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  • 51.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hvorslev Billeschou, Rasmus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Varumärkesutveckling i nystartade klädföretag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I mikroföretag samt små- och medelstora företag (SMF) är varumärkesutveckling en avgörande faktor när det kommer till om företaget kommer att lyckas etablera sig på marknaden eller inte. Till skillnad från större organisationer måste SMF, på grund av deras begränsade resurser, tackla arbetet med varumärkesutveckling med ett betydligt större fokus och effektivitet. Inom den svenska modebranschen sysselsätter 95 % av företagen färre än 10 personer, vilket innebär att 95 % av företagen i den svenska modebranschen tillhör kategorin mikro inom SMF. De företag som sysselsätter fler än 250 personer, utgör endast 0,1 % av modeföretagen i Sverige. Trots detta råder det en brist på forskning och litteratur rörande varumärkesutveckling inom SMF. Tidigare forskning och litteratur fokuseras till stora delar på stora- multinationella företag och deras varumärkesutvecklande aktiviteter är oftast varken lämpliga, eller logiska, att tillämpa inom SMF. Denna brist på uppmärksamhet ligger till grund för studiens syfte. Syftet är att granska hur nystartade klädvarumärken, med begränsade resurser, arbetar med varumärkesutveckling för att etablera sitt varumärke. Med hjälp av fyra företag från Borås kommun, grundade mellan år 2013 och 2016, som alla är verksamma inom kläd-/modebranschen har det empiriska underlaget för studien skapats. Tidigare forskning rörande varumärkesutveckling inom SMF har lagt grunden för den teoretiska referensramen. Studien har under intervjuerna, samt analysen av empirin, använt sig av en egenformad teoretisk modell. Den insamlade empirin har sedan kopplats tillbaka till teorin och tidigare forskningsresultat. Studien visar att entreprenörers personliga bakgrunder kan påverka hur entreprenörer i nystartade klädvarumärken arbetar med varumärkesutveckling. Där framförallt entreprenörernas personliga intressen leder till att entreprenörerna arbetar mer med de varumärkesutvecklande aktiviteter som de är intresserade av. Studien visar även att entreprenörer i nystartade klädvarumärken ser varumärkesutveckling som en viktig del i varumärkets förutsättning att nå en etablering på marknaden, där kommunikation med externa intressenter är den stora delen. Studien visar till sist att nystartade klädvarumärken till största del arbetar med varumärkesutvecklande aktiviter som kräver en liten budget eller som är gratis, som ett resultat av att nystartade klädvarumärken har begränsat med resurser.

  • 52.
    Andersson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Björkengren, Kerstin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Cherry-picking vid upprättande av kontrollbalansräkning: – en (o)möjlighet?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are a number of safeguards to ensure that a company’s equity remains in the company. These are included in the Swedish Companies Act. According to the rules for compulsory liquidation, directors and shareholders must immediately establish a balance sheet for liquidation purposes when the share capital is suspected to be consumed. A balance sheet for liquidation purposes is drawn up on the basis of a regular annual report, with permissions for a number of adjustments. One of these allowed adjustments include that assets can be valued to a higher worth, provided that the valuation principles are in accordance with the term “god redovisningssed”, which can be translated into Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. The term “god redovisningssed” is not clearly defined in the wordings of the law. The Swedish Accounting Standards Board, also known as the agency BFN, has the statutory responsibility to develop and clarify what is meant by “god redovisningssed”. BFN, however, does not have any regulatory powers. According to BFNs statements and general advice a mixture of their own regulations, “K-regelverken”, is not allowed. This limitation hinders companies in their ambition to show the ability of future survival. This study aims to examine the possibility of mixing the regulations of K2 and K3 in order to prove a company’s ability of going concern.To fulfill the purpose of this study, a hermeneutic approach is applied. Relevant laws, bills, court cases etc. are analyzed to derive the meaning behind the term “god redovisningssed”.The circumstances that warrant the establishment of a balance sheet for liquidation purposes are vastly different from those prevailing at ordinary accounting. Our conclusion is, therefore, that there are different forms of “god redovisningssed”, depending on the company’s situation. Given this reasoning, it is our belief that cherry-picking when preparing a balance sheet for liquidation purposes should be allowed.This paper is written in Swedish.

  • 53.
    Andersson, Lisette
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Flodin, Liza
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ta steget utanför din komfortzon: en studie kring generation Y: s definition av framgång2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the following topics: success, motivation, comfort zone, personaldevelopment and everything within the definition of generation Y. The study is qualitative,and based on peer-reviewed publications as well as other relevant theories. The main purposeof this thesis is to contribute to a deeper knowledge of the concept of success, and howentrepreneurs within the generation Y in an effective way define it. The study will focus onidentifying what makes generation Y step out of their comfort zone, and what motivates themto succeed.Initially, the study briefly deals with the main topics of success, motivation and comfort zone,before the theoretical framework goes deeper into these topics. The theory is of greatimportance for this study's analysis and results. Thanks to the theory we have been able tocreate relevant questions for the interviews, which have been the basis for the whole empiricalmaterial. A total of eight entrepreneurs were interviewed and they all contributed withknowledge, competence and experience. When we contacted entrepreneurs for our interviewswe chose to have a wide range within generation Y, containing both genders in different agesand different professions. Since we wanted to examine the respondents opinions regardingthese specific topics we chose to do semi-structured interviews. All of the respondents havetaken the step out of their comfort zone, and now live their lives as entrepreneurs, with afervent belief in themselves. In the analysis we will discuss the similarities and differencesthat we could find between theory and empirical data.The conclusion of this study will provide knowledge regarding the topics success, motivationand comfort zone. A comfort zone is an individual safe zone that all human beings have. Bytrying new things this zone will expand, which makes the person feel more comfortable. Withthis study we have reached to the conclusion that a person has to step out of their comfortzone to be able to succeed and this is possible through his or hers individual motivation.Entrepreneurs within generation Y is motivated in various ways, for example by setting longandshort-term goals, surround themselves with inspiring people and also develop throughnew challenges that will help them reach their goals and dreams. The generation also findmotivation in the will to learn, refine their skills and talents and widen their knowledge to bestronger entrepreneurs. To be successful is an individual concept, but overall it is about beinghappy in a balanced way and to feel satisfied with both your personal and working life.Although a balanced economy is necessary for survival, the entrepreneurs within generation Ydoes not think it is essential for the concept of success. It is of great importance that yousurround yourself by people who want your best and sees your potential and capacity.This will give you as an individual a stronger belief in yourself, which is necessary if youwant to be successful. The entrepreneurs have clearly shown a preference based on a positiveattitude towards life, they claim that everything is about having the right mindset to be able todevelop. The possibilities are all around us, we just have to open our eyes to be able to seethem.

  • 54.
    Andersson, Louise
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Real-Time Retail: Den digitala vägen till konsumenternas lojalitet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitaliseringen är en process som finns i alla sektorer och branscher, inte minst inom detaljhandeln. Den återspeglas i e-handeln och i övergången till en mer omnichannel-influerad säljprocess där detaljhandlare i allt högre grad når konsumenter genom flera olika kontaktytor; i webbshopen, via den smarta mobiltelefonen, genom appar, digitala skyltfönster och i den fysiska butiken. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka hur företag, med hjälp av tekniska lösningar, kan skapa kundlojalitet. Författaren har valt att fördjupa sig i hur dagens konsumenter förhåller sig till användning av tekniska och digitala lösningar i butik, vilka för- och nackdelar konsumenterna upplever med den tekniska utvecklingen och etableringen i branschen samt hur företagets relation till kund påverkas genom att integrera tekniska och innovativa lösningar i säljprocessen. Den metod som används är både en kvantitativ och kvalitativ insamlingsmetod. Den kvantitativa undersökningen genomfördes genom att 100 respondenter fick svara på 10 enkätfrågor med grund i tidigare nämnda forskningsfrågor. Den kvalitativa undersökningsmetoden bestod av semi-strukturerade intervjuer med främst kvinnor i åldern 25-30 som tidigare hade besvarat enkäten för att få mer djupgående svar och resonemang av respondenterna. Empirin har analyserats med teorin i åtanke och utifrån modellen som beskriver kommunikationen mellan företag och konsument. Slutsatsen som kan dras utifrån empirin och analysen är att kundlojalitet kan skapas genom tekniska lösningar, men att de tekniska lösningarna måste ta hänsyn till konsumenternas integritet och ske på deras villkor. För konsumenten kan iBeacons skapa värde genom att vara ett komplement till butikspersonalen och digitalt vägleda kunden genom köpet från det ögonblicket den kliver in i butiken. Att modebutiken erbjuder kunden, i realtid, anpassade notiser och information om produkterna i butiken innebär att tid kan sparas, men också ekonomiska värden då alla erbjudanden finns digitalt och kan användas på kundens villkor.

  • 55.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sällström, Jakob
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Välgörenhet är kryddan av rikedom: filantropi inom svenska företag2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Philanthropy within corporations has for a long time been a phenomenon outside of Sweden. However, philanthropy has spread throughout Sweden in recent years and is for various reasons becoming more popular. For example corporations say that they feel an obligation to help those who have it worse and also those in their environment.Based on answers gathered from interviews with seven different respondents from seven different Swedish corporations, this essay means to answer the question of how Swedish corporations work with philanthropy and what motivates them to do so.The result indicates that Swedish corporations work with philanthropy in a centralized manner and that information about this work is communicated mostly internally, to engage and motivate the staff but also to be seen as an attractive employer. Philanthropy can also be used as a strategy to strengthen a brand, gather political resources and combat negative criticism.This essay is written in Swedish.

  • 56.
    Andersson, Malin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Atterflod, Natalie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Makrosäkring: Intressenters attityder till redovisning av dynamisk riskhantering2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hedge accounting is used when accounting for financial instruments held for hedging purposes. There are difficulties associated with applying existing hedge accounting requirements to macro hedges particularly when portfolios are managed dynamically. Because of the limitations of existing hedge accounting many entities find it difficult to faithfully present the results of dynamic risk management in the financial statements. As a result, some entities do not apply hedge accounting at all while others only apply parts of hedge accounting. Some entities apply other hedging techniques which do not correctly reflect the dynamic risk management. The IASB has published a Discussion Paper (DP) featuring an accounting method for dynamic risk management. The objective of the new method Portfolio Revaluation Approach (PRA) is to achieve a faithful presentation of dynamic risk management and reduce the existing operational complexity.The purpose of the study is to examine and compare the attitudes of the IASB’s stakeholders towards accounting for dynamic risk management and identify their opinion on the proposed accounting method PRA. The study also aims to identify stakeholders’ views on how a future method should be designed. To obtain an understanding of stakeholders’ views a qualitative content analysis were used. The study is based on 30 comment letters received from stakeholders in response to the issued DP on macro hedging. The stakeholders where categorized into three groups: standard setting bodies, accounting firms and corporations.The study shows that stakeholders consider that problems arise when the current rules is applied to dynamically managed portfolios. The IASB should develop rules that will be applicable and reflect dynamic risk management. The comment letters shows different opinions about the scale of the project and what dynamic risk management should cover. The IASB has modified the initial objective of the project and expanded the scope. Stakeholders therefore require that the IASB clarifies the objective before they develop an Exposure Draft (ED).The study found that opinions on PRA are diverse. Stakeholders have, however, identified more disadvantages than advantages with PRA. According to stakeholders, a future accounting method for dynamic risk management should be applied only when risk mitigation has been undertaken by hedging and not applied on all dynamic risk management. Stakeholders believe that an application on all dynamic risk management activities would increase volatility in profit or loss and not result in useful information. Furthermore, the study shows that a method should be optional to apply. A future accounting method should be designed to be applicable to all risks, not only interest rate risks. Judging by the commentIIletters from the stakeholders, the IASB should not develop a new method but instead design a method based on the existing rules in IFRS 9 Financial instruments and IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement. Moreover, the IASB should develop principle-based rules because of the character of dynamic risk management. The IASB must ensure that the method is practicable. Our conclusion is that even though the stakeholders encourage the macro hedging project, few are satisfied with the proposal submitted.(This paper is written in Swedish)

  • 57.
    Andersson, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sjövall, Anna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Konceptgenerering av adaptiv kraftbegränsare2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In an accident, some seatbelt is let out by the seatbelt retractor in the vehicle. This is done to minimize the chest pressure and for the occupant to correctly impact the air bag. In an adaptive load limiter (LLA) the force in the seatbelt could be changed between different levels. In this way the chest pressure and the speed in to the air bag can be optimized and to minimize injuries.The work has been aimed at develop new concept of switching between the high and low force. The goal is to reduce the number of parts, the complexity and the size of the components. The LLA device today is made out of nine components.This work has included brainstorming for ideas of new concepts. The concept have been sketched. The three best concepts have been valued in a concept evaluation matrix. CAD- models have been done. Calculations have been done by hand to see which forces the components will be subjected to. FEM-calculations have also been done to see that components can handle the amount of stress they which they will be subjected to during the switching. Tests of components have also been made to verify the concept on Autolivs test center. The results were then evaluated. The work is ended by recommendations of further development.This thesis has been done on Autoliv Sweden AB in Vårgårda. Autoliv was founded in 1953 in Vårgårda of the two brothers Lennart and Stig Lindblad. Autoliv is world- leading in car safety. Autoliv is currently operating in 27 countries and has over 70 000 employees. They save over 30 000 lives and prevent over 300 000 injuries every year. Autoliv has made seatbelts since 1956.

  • 58.
    Andersson, Olivia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wikström, Julia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Risker med offentlig-privat samverkan som alternativ finansieringsform av infrastruktur2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study should provide indications of risks and distribution of risks in transport infrastructure projects where OPS is used as a financing mechanism. Previous research has almost exclusively focused on the state aspect of the issue and this study aims to provide a broader picture where a private actor also can share its opinion. The study has a qualitative approach and the acquired theory has been examined against an empirical study in the form of interviews.In order to discuss the risks of OPS as a financing mechanism, there must be a clear definition of what OPS is, such a definition is not currently available. There has been a number of different explanations as to how this type of alternative funding should look, but not a clear pattern has yet been established. The risks are very project-specific, but with the overall trend that the risk allocation depends on how big the profit is expected to be in the project. The greater the profit, the greater the risk the private operator is prepared to take. Social benefit also plays a central role in the risk allocation. The public sector tends to take greater risks when the specific project is considered to be of great public benefit.

  • 59.
    Andersson, Patrik
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kontrollpaneler: En översikt av kontroll- & informationspaneler på Ringhals 32016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rapporten är att analysera standarden för kontrollpanelers uppbyggnad på Ringhals 3, märka ut avvikelser och föreslå förbättringar på bristfällande paneler. I en kärnkraftsanläggning sker en utvinning av värmeenergi med fission som tas tillvara på genom att koka vatten till ånga för att driva ångturbiner. För att göra detta på ett säkert sätt krävs det ett balanserat samspel mellan reaktorn och turbinerna för att se till så att turbinerna tar ut lika hög effekt som reaktorn producerar. Kontrollrumsoperatörerna ska kunna läsa av information från processen på ett snabbt och säkert sätt för att kunna fatta rätt beslut. Till sin hjälp av har operatörerna en uppsjö av kontroll- och informationspaneler i både kontrollrummet såväl som ute i produktionslokalerna för att kunna styra och övervaka de olika komponenterna. Men eftersom många paneler kommer direkt från komponenternas tillverkare så finns det en hel del undantag som operatörer måste anpassa sig till. Eltavlan i kontrollrummet som övervakar spänningsfördelningen över de olika elskenorna till komponenter har i princip varit oförändrat sedan anläggningen stod färdig 1980. Om systemet skulle bli spänningslöst så att nöddieslarna måste dras igång så är den kontrollrumsoperatörernas mest tillförlitliga information för att se vilka skenor som fortfarande är spänningssatta. Om någon av dessa dieselsäkrade skenor skulle vara spänningslös av någon anledning så måste en operatör lämna kontrollrummet för avgöra vad som har hänt, vilket kan kosta dyrbartid i ett skarpt läge. För att förbättra eltavlan kan man genomföra en storsatsning, likt den som gjordes på Ringhals 2 då hela kontrollrummet byggdes om och framtidssäkrades. Eltavlan kan även uppgraderas delvist som gjorts tidigare med övriga kontrollrumspaneler. Ringhals har uppmärksammat eltavlans brister och har påbörjat en förstudie och projekteringar för att bygga om panelen och åtgärda dessa brister.

  • 60.
    Andersson, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Elfvenfrost, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Material replenishment system2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work has been written both for and in co-operation with the company IAC Group Gothenburg. The main purpose of the report is to find a new alternative material replenishment system which will improve the internal material flow and eliminate unnecessary work activities such as manual call offs. The aim is to find a new system to reduce the incidental costs incurred and improve customer service in quality and performance. Observations and interviews were conducted and an analysis of the current situation was made. Waste was identified in the form of unnecessary transport, specifically in milk runs, where time was spent looking for materials to be loaded. This creates uncertainty and may contribute to increased costs and poor customer service. Three different options for a new replenishment system were developed which were compared with the theory and present situation. The proposal was evaluated with respect to cost, available support, complexity and future compatibility. The analysis of the theory and current state shows the importance of a long-term solution with few risks of waste. The solution that best cope with this is an e-Kanban system that automates the replenishment system and would make manual material call offs disappear completely. The conclusion is that an e-Kanban system is the best long term option for a manufacturing company like IAC because it is highly adaptable to change, and can be integrated in the company’s ERP system. The recommendation is to implement a new e-Kanban system. First, it should be tested on a pilot station and then introduced to the whole production process.

  • 61.
    Andersson Stridh, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Karlsson, Johannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Från sponsorskap till partnerskap2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Whilst sport sponsorship investments has increased rapidly in Sweden over the past years, it has also reached a point of where the right holders have difficulties to meet the sponsors demand for more articulated outcomes. More and more companies view the sponsorship as more than a mere communication platform of mixed communication activities such as PR, direct on-sales and exposure. Sponsors now start to see the true potential of sponsorship, whereas the relationship could bring more to the company than the sponsorship offer; money in exchange for commercial access. In order to meet this demand the property organizations (in this paper, mostly referred to as the football clubs) have to look for reconstruction of their operations. A turn from the expression “sponsor”, to “partner” can be seen throughout the Swedish football world, though has little actual operational change been set to practice. This paper seeks to examine the new demands set from sponsors as well as identify the true nature of the partnership structure. We believe that with a deeper understanding of sponsor demands the property organizations can create a conceptualized and attractive profile, as well as add structural change into the operations, which could be beneficial for both parties.With help from literature we define sponsorship, which will be viewed as the fundamentals of partnership. Relevant B2B-relationship theories, such as commitment, trust and communication will be applied as cornerstones to a successful partner relationship. The empirical studies, showing that there is a demand for more communicative CSR-activities in the clubs, will be combined with earlier research on the subject of CRSS, cause-related sport sponsorship to highlight the importance of profiling.

  • 62.
    Andersson, Therése
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hassnert, Ludvig
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    K2 & K3: kan ”cherry-picking” utgöra bokföringsbrott?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014 there were 12,800 cases of accounting frauds reported in Sweden. According to Penal Code (Brottsbalken), classification of an accounting fraud needs to fulfill two requisites. The first requisite addresses the disregard of accounting obligation. The Accounting Act (Bokföringslagen) prescribes that the accounting obligation must be fulfilled in a manner consistent with generally accepted accounting principles (god redovisningssed).The Swedish Accounting Standards Board (Bokföringsnämnden) is a government authority that has a statutory responsibility for the development of generally accepted accounting principles. In 2004, the board changed its focus of the development of the accounting norms for unlisted companies. With this decision, they began to work on the K-project with the purpose of establishing a comprehensive framework of regulations for the companies’ annual accounts and annual reports. The regulations were divided into different categories based on the companies’ size which were constructed on the requirements and choices encompassed by the Accounting Act. The K-regulations (K-regelverken) became mandatory for unlisted companies in 2014.The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of accounting fraud if a company chooses to deviate from the applied K-regulation and instead use a rule from another K-regulation, what this study calls "cherry-picking". Therefore, this qualitative study utilizes a deductive approach and conducts a survey of K-regulations and their relation to Swedish legislation, which has contributed to a clear basis for the hypothetical cases in this study. The cases in this study have been supplemented by an interview with a strategic economic crime accountant from the Swedish Economic Crime Authority (Ekobrottsmyndigheten).The results of this study show that a deviation from the K-regulations can be considered synonymous with a deviation from the generally accepted accounting principles. With regards to this, a deviation from the K-regulations is seen as a disregard of the accounting obligation. In order to confirm an accounting fraud based on this, the second of the two requisites of Penal Code also needs to be fulfilled, the requisite of effect. The effect requisite is fulfilled when the essence of the accounts cannot be established. It may involve a certain difficulty to prosecute a company which has deviated from the K-regulation but included information in their accounts through their notes. The result of this study also shows that the provisions of the K-regulations takes precedence over the accounting options that the Annual Accounts Act (Årsredovisningslagen) offers.A link between generally accepted accounting principles and K-regulations has been identified in this study, but the relationship between K-regulations and the law is not fully specified. Despite this results of this study demonstrate the underlying risk that companies with applies "cherry-picking" between K2 and K3, may be convicted of accounting fraud.This study is hereinafter written in Swedish.

  • 63.
    Andersson, Tove
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Viktoria
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fastighetsbranschens val av redovisningsregelverk – RFR 2 eller K3?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish enterprises have in some cases the ability to choose among different accounting regulations. For major companies, the choice is often between RFR 2 and K3. RFR 2 contains the regulations from IFRS with adaption to Swedish legislation and Swedish GAAP. For small and medium-sized enterprises there is the regulation IFRS for SME which in Sweden corresponds to K3. Before the introduction of K3 in 2014, the Swedish Accounting Standard Board issued a referral that was debated and criticized, mostly by real estate companies. The referral responses were strongly critical to the application of K3. This study aims to examine what factors are crucial for real estate companies in the choice between different accounting regulations and what regulation real estate companies have chosen after 2014. To fulfill the purpose of the study a mixed methods research was made. The first part of the study constitutes of interviews from which we could see a pattern that became the foundation of our hypothesis. In the second part of the study, the hypothesis was tested thorough a content analysis of annual reports in order to examine if the hypothesis can be said to be applicable to the entire real estate industry.The result of the interviews shows that component depreciation is the major crucial factor in the choice between RFR 2 and K3. All interviewed companies present their financial reports in accordance with RFR 2 and have a negative attitude to component depreciation for the real estate industry. Based on this, the hypothesis that major Swedish real estate companies choose to report in accordance with RFR 2 and that these companies deselect component depreciation was formulated. Through the content analysis in which we tested the hypothesis we could see that the majority of surveyed companies deselect K3 and instead choose to report accordingly with RFR 2 without practicing component depreciation. We consider this to prove the hypothesis with high probability to be correct and applicable to all major real estate companies.This thesis is hereinafter written in Swedish.

  • 64.
    Andersson, Victoria
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Jandér, Louise
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Social Media, Insta-Culture and The Reinvention of Fashion Week2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is clear that the fashion industry is experiencing a change as a result of the explosion of social media. Today the four key social media platforms for fashion houses are Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and Snapchat. The society has created a culture around these media platforms, which is referred to as insta-culture. Why read Vogue magazine to find out the latest trends, when social media is covering the runways in real time? A debate about what direction the fashion industry is heading towards is a hot topic of discussion. The fashion industry has gone through changes before but now consumers have become more demanding regarding quick accessibility of fashion. Consumer behavior and the way we consume fashion has changed. An obvious sign of the change within the industry is how fashion weeks around the world have become the most coveted”it” event for celebrities and fashionistas worldwide. Fashion week is a fashion industry event that lasts around one week. The goal is for the fashion industry to network and for fashion houses to share their next season collections. Fashion weeks have traditionally been a closed, trade only-event which highlights promotional and glamorous entertainment events. However, now it is the most important shows that everyone wants to be seen at. What will become of fashion weeks is truly unknown. One thing that is for sure is that the development of social media definitely plays a vital role in the change of the industry. Aims of the research: The broader aim of this research is to analyze through the lens of fashion week, what is happening in fashion week and the driver of change within the fashion industry, social media, and to unravel why we see a change in fashion week now. The second aim is also to investigate in what way the change is affecting the way fashion is displayed at fashion weeks. Methods: This thesis was completed by gathering observations and analyzing interviews, blogs, press, journal articles, social media and observations that focused on the phenomenon of fashion week especially in the New York and Stockholm context. This qualitative method is referring to as Netnography using primarily data gathering from the internet and data from the existing interviews with people from the industry. Results: Social media has affected the fashion weeks in many ways. Today fashion brands have to include social media in their marketing strategy in order to survive in the insta-culture that reflects on the society. The insta-culture has as well resulted in that fashion week has been reinvented to an entertainment event open for everyone. The democratization of the fashion week has in turn resulted in that designers have to change how and when they deliver fashion. Instead of waiting six months for the collections to hit the stores, designers now have adopted a see now buy now model. Contributions: The result of this thesis brings awareness to people within the fashion industry and fashion theories when it comes to what is happening to the industry and how to better support fashion management strategies. Social media has created an insta-culture in the society that also affects the fashion industry. This thesis also highlights the great impact that the society has on fashion even today. This study therefore further develops the sociological theory when it comes to the impact from the society and how it affects fashion.

  • 65.
    Andreasson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Vågfelt, Albin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Marknadsanalys samverkansbjälklag betong-massivträ2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concrete-timber composite floor is a floor slab constructed of concrete and timber that work together to take advantage of the best characteristics of each material. The concrete-timber composite floor is a project by Heda, Fristad Bygg, Technical Research Institute of Sweden (SP) and Högskolan in Borås. A market analysis is requested to obtain data about the market for the concrete-timber composite floor which is a demand for continued extern funding of the project. The market analysis is based on three different methods, a comparison of floor slabs, a life cycle cost analysis and a market research. The market analysis shows that the concrete-timber composite floor is too expensive to compete against the floor slabs made out of just concrete. It also shows that the industry is used to and prefers to build with concrete. The factors considered most important in the choice of floor slabs are price, spans, delivery time and assembly time according to the exploratory study made in the report. The concrete-timber composite floors strengths are spans and assembly time and its weaknesses are price and thickness.The concrete-timber composite floors chance to take on the market depends on how much the involved parties in the project can minimize the price and how well the assembly and delivery times can be guaranteed. Another important factor is how much the industry can be talked into using timber in load bearing structures without worrying about the influence of humidity.

  • 66.
    Aneja, Arun P.
    et al.
    DuPont Company.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ambidexterity drivers in plural business models’ (pBMs’) value-structure: an explorative study from DuPont2016In: From Science to Society: Innovation and Value Creation, University of Cambridge, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how can ambidexterity be detected and classified in plural business models (pBMs) at the level of their underlying value-structure (value- creation and extraction), and what are the drivers. Such pBMs are run by multi-national firms to accommodate various technologies and innovations however is stressful due to inherent incompatibilities and conflicts between them. Existing scholarly discussion is limited in exploring this issue, from a value generation perspective, essential to identify where to and how to commit resources in these pBMs. The paper builds upon an explorative study of six successful product cases (and their associated business models) from DuPont’s Textiles Fibre Division (DTFD) to show how exploration and exploitation generates resultant trajectories along value- creation and extraction mechanisms, respectively, in a product. Consistent and inconsistent combinations of these trajectories along the value-structure results in four differential drivers of pBMs, viz. (i) technological breakthrough, (ii) market-back technology, (iii) continuous technology, and (iv) continuous market-back, thus characterizing their inherent ambidexterity. These ambidexterity tendencies are along value- creation and extraction mechanisms.

  • 67.
    Aneja, Arun
    et al.
    College of Engineering and Technology, East Carolina University.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås.
    Textile Sustainability: Living Within Our Means2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is defined by Brundtland as “….development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. An evaluation of the current ‘pulse of the planet’ which consists of nature’s core business of creating diversity, abundance and continuance yields a bleak future. It suggests limited supplies of natural resources that pose an obstacle to future worldeconomic growth. This paper makes an assessment of a sustainable future for textiles based on economic, social,and environmental dimensions. Both strategic and tactical remedies for the textile value chain are provided. Thecollective actions suggested will not ensure success but rather provide a framework for a better and safer planet.

  • 68.
    Aneja, Arun
    et al.
    East Carolina State University.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Textile Sustainability: Major Frameworks and Strategic Solutions2015In: Handbook of Sustainable Apparel Production / [ed] S. S. Muthu, CRC Press, 2015, 289-306 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability is commonly defined as “….development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. An evaluation of the current ‘pulse of the planet’ which consists of nature’s core business of creating diversity, abundance and continuance yields a bleak future. It suggests limited supplies of natural resources that pose an obstacle to future world economic growth. In this context, the work makes an assessment of a sustainable future for textiles and apparel industries based on economic, social, and environmental dimensions along the major emergent patterns highlighted in 8 critical sustainability frameworks (viz. ecological footprint, natural step, natural capitalism, industrial ecology, cradle-to-cradle, bio-mimetic, ZERI, and planetary boundaries). A fundamental mind-shift in these industries by identifying various components of non-sustainability is suggested. Such deeper insights and collective changes will not provide solutions to ensure success but rather provide a holistic and integrated systems perspective to give rise to this major transformation. 

  • 69.
    Aneja, Arun
    et al.
    Department of Engineering, East Carolina University.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kupka, Karel
    TriloByte Statistical Software, Ltd..
    Militky, Iri
    The Technical University of Liberec.
    Towards a circular economy in textiles: RESYNTEX and the European Uniion2016In: Fibres and Textiles (Vlákna a textil), ISSN 1335-0617, Vol. 23, no 3, 15-21 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe is at crossroads in terms of growth and living standards. The nexus between circulareconomy, RESYNTEX and textile provides direction and opportunity for seamless prosperity. The currentstrategy consisting of a linear economy for resource utilization, a surprisingly wasteful model of valuecreation, is leading to decline in prosperity and concomitant global influence. It must develop a moreresource savvy circular economy, with the biological and mineral nutrients of modern society continuouslycirculating. Rather than face a bleak and uncertain future dependent on resources from overseas, Europeneeds to develop technologies towards self-sufficiency in energy and water and keep materials requiredfor consumption flowing [1]. This will insure reduction in virgin resources and treat waste as a valuableinput rather than a burden for welfare of society and the environment.RESYNTEX, the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation funded program, will producesecondary raw materials from blends and pure components of unwearable textile waste and is expectedto have a strong circular economy focus. The project will develop and demonstrate a strategic design forclosed loop textile recycling throughout the value chain.

  • 70.
    Anell, Nicklas
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Haverstal, Albin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sociala aspekter på en multikulturell byggarbetsplats: Arbetsmiljö & säkerhet2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report is written in collaboration with H2 Entreprenad AB and focuses on the workenvironment with foreign subcontractors on the Swedish labor market in the constructionindustry. A comprehensive literature study has been done and completed with an interviewstudy.The construction industries production rate is at levels equal to the days of the millionprogram in the 60s and 70s. 710 000 new homes are needed between 2015 and 2025according to Boverket. With such pressure on the construction industry, companies havedifficulty in obtaining labor. This is one of the reasons why posted workers have increasedsignificantly in Sweden in recent years.The foreign labor force gives access to new skilled labor, which is usually cheaper. However,the requirements of management of foreign subcontractors taken in are increasingsignificantly, leading to enlarged costs. The risk of a foreign worker being injured in aSwedish workplace is also 36 % higher, and the risk of dying is four times the size of aSwedish. This means that a greater focus on a functioning work environment is needed, whichwill operate despite language barriers.The social and cultural differences are analyzed and processed in the report, how hierarchiesand guidance for professional workers are done in a comparison between Swedish and foreignsubcontractors.

  • 71.
    Anita, Radon
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sundström, Malin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Behre, Martin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Adding Value through In-store Self-Service Technology in Retailing2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Technology-facilitated transactions have become an increasing part of retail encounters and customers, in some instances, are interacting with technology more than firm employees to create service encounters. Acceptance and adaption of new technology in store is dependent on several factors such as personality. Previous studies (Demirkan & Spohrer, 2014) suggest that product information and search process in store can be supported with the help of digital technology. It is suggested the infusion of technology can enhance service encounters by making them more expedient and efficient and thus, satisfying (Bitner, Ostrom, and Meuter 2002; Meuter et al. 2000). Giebelhausen et.al. (2014) suggest that the interplay between frontline technology use and service encounter evaluations may be more complex than it seems, and it is also suggested that technology-enriched retail environments affects relations between consumers, employees, and retailers (Pantano, and Migliarese, 2014).

    Academic literature has very much focused on the interpersonal dynamics of service-encounters (Bettencourt and Gwinner 1996; Bitner, Booms, and Tetreault 1990; Fischer, Gainer, and Bristor 1997; Goodwin 1996; Hartline and Ferrell 1996) that has extensively been explored, but to a lesser extent has research investigated customer interactions with technological interfaces (Bitner, Brown, and Meuter 2000; Dabholkar 1996). In their extensive exploration of a wide range of SSTs Meuter et.al. (2000) called for further research examining what motivates people to use an SST, how people would go about learning their role as it relates to interacting with an SST, and also what factors that limit perceived ability to interact with SSTs.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value added by retail in-store self service technology for consumers. Important aspects of the SST interaction include the perceived service, the purchase intentions and interaction with the sales personnel.

    Experimental design and methodology

    Depending on their complexity, certain products are perceived as more difficult to buy than others. Within a retailing context complexity dimensions regarding products is not so often heard of, however, many customers perceive products as difficult. This is due to the fact that consumption of the product is important and mistakes are often made. In a research program within the University of Borås and Swedish Institute for Innovative Retailing, the Academic environment gather retailers that strive to innovate and help raise customer perceived value in the fixed store setting. While significant investments in innovative technology systems such as self-scanning, mobile platforms or digital payment methods, continue to transform the customer’s experience it also help retailers being more effective. One of the Swedish retailers (a large retail chain within home textiles) wanted to develop a new tool for customers in store, helping them to decide on what product to buy. The system developer connected to the research institute programmed an IT-pilot designed to help customers decide the right product, with the help of a decision tree-model. Products chosen to be a part of the decision tree were pillows and duvets/covers. For most people this may sound like an easy product to choose, but studies made within SIIR contradict this opinion, showing that these kind of products are perceived as very difficult to decide upon. You need to know how your pillow must be in terms of filling, material, size etc. You also need to know how warm your cover should be compared to how you sleep at night and how the temperature is in your bedroom among other things. The IT-pilot was programmed into a touch-screen based self-service computer station, and the layout was made according to the retailer’s format and colour.

    The overall design of the field study was a structured three day in-store experiment with a touch-screen based self-service device aiming for three groups of respondents. These were 1) loyalty card members 2) voluntary participants in the SIIR survey registry and 3) Walk-in customers. The respondent were either assigned to the SST-based IT-pilot, or the sales clerk, to simulate a purchase in a real retail environment. When the respondents had selected and located the chosen merchandise the mock purchase was interrupted, and the structured interviews were conducted.

     

    The IT-pilot was a computer with touch screen, where a software prototype of a SST-program was installed. The customers made choices on the screen and the software gave them appropriate recommendations based on a hierarchy of choices the customer made on the touch screen. The IT-pilot was placed centered on a wall, by duvets and pillows. When the customer had gotten a recommendation from the IT-pilot they searched for the item of preference in the store, without help from sales personnel. The simulated purchase was concluded and the respondents were asked questions from a questionnaire with different design depending on whether the respondent had experienced a SST-encounter or a sales clerk encounter. Two research assistants, collecting the data and reporting it to the researchers in the study, performed the questionnaires. The research design was experimental in the sense that the respondent never actually performed a real purchase; they were invited and asked to participate in a fictional purchase, going through the different phases in the purchasing process. Total sample in the experiment was 78 customers contributing to the data set.

    Results

    The average respondent in the study was a woman 47.1 years-old. Two respondents were male, thus reflecting the age and sex of the store’s targeted segment. Most respondents were relatively frequent visitors to the retail chain. 75.6 of the population visit a store one to two times every month, indicating an interest in the category. Less than 4% were highly infrequent visitors. Some used the internet regularly, but mobile platforms were seldom used, indicating a low internet maturity in the population.

    When asked how they perceived the importance of personal service, a majority of the respondents claimed it was high. However, the willingness to pay for better service was low. The self-stated computer literacy was high but their experience and willingness to use the internet retail options was low. The respondents were reluctant to try the SST-device, or at least hesitating, however, when educated they wanted to test the service. When asked which service was the best, the sales clerk or the SST, they preferred pre-purchase information sources such as employee encounters, and signs (including hang tags).

    The expected service level at the fixed store setting was high or very high before the experiments were carried out. Both the sales clerk and the SST, proving that both SST and sales personal delivered customer perceived value, fulfilled these expectations. The service experience, information quality and the match with preference were very good with the sales clerk. The SST received a somewhat lower rating compared to the personal encounter. The likelihood that the subject would actually purchase the product was slightly higher for the respondents who received service from sales personnel.

    Even if the recommended product is a good match for the customers’ preferences, we cannot conclude that there will be a purchase to finalize the sale. The product may not be important enough, or it can be difficult to find in the store. The product category in our experiment was considered very important by both the group serviced by the sales clerk and the SST group. However, those serviced by the sales clerk stated it was easier to locate the shelf where the recommended item was located, and to locate it n the shelf, than the group serviced by

    Discussion and Conclusions

    The study shows that customers perceive the SST as both simple and logical with a good layout and as a good basis for decision making. This is in line with previous research that suggests that customers can perceive an added value if SST is present in-store. Given the results it is also indicated that acceptance for SST such as the IT-pilot in this case is dependent upon both outcome and expectations. Customers in this study, who are customers of the home textile company that was the setting require high service but are not willing to pay for the higher service level. Their focus is on value for them personally as customers (i.e. price and service related to price), more than the ultimate shopping experience. It was also revealed that the SST-based IT-pilot used in this study was best utilized when used in combination with personal selling and was most appreciated when the store was very busy. This indicating that consumers appreciate having the option of customizing their own service experience given the variables of time, access to sales personnel and readiness and willingness to use SST devices. Further research should view the combination of SST and personal service in order to view consumer choice of medium for service encounters, particularly when purchasing so called complex products. Methodologically further research should view the results when a SST device is placed in-store and respondents are not invited to an experiment but interview after having used the device uninitiated by researchers.

    References

    Bettencourt, Lance and Kevin Gwinner (1996), “Customization of the Service Experience:

    The Role of the Frontline Employee,” International Journal in Services Industry Management, 7 (2), 2–20.

    Bitner, MJ. and Mary Stanfield Tetreault (1990), “The Service Encounter: Diagnosing

    Favorable and Unfavorable Incidents,” Journal of Marketing, 54 (January), 71–84.

    Bitner M.J., Brown S.W., Meuter M.L., (2000) Technology Infusion in Service Encounters,

    Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol. 28, n. 1, pp. 138-149.

    Bitner M.J., Ostrom A.L., Meuter M.L., (2002) Implementing Successful Self-Service

    Technologies, Academy of Management Executive, vol. 16, n. 4, 2002, pp. 96-109.

    Dabholkar P.A., (2003) Understanding Consumer Motivation and Behavior Related to Self-

    Scanning in Retail, International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 14, n. 1, pp. 59-95.

    Demirkan, H., Spohrer, J. (2014) Developing a framework to improve virtual shopping in

    digital malls with intelligent self-service systems, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp. 860-868.

    Giebelhausen, Michael, Stacey G. Robinson, Nancy J. Sirianni, and Michael K. Brady (2014)

    Touch Versus Tech: When Technology Functions as a Barrier or a Benefit to Service Encounters. Journal of Marketing: July 2014, Vol. 78, No. 4, pp. 113-124.

    Meuter, Matthew L., Amy L. Ostrom, Robert I. Roundtree, Mary Jo Bitner (2000) Self-

    Services Technologies: Understanding Customer Satisfaction with Technology-Based Service Encounters. Journal of Marketing: July, Vol. 64, No. 3, pp. 50-64.

  • 72.
    Annerstedt, Cecilia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Annerstedt, Louise
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Förbättrad projektstruktur: Sweco Industry2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport handlar om hur en förbättring av projektstrukturen kan genomföras på Sweco Industry som är en del av Sweco AB. Sweco Industry är involverade i stora och många projekt och är i behov av en gemensam samt organiserad strukturmodell. För att undersöka material som finns att tillhandahålla i dagsläget söktes det efter befintliga styrdokument och intervjuer med personalen gjordes. Rapporten beskriver också hur ett referensprojekt användes som stöd för att fördjupa kunskapen om hur ett projekt genomförs. Referensprojektet genomfördes med hjälp av intervjuer som baserades på Sweco Logistics (som är en del av Sweco Industry) nuvarande strukturmodell, Lakanet, där hela processen från initiering av projektet till avslut följdes. Syftet med arbetet är att försöka identifiera eventuella brister i Sweco Logistics nuvarande strukturmodell och vad som bör förbättras. Särskilt fokus läggs på hur projektarbetet på Rustas centrallager har genomförts. Avsikten är även att ta reda på vad för material i form av styrdokument som används idag på Sweco Industry gällande projekt. Tidigt i undersökningen kunde det konstateras att det finns en förbättringspotential i hur Swecos medarbetare följer en gemensam strukturmodell. Det finns exempel där personalen har lågt medvetande om Lakanets existens vilket försvårade undersökningen, men med kontinuerliga styrgruppsmöten tydliggjordes frågetecken och intressanta observationer gjordes. Emellertid kunde det konstateras att Sweco Industry lyckas väldigt bra i projekt som de tar sig an, och det för att många av medarbetarna har sedan tidigare stor erfarenhet av att arbeta i projekt. Denna kunskap måste Sweco Industry belysa, ta vara på och använda för att utbilda framtida projektledare. Under tiden som examensarbetet pågick startades ett arbete med en ny version av strukturmodellen där examensarbetarna var högst delaktiga i utformningen då de både muntligt samt skriftligt givit förslag till hur materialet kan tänkas se ut.

  • 73.
    Annvik, Sophie
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Jonsson, Emma
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Funktionskläder och den fysiska butikens funktion2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sportswear is growing into a fashion trend due to consumers growing desire for a healthy lifestyle. Some years back functional sportswear companies sold their clothing mostly via retailers, in recent years however these companies have integrated downstream in the supply chain. Now most functional sportswear brands operate their own stores: flagship or brand stores. Many researchers have investigated how companies use integration in the supply chainas a strategy. Few of these researchers have solely looked into functional sportswear companies and their unique products. The purpose of this thesis is therefore to examine why functional sportswear brands operate brand stores.

    In this paper several researchers suggested reasons to why companies integrate downstream in the supply chain, which has been taken into account. Researchers such as Penaloza (1998), Pine and Gilmor (1998) and Thomas et. al (1999) have suggested that brand image, a relationship with the consumer and the chance of giving the consumer an experience are important advantages that comes with a brand store. Researchers have also discussed how the brand store generates sales through other channels. These advantages of brand stores as well as reasons for downstream integration have been used to critically examine why functional sportswear brands operate brand stores. The study shows that all examined sportswear brands use the brand store as a way of building image. The companies all find the chance of giving the consumer an experience as an important aspect of the brand store.

  • 74.
    Aofeng, Zhuang
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Han, Bao
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Virtual Reality in Marketing—An explorative study2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, virtual reality (VR), as a new form of technology is developing and evoking public interest. VR technology can provide an artificial realistic environment controlled by body movements. The technology has been applied in many areas for example movies and other entertainments. It provides interactive experiences and it is still developing to many other new fields like medicine and the military.It is exciting to look into how virtual reality technology can be helpful to some new areas such as marketing. The purpose of this thesis is to try to find out whether virtual reality technology, as a marketing tool, can attract customers’ attention more than traditional marketing tools.We choose IKEA as an experimental case study has been chosen as method for doing this research. We use IKEA’s virtual reality application on the Steam to do the experiment. IKEA is a big Swedish furniture retailer, which has stores all around the world. IKEA virtual reality application is a simulation of a kitchen environment. In the application, users can interact with virtual items such as cooking a meal with pan and meat balls. The application is available on the Steam, a digital distribution platform used for e.g. digital gaming. The thesis first introduces the background of virtual reality technology and marketing theory and then, analyzes marketing through virtual reality. We believe that the result of our experiment with IKEA’s application can be used as a reference for other companies.

  • 75.
    Appelkvist, Rolf
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Oudhuis, Margareta
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Nätverk för den goda arbetsorganisationen: Högskolan och den tredje uppgiften2002In: Den glokala utmaningen : samverkansmönster och näringslivsutveckling i Västsverige, Stockholm: Atlas förlag , 2002Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Arnbert, Camilla
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Scattered Print Gathered Form2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The specific area of interest in this work is to explore decon- struction of printed motifs in relation to shape as a method of construction. One of the main objectives of this explo- ration is to change the traditional ways in which designers work with print and material in relation to form. This implies to question the structures currently present within the fashion industry as well as preconceived ideas of existing techniques, their limitations and visual appearances. What is presented in this work is how print and material can be brought forward and make out the foundation of the process. Please note that this does not imply that form comes secondary. Instead the idea is to present a method of working where these different factors have a vital connection and where form is a product of the construction and placement of print motifs. Resulting in form which is dependent on print and in turn, print which is dependent on form.

  • 77.
    Arnbert, Camilla
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Surfaced Print2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor degree work explores the interrelation between print and surface in fashion design and aims to investigate the expressional possibilities in merging of techniques. With focus on creating an irregular surface through embroidery and fringing, three-dimensional expressions are created, resulting in an illusion of depth and movement within the motifs. The work is textile-driven, hence the main focus has been to find materials, applicational techniques and motifs that interact with each other without conflicts. Through the use of heat sensitive yarns within the transfer printing process a clear relationship between texture and motif occur where the different aspects affect each other and are equally important for the final visual expression. It is the heat-press used to transfer print from paper to surface that is the most vital step of the process. This work strives to propose a transposed order of applying techniques within a design process. Whilst the act of embellishing existing prints has been investigated by a range of designers, this project propose an order where the print is added post additive surface-manipulation. Therefore this work is to be seen as a suggestion of new ways of approaching the use of prints within the fashion field. Balancing between fashion design and textile design, the collection is based on generic prints and shapes which are affected by the surface manipulations used.

  • 78.
    Aronsson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gyllencreutz Wendeberg, Helena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Är reshoring ett alternativ för modeföretagen?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problematisation

    In a constantly changing industry like the fashion industry, it is more important than ever to have a well-functioning value chain and efficient sourcing. Companies have outsourced their production during a long period of time, which has proven to be very effective in many cases. But some researchers now mean that it starts to appear a reverse trend, as companies instead start moving back production to generate benefits. This is a term called reshoring. The research mentions benefits with reshoring as a more efficient value chain, reduced risks and value creating for both consumers and the firm. A recurrent question is then if there only are benefits with reshoring or if there are negative aspects of the decision as well. Research suggests that reshoring will be the next big thing within sourcing but this is not something we have noticed has happened, yet.

    Purpose and method

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Swedish fashion companies through sourcing can improve and make their value chain more efficient. We will also investigate if companies are open for the option to bring back production to Europe, known as reshoring. Since several researchers now believe that there will be a balance on how much of the production that moves away and moves home, we want to find out if this is something that lays within the interest of Swedish fashion companies. To find out, we conducted semi structured interviews with a number of companies that fit the purpose. The empiricism that was collected was then linked with the theoretical framework to be able to be analysed and answer our research question.

    Result and conclusion

    After an analysis was compiled we found that the interviewed companies did not share the researcher's positive image about reshoring. While the researchers talked about risks and increased wages in the Asian countries, the companies instead meant that they had secured the production in Asia for several years, using production offices and long-term relationships with their suppliers. To leave this for a move to Europe then felt unnecessary for the companies. In addition, companies claimed that Europe did not need to be safer than Asia. Our conclusion is therefore that the research on reshoring is very interesting and could be something in a possible future, but the fashion companies is not there yet and may not ever be there.The thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 79.
    Aronsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nilsson, Sophia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hur kan ett medelstort tekniskt företag utveckla sitt informationsflöde internt vid framtagning av en ny produkt?: En kvalitativ studie på Silvent AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the report was to investigate how a medium-sized technical company candevelop its information flow internally when developing a new product. The choice of thepurpose of the study is that organizations in companies are usually not prioritized without itbeing production that performs efficiency improvements and improvements while theorganization easily forget. Examining this flow of information between the technicaldepartment and the other parties gave the study both an element of engineering and personnelscience. The literature study formed the basis for the report and the communicative factorsthat affect the organization in the production of a new product were organizational theories,standardized methods of preventing the dissemination of information, different types ofcommunication and improvement work. By interviewing the relevant departments at SilventAB, a basic picture of the present and the organization could be created, which later becamethe basis for the analysis. Conclusion could be drawn by comparing theory, interviews andcurrent position description. The conclusion was also based on the question and purpose ofhow a medium-sized technical company could develop its information flow internally whendeveloping a new product in the future. Conclusions found in the study to meet this were tocreate a technical bridge that clarifies and communicates communication within theorganization effectively.

  • 80.
    Aronsson, Julia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Torn to be worn?: Cotton fibre length of shredded post-consumer garments2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015 the global fibre consumption was 96.7 million tonnes, which is an increase of 3.1% from the year before. Our high textile consumption has led to an increasing demand of raw materials and generation of textile waste. Only in Europe, a total amount of 4.3 million tonnes of apparel waste each year is sent to either incineration or landfills. Approximately 50% of the clothes we discard and donate are composed of cotton. In the future, the cotton production is predicted to stagnate since the world population is increasing and arable land to greater extent will be needed for food production. Thereby, it is important that we utilize the cotton waste generated. One of the most commonly used processes for recycling textile waste is the shredding process. In this method, textile waste is shredded back into their constituent fibres. The drawback with the shredding process is that the fibre length is reduced. The fibre length is an important property since it has a high influence on textile processing such as yarn production and final product quality. The aim of this thesis was to investigate how post-consumer cotton garments with different degree of wear affects the fibre length obtained in the shredding process. This was performed by analysing the input fibre length as well as the output fibre length. Additionally, several parameters were investigated: fabric construction and yarn structure. Degree of wear was categorized into two levels: low and high degree of wear. The fabric constructions used in this study were single-jersey and denim. The yarn structure were analysed in terms of yarn count, yarn twist and manufacturing process.  The result showed that the fibre length before shredding was statistically significant longer for the materials with low degree of wear compared to high degree of wear. After shredding, it was shown that the fibre length reduction was lower for the materials with high degree of wear. This indicates that longer fibres give higher fibre length reduction. In addition, it was found that finer yarn gives higher fibre length reduction. The result also showed that the yarn manufacturing process has a great influence on the ease of shredding and the fibre length obtained in the end.  Based on the result in this thesis it can be concluded that the shredding process needs to be improved in order to preserve the fibre length. The area of post-consumer textile waste is complex and the result showed that there is many underlying parameters that need to be taken into account to further develop the shredding process. 

  • 81.
    Aronsson, Julia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Björquist, Stina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nya t-shirts av gamla jeans: Textila egenskaper hos en cellulosabaserad konstfiber tillverkadav dissolvingmassa framställd från bomull av textilt avfall2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the earth, as well as the average income, are both on the increase. Therefore the already high consumption of textiles in the world is expected to be even greater in the future. At present, 70 million tonnes of textile fibres are being produced yearly. This figure could rise to as much as 240 million within the next 35 years. In Sweden alone, the people were consuming around 12.5 kilos of textiles per person in 2010. About 8 of these kilos were discarded as garbage. The textile industry is facing big challenges, both in finding new resources for production of fibres as well as dealing with the issue of large amounts of textile waste from consumers and companies. Re:newcell is a Swedish company financing research at Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, in Stockholm. Their researchers are investigating the possibility to recycle cotton and other cellulosic textile materials in order to produce dissolved pulp. Thereafter cellulosic man-made fibres are being produced from the pulp. The properties of lyocell fibres produced from the dissolved pulp from Re:newcell is being investigated in this Bachelor thesis. The dissolved pulp has been produced from jeans bought in second-hand shops. These fibres are being compared to the conventionally produced lyocell fibres, Tencel®. A ring spun yarn of each fibre type has been produced at the Swedish School of Textiles. The linear density of the yarns have been determined in order to achieve the same thickness of the yarn as a commercially spun yarn also made from Tencel® fibres. A test of tensile strength and elongation has been carried out on each of the three yarns. Thereafter the yarns have been used to manufacture a knitted fabric on a circular knitting machine. Each of the knitted fabrics have gone through a series of tests regarding weight of fabric per square meter, dimensional change after washing, wicking and absorbency properties, dye exhaustion, colour staining to other materials during laundering and colour change after laundering, abrasion resistance and tendency to create fuzzing and pills. The purpose of the study is to make conclusions about whether this fibre has the potential to complement other cellulosic man-made fibres. The conclusion is that Re:newcell fibres can be used to spin a yarn with the linear density of 25 tex. This yarn can be utilized to produce a circular knitted fabric light enough to make T-shirts. After the testing it is concluded that the shrinking percentage after consumer’s washing is acceptable. In addition, the material could be worn close to the body because of the good absorbency and wicking properties. The exhaustion of dyestuff of antrakinon type from the dyeing liquor is equally very good. Although some of the dyestuff is being washed in laundering, the Re:newcell tricot is not staining other materials noticeably. The Re:newcell material can also withstand high abrasion against a woven wool material. The tendency to form fuzzing and pills is great but the pills are being torn of eventually. It may be concluded that the fibres, made by the dissolved pulp of Re:newcell in the lyocell process, can be used to manufacture a yarn with better strength than two investigated yarns of Tencel®. The tests carried out on the fabrics produced in the project show that the Re:newcell fibre has excellent properties in order to function as a material in a garment, for example a T-shirt. Therefore the dissolved pulp of Re:newcell has the possibility to be a new raw material in the production of man-made cellulosic fibres. This enables the textile industry to deal with their excess waste, and to meet the increasing demand for fibres in the world.

  • 82.
    Artikelsson, Artikeltest
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Testartikelorganisation.
    Testartikel: för e-arkivering2017In: Testtidskriften nummer två, ISSN 4543535, Vol. 5, no 6, 55-60 p., 90Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [hi]

    Testartikelns abstract

  • 83.
    Aslanzadeh, Solmaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pretreatment of straw fraction of manure for improved biogas production2011In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 6, no 4, 5193-5205 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pretreatment of straw separated from cattle and horse manure using N-methylmorpholine oxide (NMMO) was investigated. The pretreatment conditions were for 5 h and 15 h at 120 °C, and the effects were evaluated by batch digestion assays. Untreated cattle and horse manure, both mixed with straw, resulted in 0.250 and 0.279 Nm3 CH4/kgVS (volatile solids), respectively. Pretreatment with NMMO improved both the methane yield and the degradation rate of these substrates, and the effects were further amplified with more pretreatment time. Pretreatment for 15 h resulted in an increase of methane yield by 53% and 51% for cattle and horse manure, respectively. The specific rate constant, k0, was increased from 0.041 to 0.072 (d-1) for the cattle and from 0.071 to 0.086 (d-1) for the horse manure. Analysis of the pretreated straw shows that the structural lignin content decreased by approximately 10% for both samples and the carbohydrate content increased by 13% for the straw separated from the cattle and by 9% for that separated from the horse manure. The crystallinity of straw samples analyzed by FTIR show a decrease with increased time of NMMO pretreatment.

  • 84.
    Asphede, Gabriella
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Amanda
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Digitalakundrelationer: Enfallstudieinomdensvenskabanksektorn2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Digitalization is a current topic that is often observed in Swedish media.Through a focus on digital development, banks' customer relations nowadays have shiftedfrom physical interactions to be more of a digital relationship.Purpose: The study aims to deepen the discussion on digital customer relationships within theSwedish banking sector.Design/methodology/approach: The study has used an abductive approach to be able tocustomize theory after empiricism and vice versa. Using a qualitative method, empiricism wasgathered through semi-structured interviews. As a result of the purpose, a case study weredesigned. The intention was to deepen the understanding as to how the banks' customerrelationships have changed through the digital development. Ten interviews were carried out,in which all respondents were employees of one of Sweden's major banks.Findings: The study indicates that customer relationships have changed a lot during a shortperiod of time. Customers tend to more often interact in digital channels than visiting aphysical bank branch. Implementation of digital services has created several challenges forthe banks, mainly regarding security, availability, ease of use, and people in digital exclusion.However, digital channels have enabled the Bank to meet customers on a more regular basis,which according to the Bank itself creates a stronger and more stable relationship. However,turned up differeces between the study strategists and office workers, as they encounterdifferent types of customers in their everyday work.Originality/value: There is a lack of Swedish studies that discuss the topic of digitalizationwithin the Swedish banking sector. The essay therefore presents knowledge within thesubject, which can be used in further research.

  • 85.
    Atanasiu, Dragu
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Modern differential- och integralkalkyl2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Atanasiu, Dragu
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mikusinski, Piotr
    Department of Mathematics,University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.
    An elementary operational calculus2015In: Mathematical Gazette, ISSN 0025-5572, Vol. 99, no 544Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Augustsson, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Adolfsson, Kristian
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fukttillstånd i olika ytterväggar med tre olika fasadsystem: En parameterstudie med Wufi2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of buildings built under “miljonprogrammet” is today in need of renovation. With their high energy consumption it is also considered profitable to improve the buildings energy efficiency e.g. by additional insulation. It is however important to thoroughly evaluate potential damp issues that might arise as a result of these improvements before starting to implement a new building exterior.The aim of this study was to investigate three different façade systems based on how their moisture content and risk for mould growth are affected by different moisture loads, orientation, and additional insulation. Included is also a performance evaluation for each building exterior solution mounted on existing structure of wood, lightweight concrete and concrete structure. Damp simulations were done with the program Wufi and the results were then analysed by comparison to RF-curves in combination with risk assessments of the growth of mould with “Wufi Bio”.The overall conclusion shows that leakage due to torrential rain poses a great strain on building exterior systems. A solutions damp proof quality is largely dependent on its ability to withstand leakage from outer sources.The study also shows that a well ventilated cavity wall, sufficient drainage or a construction of exclusively vapour open materials has a positive impact on the amount of leakage.

  • 88.
    Au-Yeung, Chingying
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Andreasson, Emma
    Användningen av 5S och TPM på en företagskritisk maskinstation inom produktionen2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project was performed at Parker Hannifin Cylinder Division at Falköping, where a station in the most critical flow at the production has been studied, which is the hand welding station. Within this report, the purpose is to identify disturbances, in order to eliminate and reduce these by coming up with improvement proposals. Furthermore, the aim is to help improve the company's work with 5S and TPM (Total Productive Maintenance). A combination of tools and concepts are being used in this project when generating improvement proposals to avoid the risk of falling back into old habits and facilitate the work. The combination of concepts, intends to be continued to work with, in order to facilitate for the company to reach even higher results.The methodology of TPM is the basis of the project, although it is not about a complete implementation of TPM, but is limited to chosen parts since it is a time consuming process that can go on for years. The main focus of TPM is about the first pillar, 5S. Action plans for how to solve these problems and how to achieve the desired state has been established.Thereafter, the researchers in cooperation with the company´s staff have implemented a couple of small improvement proposals. Further improvement proposals have also been presented in this report, but due to the limited time no implementations was made.Moreover, this project is divided into a couple of phases. Situational analysis has been made through both interviews with staff and observation studies. Analysis has also been made by some numeric data taken out by researchers and partly through mapping the equipment. The intention of this is to create a status image of the current situation over the hand welding station. The current state has shown the appearance of problems and challenges that exist. Additional wastages and disturbances in the station can come up to the surface and can thus easily be identified. In turn, occurring wastages and disturbances can be eliminated and the amount of wasted time reduced with help of the action plans to reach a future state.Another method that occurs is spaghetti charts. It has been used for mapping up the existing procedures during the process of the orders in the station, and by that identified different types of disturbances. In addition, the creation of a Value Stream Mapping (VSM) has been made. The map is used as a measurement to identify how much time on a working day that is spent as value adding time and non-value adding time of work.

  • 89.
    Axelberg, Peter
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Carlsson, Jonny
    Unipower AB.
    Measuring method for deciding direction to a flickering source.2013Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The present invention relates to a method for deciding the direction to a flickering source in relation to a measurement point in an electrical network with alternating current with a network frequency (fc) with low-frequency amplitude variation from the flickering source. The invention is characterized in that the method comprises the steps: - recording of an amplitude-modulated current signal (i(n)) comprising signals that originate from the network frequency (fc) and the low-frequency amplitude variations in the current signal (i(n)); - recording of an amplitude-modulated voltage signal ((u(n)) comprising signals that originate from the network frequency (fc) and the low-frequency amplitude variations in the voltage signal (u(n)); - creation of a flicker power with a sign value by multiplication of the low-frequency amplitude variations in the current signal and the low-frequency amplitude variations in the voltage signal, and - analysis of the sign value, with the sign value indicating in which direction the flickering source is to be found in relation to the measurement point. The method also comprises an arrangement designed to be used when carrying out the method.

  • 90.
    Axelsson, Filippa
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Johansson, Sofia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fluorfria återimpregneringar: en studie om konsumentprodukter för återimpregnering av textil2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The textile industry uses durable water repellents (DWR) to achieve water repellency on textiles. One of these DWR chemistries, fluorocarbons, is an environmental issue and has therefore been phased-out in the industry. This has resulted in a market where both modified fluorocarbons and fluorine-free alternatives are available and there is a lack of information about these DWR regarding health and environmental aspects. Due to the changeover from the fluorinated DWR to the non-fluorinated options, the question was raised about how durable these really are. This resulted in a wide range of do-it-yourself consumer products for the water repellency revival. These consumer products have been referred to as reimpregnations in this study. The purpose of reimpregnations is to give clothing a longer life cycle. The customer remains satisfied with the garment and this in turn reduces the textile waste. The industry wants to know more about these unexplored consumer products, including how the textile material is affected by them. A customer perspective has been the basis for selecting relevant parameters in this study, which has been creatively translated into laboratory test methods. Parameters in this study have been water repellency, color change, air permeability and fabric hand. These have been used for analysis and comparison of eight fluorine-free reimpregnations. The techniques used were wash-in and spray-on and have been investigated on four different textiles representing outdoor clothing and workwear, two made of polyester and two of polyamide. All the reimpregnations showed an increased effect in water repellency. The result varied depending on which textile material and what kind of reimpregnation that was used. The other test methods also showed variation according to these factors. Over all the wash-in and spray-on techniques showed a statistical significance. Products from the same brand applied with wash-in and spray-on techniques also showed different results. The selected laboratory test methods proved to be useful tools for evaluation of reimpregnations in textile applications. Based on the literature combined with the results from this study the conclusion has been made that reimpregnation, of textile materials, has a significant difference between DWR chemistries as well as the construction and fibre type of the textile. The safest fluorine-free option, from an environmental point of view, is believed to be wax, which is classified as a hydrocarbon chemistry, however there is much left to explore before such a conclusion can be made with certainty. This study has been an initial step towards the investigation of reimpregnations, which hopefully in the future can lead to reduced textile waste with as little environmental impact as possible.

  • 91.
    Axelsson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Svernlöv, Emma
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    CSR i modeindustrins mellanhandsföretag: en studie om integration och värdeskapande2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this qualitative study the buying activity for three smaller intermediaries in the Swedish fashion industry have been identified to compare similarities and differences. Further on we studied how CSR is integrated in the activity and which type of value these efforts create for the intermediary. The study was conducted through semi-structured interviews with CSR- and buying managers as well as a CSR- consultant who assists intermediaries in issues and strategies regarding CSR, to deepen our knowledge and gain further perspective of the area. The gathered empirical evidence has later been analyzed in connection with existing theories concerning CSR integration and value creation in order to reach a conclusion that also answers our research questions.

    The study has shown tendencies that CSR can be successfully integrated in an intermediary by letting it become a part of the company’s core activities and thereby permeate the entire organization. If the intermediary is successful with this part, value can be created in terms of brand strengthening and a good reputation as well as functioning as insurance for the future. We hope that this study can convey the importance of CSR for an intermediary and how it best can be integrated in the company’s buying activity.The following essay is written in Swedish.

  • 92.
    Axengren, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Petersson, Sandra
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Att lyckas med strategisk planering och strategisk kontroll – En fallstudie på två svenska företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A competitive strategy is essential for a corporate’s success in their industry. The challenge is not only to design the strategy; it is to spread it throughout the organization. An integrated measurement system refers to support and control the activities and goals that leads to strategic success. Thus, earlier studies have shown that integrated measurement systems have contributed to improve large enterprises’ performances when applied in their businesses. However, this study refers to the gap of research on the use of integrated measurement systems and its impact on small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). This study focusses on two Swedish SMEs and research what characterize their qualities that contributes to strategic success. The study will also focus on how the SMEs apply strategic planning and strategic control in their business’s.The study was based on previous studies in the context of strategy. The interviews were conducted on two Swedish SMEs, and the respondents were people that are a part of each company’s management team that possess both knowledge and insight to the company’s strategic work.Our findings suggest that factors contributing to strategic success in SME’s are: the communication approach, the attitude of the employees and the organizational structure. The strategic planning in SME wasn’t based on a specific model to support the strategic planning. However, they use a similar methodical approach to implement the activities in the strategic planning process. Finally, the study also shows that SMEs use integrated measurement in terms of financial and non-financial measurements, where the financial measurements had a greater impact on the SME business’s.

  • 93.
    Ayllon, David
    et al.
    Universidad de Alcalá.
    Gil-Pita, Roberto
    Universidad de Alcalá.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Detection and Classification of Measurement Errors in Bioimpedance Spectroscopy2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6, e0156522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurement errors may be caused by parasitic stray capacitance, impedance mismatch, cross-talking or their very likely combination. An accurate detection and identification is of extreme importance for further analysis because in some cases and for some applications, certain measurement artifacts can be corrected, minimized or even avoided. In this paper we present a robust method to detect the presence of measurement artifacts and identify what kind of measurement error is present in BIS measurements. The method is based on supervised machine learning and uses a novel set of generalist features for measurement characterization in different immittance planes. Experimental validation has been carried out using a database of complex spectra BIS measurements obtained from different BIS applications and containing six different types of errors, as well as error-free measurements. The method obtained a low classification error (0.33%) and has shown good generalization. Since both the features and the classification schema are relatively simple, the implementation of this pre-processing task in the current hardware of bioimpedance spectrometers is possible.

  • 94.
    Bach, Carina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ek, Kenny
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Köpprocessen: APPlicering vid nedladdning av spelappar på smartphones2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Apps are today a big market since most people own a smartphone and thus are potential app consumers. Even though just a third of all Swedes pay for mobile games, hundreds of millions Swedish Crowns are spent buying apps each year. Games is the most popular app category in the Swedish App Store and Google Play, causing developers who are not making games struggle to be seen. An established model in marketing is the buying decision process, describing the entire process from need identification to evaluation of bought product. The understanding of areas affecting the different stages is important in order to successfully design effective marketing strategies.Since mobile games tend to be free, the buying decision process while downloading gaming apps may differ from the traditional process, since e.g. impulse buying behavior may happen in greater extent. Because the app market is still young, the research is limited. The purpose of this study is to look into the structure of the buying decision process for downloading gaming apps. To extend the understandings, areas affecting the different stages of the buying decision process are examined.Because there is no prior research addressing the studied area, a qualitative approach was performed in order to identify behavior patterns. 12 persons in the ages of 16-25 who play games on their smartphones participated on semi structured interviews, explaining their process for downloading a new mobile game. A literature study of areas related to the buying decision process is the basis for the design of the interview guide.The results show that the need for a new mobile game arises in due to boredom or recommendations. Information about the game is collected from the game’s page at the app store, images and videos being of great importance. When interested in a free game one usually download without regards of any consequences, because you can easily uninstall the game if you did not like it. The opinion of the developer is not affected whether you like the game or not due to the fact one rarely observe the developer while searching for a new game. A positive judgment of the game may lead to the player recommending the game to friends. When dissatisfied one may advise against the game to people you know, but it is rare to speak ill of a game without being asked about it.The study shows that the buying decision process for downloading free mobile games consists of four stages instead of five, while the process for priced games remains the same. Regarding free games, the evaluation of alternatives is removed due to the process being nonexistent prior to a download. The information search stage is replaced with perception, since it better fits to describe the meaning of the stage. Areas affecting the different stages of the buying decision process such as attitude, memory and affect are summarized in a table. The study is in Swedish.

  • 95.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skelte, Gabrielle
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Piezoelektriska filament: från garn till textil applikation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Piezoelectric materials are frequently used in different sensors as they can generate a measurable electrical signal during applied pressure or when subjected to extension. This project examines how a piezoelectric yarn containing Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is affected when exposed to moisture, heat and long-term mechanical deformation. Focus has been directed towards investigating the properties of the piezoelectric yarn as well as how it can be applied in textile fabrics and textile applications. The piezoelectric yarn has been subjected to a series of tests. Most of the samples have undergone cyclic deformation in an extensometer during tests. The piezoelectric yarn has been examined by experiments in laboratory environment, practical tests in textile applications as well as by statistical analysis. It can be stated that factors such as moisture and temperature have influence on the piezoelectric effect of the yarn. Long-term tests reveal how the yarn displays a change in length while undergoing deformation, which contributes to the diminished signal strength of the yarn. The piezoelectric yarn can successfully be integrated in a piece of fabric by the means of sewing when using correct stitch- length, where higher stitch-length gives a higher signal output. The same method can be applied to construct a piezoelectric sensor used in a training sock. This project can conclude that parameters such as moisture, creep-behaviour and structural variation within the PVDF-filaments have a significant effect on the signal created by the piezoelectric yarn. The potential of the yarn as a sensor can be seen by successfully applying it to a textile structure as well as in a training sock that can monitor the fore and rear foot while running. It can be stated that much remains to be studied in this particular research area regarding piezoelectric filaments and yarns. Further research in the subject will lead to new innovative applications that can be of use in different parts of society, not to say the least in the area of medicine.

  • 96.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skelte, Gabrielle
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rundqvist, Karin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Piezoelektriska strumpor för rörelsemonitorering - En känslighetsanalys2015In: Abstracts - Medicinteknikdagarna 2015, Svensk förening för medicinsk teknik och fysik , 2015, 60- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 97.
    Backe, Karin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Enhancing textile electrode performance: Regulating moisture management through textile structure2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The medical field has been a part of the smart textile area for quite some time. With time come technological advancement and the two fields converge on more and more areas. One such area is that of using textile electrodes, textrodes, for measuring bioelectrical activity, such as heart rate for ECG analysis. There are many components that make for a successful textile electrode and though many studies have been made in the subject there are several aspects that still are difficult. By using textile electrodes the problem with skin irritation from electrolyte gels, commonly used for conventional electrodes, is avoided, however dry textrodes create disturbances in the output signal (heart rate) while subjected to movement and internal dimensional changes. The addition of moisture to a textrode has shown to decrease these intermittent disturbances but the knowledge about fundamental textile structural influence in the matter has not been fully investigated. This study investigates a flat, a 2-thread fleece and an open structure, and their relation to moisture both as textile structures and as textrodes. This way the possibilities of utilising moisture to increase performance in a textrode purpose can be examined and to what extent the textile structure plays a part in that exploitation. The material composition of textile structures also affects their properties The introduction of assistive materials, polyester and viscose, into the Shieldex (conductive yarn) structures is done to test core moisture management properties such as surface tension, absorption and moisture content, and correlate them to electrical properties necessary for textrode function. In the end the gap between textile structure and end product in form of a textrode is closed as the impedance and microclimate of the textrodes are studied. This is mainly to tie together the fundamental textile structures with a complex textile construction. In conclusion the complexity is also confirmed as structural, materialistic and external influences has an impact on the results. The influence of moisture on lowered resistance and impedance in the structures is confirmed but the impact of textile structure can also be seen. The 2-thread fleece and open structures often has a more positive impact on results and therefore has the possibility of enhancing performance of a textrode for bioelectrical signal monitoring. With these results a more effective way of producing long-lasting, patient-friendly, textrodes can be derived and in the future lead to better care in the medical areas.

  • 98.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of thermoplastic biocomposites based on aligned hybrid yarns for fast composite manufacturing2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in natural fibres as reinforcement for composite materials has been steadily increasing due to their attractive mechanical properties and the possibility of making more eco-friendly materials. Currently, various alternatives are being introduced for commercial applications, as fibres such as hemp, jute and flax exhibit properties, which make them appropriate for structural composite components. Biocomposites offer reductions in weight and cost and have less reliance on foreign oil resources, making them attractive. Several investigations have revealed that the full utilisation of fibre mechanical properties in the final composites can be exploited, provided an aligned fibre orientation is chosen. In fact, a major challenge for natural fibre reinforced composites is to achieve high mechanical performance at competitive prices. The use of commingled/hybrid yarns is one of the more promising methods for manufacturing structural thermoplastic composites.

    Commingled yarns of thermoplastic and reinforcing fibres offer a potential for cost-effective production of composite parts, thanks to reduced applied pressures and impregnation times during processing. Besides economic advantages, there is also direct control over fibre placements and ease of handling of fibres in yarn process. The yarn technologies provide homogenous distribution of reinforcing fibre and matrix. Variation in natural fibre properties has been a major problem facing composite manufacturers, compared to carbon and glass fibres that have well-defined production processes. This issue can be addressed by regenerated cellulose fibres. These fibres can be reproduced easily with high surface evenness and even quality, making it possible to get consistent results, which is not possible with natural fibres. Combination of natural and regenerated cellulose fibre brings together the best of both materials. The end result is a product with superior properties, which could not be obtained by the individual components.

    This thesis describes the development of aligned hybrid yarns with low fibre twist, for high performance natural (hemp) and man-made (Lyocell) cellulose fibre-reinforced biocomposites, suitable for use in structural or semi-structural applications. The properties of composites in terms of fibre orientation, off-axis angle and alkali treatment were investigated, focusing on determining void%, water absorption, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties. The results show that combining hemp and Lyocell in PLA composite leads to the reduction of moisture absorption and can improve the mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the composites were highly affected by the fibre direction. The alkali treatment on hemp fibre improved the mechanical properties of the composites.

  • 99.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Characterisation of polylactic acid biocomposites made from prepregs composed of woven polylactic acid/hemp–Lyocell hybrid yarn fabrics2016In: Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, Vol. 81, 139-144 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the mechanical properties and water absorption characteristics for biocomposites made from woven PLA/hemp/Lyocell prepregs. The aim was to improve the properties with the addition of Lyocell fibre into a hybrid yarn. Well-aligned hybrid yarns composed of hemp/PLA, hemp-Lyocell/PLA, respective, Lyocell/PLA were made by wrap spinning. Unidirectional satin fabrics were made by weaving with PLA (warp) and the hybrid yarns (weft). Uniaxial composites were fabricated with 30 fibre mass% using compression moulding. The composites were investigated for tensile, flexural and impact properties. Combining hemp with Lyocell in a PLA matrix improves the mechanical properties, compared to hemp/PLA composites. The composite made from the satin Lyocell/PLA fabric gave the best mechanical properties. The type of fibre reinforcement compositions did not significantly affect the water absorption of the biocomposites. Scanning electron microscopy showed that fibre pull-outs appear more often in hemp/PLA composites than in composites also including Lyocell fibre. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 100.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Characterization of thermoplastic natural fibre composites made from woven hybrid yarn prepregs with different weave pattern2015In: Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 81, 139-144- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
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