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  • 51.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Rajan, Rathish
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Rainosalo, Egidija
    Centria University of Applied Sciences.
    Thomas, Selvin
    Yanbu Industrial College and Advanced Materials Laboratory.
    Zavasnik, Janez
    Jožef Stefan Institute.
    Vuorinen, Jyrki
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Mechanical, thermal, and burning properties of viscose fabric composites: Influence of epoxy resin modification2018Inngår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 135, nr 36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of epoxy resin modification by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) on various properties of warp knitted viscose fabric is reported in this study. Dynamic mechanical, impact resistance, flexural, thermal properties, and burning behavior of the epoxy/viscose fabric composites are studied with respect to varying content of silane coupling agent. The results obtained forAPTES-modified epoxy resin based composites reinforced with unmodified viscose fabric composites are compared to unmodified epoxy resin based composites reinforced with APTES-modified viscose fabric. The dynamic mechanical behavior of the APTES-modified resin based composites indicates improved interfacial adhesion. The composites prepared from modified epoxy resin exhibited a twofold increase in impact resistance. The improved adhesion between the fiber and modified resin was also visible from the scanning electron microscope analysis of the impact fracture surface. There was less influence of resin modification on the flexural properties of the composites. The 5% APTES modification induced early degradation of composites compared to all other compo-sites. The burning rate of all the composites under study is rated to be satisfactory for use in automotive interior applications.

  • 52.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Åkesson, Dan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Rajan, Rathish
    Tampere University.
    Periyasamy, Aravin Prince
    Technical University of Liberec.
    Mechanical performance of biofibers and their corresponding composites2019Inngår i: Mechanical and Physical Testing of Biocomposites, Fibre-Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites / [ed] Mohammad Jawaid, Mohamed Thariq, Naheed Saba, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2019Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on mechanical performance of biofibers such as flax, hemp, and sisal and their effect on mechanical performance when they are reinforced in thermoset and thermoplastic polymers. The aim of this chapter is to present an overview of the mechanical characterization of the biofibers and their corresponding composites. The mechanical characterization includes tensile, flexural, impact, compressive, shear, toughness, hardness, brittleness, ductility, creep, fatigue, and dynamic mechanical analyses. Detailed studies of each test have been widely reported and an overview is important to relate the studies. Studies pertaining to the topics are cited. The most common materials used in biocomposites are biofibers (also called natural fibers) and petroleum-based polymers such polypropylene. The use of renewable materials in biocomposites has increased in the past couple of decades owing to extensive research on cellulosic fibers and biopolymers based on starch or vegetable oil. Today, research is focused on reinforcing natural fibers in petroleum-based polymers. However, the emphasis is shifting toward the amount of renewable materials in biocomposites, which has led to the use of biopolymers instead of petroleum-based polymers in composites. The mechanical properties of some renewable resource-based composites are comparable to commercially available nonrenewable composites.

    Several plant biofibers have been reinforced in thermoplastics or thermosets to manufacture biocomposites because of their specific properties. The Young's modulus of commonly used biofibers such as hemp and flax could be over 50 GPa and therefore they could be good alternatives to glass fibers in several applications. The good mechanical properties of these biofibers influence the composites' mechanical performance when reinforced in polymers. It is important to understand the mechanical performance of these biofibers and biocomposites in a working environment. A detailed discussion about the mechanical performance of commonly used biofibers and composites is provided in this chapter.

  • 53.
    Kumar, Vijay
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Rawal, Amit
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India.
    Elastic Moduli of Electrospun Mats: Importance of Fiber Curvature and Specimen Dimensions2017Inngår i: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 72, s. 6-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Success of tissue engineering relies on the architecture and properties of porous scaffolds. Electrospun nonwoven scaffolds in the form of mats are unique materials due to large surface area to volume ratio, high porosity, versatility in surface functionalities and excellent mechanical properties. Maneuvering the mechanical behavior ofthe electrospun mat is a major challenge both from theoretical and experimental perspectives. Herein, we report a two-dimensional (2D) analytical model of normalized elastic moduli of electrospun mats by formulating a relationship with the governing fiber and structural parameters. The analytical model of normalized mat modulush as also accounted for fiber curvature in the form of sinusoidal curve along with the specimen dimensions considered during the uniaxial tensile test. A comparison has been made between the magnitudes of normalized matmodulus obtained through predictive modeling and the experimental results adapted from the literature. In general, a good agreement has been found between the theoretical and experimental results of normalized moduli ofthe electrospun mats. An interplay of some of the governing parameters has been analyzed through parametric analysis. Through theoretical modeling, the normalized amplitude of fiber crimp via fiber diameter along withthe aspect ratio of specimen dimensions are observed to be the dominant factors responsible for modulating thenormalized mat modulus.

  • 54.
    Larsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Vellesalu, Ann
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Zethraeus, Adrian
    Carlsson, Jan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Feasibility of servitization: Transforming fashion value chains to circularity through service innovation2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 55.
    Li, Cai
    et al.
    Cognitiona and Interaction Lab, School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Bredies, Katharina
    Design Research Lab Berlin.
    Lund, Anja
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Hemeren, Paul
    Cognition and Interaction Lab, School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Högberg, Dan
    School of Engineering Science, University of Skövde, Sweden.
    kNN based Numerical Hand Posture Recognition using a Smart Textile Glove2015Inngår i: Ambient 2015: The Fifth International Conference on Ambient Computing, Applications, Services and Technologies / [ed] Maarten Weyn, 2015, s. 36-41Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 56.
    Lindblad, Angelica
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Chu, Anny
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Manifestation och implementering av CSR: En studie om hur ett mindre företag kan använda CSR som instrumentför att stärka varumärket2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet är att undersöka och analysera hur arbete med CSR (Corporate SocialResponsibility) och hållbarhet kan manifesteras och implementeras i ett mindre företag för attstärka företagets varumärke.

    Metod: Uppsatsen grundas i en kvalitativ metod för att eftersträva en holistisk- ochövergripande bild. Metoden är explorativ och utforskande och ger en djupare insikt ochförståelse för företagets tillvägagångssätt. Som utgångspunkt för sekundära källor harelektroniska och tryckta källor samt akademiska artiklar använts.

    Slutsats: Efter avslutade studier kan konstateras att genom företagets ståndpunkt i etik, moraloch värderingar i kombination med de praktiska handlingar de utför, manifesteras ochimplementeras CSR- och hållbarhetsarbete i verksamheten. Kundens medvetande ger styrkanoch det värdefulla i varumärket vilket leder till att dessa aktiviteter på ett omsorgsfullt ochgenuint sätt bör planeras och genomföras för att behålla och stärka företagetsvarumärkesimage.

  • 57.
    Lindström, Katarina
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Pretreatment of textile for a more gentle shredding process2018Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 58.
    Lindström, Katarina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Kadi, Nawar
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Persson, Anders
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Investigation Of Staple Fibre To Fibre Cohesion By Tensile Test Of Web2019Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     Friction and cohesion forces have great influence on the processability of a fibre as well as causing fibre breakage during mechanical recycling of textiles. Through pre-treatment of the fibres or textiles with a lubricant, the friction and cohesion forces can be decreased. However, the measurement of friction coefficient on staple fibres is challenging and needs special machinery. With the development of a new test method of the fibre cohesion force we can measure the effect of a treatment on fibre cohesion, predict the spinnability of a fibre as well as see the effect of a lubricant on the tearing efficiency in textile mechanical recycling.

  • 59.
    Lindström, Katarina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Kadi, Nawar
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Persson, Anders
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Utility of conditioner for reduced interfibre friction as predictor of gentler shredding2018Inngår i: Aachen-Dresden-Denkendorf International Textile Conference, Aachen, November 29-30 2018, 2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 60.
    Lindström, Katarina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sjöblom, Therése
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Persson, Anders
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Kadi, Nawar
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Decreasing Inter-Fiber Friction With Lubricants For Efficient Mechanical Recycling Of Textiles2019Inngår i: Autex 19th World Textile Conference: Textiles at the Crossroads, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To decrease the environmental burden of the textile industry and at the same time reduce textile waste, the fibers of discarded textiles can be re-used into new yarns and fabrics. The shortening of fibers during mechanical shredding direct the use of the recovered fibers to low value products. With the use of a lubricant pre-treatment on cotton and polyester fabrics, we decreased the friction during shredding. The reduction in friction was shown with a developed inter-fiber friction test. Further, the pre-treatment was shown to give longer recovered fibers and eliminate melted areas in polyester material.

  • 61.
    Ljungholm, Hanna
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Johansson, Amanda
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Återvinning av blandmaterial: Polyamid och Polyester2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Om människor fortsätter med det konsumtionsbeteende som råder idag kommer jor-den resurser ta slut. Den fossila råvaran petroleum används vanligtvis vid framställ-ning av polyester och polyamid. Petroleum har en 100 000 årlig process, vilket är en ofantlig skillnad i förhållande till den takt som det förbrukas. Därför har eventuella möjligheter att återskapa en ny filament av återvunnet syntetiskt blandmaterial un-dersökts i detta arbete.

    Det finns befintliga metoder för att återvinna polyester och polyamid som homogena material. Dock vid återvinning i en gemensam process av materialen får den slutliga produkten en försämrad kvalité. Mekanisk och kemisk återvinning fungerar för att framställa syntetiska filament men i dagsläget kan endast den kemiska ge likvärdig kvalité på det återvunna filamentet i förhållande till den jungfruliga.

    Det har hittats ett flertal separationsmetoder som antas kunna tillämpas till bland-materialet. Olika egenskaper såsom densitet, polaritet och laddningsmöjligheter kan utnyttjas för att separera polymererna. Polyester och polyamid antas kunna separe-ras, dock görs inte detta på industriell basis troligtvis på grund av kvantitet, resurser och pris.

  • 62.
    Lopez, Iris Valencia
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Axgart, Emma
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Fernandes, Catia Alves
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Säger en bild mer än 1000 ord?: En studie om skapandet av en fototeknisk metod med hjälp av 360° fotografering2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Språkliga och kulturella skillnader kan leda till komplikationer i den textila tillverkningen med tanke på att kommunikationen mellan beställare och producent ibland kan missförstås. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur man, med hjälp av avancerad fotografi, kan förenkla den sömnadstekniska kommunikationen mellan producent och leverantör. Framtagningen av resultatet har gjorts med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer med två experter inom områdena fotografi samt produktion. Det har även utförts intervjuer med en inköpsassistent på ett stort internationellt svenskt modeföretag och en intervju med designer/inköpare vid ett mindre företag. Det har vid sidan av intervjuer utförts experimentella observationer där framtagning av en fungerande manual för 360° fotografering har skett. Uppsatsen tar upp delar av produktionsprocessen där producent och leverantör måste kommunicera. Det har i studien utformats en 360° metod som kan förbättra kommunikationen mellan producent och leverantör. Studien tar även upp huruvida en kvalitetsförbättring kan ske med hjälp av en 360° fotografering. I uppsatsen finns en framtagen manual på en komplett 360° metod som tydligt beskriver tillvägagångssätt. Författarna till denna studie har kommit fram till att tre av fyra prover som skickas mellan producent och leverantör kan ersättas av bilder från en 360° fotografering.

  • 63.
    Lund, Anja
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Bazooyar, Faranak
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Wand, Charlie
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Bolton, Kim
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Inducing piezoelectric beta-phase in PVDF for fibre- and printed sensors2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 64.
    Lund, Anja
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Melvinsson, Rebecca
    Malm, Veronica
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Wand, Charlie
    The University of Manchester · School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science.
    Tahir, Mohammad Waseem
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Stigh, Ulf
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Bolton, Kim
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Melt Spun PVDF Actuator Fibres: the Effect of Spin-Line Orientation and MW on Actuation2015Inngår i: Regional Conference Polymer Processing Society Graz 2015: Book of Abstracts, 2015, s. 306-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the melt spinning and characterisation of polymer actuator fibres; fibres that reversibly contract along the fibre axis in response to heat. Recently, Haines et al (1) showed that low-cost filaments, e.g. fishing lines, can be relevant precursors for artificial muscles. They demonstrated a reversible fibre-direction thermal contraction, which was significantly amplified when the fibres were twisted and coiled. The effect was explained to result from an increase in the conformational entropy of the amorphous phase. In earlier studies on negative thermal expansion in anisotropic polymer structures, it has been shown that the negative thermal expansion in oriented highly crystalline polymers approaches values typical of polymer crystals (2).

     

    To further investigate the mechanisms behind these seemingly simple artificial muscles, we have melt spun fibres from poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) – Solef  1006 and 1008 kindly provided by Solvay (Milan, Italy) – and compared their properties to a commercially available PVDF-fishing line. The fibres were characterised with respect to their thermal actuation properties, crystal morphology and degree of orientation along the spin-line axis.

     

    We have further done modelling on the molecular and macroscopic levels examining the possible mechanisms of negative thermal expansion in semi-crystalline PVDF. We believe that tie molecules (a polymer chain linking two crystalline regions) are the predominant factor influencing actuation. Two mechanisms are considered: an entropic effect and a conformational change effect. The entropic effect causes an increase in the elastic stiffness with an increase in temperature, effectively resulting in a contraction of a strained fibre. The conformational change effect is also expected to contribute to contraction as tie molecules, under strain, revert to their unloaded preferred conformation when heated.

    1. C. S. Haines et al., Artificial Muscles from Fishing Line and Sewing Thread. Science 343, 868-872 (2014).
    2. C. L. Choy et al., Negative Thermal Expansion in Oriented Crystalline Polymers. Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Physics Edition 19, 335-352 (1981).
  • 65.
    Malm, Veronica
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Seoane, Fernando
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Fused deposition modelling – Towards 3D printed electrodes on fabric for surface electromyography (sEMG)2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) monitoring has promising applications within the field of human robot communication where wearable electrodes are used as the interface. This research investigates the production of flexible 3D printed electrodes using electrically conductive filaments, of thermoplastic polyurethane containing carbon black, and polyester fabric as substrate. Dry 3D printed electrodes of varying thickness, due to increased number of layers, were compared to conventional electrolytic gel electrodes. Initial tests show that the volume resistivity of 3D printed electrodes increased with increased number of layers. This because, with increased number of layers the diffusion between layers deteriorates and hinders conductive particle connections. Additional heat-treatments using hot press plates to improve diffusion between layers were promising as volume resistivity decreased with 200 % for all samples. As a first step to evaluate the 3D printed electrodes, skin-electrode impedance measurements were performed, and compared with measurements of conventional electrodes. Results showed that resistance and reactance versus frequency curves had similar trending slopes, decreasing with increasing frequency. However, this corresponded only between the thinnest (200 μm) 3D-printed dry electrode having a volume resistivity of 6.2 Ω cm and the conventional gel electrode. Future studies regarding the influence of platform and extruder temperature are planned for, focusing on improved diffusion between layers and increased conduction for proper electron transfer. 

  • 66.
    Maziz, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Concas, Alessandro
    Linköping University.
    Stålhand, Jonas
    Linköping University.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Jager, Edwin WH
    Linköping University.
    Knitting and weaving artificial muscles2017Inngår i: Science Advances, E-ISSN 2375-2548, Vol. 3, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A need exists for artificial muscles that are silent, soft, and compliant, with performance characteristics similar to those of skeletal muscle, enabling natural interaction of assistive devices with humans. By combining one of humankind’s oldest technologies, textile processing, with electroactive polymers, we demonstrate here the feasibility of wearable, soft artificial muscles made by weaving and knitting, with tunable force and strain. These textile actuators were produced from cellulose yarns assembled into fabrics and coated with conducting polymers using a metal-free deposition. To increase the output force, we assembled yarns in parallel by weaving. The force scaled linearly with the number of yarns in the woven fabric. To amplify the strain, we knitted a stretchable fabric, exhibiting a 53-fold increase in strain. In addition, the textile construction added mechanical stability to the actuators. Textile processing permits scalable and rational production of wearable artificial muscles, and enables novel ways to design assistive devices.

  • 67.
    Morshed, Mohammad Neaz
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi. University of Boras.
    Bouazizi, Nabil
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    Guan, Jinping
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Stabilization of zero valent iron (Fe0) on plasma/dendrimer functionalizedpolyester fabrics for Fenton-like removal of hazardous water pollutants2019Inngår i: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, Vol. 374, s. 658-673Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the synthesis, immobilization and stabilization of multiscale zero valent iron (Fe0=ZVI)particles on fibrous polyester (PET) nonwoven membrane for heterogeneous Fenton-like removal of hazardouspollutants in water. Activation of PET fiber surface by air atmospheric plasma with or without a consecutivegrafting of hyperbranched poly-(ethylene glycol)-pseudo generation 5 dendrimer having hydroxyl (-OH) endgroup functionality created polar reactive functional groups allowing immobilization and stabilization of ZVIparticles. Synthesis of ZVI was carried out through chemical reduction of ferric ions, either through a single stepin-situ, or a two-step ex-situ reduction-immobilization method. The nonwovens were characterized usingwettability, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy(SEM), X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo-gravimetric analysis(TGA). Results confirmed the formation and immobilization of nano to sub-micronic multi-scale ZVI particles.The particle size, distribution and stability of ZVI were found to be influenced by the methods of ZVI synthesisand PET surface activation used. The ZVI particles initially formed, quasi-instantaneously turned to yellowishbrown indicating the formation of oxide layer, except in the case of dendrimer grafted PET, where higher content(22.30%) and stability of ZVI was detected. All ZVI immobilized nonwovens exhibited high effectiveness towardsFenton-like degradation of malachite green dye (20 ppm), with fastest color removal (98% in 20 min) achievedby dendrimer/ex-situ nonwoven. This nonwoven could be used up to eight repeated cycles providing low TDS (52 ppm) and high COD reduction (66.23%). Combined use of eco-friendly plasma and dendrimer grafting,provides efficient fibrous textile base heterogeneous catalysis.

  • 68.
    Morshed, Mohammad Neaz
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Bouazizi, Nabil
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    Vieillard, Julien
    Thoumire, Olivier
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Azzouz, Abdelkrim
    Iron-loaded amine/thiol functionalized polyester fibers with high catalyticactivities: Comparative study2019Inngår i: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersion of iron nanoparticles (Fe-NPs) was achieved on polyester fabrics (PET) beforeand after incorporation of dendrimers (PAMAN), 3-(aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) orthioglycerol (SH). The catalytic activity of the resulting materials (PET-Fe, PET-PAMAM-Fe,PET-APTES-Fe and PET-SH-FE) was comparatively investigated in the degradation of 4-nitrophenol(4-NP) and methylene-blue (MB. Full characterization through diverse instrumentalmethods allowed correlating the type of the organic moiety incorporated to the Fe content,catalytic properties and stability. The highest 4-NP degradation yield reached 99.6 % in 12 minsfor PET-SH-Fe. The catalytic activity was explained in terms of reactant interaction with Fe-NPs. The 1st order reaction kinetics and pseudo-1st order adsorption kinetics provide evidenceof the key-role of reactant adsorption. These findings allow envisaging the preparation of fiberbasedcatalysts for potential uses in environmental and green chemistry.

  • 69.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Enzymatic Processing of Textiles2015Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 70.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Resource effective textile processes2016Inngår i: ISC Liuzhou September 8-10, 2016, China, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 71.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Dural-Erem, Aysin
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Functionalization of textiles with probiotic spores2017Inngår i: Dornbirn MFC, 2017, s. 15-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 72.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Johansson, Mats
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Niit, Ellinor
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Tadesse Abate, Molla
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Functionalization of textiles in supercritical CO22016Inngår i: 55th Man Made Fiber Conference / Dornbirn MFC, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 73.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Tadesse, Melkie Getnet
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Harpa, Rodica
    Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles.
    Loghin, Carmen
    Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles.
    Chen, Yan
    Soochow University, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering.
    Wang, Lichuan
    Soochow University, College of Textile and Clothing Engineering.
    SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF FUNCTIONAL TEXTILE FABRICS2017Inngår i: ITMC2017 - International Conference on Intelligent Textiles and Mass Customization, 2017, s. 1-2Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 74.
    Nilsson, Linnéa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Satomi, Mika
    Vallgårda, Anna
    Worbin, Linda
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Understanding the complexity of designing dynamic textile patterns2011Inngår i: Proceedings of the Ambience conference, Borås, Sweden, 2011, s. 28-30Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Through a smart textile design project we have identified two sets of complex issues generally relevant for design with state changing materials. Specifically, we show how the temporal dimension of smart textiles increase the complexity of traditional textile design variables such as form and colour. We also show how the composite nature of smart textiles creates a series of interdependencies that make the design of the textile expressions additionally complex. We discuss how these forms of complexity provide opportunities as well as challenges for the textile expressions, and we show how we dealt with them in practice.

  • 75.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Larsson, Jonas
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Scott, Mirja
    Feasibility of Fashion Remanufacturing: Organizing fashion value chains for circularity through remanufacturing (including redesign)2018Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increasing need of remanufacturing in fashion industry for leading towards dematerialization, higher revalue addition, possibility to generate highest profit margin, along with create more employment in the industry, it is still practiced on a very small scale. A net-positive environmental impact however, can only be made through remanufacturing with higher scale. However research investigations on this matter are insufficient and knowledge of the practices on new value chain models, associated processes, and designers’ approach to the product development process is still limited.

    The general aim of this study is to investigate how remanufacturing can be made feasible industrially for sustainable competitiveness in the fashion industry.

    This feasibility study was conducted by Re:Textile group in collaboration with several Swedish players, e.g. fashion branded retailers, local textile and apparel manufacturers, and charities. 3 participatory action projects were developed between 2017-2018 in order to elucidate the different possibilities of organizing remanufacturing in fashion industry context, and check the viability of these options. 3 different fashion remanufacturing models were considered to be interesting via literature review, and were planned for further exploration. These were: scaled remanufacturing, distributed redesign and PSS redesign-as-a-service.

    The study identifies the key decision making variables in each of these models, the critical success factors and also in connection assessing the feasibility of each model by constructing various scenarios.

  • 76.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Curteza, A.
    Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    A state-of-the-art Literature Review of Upcycling: A Clothing Industry Perspective2016Inngår i: CORTEP 2016 - Book of Abstracts: 16th Romanian Textiles and Leather Conference / [ed] Avadanei Manuela, Bucharest: Editura Acreditata de Cncsis Bucuresti , 2016, s. 121-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to review and appreciate the developments in the literature of upcycling domain; (i) To comprehend the concept of upcycling and subsequently, understanding the difference among the prominent terminologies used in the literature (ii) To identify application of upcycling across various industries; (iii) To propose a framework of upcycling practices for clothing industries based on the insights.

     Methodology: A scientific literature review procedure proposed by Mayring (2002) was adopted to select and screen the paper which comprised of four steps; (i) Material collection: The collection of material is well defined and delimited based on the profiling approach. Each paper is defined as unit of analysis; (ii) Descriptive analysis: Different criteria are set to analyze collected materials. These are publication year, journal, methodology and author affiliations; (iii) Category selection: To do analysis different categories have been identified. Further those categories were divided into sub-categories; (iv) Material evaluation: According to above mentioned categorization, research papers are analyzed and interpreted to form a conceptual framework.

     Result: The paper has identified terminologies and definitions used in the literature. Recycling may be considered as  the use of the material properties (e.g. as a fire retardant non-woven material in a mattress spring cover) (Morley, Bartlett et al. 2009). Down-cycling may be conceptualized as making an inferior product or broken down into raw material. However, several scholars proposed various definitions of upcycling. The prominent may include: (i) Value/quality of product is improved by making superior product. (Dervojeda, Verzijl et al. 2014); (ii) Giving new value to materials that are either discarded, or are not being used anymore" (Fletcher and Grose 2012); (iii) repurposing lower-value items such as a neck scarf to construct a higher-value end use item, such as a wrap skirt or halter top (Janigo and Wu 2015). The results indicated that designing may be considered as one of the important steps in upcycling process. The process of redesigning consists of ideation, reconstruction and fitting. The limitation of redesigning is variability in size and pattern. This can be overcome by; craftsmanship, time, innovation, provenance, desire, narrative.

     Conclusion: The extant literature revealed that no study so far has attempted to summarize the literature in upcylcing area. Thus, this could be seen as a significant and unique contribution to the literature. Further, the bibliography and insights provided in the study may be used by future scholars as a ready reference for their research.

  • 77.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi. The Swedish School of Textiles.
    Aronsson, Julia
    Tearing of post-consumer cotton T-shirts and jeans of varying degree of wear2020Inngår i: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, ISSN 1558-9250, E-ISSN 1558-9250, Vol. 15, s. 1-9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for textile fibres is growing quickly. However, global cotton production has stabilized around 25 Mton/year. This is a sound development since cotton cultivation causes major sustainable development issues. Even if regenerated cellulose fibre production steadily grows, it is still only from a sixth to a fifth of cotton volumes. Hence, it is essential to find resource-efficient routes to generate alternatives to virgin cotton. There are many promising research initiatives that discover the possibility to utilize waste streams of neat cotton and cotton in fibre blends as raw materials for dissolving pulp for regeneration into, for example, viscose or Lyocell. However, there is a much simpler and energy-efficient route at hand. If fabrics are disintegrated mechanically, the separated fibres can be turned into yarn again. However, since fibre length is a key parameter to accomplish strong and durable textiles, fibre length loss upon tearing should be minimized. This study evaluates how fibre length distribution alters upon tearing of post-consumer cotton waste of two different constructions: denim and single jersey; and different degrees of wear, rendering four different fractions: (1) barely worn denim, (2) rather worn denim, (3) barely worn single-jersey and (4) rather worn single-jersey. Before tearing, the garments were dissembled, their yarns were characterized, fibre length distributions were manually determined for (1)–(4). Length analysis of the recovered fibres after tearing revealed that the length drop was most severe for (a) the finer single-jersey and (b) the barely worn fractions. The findings suggest that significant wear does not exclude from mechanical recycling.

  • 78.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Björquist, Stina
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Aronsson, Julia
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    re:newcell AB.
    Textile qualities of regenerated cellulose fibers from cotton waste pulp2017Inngår i: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cotton is not the answer to meet the rapidly growing demand for textile fibers. Wood-based regenerated cellulosefibers are an attractive alternative. Since wood is a candidate to replace fossil raw materials in so many applications of thecircular economy, other sources need investigation. Cotton linters work in the viscose process – can cotton waste beused to make dissolving pulp? We describe the textile qualities of lyocell fibers from (i) pure cotton waste pulp and(ii) blending with conventional dissolving pulp. The staple fibers were tensile tested, yarns spun and tensile tested andknitted, and tested for shrinkage, water and dye sorption, abrasion resistance, fuzzing and pilling, staining and fastness.TENCEL staple fibers and off-the-shelf TENCEL yarn were used as references. The results show that the two studyfibers had tenacity and an E-modulus that exceeded the staple fiber reference. Also, the study yarns were at least as goodas the spun reference yarn and the commercial off-the-shelf yarn in terms of wet tenacity. Single jerseys made from thestudy yarns shrunk less upon laundering, which is surprising since they could absorb at least as much water at acomparable rate as the references. Dyeability, staining and color fastness, durability and pilling tendency showed thatthe two study fiber tricots performed at least as good as the references. This study suggests that cotton waste is apromising candidate for special grade pulp to suit niche regenerated fiber products or to spice up conventional woodbaseddissolving pulp.

  • 79.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Tanttu, Marjaana
    Aalto University.
    Michud, Anne
    Aalto University.
    Asaadi, Shirin
    Aalto University.
    Ma, Yibo
    Aalto University.
    Netti, Eveliina
    Aalto University.
    Kääriainen, Pirjo
    Aalto University.
    Berntsson, Anders
    Textilmuseet.
    Sixta, Herbert
    Aalto University.
    Hummel, Michael
    Aalto University.
    Ioncell-F: ionic liquid-based cellulosic textile fibers as an alternative to viscose and Lyocell2016Inngår i: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 86, nr 5, s. 543-552Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ioncell-F, a recently developed process for the production of man-made cellulosic fibers from ionic liquid solutions by dry-jet wet spinning, is presented as an alternative to the viscose and N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO)-based Lyocell processes. The ionic liquid 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene acetate was identified as excellent cellulose solvent allowing for a rapid dissolution at moderate temperatures and subsequent shaping into continuous filaments. The highly oriented cellulose fibers obtained upon coagulation in cold water exhibited superior tenacity, exceeding that of commercial viscose and NMMO-based Lyocell (Tencel) fibers. The respective staple fibers, which have been converted into two-ply yarn by ring spinning technology, presented very high tenacity. Furthermore, the Ioncell yarn showed very good behavior during the knitting and weaving processes, reflecting the quality of the produced yarn. The successfully knitted and woven garments from the Ioncell yarn demonstrate the suitability of this particular ionic liquid for the production of man-made cellulosic fibers and thus give a promising outlook for the future of the Ioncell-F process.

  • 80. Persson, Maria
    et al.
    Lorite, Gabriela
    Kokkonen, Hanna
    Lehenkari, Petri
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Tuukkanen, Juha
    Effect of bioactive extruded PLA/HA composite films on focal adhesion formation of preosteoblastic cells2014Inngår i: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 121, s. 409-416Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of the initial cell attachment to a biomaterial will influence any further cell function, including spreading, proliferation, differentiation and viability. Cell attachment is influenced by the material's ability to adsorb proteins, which is related to the surface chemistry and topography of the material. In this study, we incorporated hydroxyapatite (HA) particles into a poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composite and evaluated the surface structure and the effects of HA density on the initial cell attachment in vitro of murine calvarial preosteoblasts (MC3T3-EI). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the HA particles were successfully incorporated into the PLA matrix and located at the surface which is of importance in order to maintain the bioactive effect of the HA particles. SEM and AFM investigation revealed that the HA density (particles/area) as well as surface roughness increased with HA loading concentration (i.e. 5, 10, 15 and 20wt%), which promoted protein adsorption. Furthermore, the presence of HA on the surface enhanced cell spreading, increased the formation of actin stress fibers and significantly improved the expression of vinculin in MC3T3-E1 cells which is a key player in the regulation of cell adhesion. These results suggest the potential utility of PLA/HA composites as biomaterials for use as a bone substitute material and in tissue engineering applications.

  • 81.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    High-strengthelectrically conductive fibers: Functionalization of polyamide, aramid andpolyester fibers with PEDOT polymer2017Inngår i: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, high-performance fibers such as aramid (Twaron), polyamide (PA6), polyester (PET), and hybrid Twaron/PA6 fibers were transformed into electroactive fibers by coating them with conjugated polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) through vapor phase polymerization (VPP) method. The VPP is considered as an efficient technique for depositing CPs on different substrates regardless of their lower solubility in various solvents. In this paper, PEDOT-coated high-performance fibers were prepared under already optimized reaction conditions, and then a comparison between electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of different fibers, before and after coating, was made. The obtained coated fibers were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 2-probe electrical resistance measurement method, and tensile testing. It was revealed that at particular reaction conditions, all high performance textile substrates were successfully converted into electroactive fibers. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics showed that PEDOT-coated polyester fibers exhibited highest conductivity value among all other substrate fibers. The active PEDOT layers on high performance fibers could behave as an antistatic coating to minimize the risks associated with static charges at work places. Also, the obtained fibers have potential to be used as smart materials for various medical, sports, and military applications.

  • 82.
    Peterson, Joel
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    The Co-design Process in Mass Customization of Complete Garment Knitted Fashion Products2016Inngår i: Journal of Textile Science & Engineering, E-ISSN 2165-8064, Vol. 6, nr 4, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Complete garment knitting technology is a method of producing products, generally fashion garments, readymade directly in the knitting machine without operations such as cutting and sewing. This makes it possible to manufacture a fashion garment with fewer processes then with conventional methods. Mass customisation is a customer co-design process of products and that tries to meets the needs of an individual customer's demand. The customer can order a garment with a customised style, colour, size, and other personal preferences. Co-design is a collaborative process between the customer, the retailer, and the manufacturer by which a product is customised to fulfil the customer's requirements. This paper is based on the results of a doctoral thesis. The process of codesign and manufacture of a customised complete fashion product is examined. Research was conducted by a retail concept simulation and three case studies. A cross-case analysis was done to analyse the data. The main findings are a description of two kinds of retail concepts for knitted customized fashion products. A knitted garment can be customized, produced, and delivered to the customer in three to five hours. In the Co-design process two kinds of interactions are feasible between the company and the customer: manual or digital co-design. A manual process has advantages such as: high service level for customers, no requirement of advanced technical equipment. However, manual co-design is labour intensive, a shop assistant can only serve one client at a time. It is also only pplicable to brick-and-mortar stores and not transferable to the Internet. Digital codesign, on the other hand, encourages customers to do the customisation on their own, without the aid of sales personnel and little risk of queues. Moreover, this technique is ideal for the Internet. Disadvantages to date have included limited design options and problem of taking body measurements.

  • 83.
    Peterson, Joel
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Textilhögskolan.
    Vegborn, Ellinor
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Textilhögskolan.
    Andersson, Carl-Håkan
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Textilhögskolan.
    Knittability of fibres with high stiffness2000Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Knitting techniques and machinery are extensively used for the production of textile products for garmet and industrial use. Knitting is also gaining importance for composite materials performing. Basically two principles are in use. i) Weft knitting gives structures of for example traditional sweaters types suitable for structures taking impact loads. ii) Warp knitting gives the traditional tricot structures and the non crimped insert yarn DOS-fabrics extensively used for composite materials fabrication. In the knitting process do hooked needles pick up yarns and form closed loops. The stability of the loop formation depends on the bending of the fibres and type of friction on the needles during the different stages of the knitting process. The characteristics of static friction when the yarn is drawn by the needles into the machine, sliding friction in the loop formation and release after loop formation are of vital importance for the final product. The complexity of the yarn behaviour, the far from ideal mechanical and tribological behaviour of the fibres are mastered by many knitters. The history of knitting indicate the same kind of phenomena as indicated by the history of the steam engine: ”Science owes more to the steam engine than the steam engine owes to science”, lord Kelvin. The knitting process has however been modelled from first principles using models for friction of fibres on positively curved surfaces and simultaneous plastic deformation. A method and fixtures based on earlier work by Andersson et.al adopted for tests of the stress build up in fibres on knitting needles in order to study the knitting process in a tensile testing machine have been developed. Monofilaments and high modulus multifilament yarns known for giving difficulties in knitting process have been studied with respect to : – Static friction – Bending radius of the fibre during the process – Adhesion to needle at the end contact – Sliding friction Plain knitted fabrics and symmetric spacer fabrics have been produced of monofilament and multifilament nylon, PET and aramides. Analysis of fabrics in compression is going on.

  • 84.
    Rafstedt, Josefina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Friberg Lundgren, Johanna
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Kreativitet vs Kapital: Användningen av innovativa marknadsföringsmetoder hos svenska modeföretag2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2013 var den globala omsättningen för modeindustrin ca 76 tusen miljarder svenska kronor (Office of Textiles and Apparel, 2014). Bara i Sverige omsattes det 229 miljarder svenska kronor år 2012 inom denna sektor, en ökning på 11 % från föregående år (Tillväxtverket, 2014). Att modebranschen är under ständig utveckling och ökar i tillväxt kan man se då dessa siffror stiger varje år. Statistik från 2014 visar att trots denna ökning så överlever endast 47 % av nystartade modeföretag de tre första åren (Statistic Brain, 2014). Så hur lyckas man som modeföretag i early stage-fasen att med begränsade resurser stärka sitt varumärke och hålla sig kvar på marknaden? I denna studie berörs olika delar så som traditionell marknadsföring, okonventionell marknadsföring, branding samt transparens, där huvudfokus ligger på företag i early stage- fasen av sin uppstart. I uppsatsen genomfördes sju intervjuer med svenska modeföretag som är eller nyligen varit i denna fas för att få ett resultat med så hög validitet som möjligt. Brist på kunskap och kapital är inte ovanligt i denna bransch och med ökad medvetenhet hos konsumenter om de olika processerna, så kan det ibland uppstå svårigheter att försvara sig som nystartat företag. Då modebranschen är i ständig rörelse med stora förändringar från säsong till säsong måste man som nytt företag vara beredd på reformation samt att alltid tänka innovativt. Det är även viktigt att vara uppmärksam på kommande och rådande trender gällande alla aktiviteter ett företag arbetar med. Eftersom olika marknadsföringsstrategier både kan hjälpa och stjälpa ett varumärkes position på marknaden är den stora utmaningen att hitta rätt metod för just sitt företag (Easy, M. 2009). Resultatet av denna studie kommer alltså att bygga på de kvalitativa intervjuer som genomförts med de utvalda företag som har valt att medverka. De beskriver hur deras uppstart sett ut när det kommer till branding samt hur de i olika kanaler väljer att marknadsföra sig. I dessa intervjuer tittar vi även närmare på hur de lyckades starta sin verksamhet och vilka kapitalmedel de använt, deras syn på okonventionell marknadsföring samt hur marknadsföring och branding hänger samman.

  • 85.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Bakare, Fatimat
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Herrmann, Rene
    Arcada University of Applied Science.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Performance of biocomposites from surface modified regenerated cellulose fibers and lactic acid thermoset bioresin2015Inngår i: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of surface treatments, silane and alkali, on regenerated cellulose fibers was studied by using the treated fibers as reinforcement in lactic acid thermoset bioresin. The surface treatments were performed to improve the physico–chemical interactions at the fiber–matrix interface. Tensile, flexural and impact tests were used as indicator of the improvement of the interfacial strength. Furthermore, thermal conductivity, viscoelasticity measurements as well as microscopy images were made to characterize the fiber surface treatments and the effect on adhesion to the matrix. The results showed that silane treatment improved the mechanical properties of the composites as the silane molecule acts as link between the cellulose fiber and the resin (the fiber bonds with siloxane bridge while the resin bonds with organofunctional group of the bi-functional silane molecule) which gives molecular continuity in the interphase of the composite. Porosity volume decreased significantly on silane treatment due to improved interface and interlocking between fiber and matrix. Decrease in water absorption and increase in contact angle confirmed the change in the hydrophilicity of the composites. The storage modulus increased when the reinforcements were treated with silane whereas the damping intensity decreased for the same composites indicating a better adhesion between fiber and matrix on silane treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the reinforcement altered after treatments. The resin curing was followed using differential scanning calorimetry and the necessity for post-curing was recommended. Finite element analysis was used to predict the thermal behavior of the composites and a non-destructive resonance analysis was performed to ratify the modulus obtained from tensile testing. The changes were also seen on composites reinforced with alkali treated fiber. Microscopy images confirmed the good adhesion between the silane treated fibers and the resin at the interface.

  • 86.
    Rao, P. V. Kameswara
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India.
    Rawal, Amit
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India; Fraunhofer Institute of Industrial Mathematics (ITWM), Fraunhofer-Platz 1, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Kumar, Vijay
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Rajput, Krishn Gopal
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India.
    Compression-recovery model of absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator guided by X-ray micro-computed tomography analysis2017Inngår i: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 365, s. 389-398Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Absorptive glass mat (AGM) separators play a key role in enhancing the cycle life of the valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries by maintaining the elastic characteristics under a defined level of compression force with the plates of the electrodes. Inevitably, there are inherent challenges to maintain the required level of compression characteristics of AGM separators during the charge and discharge of the battery. Herein, we report a three-dimensional (3D) analytical model for predicting the compression-recovery behavior of AGM separators by formulating a direct relationship with the constituent fiber and structural parameters. The analytical model of compression-recovery behavior of AGM separators has successfully included the fiber slippage criterion and internal friction losses. The presented work uses, for the first time, 3D data of fiber orientation from X-ray micro-computed tomography, for predicting the compression-recovery behavior of AGM separators. A comparison has been made between the theoretical and experimental results of compression-recovery behavior of AGM samples with defined fiber orientation characteristics. In general, the theory agreed reasonably well with the experimental results of AGM samples in both dry and wet states. Through theoretical modeling, fiber volume fraction was established as one of the key structural parameters that modulates the compression hysteresis of an AGM separator.

  • 87.
    Rawal, Amit
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi; Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics (ITWM); Institut für Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik.
    Kumar, Vijay
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Saraswat, Harshvardhan
    MLV Textile & Engineering College.
    Weerasinghe, Dakshitha
    Institut für Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik.
    Hietel, Dietmar
    Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics (ITWM).
    Dauner, Martin
    Institut für Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik.
    Creating three-dimensional (3D) fiber networks with out-of-plane auxetic behavior over large deformations2017Inngår i: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 2534-2548Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fiber networks with out-of-plane auxetic behavior have been sporadically investigated. One of the major challenges is to design such materials with giant negative Poisson’s ratio over large deformations. Here in, we report a systematic investigation to create three-dimensional (3D) fiber networks in the form of needlepunched nonwoven materials with out-of-plane auxetic behavior over large deformations via theoretical modeling and extensive set of experiments. The experimental matrix has encapsulated the key parameters of the needlepunching nonwoven process. Under uniaxial tensile loading, the anisotropy coupled with local fiber densification in networks has yielded large negative Poisson’s ratio (up to −5.7) specifically in the preferential direction. The in-plane and out-of-plane Poisson’s ratios of fiber networks have been predicted and, subsequently, compared with the experimental results. Fiber orientation was found to be a core parameter that modulated the in-plane Poisson’s ratio of fiber networks. A parametric analysis has revealed the interplay between the anisotropy of the fiber network and the out-of-plane Poisson’s ratio based upon constant volume consideration.

  • 88.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Ragnerius, Anna
    Signals and Systems/Chalmers.
    Widelund, Frida
    Signals and Systems/Chalmers.
    Candefjord, Stefan
    Signals and Systems/Chalmers.
    Rundqvist, Karin
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Nilsson, Erik
    Swerea/IVF.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    A piezoelectric smart textile sock for gait analysis - A feasibility study2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 89. Schneegass, Stefan
    et al.
    Hassib, Mariam
    Zhou, Bo
    Cheng, Jingyuan
    Seoane, Fernando
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd. KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Amft, Oliver
    Lukowicz, Paul
    Schmidt, Albrecht
    SimpleSkin: towards multipurpose smart garments2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing and Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computers, ACM Publications, 2015, s. 241-244Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 90.
    Seipel, Sina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Yu, Junchun
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Digital inkjet printing as flexible and resource-saving production technique for a smart textile UV-sensor2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 91.
    Seoane, Fernando
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    KTH, Medicinsk teknik.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Printed Electronics Enabling a Textile-friendly Interconnection between Wearable Measurement Instrumentation & Sensorized Garments2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 92.
    Siddharth, Shukla
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India.
    Kumar, Vijay
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Kameswara Rao, P.V.
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India.
    Sharma, Sumit
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India.
    Sebők, Dániel
    University of Szeged, Interdisciplinary Excellence Center, Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, H-6720 Szeged, Rerrich Béla tér 1, Hungary.
    Szenti, Imre
    University of Szeged, Interdisciplinary Excellence Center, Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, H-6720 Szeged, Rerrich Béla tér 1, Hungary.
    Rawal, Amit
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India.
    Kukovecz, Akos
    University of Szeged, Interdisciplinary Excellence Center, Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, H-6720 Szeged, Rerrich Béla tér 1, Hungary.
    Probing the three-dimensional porous and tortuous nature of absorptive glass mat (AGM) separators2020Inngår i: Journal of Energy Storage, E-ISSN 2352-152X, Vol. 2017, nr 101003Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) battery is a predominant electrochemical storage system that stores energy in a cheap, reliable and recyclable manner for innumerable applications. The absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator is a key component, which is pivotal for the successful functioning of the VRLA battery. Herein, the intricate three-dimensional (3D) porous structure of AGM separators has been unveiled using X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) analysis. X-ray microCT has quantified a variety of fiber and structural parameters including fiber orientation, porosity, tortuosity, pore size distribution, pore interconnectivity and pore volume distribution. A predictive model of hydraulic tortuosity has been developed based upon some of these fiber and structural parameters. Moreover, the pore size distribution extracted via X-ray microCT analysis has served as a benchmark for making a comparison with the existing analytical model of the pore size distribution of AGM separators. Pore size distributions obtained via the existing analytical model and through X-ray microCT analysis are in close agreement.

  • 93.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Hernández, Niina
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Wipenmyr, Jan
    Rise Acreo.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Surface modification of textile electrodes to improve electrocardiography signals in wearable smart garment2019Inngår i: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482X, Vol. 30, nr 17, s. 16666-16675Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recording high quality biosignals by dry textile electrodes is a common challenge in medical health monitoring garments. The aim of this study was to improve skin–electrode interface and enhance the quality of recorded electrocardiography (ECG) signals by modification of textile electrodes embedded in WearItMed smart garment. The garment has been developed for long-term health monitoring in patients suffering from epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. A skin-friendly electro-conductive elastic paste was formulated to coat and modify the surface of the knitted textile electrodes. The modifications improved the surface characteristics of the electrodes by promoting a more effective contact area between skin and electrode owing to a more even surface, fewer pores, greater surface stability against touch, and introduction of humidity barrier properties. The modifications decreased the skin–electrode contact impedance, and consequently improved the recorded ECG signals obviously when low pressure was applied to the electrodes, therefore contributed to greater patient comfort. The created contact surface allowed the natural humidity of the skin/sweat to ease the signal transfer between the electrode and the body, while introducing a shorter settling time and retaining moisture over a longer time. Microscopic images, ECG signal measurements, electrode–skin contact impedance at different pressures and times, and water absorbency were measured and reported.

  • 94.
    Steenari, Martin
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Herbertsson, Viktoria
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Varpklister: En studie kring biologiskt klister2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle är miljön ett viktigt diskussionsområde. En diskussion som gäller textilbranschen i allra högsta grad. För att omvandla textila fibrer till en färdig textil behöver de genomgå många processer där kemikalier krävs. Varpklistringsprocessen är ett viktigt steg för att tillverka högkvalitativa vävda produkter vilket kräver stora mängder kemikalier. Dragstyrka, töjning och nötningshållfast är några egenskaper som man vill tillföra garnet genom att klistra det. Detta är något som krävs för att garnerna ska klara av de komplexa krafter som de utsätts för i vävmaskinen utan att gå sönder. Studien undersöker hur ett biologiskt klister i form av vax kan användas som ett alternativ till syntetiskt klister från icke förnyelsebara källor. Genom att klistra två stycken PET-garner och två stycken polyamidgarner syftar studien till att utvärdera hur ett biologiskt varpklister förändrar garnerna i jämförelse med konventionellt syntetiskt klister. Eftersom det biologiska klistret idag inte används som konventionellt varpklister testades två olika koncentrationer, 1% och 2,5%, på klisterbaden samt två olika tryck mellan pressvalsarna i foularden, 2 bar och 4 bar. För att utreda om och hur garnerna påverkats av de olika varpklistringarna utvärderades dragstyrkan, töjningen, viktförändringen, friktionen och garnets struktur. Resultaten av de mätningar som gjordes visade på att det biologiska klistret inte förändrade vikten med mer än 1 % vid varpklistringsprocessen. Testerna i dragstyrka, friktion, töjning och ytstruktur visade inga signifikanta skillnader mellan ett oklistrat garn och biologiskt klistrat garn. Utifrån de utförda testerna har det inte gått att dra några slutsatser kring hur egenskaperna förändras av biologiskt klister jämfört med det syntetiskt klistrade garnerna, eftersom för lite biologiskt klister fäster på garnerna. Det behöver göras ytterligare försök att använda biologiskt varpklister till klistring av PET-garner och PA-garner för att besvara frågan om det går att ersätta dagens varpklister med ett biologiskt klister baserat på vax

  • 95.
    Sundberg, Fanny
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Anderhell, Max
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Washing and drying reusable sanitary pads2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Period poverty is a problem mainly found in places characterized by poverty. The lack of means for women and girls to properly handle their menstruation is the essence of the problem. With a lack of both quantity and quality regarding water often being an issue in such places, the hygiene is a constant challenge. Two different kinds of sanitary products are used globally, disposable and reusable. The reusable ones are often being made of cotton or other absorbent materials. Regardless the material, reusable products need cleaning between the times of use, which could be a challenge when water is not always accessible. To have a reusable sanitary pad that efficiently can be cleaned with low amounts of resources is important, especially in impoverished places. Spacerpad is a reusable sanitary pad and a part of a project at the University of Borås. The aim for the project is to reduce period poverty and to educate women and girls in menstrual hygiene management. The pad is made of polyester which does not absorb blood or water, instead the pad merely contains the fluids. This thesis was conducted as a field study in Nairobi, Kenya. The study aimed to simulate a menstruation, in order to analyze the microbial activity in two different reusable sanitary pads, during as well as after menstruation. With the influences from interviews and resources found in Kibera (a slum in Nairobi) a simulation of five days was executed, with nutrient solution instead of menstrual blood. The Spacerpad and a cotton pad were exposed to the same procedures and the effects of washing and drying were studied. The microbial activity was measured with the help of dipslides, a growth medium. The results of this study show that both Spacerpad and the cotton pad could be carriers of heavy growth of bacteria. Increasing microbial activity throughout the simulation as the days went by, ended with a dividing result after a soap wash as the final washing procedure. The pad made of cotton still carried above slight growth, compared to Spacerpad that showed almost no activity after the final cleanse. Even though the microbial activity reached high levels during the simulation, the fact that the Spacerpad can be cleaned with limited resources could be reason enough to consider the Spacerpad as a sufficiently sanitary product in an impoverished place like Kibera.

  • 96.
    Sundqvist, Lovisa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Wrang, Annie
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Vikten att följa trender - en inköpares dilemma?: En tvärsnittsstudie om beslutsfattandet inom svenska modeföretags inköpsprocesser2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan millenniumskiftet förändrades modevärlden radikalt av fler säsonger, ökad mångfald av trender samtidigt som trendernas livslängds blev allt kortare. Hos inköparna på de stora klädbolagen ställs det idag ett allt större krav att veta vad som kommer att sälja i framtiden. Idag måste besluten tas snabbt så att kläderna hinner producera och levereras i tid innan modet hinner ändra sig. Som ett hjälpmedel för inköpare och designers om i vilken riktning modet kommer att gå finns trender som fungerar som ett avgränsat modeuttryck för att förmedla och tolka en viss stil och därmed ge en tydlig bild om vad som bör produceras och efterfrågas. Men eftersom internet har medfört en ökad acceleration av trender kan det upplevas svårt att veta vad som kommer sälja i framtiden och det är här ser vi trendbyråernas roll. Trendbyråer har en koordinerande roll på marknaden där de ger företag vägledning om förändringar i modet. Genom trendanalyser får företag en överblick hur riktningen i modet kommer att gå, förstå vilka globala influenser som påverkar modet och en reflektion kring hur allt återspeglas till modet. Vad gäller tidigare forskning av begreppen trender och trendbyråer vid beslutsfattande, har ingen omfattande undersökning tidigare gjorts vilket har medfört att vår uppsats känns värdefull för en mer förståelse kring ämnet. Avsikten med vår uppsats är att undersöka och analysera hur trender och trendanalyser har för betydelse vid beslutsfattande inom inköpsprocessens tidiga stadium hos svenska modeföretag. Studien har efter insamling av teori inom områdena beslut, trender och trendanalyser genomförts med en kvalitativ grund där insamling av det empiriska materialet har utgått från semistrukturerade intervjuer. Intervjuer har främst genomförts med respondenter som innehar en roll inom inköp på svenska modeföretag som ingår i beteckningen SME (Small medium Enterprises). Dessa företag är Ellos, Lindex, Gina Tricot och MQ. För att öka förståelsen kring trender och trendanalyser har intervjuer även genomförts med en trendanalytiker från Svenska Moderådet och en författare bakom boken Trendmakarna. Insamlad data har därefter analyserats och ställts mot teorier angående beslut, trender och trendanalyser i syfte att kunna uttala oss om hur inköpare ser på trender och trendbyråers betydelse vid beslutsfattande av inköp. De resultat som empirin bestått av ger indikationer på att trender har en betydande roll men att det både kan öka och minska på osäkerheter samt risker. Inköparna anser att det finns många risker med trendbaserade produkter men att trendanalyser vid beslutsfattande kan användas för att förstå riktningen modet går i för att därefter kunna anpassa inköpen genom volym, budget, material och leverantörer. Därmed kan de vara ett hjälpmedel för att minska på både ett besluts risk och osäkerhet, vilket bekräftar de teorier som tagits upp. Dock kan vi uttala oss om att beslutsfattande inom inköp inte bara baseras på trendanalyser utan andra faktorer och variabler spelar också in.

  • 97.
    Tadesse Abate, Molla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Ferri, Ada
    Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino.
    Guan, Jinping
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University.
    Chen, Guoqiang
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Single-step disperse dyeing and antimicrobial functionalization of polyester fabric with chitosan and derivative in supercritical carbon dioxide2019Inngår i: Journal of Supercritical Fluids, ISSN 0896-8446, E-ISSN 1872-8162, Vol. 147, s. 231-240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a novel green approach was adopted to develop antimicrobial polyester fabric using sustainable biopolymers (chitosan/derivative) as eco-friendly antimicrobial agents via the resource efficient supercritical CO2 (scCO2) dyeing route in a single step. Polyester fabric was dyed with a small amount of dye (0.4% owf) in the presence of chitosan/derivative (3% owf) in scCO2 at 120 °C, 25 MPa for 1 h. The success of chitosan/derivative impregnation was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Zeta Potential (ζ), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Water Contact Angle (WCA) measurements. According to the result, excellent color strength and fastness properties were obtained and the treated samples also reduced 75 − 93% of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) bacteria within one hour. This suggests that the dye and chitosan/derivative had no adverse effect on each other, proving compatibility. This new approach would help to reduce the cost of production and environmental pollution associated with the conventional textile finishing processes.

  • 98.
    Tadesse Abate, Molla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Ferri, Ada
    Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino.
    Guan, Jinping
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University.
    Chen, Guoqiang
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Colouration and bio-activation of polyester fabric with curcumin in supercritical CO2: Part I - Investigating colouration properties2019Inngår i: The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, ISSN 0896-8446Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 99.
    Tadesse Abate, Molla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Combined Pre-treatment and Causticization of cotton fabric for improved dye uptake2017Inngår i: Advance Research in Textile Engineering, ISSN 2572-9373, Vol. 2, nr 1, artikkel-id 1016Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventionally, cotton fabric is subjected to a series of separate pretreatment processes such as desizing, scouring, and bleaching to remove natural and added impurities for satisfactory dyeing and finishing. When the sole purpose is to improve the dye uptake, cotton fabric is subjected to yet another separate process called causticization, a treatment of cotton fabric at reduced concentration of caustic soda (110-150 g/L) compared to mercerization. All these processes i.e. desizing, scouring, and bleaching are lengthy and require large amount of water, energy, chemicals, and time which lead to increase in cost and productivity loss.

    In this paper, a combined desizing, scouring, bleaching and causticization process with shorter processing time is reported. Single factor randomized experimental design was used for process optimization. Based on experiments, the optimum recipe consisted of padding the gray cotton fabric using a twodip, two-nip technique in a bath containing NaOH 140g/L; Sodium Per Borate (SPB) 40-45g/L; wetting agent 1g/L, batching for 30 min at room temperature and washing the treated fabric with 1g/L emulsifier twice for 15 minutes each at boil with 3% owf SPB added during the second wash, rinsed with hot and cold water and air dried.

    The results showed excellent wettability, good degree of whiteness, minimum loss of tensile strength and higher dye uptake compared to uncausticized commercially bleached cotton fabric.

  • 100.
    Tadesse Abate, Molla
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Combined Pre-treatment and Causticization of cotton fabric for improved dye uptake2017Inngår i: Advance Research in Textile Engineering, ISSN 2572-9373, Vol. 2, nr 1, artikkel-id 1016Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventionally, cotton fabric is subjected to a series of separate pretreatment processes such as desizing, scouring, and bleaching to remove natural and added impurities for satisfactory dyeing and finishing. When the sole purpose is to improve the dye uptake, cotton fabric is subjected to yet another separate process called causticization, a treatment of cotton fabric at reduced concentration of caustic soda (110-150 g/L) compared to mercerization. All these processes i.e. desizing, scouring, and bleaching are lengthy and require large amount of water, energy, chemicals, and time which lead to increase in cost and productivity loss.

    In this paper, a combined desizing, scouring, bleaching and causticization process with shorter processing time is reported. Single factor randomized experimental design was used for process optimization. Based on experiments, the optimum recipe consisted of padding the gray cotton fabric using a twodip, two-nip technique in a bath containing NaOH 140g/L; Sodium Per Borate (SPB) 40-45g/L; wetting agent 1g/L, batching for 30 min at room temperature and washing the treated fabric with 1g/L emulsifier twice for 15 minutes each at boil with 3% owf SPB added during the second wash, rinsed with hot and cold water and air dried.

    The results showed excellent wettability, good degree of whiteness, minimum loss of tensile strength and higher dye uptake compared to uncausticized commercially bleached cotton fabric.

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