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  • 9351.
    Ylitervo, Päivi
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Doyen, Win
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolyzate using a submerged membrane bioreactor at high dilution rates2014In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A submerged membrane bioreactor (sMBR) was developed to ferment toxic lignocellulosic hydrolyzate to ethanol. The sMBR achieved high cell density of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during continuous cultivation of the hydrolyzate by completely retaining all yeast cells inside the sMBR. The performance of the sMBR was evaluated based on the ethanol yield and productivity at the dilution rates 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 h-1 with the increase of dilution rate. Results show that the yeast in the sMBR was able to ferment the wood hydrolyzate even at high dilution rates, attaining a maximum volumetric ethanol productivity of 7.94 ± 0.10 g L-1 h-1 at a dilution rate of 0.8 h-1. Ethanol yields were stable at 0.44 ± 0.02 g g-1 during all the tested dilution rates, and the ethanol productivity increased from 2.16 ± 0.15 to 7.94 ± 0.10 g L-1 h-1. The developed sMBR systems running at high yeast density demonstrates a potential for a rapid and productive ethanol production from wood hydrolyzate.

  • 9352. Ylitervo, Päivi
    et al.
    Franzen, Carl Johan
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ethanol production at elevated temperatures using encapsulation of yeast2011In: Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0168-1656, E-ISSN 1873-4863, Vol. 156, no 1, p. 22-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of macroencapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 8066 to produce previous termethanolnext term at previous termelevatednext termprevious termtemperaturesnext term was investigated in consecutive batch and continuous cultures. Prior to cultivation previous termyeastnext term was confined inside alginate–chitosan capsules composed of an outer semi-permeable membrane and an inner liquid core. The encapsulated previous termyeastnext term could successfully ferment 30 g/L glucose and produce previous termethanolnext term at a high yield in five consecutive batches of 12 h duration at 42 °C, while freely suspended previous termyeastnext term was completely inactive already in the third batch. A high previous termethanolnext termprevious termproductionnext term was observed also through the first 48 h at 40 °C during continuous cultivation at D = 0.2 h−1 when using encapsulated cells. The previous termethanolnext termprevious termproductionnext term slowly decreased in the following days at 40 °C. The previous termethanolnext termprevious termproductionnext term was also measured in a continuous cultivation in which the previous termtemperaturenext term was periodically increased to 42–45 °C and lowered to 37 °C again in periods of 12 h. Our investigation shows that a non-thermotolerant previous termyeastnext term strain improved its heat tolerance upon previous termencapsulationnext term, and could produce previous termethanolnext term at previous termtemperaturesnext term as high as 45 °C for a short time. The possibility of performing fermentations at higher previous termtemperaturesnext term would greatly improve the enzymatic hydrolysis in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) processes and thereby make the bioethanol previous termproductionnext term process more economically feasible.

  • 9353.
    Ylitervo, Päivi
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzen, CJ
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw materials by encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9354.
    Ylitervo, Päivi
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Impact of Furfural on Rapid Ethanol Production Using a Membrane Bioreactor2013In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 1604-1617Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: A membrane bioreactor was developed to counteract the inhibition effect of furfural in ethanol production. Furfural, a major inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolyzates, is a highly toxic substance which is formed from pentose sugars released during the acidic degradation of lignocellulosic materials. Continuous cultivations with complete cell retention were performed at a high dilution rate of 0.5 h−1. Furfural was added directly into the bioreactor by pulse injection or by addition into the feed medium to obtain furfural concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 21.8 g L−1. At all pulse injections of furfural, the yeast was able to convert the furfural very rapidly by in situ detoxification. When injecting 21.8 g L−1 furfural to the cultivation, the yeast converted it by a specific conversion rate of 0.35 g g−1 h−1. At high cell density, Saccharomyces cerevisiae could tolerate very high furfural levels without major changes in the ethanol production. During the continuous cultures when up to 17.0 g L−1 furfural was added to the inlet medium, the yeast successfully produced ethanol, whereas an increase of furfural to 18.6 and 20.6 g L−1 resulted in a rapidly decreasing ethanol production and accumulation of sugars in the permeate. This study show that continuous ethanol fermentations by total cell retention in a membrane bioreactor has a high furfural tolerance and can conduct rapid in situ detoxification of medium containing high furfural concentrations.

  • 9355.
    Ylitervo, Päivi
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Mechanically robust polysiloxane: ACA capsules for prolonged ethanol production2013In: Journal of chemical technology and biotechnology (1986), ISSN 0268-2575, E-ISSN 1097-4660, Vol. 88, no 6, p. 1080-1088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fermentation using encapsulated yeast leads to more robust ethanol production from lignocellulose hydrolyzates. Encapsulated yeast is much more tolerant to inhibitors present in hydrolyzates, and fermentation is faster due to increased total cell density. For industrial applications, capsules must be made robust enough to endure long periods and numerous cultivations without breaking. Liquid core alginate–chitosan–alginate (ACA) capsules containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae were produced by the liquid-droplet-forming method and treated with hydrolyzed 3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane (hAPTES) forming very glossy capsules. Capsules produced with 3.0% hAPTES showed the best mechanical robustness but no ethanol could be produced in dilute-acid spruce hydrolyzate using these capsules. Untreated ACA capsules gave the highest ethanol production but demonstrated poor mechanical robustness. 25% of the ACA capsules ruptured within 6 h in the shear test. Capsules treated with 1.5% hAPTES were significantly stronger, since only 0–2% of these capsules broke. Moreover, the ethanol production in the fifth consecutive cultivation in lignocellulose hydrolyzate was nearly as high as for untreated ACA capsules. The mechanical robustness of ACA capsules can be easily improved by treating the capsules with hAPTES. ACA capsules treated with 1.5% hAPTES showed excellent mechanical robustness and a similar ethanol production profile to untreated ACA capsules. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry

  • 9356.
    Ylitervo, Päivi
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Robust liquid core APTES-alginate-chitosan-alginate capsules for 2nd generation bioethanol production2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9357.
    Ylitervo, Päivi
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Robust polysiloxane-ACA capsules for ethanol production from wood hydrolyzate by yeast2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9358.
    Ylitervo, Päivi
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations2014In: Membranes, ISSN 2077-0375, E-ISSN 2077-0375, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 372-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g•L−1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h−1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g•L−1) and very high (100–200 g•L−1) yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g•L−1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g•L−1•h−1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g•L−1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g•L−1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials.

  • 9359.
    Ylitervo, Päivi
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rapid ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a membrane bioreactor: The effect of adding high amounts of furfural2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Robust polysiloxane-ACA capsules for prolonged ethanol production from wood hydrolyzate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Päivi Ylitervo,a,b Carl Johan Franzén b and Mohammad J. Taherzadeh a a University of Borås, School of Engineering, Sweden b Chalmers University of Technology, Industrial Biotechnology, Sweden The recalcitrance of lignocellulose makes it difficult to hydrolyze and toxic inhibitors are formed during its decomposition. The formed inhibitors can severely affect the fermentability of the hydrolyzate. Encapsulating the fermenting yeast can be a potential option to make the cells more inhibitor and stress tolerant when compared with suspended yeast. In the encapsulation process the yeast is enclosed in a thin semi-permeable membrane surrounding the cells in the liquid core. To apply encapsulation for industrial applications the capsules need to be mechanically stable for long periods. Therefore, a new encapsulation method was developed were alginate-chitosan-alginate (ACA) capsules were treated with hydrolyzed 3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane (hAPTES) to reinforce capsules with polysiloxane (PS). PS-ACA-capsules treated with 1.5% and 3.0% hAPTES were very robust and only 0-1% capsules broke during the mechanical shear test performed after five batch cultivations. Of the untreated capsules, 25% burst within 6 h. The yeast in 3.0% hAPTES treated PS-ACA-capsules did not produce any ethanol during cultivations. However, capsules treated with 1.5% hAPTES were significantly stronger and showed similar ethanol production profile to untreated ACA-capsules cultivated in hydrolyzate. The produced PS-ACA-capsules were easily prepared and demonstrated high stability, reusability, and good ethanol production which are crucial features to make capsules the applicable at large scale for ethanol production.

  • 9360.
    Ylitervo, Päivi
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, CJ.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Increasing the thermotolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by encapsulation2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Encapsulated yeast has several advantages for ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials such as enhanced inhibitor tolerance and cell stability, higher biomass concentration inside the reactor, easier cell recovery and shortened fermentation time (Talebnia 2005). During encapsulation, cells are captured inside a spherical capsule composed of an outer semipermeable membrane and an inner liquid core. Compared to entrapment in a porous gel bead, the diffusion resistance is therefore much lower trough the capsule membrane (Talebnia 2005). Encapsulation has in several studies shown to stabilize cells and improve the tolerance for inhibitors (Talebnia 2005, Pourbafrani 2008). The main goal of the present work was to investigate if encapsulation can also improve the termotolerance characteristics of S. cerevisiae in order to produce ethanol at high temperatures. In the experiments glucose conversion and ethanol production was recorded during 24 h in encapsulated and suspended yeast at high temperatures.

  • 9361. Youcel, A
    et al.
    Bardaji Ruiz, A
    Axelsson, C
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Chest Injuries during resuscitation following the current guidelines: First results of the Recapta Study2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9362.
    Youngsukkasem, S.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Akinbomi, J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rakshit, S.K.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Biogas production by encased bacteria in synthetic membranes: Protective effects in toxic media and high loading rates2013In: Environmental technology, ISSN 0959-3330, E-ISSN 1479-487X, Vol. 34, no 13-14, p. 2077-2084Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A bioreactor including encased digesting bacteria for biogas production was developed, and its performance in toxic media and under high organic loading rates (OLRs) was examined and compared with traditional digestion reactors. The bacteria (3 g) were encased and sealed in 3 × 6cm 2 PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) membranes with a pore size of 0.1 μ m, and then several sachets were placed in the reactors. They were then examined in toxic medium containing up to 3% limonene as a model inhibitor in batch reactors, and OLRs of up to 20 g COD / L.day in semi-continuous digestions. The free and encased cells with an identical total bacterial concentration of 9 g in a medium containing 2% limonene produced at most 6.56 and 23.06 mL biogas per day, respectively. In addition, the digestion with free cells completely failed at an OLR of 7.5 g COD / L.day, while the encased cells were still fully active with a loading of 15 g COD / L.day.

  • 9363. Youngsukkasem, S.
    et al.
    Barghi, H.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Rakshit, S. K.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Lakehead University.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rapid biogas production by compact multi-layer membrane bioreactor: Efficiency of synthetic polymeric membranes2013In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 6211-6224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrapment of methane-producing microorganisms between semi-permeable synthetic membranes in a multi-layer membrane bioreactor (MMBR) was studied and compared to the digestion capacity of a free-cell digester, using a hydraulic retention time of one day and organic loading rates (OLR) of 3.08, 6.16, and 8.16 g COD/L day. The reactor was designed to retain bacterial cells with uprising plug flow through a narrow tunnel between membrane layers, in order to acquire maximal mass transfer in a compact bioreactor. Membranes of hydrophobic polyamide 46 (PA) and hydroxyethylated polyamide 46 (HPA) as well as a commercial membrane of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were examined. While the bacteria in the free-cell digester were washed out, the membrane bioreactor succeeded in retaining them. Cross-flow of the liquid through the membrane surface and diffusion of the substrate through the membranes, using no extra driving force, allowed the bacteria to receive nutrients and to produce biogas. However, the choice of membrane type was crucial. Synthesized hydrophobic PA membrane was not effective for this purpose, producing 50-121 mL biogas/day, while developed HPA membrane and the reference PVDF were able to transfer the nutrients and metabolites while retaining the cells, producing 1102-1633 and 1016-1960 mL biogas/day, respectively.

  • 9364. Youngsukkasem, S.
    et al.
    Rakshit, S. K.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Biogas production by encapsulated methaneproducing bacteria2012In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 56-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Encapsulation of methane-producing bacteria was carried out with the objective of enhancing the rate of biogas production. Encapsulation with a one-step liquid-droplet-forming technique was employed for the natural membrane, resulting in spherical capsules with an average diameter and a membrane thickness of 4.3 and 0.2 mm, respectively. The capsules were made from alginate, using chitosan or Ca 2+ as counter-ions, together with the addition of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). A Durapore® membrane (hydrophilic PVDF) with a pore size of 0.1 μm was used for synthetic encapsulating sachets having width and length dimensions 3×3 and 3×6 cm 2 for holding the bacteria. During the digesting process, the dissolved substrates penetrated through the capsule membrane, and biogas inside the capsules was able to escape by diffusion. The results indicate encapsulation to be a promising method of digestion, with a high density of anaerobic bacteria. The method holds considerable potential for further development of membranes and their applications.

  • 9365.
    Youngsukkasem, Supansa
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Barghi, Hamidreza
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rakshit, Sudip K.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad T.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rapid Biogas Production by Compact Multi-Layer Membrane Bioreactor: Efficiency of Synthetic Polymeric Membranesane Reactor for Rapid Biogas Production2013In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 6, no 12, p. 6211-6224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrapment of methane-producing microorganisms between semi-permeable synthetic membranes in a multi-layer membrane bioreactor (MMBR) was studied and compared to the digestion capacity of a free-cell digester, using a hydraulic retention time of one day and organic loading rates (OLR) of 3.08, 6.16, and 8.16 g COD/L·day. The reactor was designed to retain bacterial cells with uprising plug flow through a narrow tunnel between membrane layers, in order to acquire maximal mass transfer in a compact bioreactor. Membranes of hydrophobic polyamide 46 (PA) and hydroxyethylated polyamide 46 (HPA) as well as a commercial membrane of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) were examined. While the bacteria in the free-cell digester were washed out, the membrane bioreactor succeeded in retaining them. Cross-flow of the liquid through the membrane surface and diffusion of the substrate through the membranes, using no extra driving force, allowed the bacteria to receive nutrients and to produce biogas. However, the choice of membrane type was crucial. Synthesized hydrophobic PA membrane was not effective for this purpose, producing 50–121 mL biogas/day, while developed HPA membrane and the reference PVDF were able to transfer the nutrients and metabolites while retaining the cells, producing 1102–1633 and 1016–1960 mL biogas/day, respectively.

  • 9366.
    Youngsukkasem, Supansa
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Chandolias, Konstantinos
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Syngas Biomethanation in a Semi-Continuous Reverse Membrane Bioreactor (RMBR)2016In: Fermentation, MDPI, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 2, no 2, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Syngas biomethanation is a potent bio-conversion route, utilizing microorganisms to assimilate intermediate gases to produce methane. However, since methanogens have a long doubling time, the reactor works best at a low dilution rate; otherwise, the cells can be washed out during the continuous fermentation process. In this study, the performance of a practical reverse membrane bioreactor (RMBR) with high cell density for rapid syngas biomethanation as well as a co-substrate of syngas and organic substances was examined in a long-term fermentation process of 154 days and compared with the reactors of the free cells (FCBR). The RMBR reached maximum capacities of H2, CO, and CO2 conversion of 7.0, 15.2, and 4.0 mmol/Lreactor.day, respectively, at the organic loading rate of 3.40 gCOD/L.day. The highest methane production rate from the RMBR was 186.0 mL/Lreactor.day on the 147th day, compared to the highest rate in the FCBR, 106.3 mL/Lreactor.day, on the 58th day. The RMBR had the ability to maintain a high methanation capacity by retaining the microbial cells, which were at a high risk for cell wash out. Consequently, the system was able to convert more syngas simultaneously with the organic compounds into methane compared to the FCBR.

  • 9367.
    Youngsukkasem, Supansa
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Chandolias, Konstantinos
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås.
    Rapid bio-methanation of syngas in a reverse membrane bioreactor: membrane encased microorganisms2015In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 178, p. 334-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a novel reverse membrane bioreactor (RMBR) with encased microorganisms for syngas bio-methanation as well as a co-digestion process of syngas and organic substances was examined. The sachets were placed in the reactors and examined in repeated batch mode. Different temperatures and short retention time were studied. The digesting sludge encased in the PVDF membranes was able to convert syngas into methane at a retention time of 1 day and displayed a similar performance as the free cells in batch fermentation. The co-digestion of syngas and organic substances by the RMBR (the encased cells) showed a good performance without any observed negative effects. At thermophilic conditions, there was a higher conversion of pure syngas and co-digestion using the encased cells compared to at mesophilic conditions.[on SciFinder (R)]

  • 9368. Youngsukkasem, Supansa
    et al.
    Rakshit, Sudip K.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Biogas production by encapsulated digesting bacteria2012In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 56-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Encapsulation of methane producing bacteria was performed to enhance the rate of biogas production, using natural as well as synthetic membranes. A one-step liquid-droplet-forming method was employed for the natural membrane, resulting in spherical capsules with an average diameter and a membrane thickness of 4.3 and 0.2 mm, respectively. The capsules were made from alginate, with chitosan or Ca2+ as counter-ions, with addition of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC). For synthetic capsules, the Durapore® membrane (hydrophilic PVDF), with a pore size of 0.1 µm, was used for capsules of the sizes 3×3 and 3×6 cm, holding the bacteria. During the digesting process the dissolved substrates penetrated through the capsule membranes, and biogas developed inside the capsules, escaping by diffusion. The results indicate that encapsulation is a promising method of digestion, with a high density of anaerobic bacteria. The method holds a considerable potential for further development of membranes and their applications.

  • 9369.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Digital inkjet functionalization of water-repellent textile for smart textile application2018In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital inkjet printing is a production technology with high potential in resource efficient processes, which features both flexibility and productivity. In this research, waterborne, fluorocarbon-free ink containing polysiloxane in the form of micro-emulsion is formulated for the application of water-repellent sports- and work wear. The physicochemical properties of the ink such as surface tension, rheological properties and particle size are characterized, and thereafter inkjet printed as solid square pattern (10 × 10 cm) on polyester and polyamide 66 fabrics. The water contact angle (WCA) of the functional surfaces is increased from < 90° to ca. 140° after 10 inkjet printing passes. Moreover, the functional surface shows resistance to wash and abrasion. The WCA of functional surfaces is between 130° and 140° after 10 wash cycles, and is ca. 140° after 20000 revolutions of rubbing. The differences in construction of the textile as well as ink–filament interaction attribute to the different transportation behaviors of the ink on the textile, reflected in the durability of the functional layer on the textile. The functionalized textile preserves its key textile feature such as softness and breathability. Inkjet printing shows large potential in high-end applications such as customized functionalization of textiles in the domain of smart textiles.

  • 9370.
    Yu, Junchun
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. vincent.nierstrasz@hb.se.
    Seipel, Sina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Inkjet printing of waterborne hydrophobic ink for functionalization of textile2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital inkjet printing of functional layer on textiles is a resource efficient and flexible manufacturing process, with reduced ecological footprint. This technology has large potential in high-end applications such as in the domain of smart textiles. The purpose of our research is to develop a waterborne, fluorocarbon free ink for water-repellent sports- and work- wear. The novel ink formulation was characterized by measuring surface tension and rheology and thereafter inkjet printed as solid block pattern (10×10 cm) on polyester fabrics. The hydrophobicity of the functional surface was characterized by water contact angle measurements. The wash fastness and abrasion properties of functional surface were investigated. The inkjet printed functional surface shows promising hydrophobicity compared to commercial available products.

  • 9371.
    Yu, Junchun
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Seipel, Sina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROPHOBIC INK FOR INKJET PRINTING OF FUNCTIONAL TEXTILE2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital inkjet printing is a resource effective and flexible manufacturing method, which has great potential to replace the large-scale conventional textile processes, and stimulates innovation in small and flexible production such as in the domain of smart textiles. Water-repellent textile has great importance in the application of sport- and work- wear. In this research, a hydrophobic ink free from fluorocarbon is formulated. The rheological properties, surface tension and particle size were characterized in order to fit the jetting parameter of the print head. In order to improve the adhesion between the deposited ink and substrate, plasma and alkaline pre-treatment were performed on polyester substrate. The novel formulation was inkjet printed as the solid bock on polyester and polyamide 6,6. The hydrophobicity of the fabrics was measured by water contract angle measurement. The effect of pre-treatment on the adhesion of ink to substrate as well as on functional property of textile was evaluated after washing and abrasion tests.   

  • 9372.
    Yu, Junchun
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Seipel, Sina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Inkjet printing of functional ink for smart textile application2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorocarbon-free, water-repellent inks for sports- and work- wear were developed and inkjet printed. The inkjet printed samples show promising hydrophobicity and fastness properties. The result indicates that it can be possible to combine inkjet printing and functional ink as resource efficient production method for customization in the domain of smart textile.

  • 9373. Yusuf, S
    et al.
    Estrada-Yamamoto, M
    Reyes, CP
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Hjalmarson, Å
    Factors of Importance for QRS Complex Recovery after Acute Myocardial Infarction1982In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 211, no 3, p. 157-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The regression of the ECG signs of myocardial infarction has been studied in 101 patients. A significant increase in R wave amplitude and decrease in Q wave depth on the standard ECG was observed over three months. In 21% of the patients, Q waves disappeared completely. In inferior infarction, these changes were more apparent in the lateral V leads than in the inferior limb leads. Patients with intraventricular conduction defects were excluded. Two factors associated with the Q and R wave changes have been identified. Lower heart rates appeared to facilitate the recovery of R waves, and smaller infarcts, as assessed by peak LDH, showed greater ECG recovery. This study raises the interesting possibility that modification of the heart rate may affect favourably the healing process after an acute myocardial infarction.

  • 9374.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Superabsorbent Polymers from the Cell Wall of Zygomycetes Fungi2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis presents new renewable, antimicrobial and biodegradable superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), produced from the cell wall of zygomycetes fungi. The cell wall was characterized and chitosan, being one of the most important ingredients, was extracted, purified, and converted to SAP for use in disposable personal care products designed for absorption of different body fluids. The cell wall of zygomycetes fungi was characterized by subsequent hydrolysis with sulfuric and nitrous acids and analyses of the products. The main ingredients of the cell wall were found to be polyphosphates (4-20%) and copolymers of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine, i.e. chitin and chitosan (45-85%). The proportion of each of these components was significantly affected by the fungal strain and also the cultivation conditions. Moreover, dual functions of dilute sulfuric acid in relation to chitosan, i.e. dissolution at high temperatures and precipitation at lowered temperatures, were discovered and thus used as a basis for development of a new method for extraction and purification of the fungal chitosan. Treatment of the cell wall with dilute sulfuric acid at room temperature resulted in considerable dissolution of the cell wall polyphosphates, while chitosan and chitin remained intact in the cell wall residue. Further treatment of this cell wall residue, with fresh acid at 120°C, resulted in dissolution of chitosan and its separation from the remaining chitin/chitosan of the cell wall skeleton which was not soluble in hot acid. Finally, the purified fungal chitosan (0.34 g/g cell wall) was recovered by precipitation at lowered temperatures and pH 8-10. The purity and the yield of fungal chitosan in the new method were significantly higher than that were obtained in the traditional acetic acid extraction method. As a reference to pure chitosan, SAP from shellfish chitosan, was produced by conversion of this biopolymer into water soluble carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS), gelation of CMCS with glutaraldehyde in aqueous solutions (1-2%), and drying the resultant gel. Effects of carboxymethylation, gelation and drying conditions on the water binding capacity (WBC) of the final products, were investigated. Finally, choosing the best condition, a biological superabsorbent was produced from zygomycetes chitosan. The CMCS-based SAPs were able to absorb up to 200 g water/g SAP. The WBC of the best SAP in urine and saline solutions was 40 and 32 g/g respectively, which is comparable to the WBC of commercially acceptable SAPs under identical conditions (34-57 and 30-37 g/g respectively).

  • 9375.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Edebo, L.
    Niklasson, C.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Temperature Shifts for Extraction and Purification of Zygomycetes Chitosan with Dilute Sulfuric Acid2010In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 2976-2987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature-dependent hydrolysis and solubility of chitosan in sulfuric acid solutions offer the possibility for chitosan extraction from zygomycetes mycelia and separation from other cellular ingredients with high purity and high recovery. In this study, Rhizomucor pusillus biomass was initially extracted with 0.5 M NaOH at 120 °C for 20 min, leaving an alkali insoluble material (AIM) rich in chitosan. Then, the AIM was subjected to two steps treatment with 72 mM sulfuric acid at (i) room temperature for 10 min followed by (ii) 120 °C for 45 min. During the first step, phosphate of the AIM was released into the acid solution and separated from the chitosan-rich residue by centrifugation. In the second step, the residual AIM was re-suspended in fresh 72 mM sulfuric acid, heated at 120 °C and hot filtered, whereby chitosan was extracted and separated from the hot alkali and acid insoluble material (HAAIM). The chitosan was recovered from the acid solution by precipitation at lowered temperature and raised pH to 8-10. The treatment resulted in 0.34 g chitosan and 0.16 g HAAIM from each gram AIM. At the start, the AIM contained at least 17% phosphate, whereas after the purification, the corresponding phosphate content of the obtained chitosan was just 1%. The purity of this chitosan was higher than 83%. The AIM subjected directly to the treatment with hot sulfuric acid (at 120 °C for 45 min) resulted in a chitosan with a phosphate impurity of 18.5%.

  • 9376.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Edebo, Lars
    Sjöström, Björn
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Extraction and Precipitation of Chitosan from Cell Wall of Zygomycetes Fungi by Dilute Sulfuric Acid2007In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 3786-3790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method was developed in this work for extraction of chitosan and partial characterization of zygomycetes fungi. The method is based on temperature-dependent solubility of chitosan in dilute sulfuric acid. Chitin (acetylated chitosan) is neither soluble in cold nor hot dilute sulfuric acid. Similarly chitosan is not soluble at room temperature. However, it is dissolved in 1% H2SO4 at 121°C within just 20 min. The new method was developed to measure the chitosan content of biomass and cell wall materials derived from different sources. The procedures were investigated by measuring phosphate, protein, ash, glucuronic acid and degree of acetylation. The cell wall derivatives of fungus Rhizomucor pusillus were then examined by this new method. The results indicated 8% of the dry biomass as chitosan. After treatment with NaOH, the alkali insoluble material (AIM) contained 45.3% chitosan. Treatment of AIM with acetic acid resulted in acetic acid soluble material (AcSM), 16.5% and alkali and acid insoluble material (AAIM), 79.0%. AcSM is traditionally cited as pure chitosan, but this new method shows major impurities by e.g. phosphate. Furthermore, traditional methods usually consider AAIM as chitosan-free fraction of the cell walls, while this new method shows more than 76% of the chitosan present in AIM to be found in AAIM. It might indicate the inability of acetic acid to separate fungal chitosan from the cell wall.

  • 9377.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Henriksson, D.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    A new foaming technique for production of superabsorbents from carboxymethyl chitosan2010In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 1091-1101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A foaming technique was developed for production of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) from carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) with high, medium and low molecular weights. In this method n-pentane was used as a blowing agent due to low boiling point and immiscibility with water. n-Pentane was added to a warm aqueous solution of CMCS and boiled. CMCS was then gelled by adding the crosslinking agent glutaraldehyde and consequently n-pentane was captured inside the polymer network. The n-pentane was evaporated from this network while drying in oven. It resulted in stable foam that prevented the hydrogel from collapsing and the dried product had a porous structure with a high water-binding capacity (WBC). The effects of molecular weight of CMCS and its concentration, and the amounts of glutaraldehyde and n-pentane used, on WBC were investigated and optimized using response surface experimental design. The best result for WBC of foam-dried SAP was 107 (g/g) after exposing for 1 h in pure water and 60 (g/g) and 37 (g/g) after exposing for one min in pure water and 0.9% NaCl solution, respectively. The WBC of the SAP produced by the foaming technique was more than five times higher than the WBC of the oven-dried crosslinked CMCS.

  • 9378.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Jeihanipour, Azam
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Edebo, Lars
    Niklasson, Claes
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Determination of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine in fungal cell walls2008In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 56, no 18, p. 8314-8318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method was developed to determine glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) in materials containing chitin and chitosan, such as fungal cell walls. It is based on two steps of hydrolysis with (i) concentrated sulfuric acid at low temperature and (ii) dilute sulfuric acid at high temperature, followed by one-step degradation with nitrous acid. In this process, chitin and chitosan are converted into anhydromannose and acetic acid. Anhydromannose represents the sum of GlcN and GlcNAc, whereas acetic acid is a marker for GlcNAc only. The method showed recovery of 90.1% of chitin and 85.7-92.4% of chitosan from commercial preparations. Furthermore, alkali insoluble material (AIM) from biomass of three strains of zygomycetes, Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor indicus, and Rhizomucor pusillus, was analyzed by this method. The glucosamine contents of AIM from R. oryzae and M. indicus were almost constant (41.7 +/- 2.2% and 42.0 +/- 1.7%, respectively), while in R. pusillus, it decreased from 40.0 to 30.0% during cultivation from 1 to 6 days. The GlcNAc content of AIM from R. oryzae and R. pusillus increased from 24.9 to 31.0% and from 36.3 to 50.8%, respectively, in 6 days, while it remained almost constant during the cultivation of M. indicus (23.5 +/- 0.8%).

  • 9379.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Effects of partial dehydration and freezing temperature on water binding capacity of chitosan-based superabsorbents2010In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 49, no 17, p. 8094-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) were prepared from carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) cross-linked to a gel, concentrated by partial dehydration in a rotary evaporator (at 70, 85, and 100 °C), frozen at −5, −20, and −196 °C, and then freeze dried. A 0.9% aqueous solution of CMCS was gelled by addition of glutaraldehyde and partially dehydrated to 1.3−16.8% dry matter (DM) before freeze drying. The water binding capacity (WBC) of the products was up to 171 g/g of superabsorbent. The best results were obtained when 32−81% of the water in the gel was removed in the evaporator at 85−100 °C, and the concentrated gel (1.3−4.7% DM) was frozen in liquid nitrogen at −196 °C before freeze drying. On average, these SAPs, according to SEM micrographs, had a porous sponge-like structure and absorbed 35 and 32 g/g of saline and urine solutions after 10 min exposure, respectively. The corresponding WBC of two commercial polyacrylate-based SAPs was 34−57 g/g for saline and 30−37 g/g for urine solutions.

  • 9380. Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Production of low molecular weight chitosan by hot dilute sulfuric acid2010In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 1554-1564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method was developed for production of low molecular weight chitosan, in which high molecular weight chitosan was treated with dilute sulfuric acid at 120°C. Chitosan was dissolved in the acid solution in a few minutes, and as depolymerized to low molecular weight chitosan by longer times. Low molecular weight chitosan was recovered from the acid by cooling down the solution and increasing the pH to 8-10. A low molecular weight chitosan with Mv (viscosity average molecular weight) of 174×103 was prepared from a high molecular weight chitosan (Mv = 1,388×103) with 82% recovery by using 72 mM sulfuric acid solution for 30 min. Increasing the time to 240 min reduced the Mv to 24×103, though the recovery of chitosan was reduced to 54%. Higher concentrations of acid (216 and 360 mM) resulted in higher depolymerization degrees and lower recoveries of chitosan in identical treatment times. Analysis of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine showed that the prepared low molecular weight chitosan had more than 80% purity.

  • 9381.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Effects of partial dehydration and freezing temperature on the morphology and water binding capacity of carboxymethyl chitosan-based superabsorbents2010In: Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0196-4321, Vol. 49, no 17, p. 8094-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) were prepared from carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) cross-linked to a gel, concentrated by partial dehydration in a rotary evaporator (at 70, 85, and 100°C), frozen at -5, -20, and -196°C, and then freeze dried. A 0.9% aqueous solution of CMCS was gelled by addition of glutaraldehyde and partially dehydrated to 1.3-16.8% dry matter (DM) before freeze drying. The water binding capacity (WBC) of the products was up to 171 g/g of superabsorbent. The best results were obtained when 32-81% of the water in the gel was removed in the evaporator at 85-100°C, and the concentrated gel (1.3-4.7% DM) was frozen in liquid nitrogen at -196°C before freeze drying. On average, these SAPs, according to SEM micrographs, had a porous sponge-like structure and absorbed 35 and 32 g/g of saline and urine solutions after 10 min exposure, respectively. The corresponding WBC of two commercial polyacrylate-based SAPs was 34-57 g/g for saline and 30-37 g/g for urine solutions. 

  • 9382. Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Production of superabsorbents from fungal chitosan2012In: Iranian polymer journal, ISSN 1026-1265, E-ISSN 1735-5265, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 845-853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) were prepared from fungal chitosan through three steps of carboxymethylation, cross-linking, and freeze drying. The alkali-insoluble material (AIM) of the cell wall of zygomycetes fungus Rhizomucor pusillus was first pretreated with 72 mM sulfuric acid at room temperature to release the phosphates from the cell wall. The phosphate-free AIM was then either subjected directly to carboxymethylation, or treated with 72 mM sulfuric acid at 120 C to extract and recover the fungal chitosan prior to carboxymethylation. The carboxymethylated derivative of pretreated AIM (CM-P-AIM) and carboxymethyl fungal chitosan (CM-f-CS) exhibited 50 and 100 % water solubility, respectively. Glutaraldehyde was subsequently added to aqueous mixtures of CM-f-CS and CM-P-AIM to cross-link the water-soluble fractions. These mixtures were then frozen at -20 C and freeze dried. The water-binding capacity (WBC) of the final product obtained from CM-f-CS (30% of AIM) was 77, 30, 33 and 45 g/g after 10 min of immersion in water, urine, 0.9 % NaCl and artificial blood solutions, respectively. The respective WBCs of the product obtained from CM-P-AIM (90 % of AIM) were 73, 22, 24 and 37 g/g at identical conditions. SEM micrographs indicated that the SAPs prepared from CM-f-CS and CM-P-AIM had porous sheet-like structures.

  • 9383.
    Zaring, Per
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    On Process Quality in Integrative Frameworks for Information Systems Development1993Report (Other academic)
  • 9384.
    Zboinska, Malgorzata A.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Dumitrescu, Delia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Landin, Hanna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Expressing and Sensing Hybrid Materiality: Voluminous Interactive Architectural Substance2019In: TEI '19 Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction: Pages 483-489, Tempe, Arizona, USA — March 17 - 20, 2019, ACM New York, NY, USA ©2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this architectural research exploration, we challenge the notion of an interactive architectural surface as single-layered, two-dimensional interaction interface. Instead, we propose the notion of Interactive Voluminous Substance, which moves the interaction experience into four dimensions, shifting it from far-field, proximity-based interaction to a near-field, tactile one. We present four features of architectural expression that could potentially sustain the embodiment of this Substance: spatial positioning, geometry, expression, hybrid material composition and interaction design. If the future architectural interiors and exteriors are made from Voluminous Architectural Substance, how will it be to dwell with them? We propose two physical prototypes and two interaction stories as speculative objects probing this question.

  • 9385. Zedigh, C
    et al.
    Alho, A
    Hammar, E
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Kellerth, T
    Svensson, L
    Grimbrandt, E
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Aspects on the intensity and the relief of pain in the prehospital phase of acute coronary syndrome: experiences from a randomized clinical trial2010In: Coronary Artery Disease, ISSN 0954-6928, E-ISSN 1473-5830, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the pain relief and tolerability of two pain-relieving strategies in the prehospital phase of presumed acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and the secondary aim was to assess the relationship between the intensity and relief of pain and heart rate, blood pressure, and ST deviation. Patients with chest pain judged as caused by ACS were randomized (open) to either metoprolol 5 mg intravenously (i.v.) three times at 2-min intervals (n = 84; metoprolol group) or morphine 5 mg i.v. followed by metoprolol 5 mg three times i.v (n = 80; morphine group). Pain was assessed on a 10-grade scale before randomization and 10, 20, and 30 min thereafter. The mean pain score decreased from 6.5 at randomization to 2.8 30 min later, with no significant difference between groups. The percentages with complete pain relief (pain score <=1) after 10, 20, and 30 min were 11, 16, and 21%, respectively, with no difference between groups. Hypotension was less frequent in the metoprolol group compared with the morphine group (0 vs. 6.3%; P=0.03), as was nausea/vomiting (7.2 vs. 24.0%; P=0.004). At randomization intensity of pain was associated with degree of ST elevation (P=0.009). The degree of pain relief over 30 min was associated with decrease in heart rate (P=0.03) and decrease in ST elevation (P=0.01). In conclusion, in the prehospital phase of presumed ACS, neither a pain-relieving strategy including an anti-ischemic agent alone nor an analgesic plus anti-ischemic strategy in combination resulted in complete pain relief. Fewer side effects were found with the former strategy. Other pain-relieving strategies need to be evaluated.

  • 9386.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Body & Space2007Other (Other academic)
  • 9387.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Nordic days in Croatia 20072007Other (Other academic)
  • 9388.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Part of workshop with weaving and LED lights2008Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Part of workshop with Barbara Lane (Canada) in Borås 18 feb 2008 with weaving and LED lights

  • 9389.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Textile sound design2008Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims at developing conceptual and methodological tools in order to adapt sound within the textile design area. Occupational groups working with sound are to a large extent problem driven. Accordingly, textile designers working with sound- affecting properties of textiles concentrate on their dampening qualities. The ambition with this research project is to make suggestions how textile designers can work practically with textile sound design, in a more nuanced way. The overall aim of the thesis is to develop a vocabulary to make textile designers able to express the sound affecting qualities of textiles in a language full of nuances. As a starting-point the thesis briefl y describes commonly used methods and processes used to describe the expressiveness of a design, followed by a more thoroughly analyze of the textile design process illustrated by a practical example. These studies constitute a foundation to make it possible to see in what way these methods and processes will be affected when sound is added as new design tool. By studies of two sound design models, the fi rst attempts to develop a vocabulary concerning how to describe sound affecting qualities of a textile are developed. Research focusing on language issues, especially on the development of conceptual tools done at the research institute CRESSON, provides descriptive sound concepts, “sound effects”, embracing the interaction between human and his sound environment. These concepts are followed by a model of how to describe just a sound or “sound object” in “itself” (not in relation to anything else), developed by Pierre Schaeffer. These theoretical models have been complemented with empirical studies in form of a survey, named LISTEN. Interviews were performed from a phenomenological perspective. A number of informants were asked to tell about the sound environment and single sounds occurring at their working places. The interviews were interpreted from a phenomenographic perspective. A number of design projects are fi nally presented as practical examples of different ways to work with textiles and sound. The theoretical models provided by Schaeffer have been used to make the fi rst systematic attempts to describe sound environments; sounds and textiles sound affecting properties. Since the model presented by Schaeffer is developed to be used within musical composition the concepts have to be additionally modifi ed to be a useful tool within the textile design area. The thesis presents just the fi rst attempts to use this model. The next step to take in the research project is to adjust the theoretical systems of CRESSON and Schaeffer to suit the special area of textile design. The interactive ideas of a sound-affecting textile will also be a subject of further development.

  • 9390.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Textile Sound Design2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis aims at developing conceptual and methodological tools in order to adapt sound in a “designerly” way within the discipline textile design. Occupational groups working with sound are to a large extent problem driven. This implies knowledge regarding sound and sound design mostly focuses on defensive strategies, not creative possibilities. The ambition with this research project is to make suggestions how textile designers can work practically with textile sound design, in a more nuanced way. /br As a starting point the thesis describes commonly used methods and processes used in the design process within an industrial context, followed by a more thorough analyze of the textile design process. These studies constitute a foundation to make it possible to see in what way these methods and processes will be affected when sound is added as new design tool./br By studies of two sound design models, the first attempts to develop a vocabulary concerning how to describe sound affecting qualities or sound expression of a textile are presented. Research focusing on language issues, especially on the development of conceptual tools done at the research institute Cresson, provides descriptive concepts, “sound effects”, embracing the interaction between human and his sound environment. These concepts are followed by a model of how to describe a “sound object” in “itself” (not in relation to anything else), developed by Pierre Schaeffer./br The theoretical models have been applied on the outcome of an phenomenological study named Describe. A number of design examples are finally presented as methodological examples of different ways to work with textiles and sound./br Keywords: sound, design, textile design, sound effect, sound object.

  • 9391.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Textile sound design2008Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Part of the exhibition Body and Space, Riga Latvia February 14- March 4 2008. Oral presentation concerning my research February 15 2008.

  • 9392.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Textile microphone elements2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper "Textile microphone elements" and oral presentation at the conference on the 23 of June 2008.

  • 9393.
    Zetterlund, Angela
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Att utvärdera i praktiken: en retrospektiv fallstudie av tre program för lokal folkbiblioteksutveckling2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is placed within the area of library and information science (LIS) known as evaluation research and in particular, the area that relates to theory of evaluation practice. An analysis of previous research reveals that there is a need for conceptualising evaluation activities in the real life of libraries and information services and to reflect further on the conditions for evaluation in various institutional contexts. The aim of this study is to identify evaluation practice in public libraries, delimited to programs for local change and development, and to create an understanding for how this practice reflects institutional conditions within this particular context. The theoretical frame combine concepts from theories of program evaluation, theories of evaluation in library and information service and institutional theory. Evaluation is here considered as an ex post, systematic study with the purpose of describing and judging the merit of the implementation and results of a given activity and intervention. In this study an interpretative approach, based on the principles of hermeneutics and phenomen-ology, is used. The empirical study follows guidelines for qualitative case study and is designed in a retrospective and comparative manner. The study includes three different programs directed towards local change in public libraries, during the period 1986-1999. The sample includes thirty-nine (39) single studies each aimed at evaluating the programs. Data were collected from interviews and program documentation and were analysed on three levels. The first level concentrated on mapping the complex network of evaluation activities and identifying participants and their role in different evaluation processes. The second level was directed towards a clarificat-ion of the activities and subjective meaning of different tasks of evaluation in the context of each single program. On the third level of analysis certain aspects of evaluation practice were compared between the cases, which led to an aggregated description of both the pattern related to single tasks as well as to a more holistic description of the basic approaches through which evaluation practice in these kinds of programs can be understood. One conclusion is that evaluation practice, even in this limited context, is experienced as a com-plex phenomenon filled with contradictions and paradoxes. The main result of this thesis is the identification of a certain pattern, here conceptualised as three strategies. Strategies are labelled participatory evaluation , rational-managerial evaluation and pragmatic-political evaluation . Some remarks are made about in what way this pattern correspond to traditional theories of practice in LIS. One conclusion is that the practice of evaluation has almost nothing in common with scientific-expert approaches, mainly, it is argued, because the basic conditions for such a model do not seem to exist. Another conclusion is that institutional rules and norms are reflected in evaluation practice in varied ways and that evaluation both produces and reproduces the legitimacy of institutional identity. Evaluation cannot and should not be seen as a neutral or technical tool. It is suggested that further research should focus more on problems related to pragmatic-political aspects of evaluation practice as well as going further in the analysis of the deeper interaction between evaluation practice and institutional change.

  • 9394.
    Zetterlund, Angela
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Utvärdering och folkbibliotek: En studie av utvärderingens teori och praktik med exempel från folkbibliotekens förändrings- och utvecklingsprojekt1997Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 9395. Zetterlund, Angela
    et al.
    Lundqvist, Maria
    Futurum.kom: förändringsarbete genom marknadskommunikation2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a report from an ongoing project directed to marketing in Public libraries. The authors outlines the aims and strategy for the marketing effort which is designed in three basic steps: First; the building of a new brand for the libraries, second; conducting a general marketing campaign and third; conducting partial campaigns directed to some selected segments of the population. The project is wide in scope and involves 25 different local libraries in the south-east of Sweden. This papers also presents three different strategies for evaluating the project, and gives a brief description of the theoretical perspecitives as well as the empirical base used in the research. The paper also discuss some of the preliminary results of the marketing campaign this far in the project, especially the results related to the second step; the general marketing campaign.

  • 9396. Zhang, Dafang
    et al.
    Dadkhah, Payam
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    How robustness and resilience support security business2011In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 201-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply chain disruptions may derive from various sources but the antagonistic threats are centered in supply chain disruption. Antagonistic threats are dynamic due to the spiral input, processes and feedbacks which create a very complex situation to analyze, assess and making decision. Beside risks, vulnerability derived from supply chain characteristics is the other issue which should be measured. Antagonistic threats are magnified in such vulnerable supply chains. After 9/11, 2001, the Security and Efficiency of the global supply chain has become an important issue in global transportation. This leads firms to consider Supply chain security as part and parcel of a company’s comprehensive risk-management program. In a security business, it is essential to understand different type risks and evaluate transportation assets, do risk based prioritization, and protect customers through cost effective actions. This could be occurred corresponding to risk management methods. Providing security may occur internally by firms or they outsource it to security providers which could be performed in higher quality or more cost effectively. In this article, we focus on managing the risks and securing the supply chain business with the security theory and strategies in the supply chain and transportation network. In order to discover risks throughout the supply chain, security provider needs to find risk hot spots where the likelihood of risk is higher. We propose two approaches (geographical and elements/process) to seek probable risks. The next step is to take strategies for risk prevention and risk mitigation. Consequently, we connect the security strategies from the literature review and collected information from security business to suggest a suitable model of how to handle the risks and achieve security in a systemic and scientific way.

  • 9397.
    Zhang, Rui
    et al.
    University of Passau.
    Freund, Martin
    University of Passau.
    Amft, Oliver
    University of Passau.
    Cheng, Jingyuan
    DFKI.
    Zhou, Bo
    DFKI.
    Lukowicz, Paul
    DFKI.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Chabrecek, Peter
    Sefar AG.
    A Generic Sensor Fabric for Multi-modal Swallowing Sensing in Regular Upper-body Shirts2016In: Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computers, HEIDELBERG: ACM Digital Library , 2016, p. 46-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate a generic fabric material as basis for resistive pressure and bio-impedance sensors and apply the fabric in a shirt collar for swallowing spotting. A pilot study confirmed the signal performance of both sensor types.

  • 9398.
    Zhang, Yanru
    et al.
    University of Shanghai for Science and Technology.
    Jiménez-Herrera, María
    Universitat Rovira I Virgili.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Cheng, Yunzhang
    University of Shanghai for Science and Technology.
    Not Bad: Passive Leg Raising in Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation-A New Modeling Study2017In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 7, p. 665-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To evaluate, using a simulated haemodynamic circulation model, whether passive leg raising (PLR) is able to improve the effect during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR); to expose the possible reasons why PLR works or not.

    Materials and Methods: We adapted a circulatory model for CPR with PLR. First we compared cardiac output (CO), coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), blood flow to heart (Qheart), and blood flow to neck and brain (Qhead) of standard chest compression-only CPR with and without PLR; second we simulated the effects of PLR in different situations, by varying the thoracic pump factor (TPF) from 0 to 1; third we simulated the effects when the legs are lifted to the different heights. Finally, we compared our results with those obtained from a published clinical study.

    Results: According to the simulation model, (1) When TPF is in the interval (0,1), CPP, CO, Qheart, and Qhead are improved with PLR, among them with half-thoracic/half-cardiac pump effect (TPF is 0.5), CPP, CO, Qhead, and Qheart increase the most (by 14, 14, 15, and 17%). (2) When TPF is 1 (pure thoracic pump, with an emphysema or extremely thick thorax), PLR has almost no effect on CPP, CO, and Qheart (-1, 2, and 0%), whereas Qhead is increased by 9%; (3) Regardless of whether there is a cardiac or thoracic pump effect, PLR is able to increase Qhead by 9-15%. (4) When the legs are lifted to 30 degrees to the ground, the volume transferred from legs to upper body is 36% of the initial volume in legs; when the legs are lifted to 45 degrees , the volume transferred is 43%; when the legs are lifted to 60 degrees , the volume transferred is 47%; when the legs are lifted to 90 degrees , the volume transferred is 50%.

    Conclusion: Generally PLR is able to achieve improved cerebral perfusion and coronary perfusion. In some extreme situations, it has no effect on cardiac output and coronary perfusion, but still improves cerebral perfusion. PLR could be a beneficial supplement to CPR, and it is not necessary to lift the legs too high above the ground.

  • 9399. Zhang, Zheng
    et al.
    Fyn, Dawn
    Langelotz, Lill
    University of Borås, Centrum för lärande och undervisning.
    Lönngren, Johanna
    McCorquodale, Lisa
    Nehez, Jaana
    Our way(s) to Action Research: Doctoral students' international and interdisciplinary collective memory work2014In: Action Research, ISSN 0264-5122, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 293-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study involved six Swedish and Canadian doctoral students who shared interests in using action research in professional education in different disciplines. We employed Noffke’s three dimensions of action research as a theoretical framework (i.e., the Professional, the Personal, and the Political). Using collective biography as a methodology, we cooperatively examined how our personal and professional agendas and macro-level structures have been shaping our intentions to conduct action research projects in our respective disciplines. The key findings of this international and interdisciplinary collective biography relate our growing awareness of the intimacy between research and life in vari- ous professional and geographic contexts. Collectively addressing our shared frustrations, we celebrated action research as a methodology that attends to the dynamic and concrete lived experiences of our participants in various spatio-temporalities. Reflecting upon the hybridity of our own researcher identities, we were also able to see the intimate relation between ourselves as active citizens and critical action researchers who are determined to take up the challenges and engage in critically oriented action research that could nurture more ‘‘caring,’’ ‘‘empowering,’’ and ‘‘transforming’’ public spheres.

  • 9400.
    Zhou, Bo
    et al.
    DFKI.
    Altamirano, Carlos Andres Velez
    DFKI.
    Zurian, Heber Cruz
    DFKI.
    Atefi, Seyed Reza
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Billing, Erik
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Lukowicz, Paul
    DFKI.
    Textile Pressure Mapping Sensor for Emotional Touch Detection in Human-Robot Interaction2017In: Sensors, Vol. 17, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
185186187188189190191 9351 - 9400 of 9567
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