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  • 51.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Developing a framework for the performance evaluation of sorting and grading firms of used clothing2018In: Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, ISSN 2398-5364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper aims to propose a framework for evaluating the performance of reverse value chain activities in the clothing industry operating at base of the pyramid. Specifically, the research explores firm and supply chain factors influencing clothing reverse value chain activities with a focus on developing economies.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The study adopted an explorative technique using direct observations and semi-structured interviews to collect information from eight companies and two traders. Internal resources and value chain capabilities were examined using theoretical underpinnings of resource-based view, transaction cost economics and base of the pyramid.

    Findings

    The paper identified multiple benefits of offshoring reverse value chain activities to the developing countries (at the base of the pyramid). Low operation cost, skilled manpower, business knowledge and location are found to be internal success factors. While favourable government legislation and domestic recycling markets are important external factors contributing to the success. Developing economies such as India contribute to firm performance by integrating, transforming, acquiring and co-creating the resources at base of the pyramid. Further, it was found that to achieve higher assets specificity, a few companies have opened their own shops in African countries, while others have opened sourcing branches in Canada or the USA to ensure good quality of raw materials. Collaboration and coordination among different value chain partners minimise cost and increases profitability. Innovation in the process such as clothes mutilation for recycling has created new business opportunities.

    Research limitations/implications

    Information was collected from only eight organisations and two traders from India. Future scholars may extend the research to generalise the findings by documenting similar phenomena.

    Practical implications

    The proposed framework can serve a basis for the practitioners to evaluate firm performance, and the insights can be used to achieve sustainability by engaging producers, employees, consumers and community using base of the pyramid approach.

    Originality/value

    The study provides unique insights into the prevalent export and re-exports phenomena of used clothing. The resource-based view, transaction cost economics and base of the pyramid strategy underpinned together to develop a framework for understanding reverse value chain activities of clothing.

  • 52.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Curteza, Antonela
    Faculty of Textile, Leather and Industrial Management, “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iași.
    Chen, Yan
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou .
    Wang, Lichuan
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou .
    An Exploratory Study of Swedish Charities to Develop a Model for the Reuse-Based Clothing Value Chain2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 1176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper aims to explore the current clothes reuse business in order to develop a charity-driven model for the reuse-based clothing value chain. An exploratory study was carried out in Sweden to understand the business flow of clothes reuse. This study builds on the insights gained from the multiple charities involved in the reuse-based clothing value chain. Semi-structured interviews along with direct and participatory observation were used for data collection. In the current study of Swedish charities, the founders and senior managers of the organizations were interviewed. This paper provides several insights in the form of propositions and a model related to different drivers of the reuse-based clothing value chain. In this model, business factors (system, legislation, and awareness), product factors (design, quality, and price), and consumer attitude as donor/buyer are found to be key drivers. Product design, quality, and price depend upon clothes brand, construction, and material, which are collectively important for the sale of used products. In the future, researchers are encouraged to test the present set of propositions and the proposed model across different cultural settings. The model can serve as a framework for practitioners and will be helpful for designing business strategies based on the different factors identified in this study.

  • 53.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Systematic literature review to develop a conceptual framework for a reuse-based clothing value chain2017In: The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, ISSN 0959-3969, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A closed loop value chain is a concept that maximises a product’s utility both before and after end-of-life. This chain’s primary components are reuse, repair, up-cycling and down-cycling. This paper reviews the literature in the domain of ‘reuse’ to formulate and propose a conceptual framework for a ‘reuse-based clothing value chain’. We performed a systematic literature review in which a range of online databases were searched to select papers related to reuse between September 1994 and March 2015. Our review is presented broadly and in two parts: the first part provides a descriptive analysis of the articles, and the second part develops propositions based on the textual analysis. The review revealed that there are six primary drivers of the reuse-based clothing value chain: system, redesignability, price, information, legislation, and consumer attitude. Corresponding propositions highlight the key importance of system, product redesignability, product price, information, government legislation and consumer attitude to the economic success of the reuse-based clothing value chain. Finally, this work proposes a conceptual framework based on our propositions. This research may help scholars and practitioners to understand the current state of the literature. The list of references may be considered a source for future research in this area.

  • 54.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Curteza, Antonela
    Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Textiles-Leather and Industrial Management.
    Reuse based Closed Loop Clothing Value Chain: An Empirical investigation into Multinational Charities and Organizations of Norway, Sweden and UK2016In: Reuse based Closed Loop Clothing Value Chain: An Empirical investigation into Multinational Charities and Organizations of Norway, Sweden and UK, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper:

    The concept of closed loop value chain maximise the utilization of product. There are different ways to close the loop, reuse is most sustainable ways to do. Purpose of this paper are twofold; first to understand the activities of reuse based closed loop clothing value chain in Norway, Sweden and UK; and second to explore, how multinational charities and organizations in reuse based business can extract maximum values from discarded clothes.

     

    Design/methodology/approach:

    The present study adopted a single case study approach to understand the reverse logistics of clothes in three countries. Multiple sites were studied in different cultural environments to enhance the robustness of case study approach (Lau, 2012). Direct observation was made to understand the process in seven organizations. Eight face to face interviews were conducted with operation heads to understand the practices in-depth. These visits and interviews were made between September 2015 and February 2016. All interviews were transcribed and analysed with help of qualitative analysis software Nvivo 10. Different themes of value creation were categorised and used for cross-comparison of findings. Theoretical lens of resource based view has been used to understand to capability of a firm to extract maximum value from discarded clothes. In addition, we also examined the benefits of outsourcing different operations to supply chain partners in the absence of in-house facilities.

     

    Findings:

    Organizations endeavour to invent, re-invent and implement new ways to collect, sort and reprocess the used clothes. Collection events are organised in the different shopping malls to create awareness and increase the amount of collection. Contracts are signed with schools, local municipality, companies and postal departments to improve collection quality and quantity. After collection, the used garments are sorted and segregated into different categories. Sorting may be considered as one of the crucial stage which can provide competitive advantage to an organization in the second-hand clothing business (Ruiz-Torres, Ablanedo-Rosas, & Mukhopadhyay, 2013). Several firms had state-of-the-art machineries to simplify and handle the material management during sorting process efficiently. Some of the organizations are trying to have sensor based sophisticated technologies to reduce manual material handling. In contrast, a few companies have moved back to manual system to achieve high quality and productivity. Also, we observed that there is a scarcity of reprocessing facilities. As a result, a garment having small defects also gets mix up with discarded clothes. Some firms have small facility of washing and ironing, which is generally used for vintage garments.

     

    Success of an organization depends upon its ability to extract value from collected garments. Most of the firms are selling best quality of products in their own shops in the domestic markets while exporting inferior quality to developing counties. The second hand clothing companies are redefining their stores as an exclusive for vintage or redesign to improve domestic sales. Private labels have emerged to sale completely redesigned garments. Concept of selling products on the basis of weight in comparison to pieces has been adopted to move normal quality goods from retail stores. Some organizations have strengthened their own business network, hence they could get good price for the exported items. On the other hand, most of the selected firms export the used garments with the help of mediators located in Netherland, Belgium and Germany. The defected and damaged clothes are transported to energy station for incineration by paying small amount of user fees. A few organizations down cycle the damaged clothes to new products on their own or with the help of their supply chain partners. The reason that may be attributed is the lack of chemical and mechanical recycling facilities. A proper integration with recycling and rag making companies would enable organisations to obtain more value from textile waste and increase the revenue.

     

    Relevance/Contribution:

    The present study is an attempt to enhance the understanding of clothing reuse business in Norway, Sweden and UK. Every organisation try to acquire valuable and rare resources, like ‘one touch’ or sensors based sorting facility to get competitive advantage. The research also suggested that multinational charity and organisation performance mainly depends on its organizational ability to exploit resources available inside and outside the firms. Paras, Ekwall, and Pal (2015) case study focus on the local charity organisation those who have limited resources and organization skill. Resultantly value creation from collected goods is much less compare to value created by multinational charities and organisations. This can be implied that used clothing firms should focus on acquisition of valuable and rare resources to do effective collection and sorting. Firms should also organized resources within and outside firms by developing network throughout supply chain to maximise the revenue. This study is carried out in three European countries. It can be extended to other geographical region or more number of empirical evidence to achieve saturated result.

     

    References:

    Lau, K. H. (2012). Demand management in downstream wholesale and retail distribution: a case study. Supply Chain Management-an International Journal, 17(6), 638-654. doi:10.1108/13598541211269247

    Paras, M., Ekwall, D., & Pal, R. (2015). Testing a conceptual model of circular clothing value chain with product reuse in Swedish contest. Paper presented at the Global Cleaner Production & Sustainable Consumption Conference.

    Ruiz-Torres, a. J., Ablanedo-Rosas, J. H., & Mukhopadhyay, S. (2013). Supplier allocation model for textile recycling operations. International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, 15(1), 108-124. doi:10.1504/IJLSM.2013.053241

  • 55.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wang, Lichuan
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University.
    Chen, Yan
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University.
    Curteza, Antonela
    “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iași.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A Sustainable Application Based on Grouping Genetic Algorithm for Modularized Redesign Model in Apparel Reverse Supply Chain2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 3013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scarcity of natural resources and the problem of pollution have initiated the need for extending the life and use of existing products. The concept of the reverse supply chain provides an opportunity to recover value from discarded products. The potential for recovery and the improvement of value in the reverse supply chain of apparel has been barely studied. In this research, a novel modularized redesign model is developed and applied to the garment redesign process. The concept of modularization is used to extract parts from the end-of-use or end-of-life of products. The extracted parts are reassembled or reconstructed with the help of a proposed group genetic algorithm by using domain and industry-specific knowledge. Design fitness is calculated to achieve the optimal redesign. Subsequently, the practical relevance of the model is investigated with the help of an industrial case in Sweden. The case study finding reveals that the proposed method and model to calculate the design fitness could simplify the redesign process. The design fitness calculation is illustrated with the example of a polo t-shirt. The redesigned system-based modularization is in accordance with the practical situations because of its flexibility and viability to formulate redesign decisions. The grouping genetic algorithm could enable fast redesign decisions for designers.

  • 56.
    Peterson, Joel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Production and business methods in the integral knitting supply chain2008In: Fibre2fashion.comArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last 20 years there has been a dramatic technical development of machines and software in the production of knitted fashion garments. This development has made it possible to rationalise design and production of knitted garments so that today it is possible to make a knitted garment, almost ready made, directly in the knitting machine, with a minimum of processes, such as cutting and sewing. The objective of this paper is to explain and give examples of how this new knitting production technology could be implemented in a fast fashion logistic system. The method for this paper is an inductive approach based on a literature survey. The new technical achievements have not meant the great breakthrough that was expected. Why? Many companies moved their production to development countries where the costs ofproduction, mainly labour costs are lower than in western countries. Another reason is that it is not enough to invest in new machinery and then use the machines in the same production system as before. To gain the benefits of this technique the production processes in the company have to be changed and adapted to these new conditions. The lack of knowledge in supply chain design and a one-sided perspective on production costs, instead of a customer orientated one, is one explanation. This, in a business (fashion) where the demand is changing dayby- day and the short time to market is vital to a company’s ability to be competitive. This article describes the integral and complete garment knitting techniques and the advantages that they open up, both from a logistics and a technical point of view. An integral knitted whole garment technology, implemented and adjusted to the production and business system in a company, can reduce lead times dramatically and respond quickly to the rapidly changing fashion market.

  • 57. Rolandsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rolandsson, Bertil
    Att motverka stölder av gods: transportarbetares syn på legitimt säkerhetsarbete2010In: Vetenskap för profession, ISSN 1654-6520, no 13Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De säkerhetsproblem, som analyseras i denna text, rör stölder av vitvaror, elektronik, tobak o.dyl. i samband med transporter. Det är mindre spektakulära hot än sådana som riktar sig mot t.ex. transporter av kärnkraftsavfall (Huysman 2006), men det är också mera frekventa säkerhetsproblem. Värdet av sådana stölder har uppskattats till 10 miljarder USD per år i USA, och 30 miljarder USD per år totalt i världen (Barth & White 1998; Gips 2006). Siffrornas omfattning går förstås att diskutera, men de visar tydligt den betydelse som bl.a. politiker och branschfolk tillskriver transportstölder (ECMT 2001; Ekwall 2007).

  • 58.
    Rolandsson, Bertil
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Frames of Thefts at Work: Security Culture and organisation of Responsibility in Transport Networks2008In: Security Journal, ISSN 0955-1662, E-ISSN 1743-4645, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 174-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate how security cultures guide the way in which employees who work within global and constantly changing transport networks understand daily risks of thefts at work. Based on qualitative interviews with terminal workers at three Swedish freight terminals and on Mary Douglas's Grid/Group model, we elaborate theoretically on how their frames of security can be understood as dependent on the organizational context. We found that the terminal workers used a so-called industrial frame of security that promotes hierarchic organizations of security. However, a conventional industrial frame, expressed by confident workers who believed that thefts should be handled by managers who followed established routines, can be distinguished from an industrial frame expressed by discouraged workers who described unpredictable external conditions that demanded their individual responsibility. A conclusion drawn is that the differences between these industrial frames indicate that our understanding of security cultures, that is, the framing of individual responsibility and inclination to act against perpetrators, has to be based on an analysis of both the organization of work and a wider organizational context. Published online 17 November 2008

  • 59.
    Rolandsson, Bertil
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Säkerhetskultur i transportnätverk: med perspektiv på stölder i arbetet2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Rolandsson, Bertil
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Säkerhetskultur i transportnätverk: med perspektiv på stölder i arbetet2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I artikeln undersöks den säkerhetskultur som ligger till grund för hur terminalarbetare vid tre olika godsterminaler ser på risken för stölder på den egna arbetsplatsen. Genom att använda kvalitativa intervjuer, ett perspektivbegrepp (frames) och Mary Douglas välkända Grid/Group-modell, analyserar vi vilken betydelse som det organisatoriska sammanhanget får för hur de beskriver stöldrisker på arbetsplatsen och det egna ansvaret för att hantera detta problem. Studien visar hur terminalarbetarna använder sig av två olika industriella perspektiv för att begripliggöra relationen mellan deras eget ansvar och stöldrisken. Vid två terminaler uttrycker de anställda ett konventionellt industriellt perspektiv; de anser att stöldproblemet är begränsat, att det kan hanteras med tydliga rutiner och att ansvaret helt ligger på ledningen. Terminalarbetarna vid ytterligare en terminal uttrycker dock ett industriellt perspektiv där omvärlden framställs som fylld med potentiella förövare och där det förutsätts att de anställda tar ett individuellt ansvar. I sistnämnda perspektiv kombineras föreställningar om behovet av en industriell hierarki med behovet av individer på terminalgolvet som själva tar ansvar för säkerheten på arbetsplatsen.

  • 61.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Säkerhet mot hot och tillgrepp i transporter2010In: Vetenskap för profession, ISSN 1654-6520, no 13, p. 11-32Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många bedömare har hävdat att moderna försörjningskedjor karakteriseras av en tilltagande sårbarhet. Säkerhet och sårbarhet hos försörjningskedjor har också fått ökad uppmärksamhet i samband med att risken för terrorattacker kommit i blickpunkten efter en serie händelser under och efter år 2001. Christopher and Lee (2004) visar på att den ökade sårbarheten är ett resultat av jakten på effektivitet i försörjningskedjor. Genom att pressa marginalerna eller minska på buffertar inom en försörjningskedja har skyddet mot störningar och deras konsekvenser minskat. Riskexponeringen av godstransporter och andra logistikaktiviteter har också ökat de senaste åren till följd av en ökad globalisering, där varje produktionsmoment i värdekedjan från råvara till slutkonsument förläggs till den plats, som kan göra momentet billigast, s.k. offshoring. Samtidigt har värdekedjorna styckats upp i allt mindre delar, i och med att varumärkesägarna lägger ut allt fler processer på externa leverantörer, s.k. outsourcing. För att inte kapitalbindningen i lager skall eliminera vinsterna av lägre produktionskostnader, har lager och buffertar i varje länk trimmats ned till ett minimum genom bland annat ”just in time” transporter och intensifierat informationsutbyte, i syfte att synkronisera kapacitet och produktionstakt längs värdekedjan. Resultatet har blivit fler och längre transporter, ofta med noder och länkar i sådana geografiska områden, där de antagonistiska hoten är relativt sett större än tidigare, samtidigt som kedjorna blivit väsentligt mer störningskänsliga. Denna trend förväntas fortsätta i många år, även om det finns exempel på företag som börjat ta hem produktionsmoment till Europa och USA, speciellt när produktlivscykeln är kort och innehållet av oskolad arbetskraft är lågt.

  • 62.
    Urciuoli, Luca
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Possible impacts of supply chain security on efficiency: A survey study about the possible impacts of AEO security certifications on supply chain efficiency2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 63. Urciuoli, Luca
    et al.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Supply Chain Security Programs: Comparing Authorithy and Business Certifications2009In: Proceedings of The 21st Annual Nofoma Conference, 11-12 June 2009 Jönköping Sweden, Nofoma , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper A new topic that during the last years has come to the attention of researchers is supply chain security. Stakeholders are progressively realizing the importance to join the authority regulations issued by governments (e.g. AEO) to reduce transport delays at Customs or other business certifications (e.g. TAPA) to reduce theft or counterfeiting. However the differences and impacts of security certifications are not always well understood. This paper has the main purpose to explore similarities and diversities of security certifications and to identify their effects on supply chain efficiency and security. Design/methodology/approach This research is based on a system-theoretical approach to describe security certifications, make a comparative analysis and deduct their impact on transport operations. The research design is primarily based on a literature search. Findings The findings put in evidence that authority and business security certifications can be complementary. Moreover transport operators and legislative bodies are recommended to initiate collaboration experiences. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) The comparative analysis will only focus on three main European certifications: the Authorized Economic Operator (AEO), the Freight Security Requirements and the Trucking Security Requirements issued by the Transported Assets Protection Association in Europe (TAPA EMEA). Practical implications (if applicable) The analysis proposed in this paper may support logistics and supply chain managers in the analysis and comparison of authority and business certifications for decision-making. What is original/value of paper Previous research focuses only on the impact of authority security certification programs on transport operations. None of the known literature makes a comparative analysis with existing business certifications to enlighten the different impact on security and efficiency.

  • 64.
    Urciuoli, Luca
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    The perceived impacts of AEO security certifications on supply chain efficiency a survey study using Structural Equation Modelling2015In: International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics, ISSN 1756-6517, E-ISSN 1756-6525, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Urciuoli, Luca
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Achieving harmonized port security training in Europe: a critical review of EU legislative frameworks2013In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Ports are complex, multiple-stakeholder environments representing the entrance point of intercontinental sea shipments into a country. Because ports are areas where large amounts of goods converge, they play a strategic role in a country’s security and economic sustenance. Consequently different stakeholders interact to ensure that cargo handling operations are optimized and cost-effective, e.g. international shipping, logistics companies, trading communities, and regulatory bodies. In this context security threats assume a special relevance, since ports could be exploited by criminal organizations to smuggle illicit goods into a country or by terrorists planning an attack. To eliminate or mitigate these risks human resources need to be correctly trained and educated. In addition, the competent authorities need to ensure that the same level and quality of training is delivered to all port facilities providing access to a country or a continent. Unfortunately, experts believe that in the EU there is a lack of harmonization of courses and quality assurance systems. Hence, the aim of this study is to review existing regulatory frameworks and assess whether guidance is provided to harmonize security training and education in port facilities. Thereafter, based on the experience developed within other sectors, where harmonization of training and education courses in the EU has been successfully achieved, we make recommendations for improvement of the existing frameworks. The article concludes by summarizing the findings and indicating implications for managers and researchers.

  • 66. Urciuoli, Luca
    et al.
    Sternberg, Henrik
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    The effects of security on transport performance2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation is to emphasize the negative effects of security on transport performance. The methodology is based on the analysis of a large workshop with security experts and multiple case studies, where data is collected by means of observations, and unstructured and semi-structured interviews. The findings from the empirical data seem to demonstrate the initial hypothesis that security measures affect efficiency in terms of lower operational performance. Therefore, this paper discusses the importance of developing security capabilities to be integrated in existing logistics information systems. Only in this way will transport companies develop the capability to fully realize wins in terms of both security and efficiency.

  • 67. Zhang, Dafang
    et al.
    Dadkhah, Payam
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    How robustness and resilience support security business2011In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 201-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply chain disruptions may derive from various sources but the antagonistic threats are centered in supply chain disruption. Antagonistic threats are dynamic due to the spiral input, processes and feedbacks which create a very complex situation to analyze, assess and making decision. Beside risks, vulnerability derived from supply chain characteristics is the other issue which should be measured. Antagonistic threats are magnified in such vulnerable supply chains. After 9/11, 2001, the Security and Efficiency of the global supply chain has become an important issue in global transportation. This leads firms to consider Supply chain security as part and parcel of a company’s comprehensive risk-management program. In a security business, it is essential to understand different type risks and evaluate transportation assets, do risk based prioritization, and protect customers through cost effective actions. This could be occurred corresponding to risk management methods. Providing security may occur internally by firms or they outsource it to security providers which could be performed in higher quality or more cost effectively. In this article, we focus on managing the risks and securing the supply chain business with the security theory and strategies in the supply chain and transportation network. In order to discover risks throughout the supply chain, security provider needs to find risk hot spots where the likelihood of risk is higher. We propose two approaches (geographical and elements/process) to seek probable risks. The next step is to take strategies for risk prevention and risk mitigation. Consequently, we connect the security strategies from the literature review and collected information from security business to suggest a suitable model of how to handle the risks and achieve security in a systemic and scientific way.

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