfalk, Pär. J.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Exploring the Explanatory Power of Actability: The Case of Internet-based Software Artefacts2001Report (Other academic)
  • 9444. Ågerfalk, Pär J.
    et al.
    Lind, MikaelUniversity of Borås, School of Business and IT.Jacucci, Gianni
    Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Action in Language, Organisations, and Information Systems2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 9445. Ågrén-Bolmsjö, I
    et al.
    Edberg, A-K
    Sandman, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Everyday Ethical Problems in Dementia Care: A teleological Model2006In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 340-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, a teleological model for analysis of everyday ethical situations in dementia care is used to analyse and clarify perennial ethical problems in nursing home care for persons with dementia. This is done with the aim of describing how such a model could be useful in a concrete care context. The model was developed by Sandman and is based on four aspects: the goal; ethical side-constraints to what can be done to realize such a goal; structural constraints; and nurses’ ethical competency. The model contains the following main steps: identifying and describing the normative situation; identifying and describing the different possible alternatives; assessing and evaluating the different alternatives; and deciding on, implementing and evaluating the chosen alternative. Three ethically difficult situations from dementia care were used for the application of the model. The model proved useful for the analysis of nurses’ everyday ethical dilemmas and will be further explored to evaluate how well it can serve as a tool to identify and handle problems that arise in nursing care.

  • 9446. Ågrén-Bolmsjö, I
    et al.
    Sandman, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Andersson, E
    Everyday ethics in the care of elderly people2006In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 249-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the general ethical milieu in a nursing home for elderly residents and provides a decision-making model for analysing the ethical situations that arise. It considers what it means for the residents to live together and for the staff to be in ethically problematic situations when caring for residents. An interpretative phenomenological approach and Sandman’s ethical model proved useful for this purpose. Systematic observations were carried out and interpretation of the general ethical milieu was summarized as ‘being in the same world without meeting’. Two themes and four subthemes emerged from the analysis. Three different ethical problems were analysed. The outcome of using the decision-making model highlighted the discrepancy between the solutions used and well-founded solutions to these problems. An important conclusion that emerged from this study was the need for a structured tool for reflection.

  • 9447. Ågård, A
    et al.
    Bentley, L
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science. [external].
    Experiences and concerns among patients being treated for atypical chest pain2005In: European journal of internal medicine, ISSN 0953-6205, E-ISSN 1879-0828, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 339-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Many patients who are discharged from the hospital without receiving a clear-cut diagnosis of their chest pain continue to consume health care because of disabling physical and psychological symptoms. By identifying their experiences and concerns following hospitalization, an empirical basis for discussions on ways of improving the care of these particular patients will be obtained. Methods A qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with 38 patients with a diagnosis of unspecified chest pain was carried out. Results Two-thirds of the respondents had unanswered questions and concerns that had not been addressed. They found it difficult to understand why they had not undergone more tests. They requested an explanation for their chest pain, at the very least, or were worried about the future. Some respondents accepted the fact that they had not been given a sufficient amount of time and information. They referred to the stressful working situation of the physicians, the view that their admission could be regarded as unnecessary or that physicians at the hospital could not be expected to do more than exclude serious diseases. Conclusions Health professionals should address their patients' questions and fears properly and provide them with the most probable explanation for their symptoms. When taking the harmlessness of their symptoms or the situation of their caregivers into account, patients may find it inappropriate to impose further demands on care.

  • 9448. Ågård, A
    et al.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Castrén, M
    Jonsson, L
    Sandman, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Guidance for ambulance personnel on decisions and situations related to out-of-hospital CPR2012In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 27-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethical guidelines on out-of-hospital cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are designed to provide substantial guidance for the people who have to make decisions and deal with situations in the real world. The crucial question is whether it is possible to formulate practical guidelines that will make things somewhat easier for ambulance personnel. The aims of this article are to address the ethical aspects related to out-of-hospital CPR, primarily to decisions on not starting or terminating resuscitation attempts, using the views and experience of ambulance personnel as a starting point, and to summarise the key points in a practice guideline on the subject.

  • 9449. Ågård, A
    et al.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science. [external].
    Hermerén, G
    Obtaining informed consent from patients in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction: physicians’ experiences and attitudes2004In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 90, no 2, p. 208-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is possible to question whether patients suffering from the early phase of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are able to give free and informed consent and whether or not it is ethically defensible to include them—those patients suffering from more severe symptoms, in particular—in research projects. In fact, it has been shown that a reasonable number of patients who have given their consent in this situation are only able to recall very little of the information they received about the study and that only a minority read through the consent form before signing it. The aim of this study is to determine how physicians, who have been involved in including patients in intervention trials in the early phase of their AMIs, experienced the informed consent procedures. In our view, data obtained from those people who are actually confronted by the research subjects and who are responsible for carrying out the consent procedure should also be taken into account, when the most appropriate ways of including these patients in studies are discussed. To our knowledge no survey of physicians relating to this issue has previously been undertaken.

  • 9450. Ågård, A
    et al.
    Hermerén, G
    Herlitz, Johan
    [external].
    Informed consent: Are there ethically justified conditions for exceptions?2002In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 105-106Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Are good clinical practice and informed consent inseparable? This depends, to some extent at least, on what is meant by “inseparable”. Does this refer to a logical relation, on the assumption that “good clinical practice” by definition includes informed consent, to an empirical generalisation about current medical practice, or a normative statement about how it ought to be? Different arguments pro and contra are relevant depending on whether the statement is interpreted as a logical statement, an empirical generalisation, or as a normative statement.We do not dispute the moral ground for the requirement of informed consent in general,1 and we agree with the statement that “the clinical duty to obtain proper informed consent is now widely believed to be an essential component of good clinical practice”. Neither do we dispute that improved training in communication skills and more time for doctors to communicate with their patients would be a good thing—and probably make more patients participate in the decision process.2What we wished to do in our paper3 was to discuss whether there might not be situations in which exceptions from the general requirement of informed consent would be acceptable. We hope that such a debate could help to define stringent and precise conditions when such exceptions could be morally and legally acceptable. One general assumption we share is the idea that such an exception is reasonable, if insisting on the requirement of informed consent causes more harm than good. In its turn, this presupposes a discussion of criteria of harm and benefit and who should decide about the relative magnitude of harm and benefit. Verification after the event by the patients in question could in certain situations be worth investigating. If there is a verification by the patients concerned, in the sense that they afterwards confirm that they think that an exception from the general requirement was ethically justified, then the concept of an exception from the general main rule is supported by referring to what the patients themselves want. If autonomy is taken seriously, references to what the patients say they want cannot be dismissed lightly.Our ambition with the study published3 was not to suggest any radical changes regarding the informed consent procedure when a patient is suffering from an acute myocardial infarction and is a potential research subject, nor to draw any general conclusions from the results obtained. Instead, we wanted to elucidate the possible problems and disadvantages associated with the process of obtaining informed consent in this particular situation. Primarily we wanted to stimulate the debate on the following two issues:1. Does a patient in the midst of a life crisis have to put his/her signature on a consent form in order to be included in an intervention trial?2. Are there ethically justified alternatives to informed consent when a researcher wants to include a patient in a study, who is not capable of giving a free and informed consent in research?We stated: “All possible measures to increase the autonomy of the patients under the prevailing circumstances should be carried out”. Thus, we do not suggest that all patients with acute myocardial infarction should be treated as incompetent. However, what we have tried to do in our study is to bring forth and highlight empirical evidence, which seems to show that in this particular situation some patients do not have the capacity to give a true informed consent for study participation.Professor Doyal adds another argument, to the effect that even if the patients afterwards do not remember anything, this does not reduce the moral importance of relevant information disclosure. The main question is what is meant by “relevant information disclosure”, and who decides what this is. Suppose (a) that it is left to the patient to decide what is relevant information disclosure, (b) that additional information does not change the decision of the patient, and (c) they do not want this additional information, which conclusion should be drawn from this?We claim that it is time to adjust the informed consent procedure to the patients' capacity in this particular situation. Moreover, the patient should be spared the “actual demand” of signing the consent form in the early phase of an acute myocardial infarction.

186187188189190191192 9401 - 9450 of 9576
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf