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  • 51.
    Holm, A-S
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Öhrn, E
    The gifted and hard working. Gendered discourses of study performances in secondary school2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden, as well as most other European countries has undergone major changes in a market oriented direction during the last decades. This has paved the way for a culture of individualism and “competitive performativity” (Ball, 2003, p. 219). Contemporary research points to growing differences in achievement between schools and students, including those between genders (National Agency for Education, 2012; Ringrose, 2007). This paper aims to analyse the discursive understandings of study performance and gender among secondary school students, and in particular, their relations to teacher views and classroom responses. The theoretical focus is on masculinities, femininities, local gender regimes (Connell, 1996; Connell & Messerschmidt, 2005) and performativity (Ball, Maguire & Braun, 2012; Jeffrey & Troman, 2011). Method The paper draws on field studies in three secondary schools in Sweden. The study is part of a larger research project, Achievement and gender. On teaching, youth groups and local conditions (2011-2014), financed by the Swedish Research Council. The overall project explores various discourses of gender and achievement in student peer groups and in various teaching contexts and boys’ and girls’ conceptions of the meanings of academic achievement for future lives. An ethnographic approach is used, relying on class room observations, informal conversations and semi structured interviews in three grade 9 classes (students 15-16 years old) at three different schools in Sweden. The selected schools are located in a city centre, a suburb area and in a rural area, representing different socio-economic areas and different levels of educational achievement. In all, 70 students (genders equally represented) and their teachers participated in the study. A compact form of ethnography was conducted (Jeffrey & Troman 2004), including approximately one month intensive phase of field work at each school. The empirical data also included rating statistics. Expected Outcomes The findings indicate the presence of intertwined and gendered discourses on performance and knowledge. One is stressing everyone’s equal chance of success if only they make an effort and study hard, and the other presenting ‘real’ knowledge as related to ‘natural talent’. The latter, which is connected to a ’laid back’ attitude towards schooling, is highly valued and generally ascribed to boys. The importance of studying is not denied by the boys, but put in perspective of other (valuable) social activities and relations. The analyses also indicates that the ‘anti-school cultures’ in the study might be seen as to represent cultures of talent (cf Nyström, 2012). Girls’ higher grades are, on the other hand, often devalued and related to hard work or ‘swotting’, although seemingly adhering to demands on individual achievement. If anything, knowledge based on ‘swotting’ might be suspected as attempts to cover up for lack of real talent. Teachers appear somewhat ambivalent about (girls’) hard work. There are occasional mentioning of girls’ strivings being too high and that they might be better off to realize their limitations, as well as ’jokes’ and ridicule of those deemed to worry too much about their performances. References Arnesen, A., Lahelma, E. & Öhrn, E. (2008) Travelling discourses on gender and education: The case of boys´ underachievement, Nordisk pedagogik, 28(1), 1-14. Ball, S.J. (2003). The teacher’s soul and the terrors of performativity. Journal of Education Policy,18(2), 215–228. Ball, S. J., Maguire, M. & Braun, A. (2012). How schools do policy – policy enactments in secondary schools. New York : Routledge. Jeffrey, B. & Troman, G. (2004). Time for ethnography. British Educational Research Journal, 30(4), 535–548 Jeffrey, B. & Troman, G. (2011). The construction of performative identities. European Educational Research Journal 10 (4),484-501 Connell, RW. (1996). Teaching the boys: New research on masculinity, and gender strategies for schools. Teachers College Records, 98(2), 206-235. Cambridge: Polity Press. Connell, RW., & Messerschmidt, J.W. (2005). (2005). Hegemonic masculinity. Rethinking the concept. Gender & Society, 19(6), 829-859. Nyström, A-S. (2012). Att synas och lära utan att synas lära: En studie om underprestation och privilegierade unga mäns identitetsförhandlingar i gymnasieskolan. Uppsala Universitet. Ringrose, J. (2007). Successful girls? Complicating post-feminist, neoliberal discourses of educational achievement and gender equality. Gender and Education, 19(4), 471-489. National Agency for Education (2012). En beskrivning av slutbetygen i grundskolan våren 2012. PM från Enheten för utbildningsstatistik.

  • 52. Lidström, L
    et al.
    Holm, A-S
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Lundström, U
    Maximising Opportunities and Minimising Risk? Young People’s Upper Secondary School Choices in Swedish Quasi-markets2014Inngår i: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 1-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores young people's upper secondary school choices after recent reforms of school choice and competition in Sweden, drawing on interviews with students and school staff. The respondents identify important motives and strategies in students' school choices, for example, the character of school and schooling, the influence of marketing and education policy, as well as young people's identities and positions. Young people's horizons of action' and decision-making seem to vary, according inter alia to the degree of urbanity of their geographical locality and exposure to competition. Gender-, ethnicity- and social class-related factors also appear to be influential. We conclude that the school choice and competition reforms draw schools' attention to students' preferences, but the motive for the interest seems to have little to do with a concern to help young people to make educational school choices and future school-to-work transitions. Finally, we advocate modifications in the provision of career information and guidance.

  • 53. Lundahl, L
    et al.
    Erixon Arreman, I
    Holm, Ann-Sofie
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Lundström, U
    Educational marketization the Swedish way2013Inngår i: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 2013, nr 3, s. 497-517Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has commonly been regarded as a striking example of a social democratic welfare-state regime (Esping-Andersen 1996), characterized by strong state governance and active involvement in welfare matters. In the last two decades, however, the Swedish public sector and education system have been radically and extensively transformed in a neo-liberal direction, a move that was preceded by extensive decentralization of decision-making from the state to municipalities and schools. In this article the scope, character and some of the consequences of internal and external marketization of Swedish education in the early 2000s are summarized, and the impact of competition on the internal workings of upper secondary schools is highlighted in particular. We conclude that the external marketization of education has proceeded a long way and Sweden also fully embraces new public management, i.e. ‘inner marketization’, of education in most respects. However, aspects of the older social democratic policy paradigm are still visible with regard to the assigned functions, values and governance of education.

  • 54. Lundblad, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Erixon Arreman, Inger
    Holm, Ann-Sofie
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Lundström, Ulf
    Gymnasiet som marknad2014Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 55. Lundström, Ulf
    et al.
    Holm, Ann-Sofie
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Market Competition in Upper Secondary Education: perceived effects on teachers' work2011Inngår i: Policy Futures in Education, ISSN 1478-2103, E-ISSN 1478-2103, Vol. 9, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development and expansion of market solutions is one of the most important changes in Swedish education in the last 30 years. The aim of the article is to describe and analyse how students and staff in upper secondary schools perceive the impact of market competition on teachers’ work. Three groups of actors in two Swedish regions were interviewed: students, teachers and principals. The interviews were carried out at eight schools in five municipalities, at both public and independent schools. The results show that competition relations are more complex than is often assumed. Intensification of teachers’ work is a common theme in the interviews. Traditional professional values and identities are challenged by the market competition and a market-oriented teacher is shaped – whether the teachers like it or not. The extension of teachers’ tasks is increasingly about marketing. A new type of service-minded and flexible teacher is created. Regarding the effects of competition on teacher performance, the results are contradictory. The quality discourse is problematised as there is no evident link between winners in the school competition and the quality of teaching and student outcomes. The Swedish case is interesting in the international literature as an example of a rapidly growing upper secondary school market which is closer to the logic of the market than many other nations’ school systems.

  • 56. Osbeck, Christina
    et al.
    Holm, Ann-Sofie
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Wernersson, Inga
    Kränkningar i skolan: förekomst, former och sammanhang2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad kan egentligen betraktas som kränkande behandling i skolan? Hur stor andel av eleverna blir kränkta och vilka former är mest frekventa? Denna nationella studie av kränkande behandling som utförts på uppdrag av Skolverket syftar huvudsakligen till att kartlägga förekomsten av kränkningar i grund- och gymnasieskolan. Särskilt uppmärksammas etniskt och sexuellt relaterade kränkningar liksom upprepade kränkningar. Ut- satthet för kränkning studeras särskilt i relation till kön, socioekonomisk status samt svensk/ut- ländsk bakgrund. Undersökningen baserar sig framförallt på en enkätundersökning som besvarats av 3386 elever från skolår 5, 8 och gymnasiets år 2.Vid sidan av denna undersökning finns fyra mindre komplette- rande studier. Intervjuundersökningen i år åtta sätter elevernas egen förståelse av kränkningar i fokus vilket även intervjuerna med elever i grundskolans år två gör. År-2-eleverna har också besva- rat ett enkelt frågeformulär. Berörda rektorer samt de lärare som ansvarat för bjudningen av enkäten har också besvarat ett antal frågor. Resultaten visar bl.a. att sexuellt relaterade kränkningar och upprepade, generella, kränk- ningar är vanligast. Ca. en fjärdedel av eleverna har blivit utsatta det senaste året. Grundskoleelever och flickor är överrepresenterade. Etniskt relaterade kränkningar är något ovanligare men eleverna med utländsk bakgrund är oftare drabbade.Andra viktiga resultat som redovisas och diskuteras i studien är: att det inte tycks finnas några platser på skolor som är fria från kränkningar, att de signaler skolan sänder, t ex genom sitt undervisningsinnehåll, kan betraktas som en indirekt form av kränkning, att elever förefaller trivas bättre på skolor som aktivt arbetat för att motverka kränk- ningar samt att de "kompetenser" som behövs och används för att kränka – t.ex. inlevelseförmåga, verbala och fysiska resurser – är de samma som behövs för att försvara och hjälpa.

  • 57. Wrethander Bliding, Marie
    et al.
    Holm, Ann-Sofie
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Hägglund, Solveig
    Kränkande handlingar och informella miljöer: elevperspektiv på skolans miljöer och sociala klimat2002Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 58.
    Öhrn, Elisabet
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Holm, Ann-Sofie
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Education in "Multicultural" Societies2007Inngår i: Social justice and intercultural education: an open ended dialogue / [ed] G Bhatti, C Gaine, F Gobbo, Y Leeman, Stoke on Trent: Trentham books , 2007Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
12 51 - 58 of 58
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