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  • 51.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Experience of threats and violence in the Swedish Ambulance Service.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Experiences of developing research in pre-hospital care in Sweden2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    How do ambulance personnel experience work at a disaster site?2001In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 56-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working at a major accident site is a complex matter where knowledge from various fields must be put into practice. In addition, the different situations at emergency and disaster sites place a variety of demands on personnel, equipment and organization. The aim of the present study is to investigate how the ambulance personnel perceived their own action and the functioning of the whole emergency organization at a major accident site (large discotheque fire) in 1998. Working from a list obtained from the fire department, a questionnaire with 57 questions was sent to the personnel (n = 36) who had participated at the accident site either as ambulance crew members or as members of a medical team sent out from the hospital. The response rate was 80 per cent. Despite the extreme situation, most of the ambulance personnel involved were satisfied with their own preparedness as well as the medical and nursing care performed at the site. Those who where not satisfied reported that the main reason for dissatisfaction was lack of time to calm and comfort people who were not injured or had only minor injuries. The need of more medical support for the medical team members at the site was also emphasized with regard to the care of the severely injured. The ambulance service crews from the suburbs, in comparison with the local city rescue service, were, in general, less satisfied with the co-operation from other rescue units.

  • 54.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Komfort för patienten viktigt under ambulansfärd2007In: Samverkan 112, ISSN 1650-7487, Vol. 6, p. 50-51Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 55.
    suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Learning by simulation in prehospital emergency care - an integrative literature review.2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 234-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning by simulation in prehospital emergency care

    – an integrative literature review

    Background: Acquiring knowledge and experience on high-energy trauma is often difficult due to infrequent exposure. This creates a need for training which is specifically tailored for complex prehospital conditions. Simulation provides an opportunity for ambulance nurses to focus on the actual problems in clinical practice and to develop knowledge regarding trauma care. The aim of this study was to describe what ambulance nurses and paramedics in prehospital emergency care perceive as important for learning when participating in simulation exercises.

    Methods: An integrative literature review was carried out. Criteria for inclusion were primary qualitative and quantitative studies, where research participants were ambulance nurses or paramedics, working within prehospital care settings, and where the research interventions involved simulation.

    Results: It was perceived important for the ambulance nurses’ learning that scenarios were advanced and possible to simulate repeatedly. The repetitions contributed to increase the level of experience, which in turn improved the patients care. Moreover, realism in the simulation and being able to interact and communicate with the patient were perceived as important aspects, as was debriefing, which enabled the enhancement of knowledge and skills. The result is presented in the following categories: To gain experience, To gain practice and To be

    strengthened by others.

    Conclusion: Learning through simulation does not requireyears of exposure to accident scenes. The simulated learning is enhanced by realistic, stressful scenarios where ambulance nurses interact with the patients. In this study, being able to communicate with the patient was highlighted as a positive contribution to learning. However, this has seldom been mentioned in a previous research on simulation. Debriefing is important for learning as it enables scrutiny of one´s actions and thereby the possibility to improve and adjust one’s caring. The effect of simulation exercises is important on patient outcome.

  • 56.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Nurses man the Swedish response cars, can they replace the physician in the air ambulance service?2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Papel do Enfermeiro no Serviço de Emergência Sueco2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Patient Safety: European Perspectives – Sweden.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calling for an ambulance is not something that a person would normally do without hesitating. He/she might fear that s/he will not handle the situation, neither on their own nor with help from relatives. He/she might even fear for their life. The answer to their call, “we will send an ambulance for you”, makes him/her being defined as a patient. Dealing with patients puts special demands on ambulance staff. They need to gather information from their patients and their relatives and conduct the first assessment. Thereafter they need to decide which treatment and care should be administered on the spot or if care and transport to hospital is more crucial. In these situations, patient safety is to make the right decision and perform the right measures with quality. In order to maintain good patient safety, strong governmental regulations are needed in many areas. Patient safety in prehospital emergency care concerns the whole ‘care chain’, from that first call to the hand-over at the receiving department. Previous research shows that in prehospital emergency care, patient safety is strongly connected to assessing the patient, having a good driver, performing care during transport, maintaining quality and adapting all medical equipment to mobile treatment and care. To maintain high standard, the ambulance staff should have good health status, both physically and mentally. Also, all regulations and rules must aim to support patient safety.

  • 59.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Photo documentation on the scene of an accident: a complement to the ordinary documentation2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Prehospital akutsjukvård med fokus på sjuksköterskan1997In: ROA-bladet, p. 6-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 61.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Sicherheit in einer mobilen Einheit (ambulanter Rettungsdienst)/Safety in the Ambulance Service: aus der Perspektive des Patienten und der Pflegenden/ from the patient and the personnel's view2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Sjuksköterskan i den "nya ambulanssjukvården"1998In: Ventilen, ISSN 0348-6257, no 4, p. 28-30Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 63.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Sjuksköterskan i den "nya ambulanssjukvården"2000In: Ambulansforum, ISSN 2001-0214Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Prehospital akutsjukvård är ett lite utforskat område nationellt och internationellt. Innehållet i den här artikeln är hämtat från den första svenska avhandlingen som behandlar området. Två övergripande syften med den akademiska avhandlingen var att beskriva utvecklingen inom prehospital akutsjukvård och hur situationen är idag. Två andra övergripande syften var att beskriva sjuksköterskors upplevelser och erfarenheter av arbete på en större skadeplats samt hur ambulanssjukvårdare och sjuksköterskor uppfattar sin egen funktion respektive den andra yrkesgruppens funktion i prehospital akutsjukvård. Avhandling beskriver området prehospital akutsjukvård utifrån, studerandes kunskaper i katastrofsjukvård (studie I), sjuksköterskors upplevelser och erfarenheter av arbetet på en större skadeplats (studie II), ambulanssjukvårdares, läkares och sjuksköterskors syn på fältet och de olika yrkesgruppernas roll och funktion (studie III, IV), samt en kartläggning av utvecklingen inom området prehospital akutsjukvård fram till år 1997 (studie V). Föreliggande artikel avser att ge en sammanfattning av studie III, IV och V i avhandlingen. För en mer utförlig beskrivning av varje delstudie, se referenser för de olika artiklarna. Varje delstudie har också ett stort antal referenser som kan vara värdefulla för de som är speciellt intresserade av området.

  • 64.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    The discotheque fire in Gothenburg: experiences expressed by ambulance personnel2000In: Prehospital & Disaster Medicine, Cambridge University Press , 2000, p. 74-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    The role of the nurse in Swedish prehospital emergency care1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Threats and violence in the Swedish ambulance services2003In: Prehospital & Disaster Medicine, Cambridge University Press , 2003, Vol. 18Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Vad ställer beställande vårdpersonal för krav på en sjukresa?2000Other (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Ökad vetenskaplighet för ambulansen framåt2007In: Samverkan 112, ISSN 1650-7487, Vol. 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 69.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Ahl, Caroline
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Hjälte, L
    Johansson, C
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Wireklint-Sundström, Birgitta
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Unique characteristics of ambulance care2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Beillon, L
    Karlberg, I
    Pappinen, J
    Castren, M
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Do the right patients use the Ambulance Service in South-Eastern Finland2011In: International Journal of Clinical Medicine, ISSN 2158-284X, E-ISSN 2158-2882, Vol. 2, no 5, p. 544-549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Several Emergency Medical Systems use a criteria-based prioritization system for ambulance response. The emergency medical priority dispatching of ambulances was introduced in the 1980s. In a system of this kind, the operators at the medical emergency dispatch centers have to assess the patients’ symptoms and the need for ambulance response. The prioritization of the ambulance response is based on the seriousness of the patient’s symptoms, his/her current condition and, in the case of trauma, the trauma mechanism. The priority system is supposed to optimize the use of the ambulance service and to match and meet the patients’ needs with an adequate response from the ambulances. The aim of this study was to describe the dispatching and utilization of the ambulance service in a part of Finland. Results: There was a substantial divergence between the initial priority assigned and the patients’ medical status at the scene. The ambulance staff confirmed the need for ambulance transport for 65% of all the patients who were assigned an ambulance by the dispatch center. Conclusions: Using a criteria-based dispatch protocol, the dispatch operator works with a wider safety margin in the priority assessments for ambulance response than was actually confirmed by the ambulance personnel at the scene. In this sample, there may be some overuse of the ambulance service. According to the assessments made by the ambulance staff, 35% of the patients did not require ambulance transport. The emergency system has to accept and work with safety margins. At the same time, there must be a balance between a safety margin and a waste of limited resources.

  • 71.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Blomquist, M
    Johansson, I
    Experiences of threats and violence in the Swedish ambulance service2002In: Accident and Emergency Nursing, ISSN 0965-2302, E-ISSN 1532-9267, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 127-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambulance personnel often meet people in a crisis situation that requires a readiness to act, and which takes for granted a broad knowledge in caring, together with an ability to size up the circumstances in each separate incident. The afflicted individual's first contact with a medic in an emergency situation is very often ambulance personnel and this first meeting can involve incidents that may radically change the existing state of things for the ill or injured and, maybe, even for near relatives. Sometimes these situations can lead to threats and acts of violence aimed at the ambulance staff. The aim of the study was to describe how ambulance personnel perceive, how they are subjected to, and are influenced by, threats and violence in their day-to-day work. The empirical study was descriptive and consisted of a questionnaire comprising a total of 13 questions. Answers from the 66 respondents revealed that 53 persons (80.3%) were subjected to threats and/or violence. The majority were of the opinion that the relationship between the paramedic and the patient was most certainly affected when threat or violence is a part of the situation. The study shows that many ambulance personnel have, on occasion, been subjected to one or several threats and/or situations involving the use of violence. The majority regarded this as an unpleasant experience.

  • 72.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Bruce, K
    Dahlberg, K
    Ambulance nursing assessment. Part two.2003In: Emergency Nurse, ISSN 1354-5752, E-ISSN 2047-8984, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 14-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Bruce, K
    Dahlberg, K
    Initial assessment in ambulance nursing: part one2003In: Emergency Nurse, ISSN 1354-5752, E-ISSN 2047-8984, Vol. 10, no 10, p. 13-17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Halabi, JO
    Abdalrahim, MS
    Olausson, Sepideh
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Lepp, M
    Learning Through Drama in th Field of Global Nursing2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Haljamae, H
    Nurse competence: Advantageous in pre-hospital emergency care?1999In: Accident and Emergency Nursing, ISSN 0965-2302, E-ISSN 1532-9267, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 18-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aspects of the organization and function of pre-hospital emergency care services in western Sweden were assessed by interviewing physicians (n=20) with administrative (n=10) or/and active (n=10) roles in the pre-hospital emergency care field. The data obtained indicate that although the present standard of care is acceptable, there is an obvious need for a more effective organization and the personnel involved should have a higher competence level. Ambulance personnel were not considered to have a high enough competence level. Therefore, a need for more nurses, preferably anaesthesia or intensive care nurses, was expressed. An awareness of the importance of research was noted among the physicians responsible for the services, and the research capability of nurses, along with their general competence in emergency medical service related problems, was considered an important argument for involving more nurses in pre-hospital emergency care. It was thought that by such an approach, a more scientific basis for assessing the efficacy of pre-hospital emergency care could be achieved.

  • 76.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Haljamae, Hengo
    Role of nurses in pre-hospital emergency care1997In: Accident and Emergency Nursing, ISSN 0965-2302, E-ISSN 1532-9267, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 145-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to increase the quality of pre-hospital emergency care services, the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare advocates a switch to clinically better educated professionals. The aim of this study is to assess the attitudes of ambulancemen, paramedics and nurses to each others' professional roles in prehospital emergency care. Ambulancemen and paramedics appreciate nurses' experience in anaesthesia, intensive care and cardiology, but do not see the nurse's role as being ‘team leader’. Both groups of professionals acknowledge the advantage of ambulance crew members having complementing skills, in order to improve the service. There is some rivalry between nurses and ambulancemen and paramedics. However, the increasing number of nurses in pre-hospital emergency care is contributing to the quality of the service by raising the competence level of the team as a whole.

  • 77.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Haljamäe, H
    Nurse competence: Advantageous in pre-hospital emergency care?1999In: Accident and Emergency Nursing, ISSN 0965-2302, E-ISSN 1532-9267, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 18-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aspects of the organization and function of pre-hospital emergency care services in western Sweden were assessed by interviewing physicians (n=20) with administrative (n=10) or/and active (n=10) roles in the pre-hospital emergency care field. The data obtained indicate that although the present standard of care is acceptable, there is an obvious need for a more effective organization and the personnel involved should have a higher competence level. Ambulance personnel were not considered to have a high enough competence level. Therefore, a need for more nurses, preferably anaesthesia or intensive care nurses, was expressed. An awareness of the importance of research was noted among the physicians responsible for the services, and the research capability of nurses, along with their general competence in emergency medical service related problems, was considered an important argument for involving more nurses in pre-hospital emergency care. It was thought that by such an approach, a more scientific basis for assessing the efficacy of pre-hospital emergency care could be achieved.

  • 78.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Johansson, I
    Blomquist, M
    Erfarenheter av hot och våld inom ambulanssjukvården2003In: Samverkan 112, ISSN 1650-7487, Vol. 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 79.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Backlund, Anna
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Patients comfort in prehospital emergency care2009In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 10-10Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Johansson, Anders
    Petzäll, Kerstin
    Caring for patients at high speed2013In: Emergency Nurse, ISSN 1354-5752, E-ISSN 2047-8984, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 14-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The aim of this article is to explore whether ambulance clinicians in Sweden perceive their working environment to be safe. Method Twenty four ambulance nurses and nine paramedics at five ambulance stations in urban and rural areas of Sweden were interviewed. Findings After transcripts of the interviews had been analysed, nine issues that affect how participants perceive the safety of patient care in ambulances emerged: planning before departure; use of safety belts; driving at high speeds; patient first, safety second; equipment design and placement; noise; driving styles; presence of relatives; documentation. Conclusion Ambulance personnel should have greater involvement in the design of ambulance care spaces and drivers should be given more regular training.

  • 81.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Lepp, Margret
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Mogans, A
    Monash University Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice Visiting International Fellows 20072007In: Journal of Emergency Primary Health Care, ISSN 1447-4999, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Lundberg, Lars
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Prehospital akutsjukvård2016 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 83.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Rådestad, Monica
    Svensson, Leif (Editor)
    Högskoleutbildningar inom prehospital akutsjukvård2009In: Prehospital akutsjukvård, Stockholm: Liber , 2009, p. 60-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 84.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Svensson, Leif
    Prehospital akutsjukvård2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Suserud, B-O
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Photo Documentation on the Scene of an Accident: A Complement to the Ordinary Documentation2001In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 16, no S1, p. S74-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 86. Svendsen, Susanne
    et al.
    Wireklint Sundström, Birgitta
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Svensson, Leif (Editor)
    Sjukvårdsrådgivning2009In: Prehospital akutsjukvård, Stockholm: Liber , 2009, p. 79-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 87. Svensson, L
    et al.
    Nilsson, J
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Svensson, Leif (Editor)
    Allmän rytmdiagnostik utifrån prehospital EKG2009In: Prehospital akutsjukvård, Liber AB , 2009, p. 279-294Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 88. Svensson, Leif
    et al.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Cirkulation, Bröstsmärtor2009In: Prehospital akutsjukvård, Stockholm: Liber , 2009, p. 264-278Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 89. Svensson, Leif
    et al.
    Nilsson, Jens
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Svensson, Leif (Editor)
    Allmän rytmdiagnostik utifrån prehospitalt EKG2009In: Prehospital akutsjukvård, Stockholm: Liber , 2009, p. 279-295Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 90. Svensson, Leif
    et al.
    Sarlöv, Catharina
    Björk Brämberg, Elisabeth
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Svensson, Leif (Editor)
    Diabetes2009In: Prehospital akutsjukvård, Stockholm: Liber , 2009, p. 316-325Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 91. Waage, A
    et al.
    Hamberger, B
    Lundin, T
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Riddez, L
    KAMEDO report no 84: Terrorist attacks against the World Trader Center, 11 september 20012006In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 129-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On 11 September 2001, two hijacked airplanes collided with the World Trade Center in New York. Both towers collapsed, spreading smoke and debris for miles. Rescue personnel arrived rapidly, but the collapse of the towers made the scene too dangerous for these teams to rescue all those trapped inside. Although this collapse was impossible to predict, fires occurring in skyscrapers can cause the structures to collapse.When a fire erupts in the upper levels of the building, it is even more difficult for those trapped inside to escape. Communications systems were shut down. In future incidents with large numbers of injured victims, the injured should be transported to hospitals by non-traditional medical transport vehicles (taxis, cars, etc.). If future disasters occur in the vicinity of a hospital, the most severely injured victims should go to the hospital instead of congregating at assembly points. These victims often are already at hospitals before substantial aid arrives at the assembly points. On-scene care must be documented, and easy-to-read triage tags should be used. Reserve power supplies in major cities should be maintained in preparation for emergencies. Both victims and rescue personnel are susceptible to post-traumatic, psychosocial reactions.

  • 92. Wijk, H
    et al.
    Öhlen, J
    Lidén, E
    German Millberg, L
    Jacobsson, C
    Söderberg, S
    Berg, L
    Engström, Å
    Höglund, I
    Lepp, Margret
    Lindström, I
    Nygren, B
    Person, C
    Petzäll, K
    Skär, L
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Söderlund, M
    Verksamhetsförlagd utbildning på avancerad nivå: ny utmaning för specialistutbildningar för sjuksköterskor2009In: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, E-ISSN 1890-4238, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 41-43Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to discuss challenges in the development of Specialist Nursing Educations as a result of the 2007 Swedish Higher Education Reform: the implementation of the so-called Bologna process. Certain challenges follow this reform, particularly since the specialist nursing programmes will be part of the second cycle of the higher education system, and it will be possible to combine the professional degree with a masters degree (one year). Possible strategies in four areas related to the Specialist Nursing Education are discussed: integration of researchbased knowledge, experienced-based knowledge, improvement knowledge, and strategies for collaboration between university institutions and clinics. Specific didactical issues are raised.

  • 93.
    Wireklint Sundström, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Jylli, Leena
    Winge, Karin
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Svensson, Leif (Editor)
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