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  • 51.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Social hierarchies, school and impoverished suburbs in Swedish Metropolitan districts2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of schools in Sweden has recently taken a significant turn toward neo-liberalism whereby educational consumerism and individualism have replaced citizenship and collective democracy as a basic ethos and driving force. A number of elements are involved. In this article we point to a risk of self segregation by means of which economically disadvantaged groups become concentrated in the same schools, within mainly the public sector. This is a particular and complex problem in multi-racial/multi-ethnic migrant intense areas according to previous research that causes these schools to experience serious difficulties when it comes to operating as schools capable of mobilization for full citizenship. We need such schools but there is no evidence that schools are developing in these directions in the neo-liberal era.

  • 52.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Socialisation and Commercialisation in the Restructuring of Education and Health Professions in Europe: Questions of Global Class and Gender2010In: Current Sociology, ISSN 0011-3921, E-ISSN 1461-7064, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 551-569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on a meta-analysis of previous research on restructuring in relation to education and health professions in Europe and more globally. It highlights common developments and signals the significant and important role of specific cycles of public to private transformation in production relations in these professions over the course of the last century and a successive movement of labour from the domestic sphere of the home to private industry as commoditised labour power, as amongst the most significant common global features. State involvement has been an important intermediary in these processes, by which relationships that were formerly largely untainted by commerce have become relationships involving the direct buying and selling of labour power. The process of the creation of economically productive labour power also seems to be expanding in scope in the professions, with negative consequences for service workers, low-GDP countries and lower-class fractions of recipient-consumers world-wide.

  • 53.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Structural Injustices in Swedish Education: Academic Selection and Educational Inequalities2018Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While Sweden is often viewed as a benchmark for equality within education, this book examines this assumption in greater depth. The author argues that Sweden’s education system – even prior to the global spread of neoliberalism in education, meta-policies and privatization – was never particularly equal. Instead, what became apparent was a system that offered advantages to the upper social classes under a sheen of meritocracy and tolerable inequalities. Combining ethnographic and meta-ethnographic methodologies and analyses, the author examines the phenomenon of structural injustice in the Swedish education system both vertically and diachronically across a period of intensive transformation and reform. This revealing volume offers a mode of engagement that will be of value and interest to researchers and students of injustices within education, as well as policy makers and practitioners.

  • 54.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Structural Injustices in Swedish Education: Academic Selection and Educational Inequalities2018Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this book is to explore aspects of education justice and equity in relation to an educational system that is generally considered fairer and more equitable than most others: that of Sweden. There are seriously good reasons for undertaking this project. The education system in Sweden does seem to be ostensibly open and inclusive (Gudmundsson 2013) with upwards of 85% of all child cohorts between the ages of 3 and 19 being included for 6 hours or more each weekday in some form of organised institutional education or day-care, regardless of their social class, gender or racial or ethnic heritage or any possible physical or mental disabilities. And as has been suggested by the OECD in relation to its education justice barometer, this is perhaps internationally remarkable. However, perhaps equally remarkable is the lack of impact the investments have had in terms of the creation of greater levels of class consciousness and significantly reduced gender disparities, racial and ethnic equality or social and material distributions of power in society at large.

  • 55.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Teacher education cultural diversity, social justice and inclusion in Swedish teacher education: Policies, challenges and possibilities.2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a history of policies from the late 1940s to 2000 for the introduction of research based knowledge in the education field for teacher education in Sweden as a way of supporting the intellectual preparation of future teachers for work in an integrated and inclusive school system. These policies were prompted by the National School Commission Inquiry into the possibilities for a common unitary comprehensive school, which had identified the main divisions between existing teacher education enrichments as an obstacle. Pulling these divisions together and educating teachers in a shared content developed from a common research base in the education field about the challenges faced in the realization of the comprehensive school vision was expressed as a possible solution. However, the project failed. The divisions remained. Schools did not overcome social reproduction. And in recent decades challenges have intensified as hyper-diversity, globalization and a recent turn towards market governance have added new complications.

  • 56.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The changing relations between education professionals, the state and citizen consumers in Europe: rethinking restructuring as capitalisation2008In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 195-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on research about welfare state restructuring in education and its implications for the teaching profession. Several things are described and discussed. However, amongst the most important are pan-European developments in the social relations of production in education over the past 50 years with respect to the socialisation, habituation and commercialisation of education labour, and a suggested lowering of general standards of public education and increasing class differences in the amount and quality of education consumed by citizens. The idea expressed about this is that neo-liberal restructuring is leading to the creation of apparatuses through which education is objectified for economic accumulation through an outsourcing of functions that were formerly carried out within first domestic and voluntary, and then state arrangements to capitalist enterprises. This is part of a successive privatisation of education services for processes of capitalisation. It consists of an updating of the moral and legal determination of education services by the prevailing standards of market capitalism and an abdication of responsibility for the plight of negatively affected individuals, who, nevertheless, in some intriguing way still often support the system of transformation in question.

  • 57.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The deceptive imagination and ethnographic writing2006In: Researching education policy: Ethnographic experiences, London: Tufnell Press , 2006, p. 74-94Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    The learning and creativity of male youth from multi-cultural suburbs2017In: Troubling educational cultures in the Nordic Countries / [ed] T. Vaahtera, A-M. Niemi, S. Lappalainen, and D. Beach, London: Tufnell Press, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    The myth of Swedish educational equity from historical ethnographic and regional/spatial analytical perspectives2018In: Educació i desenvolupament rural als segles xix-xx-xxi / [ed] Núria Llevot and Jaume Sanuy, Lleida, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is widely regarded as one of the most egalitarian societies in the world, not the least with respect to education access and school inclusion, but this presentation will suggest that there are high levels of social injustice and inequality within the Swedish education system and educational politics, historically and regionally, and that levels of inequality have also risen in recent years, following the introduction of principles of market governance. Examples will be given to illustrate these inequalities with respect to different curricula and geographic spaces and in terms of identified factors of inequity such as race, gender and dis/abilities. The special situation in rural areas will be included in the analysis which has been historically contextualized and links closely with work related to the production of a recent book manuscript that aims to develop a coherent and symmetrical theoretical and empirically grounded argument about historical inequality in Sweden’s education system.

  • 60.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The politics of representation2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The Problem of how Learning should be Socially Organised2005In: Reflective Practice, ISSN 1462-3943, E-ISSN 1470-1103, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 473-489Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The public costs of the re-structuring of adult education: A case in point from Sweden2004In: The Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, ISSN 2051-0969, E-ISSN 1740-2743, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper takes up a concrete example of education restructuring, that of adult education in Gothenburg, Sweden in recent years. This example has been studied through ethnographic data about changes to the supply of basic adult education – an education that is given to adults who have a school education below that provided by the compulsory school – and upper secondary adult education – an education at an approximately ‘A’ level and/or NVQ level. SFI education, Swedish for immigrants, has been focussed in particular. Sfi is important in relation to the restructuring in Gothenburg as this was initiated there first, based on decisions in the Gothenburg Municipal Council in 1999, near to the completion of the National Adult Education Initiative. The restructuring processes followed guidelines from the 1992 Purchasing Act and had consequences for all education suppliers, but in particular one of them, an adult education company called Studium Ltd, which was created in 2001 when the municipal adult education service (Komvux) was converted into a municipal company. Studium was the largest deliverer of adult education in 2001 but lost its contracts during tendering and is now on the brink of bankruptcy. From having had over 3000 sfi students in 2001, for which they were fully reimbursed, Studium now has less than 250 such students on role and a reduced budget for each student. As disclosed in a recent City Audit, the local tax-based economy footed the bill of the conversion processes and salary costs of under employed Studium employees. Public funds paying for the conversion of public services to private seems to be a consistent element of education restructuring according to international research.

  • 63.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The Social Construction of Student Learning Preferences in School Classrooms2008In: Ethnography and Education, ISSN 1745-7823, E-ISSN 1745-7831, Vol. 3, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The socialisation and commercialisation of health professions in Europe2009In: European Nurses' Life and Work under Restructuring / [ed] Jarmo Houtsonen, Gun-Britt Wärvik, Rotterdam: Sense Publishers , 2009, p. 15-28Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The Socialisation and Commercialisation of Professional Work in Education and Health Professions.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 66. Beach, Dennis
    Whose justice is this! Capitalism, class and education justice and inclusion in the Nordic countries: race, space and class history2017In: Educational review (Birmingham), ISSN 0013-1911, E-ISSN 1465-3397, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 620-637, article id 253769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a meta-ethnographic analysis this article discusses education justice, equity and inclusion in education systems that have often been claimed to be more just, equal, inclusive than most, specifically those of the Nordic countries. It finds these claims to be questionable and describes the education systems as ones that have promised justice, inclusion and equity for all in formal policy but in practice actually fail to do so. A turn in recent years to market politics as a means of appeasement is given attention and critiqued for having worsened the situation.

  • 67.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bagley, Carl
    Changing professional discourses in teacher education policy: A comparative study2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most modern definitions of professions connect professional knowledge to higher scientific studies and a higher education degree. One example is Talcott Parsons’ definition of professions requiring formal technical training for the mastery of a generalized cultural tradition in a manner giving prominence to an intellectual component as applied to a particular field. Another is the definition of Eliot Freidson, which describes professions as links between high levels of formal education and rewards in the social division of labour. Basil Bernstein (2000) discusses this in relation to teacher education as professional knowledge based on and achieved following years of higher education training. This issue is discussed and illustrated in the present paper in relation to teacher education policy developments in two European countries; Sweden and England. Some common elements are described as is a tendency to turn away from scientific professional knowledge in the two countries in recent decades towards a more generic professional knowledge.

  • 68.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bagley, Carl
    Changing professional discourses in teacher education policy back towards a training paradigm: a comparative study2013In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 379-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern definitions of professions connect professional knowledge to scientific studies and higher education. In the present article we examine the changing nature of this relationship in initial teacher education in two European countries: Sweden and England. The article is based on policy analyses from recent decades of teacher education reforms. The findings suggest a policy convergence through a shared policy return that has moved teacher education back toward a teacher training paradigm.

  • 69.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bagley, Carl
    High Quality Teacher Education in Advanced Knowledge-Based Economies.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bagley, Carl
    New Threats in Advanced Knowledge-Based Economies to the Old Problem of Developing and Sustaining Quality Teacher Education2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Certain common elements can be identified regarding teacher education programmes and their development in advanced knowledge-based economies, by which we mean nation states that are thoroughly reliant on knowledge production and communication for economic stability and growth and the smooth running of their institutions. They have their basis in three strongly expressed policy ideas. The first is the recognition that scientific knowledge (i.e. facts and principles that are acquired through the long process of systematic theoretical and empirical inquiry and stringent disciplinary investigation and analysis) is increasingly essential for economic growth and social, technological and cultural development (e.g. SOU 2008:105). The second is a recognition of the relationship between formal education (schooling) and economic production and the third is a recognition of the role of teacher education in respect to this relationship and the value of placing this education inside the modern university.

  • 71.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bagley, Carl
    New Threats in Advanced Knowledge-based Economies to the Old Problem of Developing and Sustaining Quality Teacher Education2011In: Developing quality cultures in teacher education: Expanding Horizons in Relation to Quality Assurance / [ed] Eve Eisenschmidt, Erika Löfström, Tallin University Press , 2011, p. 15-35Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our analysis starts from the 1974 Teacher Education Inquiry (SOU 1978:86). From this inquiry (and to some degree perhaps even earlier than this: Beach 1995, Eriksson 2009) and up to and including the 1997 Teacher Education Commission (LUK 97: SOU 1999:63) teacher education policy writers in Sweden seemed to be trying to establish foundations for a regional knowledge base in teacher education as a central part of the education of all teachers and for all pre-service teacher education (Carlgren 1992, Eriksson 2009, Beach 2000). Recent policy seems to have abandoned these aims (Sjöberg 2011, Beach 2011). This is most clearly exemplified in relation to a recent Green Paper (SOU 2008:109) and the subsequent government White Paper (Top of the Class: Government proposition 2009/10:89) that was based on the recommendations of the commission (Ahlström 2008) and its statement that knowledge about the professional, societal and institutional context of teaching – what was termed general pedagogical knowledge in previous Green and White papers (see e.g. SOU 1952:33, 1965:29, 1978:86, 1999:63) – has little real significance for the quality of teacher-work and that providing student-teachers with an understanding of the social, sociological, political, ideological, cultural and economic landscape in which they and their pupils live, work and learn has little effect on effective pupil learning. Instead, as also Sjöberg (2011) shows us, subject knowledge and vocational pedagogical skills are emphasised as of singular importance (e.g. Proposition 2009/10:89, p 9, p19, p24, p 26, p 41) as is organising teacher education in accordance with current school and pre-school organization(e.g. op cit, p 12, p 18, p 25). The professional knowledge that is given most value is once again described as founded on the subject knowledge domains of university singularities (e.g. physics, history and geography) together with some technical knowledge related to how to communicate subject knowledge effectively to pupils (Sjöberg 2011). This is against the grain of earlier policy developments and it may, in line with for instance Beck and Young (2005), help make future teachers and their practices more easily economically managed and controlled and more susceptible to political manipulation and economic exploitation (also Codd 2005). This shift has strong consequences for professional knowledge. As is suggested by for instance Apple (2001) and Ball et al (1994, 1996) in relation to developments in the USA and UK respectively, it suggests how neo-conservative standards about subject knowledge value and discipline together with new-managerial aims and technologies for increasing ‘efficiency, speed, and cost control’ now prevail (Apple 2001, 192) and have ‘replaced more substantive concerns about social and educational justice’ (ibid). These are important points that signal that there has been a clear turn of interests in education (Antikainen 2010) that as Apple says (2001,189) is crucial to recognize in any attempt to think through the running of the education systems in the future. More not less power is being consolidated within the national administrative structure of education and more time and energy are being spent on controlling performances and public image. Scientific content for teachers in teacher education relating to education and teaching as political and sociological objects of knowledge is being removed and replaced by subject and performance content at the same time as other changes in the political economy of the education landscape may render the sociological, political and ideological knowledge that has been lost more valuable and necessary than ever before.

  • 72.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bagley, Carl
    The Weakening Role of Education Studies and the Re-traditionalisation of Swedish Teacher Education2012In: Oxford Review of Education, ISSN 0305-4985, E-ISSN 1465-3915, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 287-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that certain common policy presuppositions can be identified regarding teacher education programmes in advanced knowledge-based economies, most notably?the relationship between formal education (schooling) and economic production, and the role of teacher education in respect to this relationship. This article draws on the work of Basil Bernstein to engage theoretically and critique the nature of that evolving policy relationship within the context of Sweden. While the article concentrates on developments in one country, however, it is contended that the findings are symptomatic of a wider European or even global trend in which the scientific foundation of teacher education is under threat.

  • 73.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bagley, Carl
    Eriksson, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Player-Koro, Catarina
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Changing teacher education in Sweden: Using meta-ethnographic analysis to understand and describe policy making and educational changes2014In: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480, Vol. 44, p. 160-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article derives from policy ethnographic research on teacher-education change in Sweden concerning the development of a unified profession with a common professional-knowledge base. This was a social democratic government policy for teacher education from the 1950s up until 2007, when the newly elected right wing government turned away from unification and toward re-traditionalisation. Based on a meta-ethnographic analysis of the policy ethnographies the article illustrates resistance toward unification and raises critical questions concerning the intellectual foundations and integrity of reform processes. Attempts are also made to locate the disclosures in relation to international research.

  • 74.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. University of Gothenburg.
    Bagley, Carl
    Eriksson, Anita
    Player-Koro, Catarina
    Changing teacher education in Sweden: Using meta-ethnographic analysis to understand and describe policy making and educational changes2014In: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article derives from policy ethnographic research on teacher-education change in Sweden concerning the development of a unified profession with a common professional-knowledge base. This was a social democratic government policy for teacher education from the 1950s up until 2007, when the newly elected right wing government turned away from unification and toward re-traditionalisation. Based on a meta-ethnographic analysis of the policy ethnographies the article illustrates resistance toward unification and raises critical questions concerning the intellectual foundations and integrity of reform processes. Attempts are also made to locate the disclosures in relation to international research. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 75.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Carlén, Margareta
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Från neo-fordism till post-fordism i utbildning och arbetsliv. I vems intresse?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt undersökte ett nytt post-Fordistiskt utbildningspartnerskap mellan en facklig organisation (Svenska Byggnadsarbetareförbundet: Byggnads) och en av byggbranschens arbetsgivarorganisationer (BI). Två olika kurser undersöktes (Lagbas-utbildningar och MB-utbildningar) i tre olika nationella kontexter. Vi försökte ge svar på vad det nya partnerskapet hade för konsekvenser för utbildningarnas innehåll, form och lärande. Forskningen bedrevs etnografiskt. Vi dokumenterade och analyserade texter, tal och handlingar från de utbildningar vi besökte. Vi ställde frågor till deltagarna från såväl den fackliga organisationen som den privata industrin. Frågan om i vems intressen det nya partnerskapet verkade fungera var central. Men vi hade även andra frågor. Bland dessa var frågor kring vilka organiserande begrepp användes av olika individer och grupper och vilka meningar tillskrevs och tolkades ut av dessa begrepp i utbildningspraktiken. På vilket sätt förståelsen för utbildningsförändring och behov av utbildningsförändring uttrycktes var en annan fråga liksom frågan om behov av förändrade partnerskapsförhållanden på arbetsmarknaden och utbildningens roll i detta. Vi försökte identifiera olika visioner om och motiveringar för förändring i utbildning och arbetsliv i konkreta termer. Vi intresserade oss också för vad de olika deltagarna i de nya utbildningarna lärde sig i de olika kontexter som utgjordes av de olika kurserna som ingick i projektet, vad som verkade ha inverkan på likhet och olikhet i lärandet, hur tidigare erfarenheter spelade in och hur och på vilka dimensioner deltagarna tillskrev meningsfullhet till sitt lärande.

  • 76.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Carlén, Margareta
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    New partnerships: new interests: an ethnographic investigation some of the effects of employer involvement in trade union education2009In: The Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, ISSN 2051-0969, E-ISSN 1740-2743, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 342-363Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Creativity as a Cultural Commodity: An Ethnographic Investigation of Struggles over Creativity in Three Swedish Schools2005In: The Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, ISSN 2051-0969, E-ISSN 1740-2743, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Education and the Commodity Problem: Ethnographic Investigations of Creativity and Performativity in Swedish Schools2007Book (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    Gothenburg University.
    Equity and choice for newly arrived migrants2019In: Neoliberalism and Market Forces in Education: Lessons from Sweden / [ed] Magnus Dahlstedt, Andreas Fejes, London: Routledge , 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neoliberalism and Market Forces in Education provides a wide perspective on the dramatic transformation of education policy in Sweden that has taken place during the last 30 years, with a specific focus on marketization. The marketization of education in Sweden is set in the wider international context of changes in education systems. Markets have shown themselves to be very poor arbiters of justice and equity in education. This chapter shows one example.

  • 80.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    L'educazione svedese verso un cambiamento? La riforma della scuola e della pedagogia, o nuovi modi per la riproduzione sociale2006In: Le scuole degli altri. Le riforme scolastiche nell'Europa che cambia / [ed] Franscesca Gobbo, Torino: SEI , 2006Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Making Right Choices: an Ethnographic Investigation of Creativity and Performativity in Four Swedish Schools2009In: Oxford Review of Education, ISSN 0305-4985, E-ISSN 1465-3915, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 689-704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses ethnographic research from two Year 8 classes in two middle-sized secondary schools about a kilometre apart in a Swedish west-coast town to examine how new policies for personalised learning have developed in practice, in the performative cultures of modern schools in a commodity society. One school stands in a predominantly middle-class area of privately owned 'low-rise' houses. The other is in an area of 'high-rise' rented accommodation, where the first language of many homes is not Swedish. The differences are important. According to the article, personalised learning mobilises material and social resources in these schools that support new forms of individualistic, selfish and private accumulations of education goods from public provision and a valorisation of self-interest and private value as the common basis for educational culture. The article describes this cultural production in school and links it to processes of cultural and social reproduction.

  • 82.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    New schools and new pedagogy? Ethnographic Investigations of Creativity and Performativity Discourses in Four Swedish Schools.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Twelve years of upper-secondary education in Sweden: the beginnings of a neo-liberal policy hegemony?2011In: Educational review (Birmingham), ISSN 0013-1911, E-ISSN 1465-3397, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 313-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we discuss data produced about learning practices and learner identities during the past 12 years of upper-secondary school development in Sweden based on ethnographic fieldwork that has examined these issues with respect to two sets of pupils from these schools: one successful, one unsuccessful. Two things are considered in particular. One is how these pupils and their school activities are described and positioned by teachers. Another is how pupils describe their own activities and position themselves. Some policy changes have been noted across the researched period. Questions relating to participation are considered in relation to them and there is also an attempt to make a connection to a possible social-class relationship. Our main concern however, is for how recent policy changes have been enacted in schools and classrooms and what effects this enactment seems to have had on learner subjectivity and learner identities.

  • 84.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Schwartz, Anneli
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Öhrn, Elisabet
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Ethnographic studies of education inclusion and marginalisation in multi-ethnic, multi-racial suburbs: teacher and pupil perspectives2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Dyson, Alan
    Equity and education in cold climates2016Book (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Dyson, Alan
    Tentative conclusions2016In: Equity and education in cold climates / [ed] D. Beach and A. Dyson, London: Tufnell Press, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 87.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Eriksson, A.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The relationship between ethical positions and methodological approaches: A Scandanavian perspective2010In: Ethnography and Education, ISSN 1745-7823, E-ISSN 1745-7831, Vol. 5, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, based on reading ethnographic theses, books and articles and conversations with nine key informants, we have tried to describe how research ethics are approached and written about in educational ethnography in Scandinavia. The article confirms findings from previous research that there are different methodological forms of ethnography there. It adds that although ethical descriptions can of course be described by using formal-philosophical ethical-typographies there is also a relationship between ethical holdings and methodological approaches. The different approaches reflect critical, feminist, interactionist and micro-ethnographic forms. The ethical types have been termed utilitarian, deontological, relational and ecological. The main conclusions are that the research we have analysed has always considered ethical issues and that these considerations often in some sense reflect national ethical guidelines from research authorities and financiers. A drift can also be discerned away from utilitarian ethics to relational and ecological thinking in accordance with methodological and ideological commitments and beliefs.

  • 88.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Eriksson, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Research Ethics in Scandinavian Education Ethnography2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 89.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Eriksson, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The relationship between ethical positions and methodological approaches: a Scandinavian perspective2010In: Ethnography and Education, ISSN 1745-7823, E-ISSN 1745-7831, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 129-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, based on reading ethnographic theses, books and articles and conversations with nine key informants, we have tried to describe how research ethics are approached and written about in educational ethnography in Scandinavia. The article confirms findings from previous research that there are different methodological forms of ethnography there. It adds that although ethical descriptions can of course be described by using formal-philosophical ethical-typographies there is also a relationship between ethical holdings and methodological approaches. The different approaches reflect critical, feminist, interactionist and micro-ethnographic forms. The ethical types have been termed utilitarian, deontological, relational and ecological. The main conclusions are that the research we have analysed has always considered ethical issues and that these considerations often in some sense reflect national ethical guidelines from research authorities and financiers. A drift can also be discerned away from utilitarian ethics to relational and ecological thinking in accordance with methodological and ideological commitments and beliefs.

  • 90.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Eriksson, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The relationship between ethical positions and metodological approaches: a scandinavian perspective2010In: Ethnography and Education, ISSN 1745-7823, E-ISSN 1745-7831, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 129-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, based on reading ethnographic theses, books and articles and conversations with nine key informants, we have tried to describe how research ethics are approached and written about in educational ethnography in Scandinavia. The article confirms findings from previous research that there are different methodological forms of ethnography there. It adds that although ethical descriptions can of course be described by using formal-philosophical ethical-typographies there is also a relationship between ethical holdings and methodological approaches. The different approaches reflect critical, feminist, interactionist and micro-ethnographic forms. The ethical types have been termed utilitarian, deontological, relational and ecological. The main conclusions are that the research we have analysed has always considered ethical issues and that these considerations often in some sense reflect national ethical guidelines from research authorities and financiers. A drift can also be discerned away from utilitarian ethics to relational and ecological thinking in accordance with methodological and ideological commitments and beliefs.

  • 91.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Eriksson, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Player-Koro, Catarina
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Changing teacher education in Sweden2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite attempts through official policy over the past forty years and up to the end of the first decade of the new millennium to ‘unite’ teacher education and provide a common teacher education programme for all teachers with a common professional scientific knowledge content, as in many other countries teacher education in Sweden today is still currently subjectively structured in accordance with a vertically and horizontally differentiated school system that gives rise to different teacher educational traditions and different ways of perceiving what characterizes the teachers’ mission and professional expertise. Moreover, recent developments are reinstating this distinction even at an objective level of formal policy. The present paper discusses and illustrates these issues based on data from three separate ethnographic studies of teacher education over the past twenty five years by the authors. This research constitutes thus a series of policy ethnographic investigation across three decades of policy making in Swedish teacher education.

  • 92.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Fritzsche, Bettina
    b Institut für Erziehungswissenschaft, Pädagogische Hochschule Freiburg.
    Kakos, Michalis
    ; c Carnegie School of Education, Leeds Beckett University.
    Stigmatisation, identity, and educational exclusion in postindustrial societies: A qualitative synthesis of research from UK, Germany, and the Nordic countries2019In: Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 54-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From existing research, we know segregation in poverty-intensive and immigrant-dense suburban spaces cannot be easily dissociated from educational inequality and exclusion. Our aim in this paper is to explore the link between urban segregation, social deprivation, migration and education by bringing together the findings from several ethnographic studies conducted in Europe. The starting point for our discussion is the findings from one meta-ethnogaphy which examined youth experiences of territorial stigmatisation, ethnification of poverty and educational inequality in economically challenged residential areas in Nordic cities. Our analysis has attempted to synthesise the findings from that study with those from ethnographies conducted in England and Germany. Results show how formal education is not only failing to contribute to the disruption of the processes which sustain social segregation, poverty and territorial stigmatisation but it is itself subjected to those. We argue that the value of education when this is conceptualised as commodity and promoted in the context of a market economy cannot but be at least partially dependent upon the inequality in its provision.

  • 93.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    From, Tuuli
    University of Helsinki.
    Johansson, Monica
    University of Gothenburg.
    Öhrn, Elisabet
    University of Gothenburg.
    Educational and spatial justice in rural and urban areas in three Nordic countries: a meta-ethnographic analysis2018In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on a meta-ethnographic analysis of educational research from rural and urban areas in Finland, Norway and Sweden following the reorganisation of educational supply there in line with market policies. Edward Soja’s concept of spatial justice shapes the analysis. Using meta-ethnography, we try to present a contextualising narrative account of spatial justice and injustice in the education systems in the three countries. Thirty-one Nordic ethnographic publications (a mix of monographs, book chapters and articles) have been used in the meta-analysis. Just over half of them come from Sweden, and most are from urban education studies. The other half are relatively evenly divided between Norway and Finland. All were published between 2000 and 2017. Sweden represents an extreme position in relation to the new politics of education markets. Its promotion of school choice and schools-for-profit has attracted significant attention from ethnographic researchers in recent decades and is given particular attention in the article.

  • 94.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Gordon, TuulaUniversity of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.Lahelma, ElinaUniversity of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Democratic education: ethnographic challenges2003Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of democratic schooling with its emphasis on equality is seriously attacked by the marketisation of education. New policies of educational restructuring emphasise accountability and close links between school and industry, where schools and students become targets of constant evaluation and competition. This book challenges such policies and practices through analyses of their negative consequences for social justice and democracy. It explores the effects of restructuring on everyday life in schools and other educational institutions and presents analyses of how differences based on gender, social class, ethnicity, nationality and embodiment are dealt with in educational settings. The authors draw on a range of theories, including poststructuralist, postcolonial, feminist and Marxist perspectives, and the localised ethnographies are contextualised in changing educational politics. How policies are contradicted by practices is discussed in relation to the classroom, teacher education and issues of inclusion and exclusion. A critical gaze is directed at Nordic countries where restructuring processes contradict a political discourse based on equality and comprehensive education. It is the immersion in the daily life of institutions and their participants that gives ethnography a particular edge in obtaining insights into what changes and what stays the same. This book provides a looking glass into the tensions and contradictions that New Right policies have introduced in educational institutions. Actors in the field experience frustration in introducing changes and controlling the direction of those changes. It is their voices that ethnographers try to hear and disseminate. Most ethnographers do not simply tell a (more or less) gripping story about the field - they aim to analyse the practices they encounter, and endeavour to render them into analytical narratives that tell different stories than those produced through policy research or questionnaires and interviews. Although these are not necessarily better stories, we suggest that they are particularly relevant in demonstrating the organisation and practice of producing difference. (Description by the publisher).

  • 95.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Johansson, Monica
    Education politics and rural secondary schools2019In: Young People’s Life and Schooling in Rural Areas / [ed] Elisabet Öhrn and Dennis Beach, London: Tufnell Press, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter has attempted to draw out and focus on some of the major relevant themes that have emerged from the analyses in the previous chapters. There are many but we will discuss five of them here. One of them is that rural areas, the schools in them, the pupils that go there, and the relationships (real and present and imaginary and future) that they form with education institutions and their agents to create educational opportunities and experiences are not uniform within let alone also across rural areas (as seems to be understood by national policy makers), but quite different. As the chapters show, there is no one standard form of rurality or rural educational relation or output. Rather this summarising and disfiguring norm is a chimera produced and reproduced through metro-centric lenses. Another relates to the identification of an ‘us and them’ discourse in rural areas that challenges the dominant urbanite /metro-centric representations of people from rural places and rural regions with cultural deficiencies (Corbett, 2015).

    The next theme is connected to the first. It is that despite differences, there are some consistencies with respect to rural education and schools, the people in them, and the educational and life opportunities they create that are not simple metro-centric aberrations and some of them seem to be present in schools and education social relations in urban areas as well. It is the hegemony of private ownership and private value within a current global politics of market governance in education and a general fall in educational performance standards and increasing inequalities in schools (Yang Hansen & Gustafsson, 2018) and between densely and sparsely populated areas (Fjellman, Yang Hansen & Beach, 2018). Although not dwelt on extensively in the chapters as such, there are two sub-points. The first is that market politics is now the ubiquitous policy context for and framework of the educational macro level. The second is that market governace has completely failed to live up to the promises made for it by the governments who proposed and introduced it. This applies both nationally (SOU 2017:35; Yang Hansen & Gustafsson, 2018) and internationally (Verger, Fontdevila, Zancajo, & Steiner-Khamsi, 2016), particularly in rural and poor sub-urban spaces (Åberg-Bengtsson, 2009; Fjellman, 2019). Market governance has not produced a uniformly rich expansion of choice options, national system efficiency and quality improvements of the kind promoted in proposal by the national government (see e.g. Swedish Government Proposition 1991/91: 95), but rather instead a lack of educational (choice) possibilities for economically subordinated groups in territorially stigmatised “off-places” in urban areas and in remote rural areas that also strikes unevenly in terms of social class, ethnicity and educational special needs (Berhanu, 2016a, 2016b; Lundahl, 2016; Beach, 2018; Beach, From, Johansson & Öhrn, 2018; Bunar & Ambrose, 2016; Fjellman et al., 2018; Forsberg, 2018).

    Although again not extensively dwelt on in the earlier chapters the deterioration of educational quality and equality in Sweden following marketization is apparent and has also been identified in other works, such as by Östh, Andersson and Malmberg (2013) in relation to school choice and Yang Hansen & Gustafsson (2018), who identified increases in inequities particularly from the late1980s onwards that were distinctly acute in sub-urban spaces and for children from families with a migrant history (Bunar & Ambrose, 2016; Beach, 2017). Increased segregation with respect to student composition and academic outcomes across different schools was found to be a main driver and differential trends in the relationship between family educational background and school outcome between immigrant and non-immigrant sub populations were also indicated. Between-school differences in achievement levels have increased in all regions and school segregation with respect to SES composition of students has increased too (Yang Hansen & Gustafsson, 2018)....

  • 96.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Johansson, Monica
    University of Gothenburg.
    Öhrn, Elisabet
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rönnlund, Maria
    University of Umeå.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Umeå.
    Rurality and education relations: Metro-centricity and local values in rural communities and schools2018In: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in six different types of rural area and their schools in different parts of Sweden, this article identifies how rural schools relate to the local place and discusses some of the educational implications from this. Recurrent references to the local community were present in some schools and people there explicitly positioned themselves in the local rural context and valorised rurality positively in education exchanges, content and interactions, with positive effects on young people’s experiences of participation and inclusion. These factors tended to occur in sparsely populated areas. An emphasis on nature and its value as materially vital in people’s lives was present as was a critique of middle-class metrocentricity. Such values and critique seemed to be absent in other areas, where rurality was instead often represented along the metrocentric lines of a residual space in modernizing societies.

  • 97.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Predicting the use of praise among pre-service teachers: The influence of implicit theories of intelligence, social comparison and stereotype acceptance2012In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 259-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation concerns feedback praise (person and process praise) and how it relates to implicit theories of intelligence (entity and incremental theories) among pre-service teachers. In the first study 176 pre-service teachers participated, while in the second study 151 of such teachers participated. Two new measures, one of feedback praise and the other of social comparison, were found to be reliable and valid. In the first study, process praise was predicted by the variable incremental theories of intelligence and person praise was predicted by the acceptance of stereotypes. However, these results suffered in the reliability analyses and, even if the models are significant, they should be rejected. The results of the second study are more reliable, with regression analyses showing that person praise can be predicted from the two predictor variables of entity theories of intelligence, and social comparison. Some positive effects of teacher education were found in the second part; for example, the preference for person praise was significantly lower in the last semester than in the first.

  • 98.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Erlandson, Peter
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Korp, Helena
    Do we really need more maths trained teachers in primary and elementary schools? Some problematic aspects2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Larsson, Staffan
    Lappalainen, Sirpa
    Odenbring, Ylva
    Research Symposium: The development of ethnography in educational research in the Nordic countries: Thinkingforward and looking back2020Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this symposium we will attempt to paint an updated broad picture of ethnography in education research and its development, covering all Nordic countries, by looking initially at the general past growth of ethnography of education there, along with discussions of present developments and possible future ones too. This will also involve presentations that have been invited to think forward in relation to ethnography of education in the region, whilst also looking back at ethnographic practices in education and their social relations and material histories (Beach, Bagley and Marques da Silva). After this, research addressing respectively and conjointly Gender Equity and Justice in Education will be given particular attention.

  • 100.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Lindblad, S
    Czaplicka, M
    Foss Lindblad, R
    Sohlberg, P
    Warvik, G-B
    Professionell kunskap under omstrukturering: en internationell komparativ studie.2007In: Resultatdialog 2007, Vetenskapsrådet , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
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