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  • 301.
    Ek, Emelie
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Viding, Josefine
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Social e-shopping: motivation och värde vid interaktion online2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media and e-commerce has become a part of every day life for many people.Recommendations and opinions about different products play a big part in the buying process. This is something that is hard to satisfy in e-commerce, therefore conversations and discussions about buying in social media have become more common. This phenomenon is called social e-shopping. Usually, social e-shopping occurs in online-forums, where individuals have the ability to voice their opinions regarding the potential purchasing decision. The purpose of this paper is to further deepen the discussion about social e-shopping by researching motivational factors and values. Through a netnographic study in a Facebook forum, essential empiricism could be gathered. With the help of Self Determination Theory, Social support and Values in a virtual community, the empiricism could be processed and refined. With the support of these theories it could be established that the biggest motivational factors for engaging in social e-shopping are to gain self-affirmation and affection, but also toease the decision making. The pursuit of perpetual confirmation was perceived as  alarming as it indicates that external factors have a bigger influence on the individual than its own will. At the same time, the desire to find solidarity also showed positive consequences through support and a sense of cultural unification. In conclusion it could also be determined that companies fail to satisfy the customer’s need of social interaction when shopping online.

    The paper is written in Swedish.

  • 302.
    Ekdahl, Samuel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Swiatek, Stefan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    SOU 2015:8 – En studie över intressenternas attityder till en ny företagskategori samt ny årsredovisningslag2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the EU, the work with harmonization of laws is an on-going process. The aim is to design and implement legislation of the highest quality, while taking into account that the administrative burdens are proportionate to their advantage. Against this background, the EU has worked to promote relief for small and medium-sized entities at the international as well as the national level, resulting in an audit of its own directives. As a result of the European Parliament and Council Directive of 2013 concerning the annual accounts, consolidated financial statements and related reports of certain types, an investigation was added by the government at the end of 2012. The investigators task was to submit proposals to the legislative provisions of Swedish law that would be required to implement the Directive. In addition to the Directive itself, the investigation treated the question whether the existing annual accounts legislation should be redesigned in a more transparent and clear manner. The investigation resulted in an interim report that dealt with the implementation of the new EU accounting directives, as well as a final report, that handled a review of the annual accounts act. The consultation on the final report was sent to 57 agencies and the answer to this was to be at the Ministry of Justice no later than 1 December 2015. Answers were received from 36 agencies.The purpose of this study is to examine and report on the attitudes of the various consultative agencies regarding the proposals set forth by the investigation. By creating a modified stakeholder model, we categorize instances of the various stakeholders and examine whether there is a correlation in the responses based on the stakeholder group each instance is categorized into, and what issues are of most importance to the instances. The study is qualitative in nature and the empirical data is based on the submitted consultation responses.The study shows that most agencies welcome the introduction of a new business category, micro-entities. There are some concerns regarding the limits for this category, since the limits suggested by the Swedish investigation are lower than the limits suggested by the EU. The investigation believes that it is helpful to have the same limit as for auditing duty, while those who advocate higher levels believes it will cause more problems for Swedish companies compared to their European peers. The cost saving estimated by the investigation are believed to be too narrowly calculated by several agencies, who argue that the costs will be higher for both the individual entity as well as for society. Regarding the modernization of the annual accounts acts all agencies agree that it is something that needs to be done, based on that the laws are too complex and lack logical structure. The proposals regarding the establishment of the annual report and approval certificate has rendered the least opinions of the consulted agencies. The replying agencies are the ones most affected by these new rules.The conclusions that we draw are that most of the agencies are positive towards the proposals presented by the investigation. The debate over the limits for micro-entities will likely continue after the category has been introduced to legislation. We believe that it is important for Sweden to apply the values that the EU directive advocates, for harmonization reason among other things. Regarding the cost issue we see that it is more important to promote relief for the smaller companies, than the meaning of increased costs in the short term. Regarding the modernization of the annual account acts we are, just as the consultative agencies, in favour of it because we believe it to be of utmost importance to improve the clarity of the legal text.(This essay is written in Swedish)

  • 303.
    Ekelund, Jenny
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Dubbla kupstorlekar: Framtagning och gradering av bh med dubbla kupstorlekar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is performed in collaboration with a fashion company to develop a sports bra with double cup sizes instead of cups with single sizes. The company doesn’t have this type of product in its current line and needs a grading that is adapted for this type of cup and a measurement chart with grading intervals. Grading intervals from both the company and SIS (Swedish standard) are compared to determine which grading intervals fit this purpose best.  A bra pattern is then graded for each different interval. The two different graded bras are sewn in two different sizes each that are evaluated during a fitting session. The test person also compares the fit and size of the double cup size to a single cup size. The result of the grading and the fittings show that the grading according to the company provides the best fit for the desired double cup sizes.

  • 304.
    Eklund, Beatrice
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Produktutveckling av hantverkarbyxor: Arbetskläder inriktade mot byggbranschen2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Flertalet av de hantverkarbyxor inom byggbranschen som går att hitta på marknaden idag består av stela material på grund av dess egenskaper som bra slitstyrka och nöthållfasthet. Detta kan medföra att rörelser som krävs för att kunna utföra sitt arbete inom den här kategorin bromsas på grund av hur byxan är utformad. Den här studien är gjord i samarbete med ett företag som producerar arbetskläder med syftet att uppgradera en modell hantverkarbyxor för byggbranschen. Detta med utgångspunkt från en befintlig modell med fokus på plaggets funktioner. För att komma fram till ett resultat har önskemål från företaget, granskad litteratur och en marknadsundersökning sammanställts i en kravspecifikation. Det i sin tur ledde vidare till en uppsydd prototyp. Då hantverkaryrken inom byggbranschen är ett brett område har en utmaning i den här studien varit att sammanställa flera olika önskemål till en plaggmodell.

  • 305.
    Eklund, Emelie
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nyström, Emelie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Att skapa effektiva projektgrupper: med teambuilding som främsta verktyg2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay we have investigated how team building can make a project group more effective towards reaching the goals of the project. With this question at issue we have interviewed a couple of project managers in the event industry that we believed was well suited for this research. The purpose of this essay has been to view if team building is used in practice and if so is used with the purpose to make the project groups work more efficient. To reach our purpose we chose to use a qualitative method with a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews.In the theoretical reference frame there is one chapter about the project manager's influence on the project group, definition of team building, definition of the project group and how a team is created, the groups different stages and pros and risks with having a friendly work relationship. Among other things we used the FIRO-model that presents which different phases a group goes through.The study came to the conclusion that team building can make a project more efficient by having a project manager that is enthusiastic. Team building can also enhance the chemistry within the project group and help the group to get to know each other in a simple way. For example having lunch together or that the company organizes kick-offs before the project goes into intense periods. The study also came to the conclusion that it is good for the group to get to know one another as long as they stay professional in their work role. It is important that the project group is not afraid to speak their minds to help the project grow.This paper is written in Swedish.

  • 306.
    Eklund, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Helgesson, Peter
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mångfaldsperspektiv i en svensk kontext: Mode eller institution?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is addressing the concept of workplace diversity in the Swedish context. The concept has been discussed in Sweden since the late 1990´s, but still there are confusions about what workplace diversity really is, and what impact it has on particular organizations. Further, the concept is in the Swedish context associated with a high degree of governmental involvement which, as of late, has been focused on influencing organizations toward a multicultural model. However, some argue that there is little experience of a multicultural model in the Swedish practice. Those companies that work with diversity do so mostly out of economic reasons, in search of external capital and not in an integrative way.The purpose of this study is to investigate which perspectives on diversity there are in different Swedish organizations and how these can resemble, or differ from, the multicultural model that is advocated by the societal discourse. By means of institutional theory as a reference, the results are then discussed to explain why possible discrepancies in the discourse around workplace diversity between different levels of society may arise. Qualitative analysis of discourses throughout several levels of society is conducted with a cross-sectional design with a sample of public documents such as websites, policy documents, sustainability reports and annual accounts from relevant institutional arrangements in a macro-perspective, and in a micro-perspective; from the largest Swedish companies and a random sample of large, Swedish companies. A total of 70 companies and six institutional arrangements are analyzed. We have an abductive approach, where the analysis is initially conducted by means of a frame of reference around perspectives on diversity, which is further developed with the addition of institutional theory in light of our findings.We find that three perspectives on diversity; reinforcing homogeneity, the color-blind perspective and the fairness perspective can be said to be institutionalized in the Swedish context, with a strong focus on the gender dimension of diversity. The perspectives of access and integration-learning cannot be said to be institutionalized in the Swedish context, but can instead be seen as fashionable. The institutional arrangements we can associate with the Swedish government influence Swedish organizations by means of coercive institutional pressure to adapt to the institutionalized perspectives. There is also an ambition to act as a role model concerning diversity management through companies owned by the State. However, the texts we analyze deriving from these institutional arrangements stretch no further than to the color-blind perspective and the fairness perspective. Instead, we find the most expressions for the access perspective and the integration-learning perspective, where we also find the multicultural model, in the discourse consisting of texts deriving from the largest Swedish companies. The study contributes, by the addition of institutional theory, to a more pluralistic way of describing the perspectives on diversity, than illustrated by previous literature.The thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 307.
    Eklöf, Ellen
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fransson, Johanna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wicking i en textil kemisk krets: En studie om vätskestyrning i en vävs varp- och väftgarner för applicering i en biosensor2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste decennierna har en miniatyriseringstrend inom ingenjörsvetenskaperna blivit allt större. Komplexa maskiner eller processer skalas ner till en allt mindre skala. Det kan vara motorer som inte är större än 500 μm eller kemiska analyser som vanligtvis görs på en större laboratorieutrustning som nu går att utföra på en yta på ca 2x4 cm. En sådan utrustning som kan utföra kemiska analyser kallas ofta för ”Lab-on-a-Chip” (LoC) och innehåller kemiska kretsar som hanterar mikroflöden av analysvätskor. En del av dagens forskning för att ta fram nya LoC handlar om att möta ett behov av portabel, billig och snabb analysutrustning i utvecklingsländer. Dock finns ett problem med att få ut produkter på marknaden. De flesta LoC som presenteras i forskningsrapporter idag är tillverkade av polydimetylsiloxan (PDMS). Det är en elastomer som lämpar sig väl för småskalig prototypframställning, men är svår att producera i stor skala, dessutom krävs ofta extern utrustning för att vätskeflöde skall uppstå. Det finns även LoC i papper, vilkas porösa struktur möjliggör för spontan vätsketransport, wicking, utan extern utrustning. Dessa är billiga och har nått större framgång. Exempelvis är vanliga graviditetstest som går att köpa på apoteket ofta LoC i papper. Textiliers fukt- och vätskehantering är relevant för komfort, och för många beredningsprocesser. Exempelvis är wicking ett välstuderat område som det finns djup kunskap om i den textila sektorn. Denna kunskap kan utnyttjas för att skapa ett textilt LoC. Att använda textila tekniker innebär möjligheter att styra vätskeflödet med hjälp av garn med och utan wickingförmåga. Denna studie undersöker hur en vävs naturliga X-Y-system av varp- och väftgarner kan utnyttjas för att skapa en kontrollerad vätskestyrning, en textil kemisk krets. Arbetet har utgått från frågan om hur en väv kan konstrueras för att leda en vätska från ett varpgarn till ett väftgarn utan läckage i oönskad del av väven. Två olika garner valdes: ett monofilament av polyeten för de områden där vätskeledning ej var önskvärd och ett multifilament av Coolmax® polyester med god wickingförmåga där vätskan vara avsedd att transporteras. Tre parametrar testades; bindningen i de delar av väven som var avsedd för vätsketransport (önskad väg); bindningen där vätskan skulle övergå från ett varpgarn till ett väftgarn (vägskälet); och antalet wickande trådar (trådigheten). Åtta olika kombinationer avseende dessa parametrar testade. Samtliga parametrar hade signifikant inverkan på läckaget. Den konstruktion med minst läckage in i oönskad väg var den med bindning över två trådar i önskad väg, flotteringar i vägskälet och var tvåtrådig. Den framtagna vävens möjlighet att användas i en biosensor undersöktes genom ett försök att konstruera en elektrokemisk glukosmätare. Som elektroder valdes en silverbelagd polyamid. Vid preparering av elektroderna skedde en oväntad reaktion mellan det silverbelagda garnet och en av de ingående kemikalierna, prussian blue. Därför kunde ingen detektion av glukos ske. Det noterades även att den textila kemiska kretsens wickingförmåga försämrades då den utsattes för våta prepareringsprocesserna av elektroderna. Från experimentet med att konstruera en textil glukosmätare drogs slutsatsen att preparering av elektroderna bör ske innan invävning i den textila kemiska kretsen.

  • 308.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mer diskussion om konsumtion2015In: Organisation och samhälle, ISSN 2001-9114, no 1, p. 40-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Möten och mötas för hållbarhet2015In: Hållbar framtid: - en seminarieserie om företagande / [ed] Björn Brorström, Borås: Högskolan i Borås, 2015, p. 81-87Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 310.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The Multi-Cultural Food Market: grocery stores approaching foreign-born consumers in Sweden2016In: The Practice of the Meal: Food, Families and the Market Place / [ed] Benedetta Cappellini, David Marshall and Elizabeth Parsons, Routledge, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 311.
    Ekström, Karin M
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Waste Management and Sustainable Consumption: Reflections on consumer waste2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 312.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gianneschi, Marcus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Brands, consumer choice and decision-making2017In: Brand Theories: A multi-perspective approach to brands and branding / [ed] Jon Bertilsson and Veronica Tarnovskaya, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 145-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 313.
    Ekström, Karin M
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hjelmgren, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Environmental Consumer Socialization among Generation Swing and Y: A Study of Clothing Consumption2015In: Waste Management and Sustainable Consumption: Reflections on consumer waste / [ed] Karin M Ekström, Routledge , 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 314.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hjort, Torbjörn
    Lunds universitet.
    Sociala medier ökar trycket att konsumera2017In: Svenska DagbladetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 315.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    Lunds universitet.
    Matturismen kan ge landsbygden ett lyft2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 316.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Jönsson, Håkan
    Lunds universitet.
    På resa i matlandet2016Book (Other academic)
  • 317.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lagerbielke, Erika
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    The importance of intuition; Trusting feelings as well as facts for creating new design as well as new insight2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 318.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet.
    Parment, Anders
    Stockholms universitet.
    Consumer behaviour: Classical and contemporary perspectives2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer Behavior: Classical and Contemporary Perspectives provides a basic understanding of the subject of consumer behavior. A better understanding in terms of why and how people consume is particularly relevant in today’s society since consumption has become an increasingly important part of people’s lives.

    This book differs from most previous textbooks by describing the subject of consumer behavior based on two comprehensive theoretical fields: theories concerning consumer psychology and decision-making, and theories concerning consumer culture and practices. These two perspectives complement one another and contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of consumption. Furthermore, the book has a sustainability perspective. The impact of consumption on the environment is important to highlight, not least with regard to future generations. The book also has a consumer perspective in that the consumer is not seen as a passive recipient of offers, but rather as an active actor who must be given the opportunity to make his or her voice heard. A better understanding of consumers’ different living conditions and the situations they encounter will give companies and other organizations a better chance to reach out to consumers and meet their needs.

    Consumer Behavior is also available in Swedish, published byStudentlitteratur.

  • 319.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet.
    Parment, Anders
    Stockholms universitet.
    Konsumentbeteende: Klassiska & samtida perspektiv2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konsumentbeteende – klassiska och samtida perspektiv ges en grundläggande förståelse för ämnet konsumentbeteende. Kunskap om varför och på vilket sätt människor konsumerar är av intresse för flertalet samhällsaktörer, i synnerhet som konsumtion kommit att bli en allt viktigare del av människors liv.

    

Boken skiljer sig från flertalet läroböcker genom att konsumentbeteendeämnet beskrivs utifrån två övergripande teoretiska fält: teorier om konsumentens psykologi och beslut samt teorier om konsumtionskultur och konsumtionspraktik. Dessa två teoretiska perspektiv kompletterar varandra och bidrar till en ökad förståelse för konsumtionens komplexitet. Boken har därutöver ett hållbarhetsperspektiv och ett konsumentperspektiv. Konsumtionens konsekvenser för miljön behöver uppmärksammas, inte minst med tanke på kommande generationer. Konsumenten ses inte som en passiv mottagare av erbjudanden, utan som en aktivt handlande aktör som måste ges möjlighet att göra sin röst hörd. En ökad förståelse för konsumenters olika livsvillkor och situationer de befinner sig i kan ge företag och andra organisationer bättre möjligheter att nå ut till konsumenter och tillgodose deras behov.

  • 320.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Cargo theft at non-secure parking locations2015In: International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, ISSN 0959-0552, E-ISSN 1758-6690, Vol. 432, no 1, p. 204-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the patterns of reported cargo thefts at

    non-secure parking facilities in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) with respect to stolen

    value, frequency, incident category, and modi operandi.

    Design/methodology/approach – This study is based on a system-theoretical approach that

    emphasizes on a holistic rather than an atomistic view. The research method used in this paper is

    deductive; the analysis is based on data obtained from the incident information service (IIS), a database

    of transport-related crimes from the Transported Asset Protection Association (TAPA) in the EMEA

    region. The results are analysed and discussed within a frame of reference based on supply chain risk

    management (SCRM) and criminology theories.

    Findings – We found that 97 per cent of all attacks during a stop occur at non-secure parking

    locations. Cargo thefts at these locations are more of a volume crime than high-value thefts. Seasonal

    variations were seen in these thefts, and the most common type was an intrusion on weekdays

    during winter.

    Research limitations/implications – This study is limited by the content of and the classifications

    within the TAPA EMEA IIS database.

    Practical implications – This paper is directly relevant to the current EU discussions regarding the

    creation of a large number of secure parking facilities in the region.

    Originality/value – This is one of the first papers in the field of SCRM that utilizes actual crime

    statistics reported by the industry to analyse the occurrence of cargo theft by focusing on the

    non-secure parking aspect in the transport chain.

  • 321.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Modi operandi for cargo theft in EMEA—A seasonality analysis2015In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, Vol. 8, no 3-4, p. 99-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper identifies patterns and trends in cargo theft by analysing seasonal

    variations (by time of year and time of week) in the relationship between value

    (reported stolen value) and various reported modi operandi. This research is exploratory

    in nature; it is based on theories derived from criminology and logistics as well as

    secondary data related to cargo theft. For practical purposes, the research is geographically

    limited to EMEA; however, the frame of reference is applicable to the analysis of

    antagonistic threats to transport worldwide. Though patterns differ across categories,

    for some modi operandi, seasonal patterns are found across both months of the year and

    days of the week. Despite variations in hot spots, incident categories, stolen and

    endangered objects, and handling methods, the basic theoretical framework is generally

    applicable. This research is limited by the content and classificatory scheme of the TAPA

    EMEA IIS database. However, this is the best available database and it contains anonymous

    reports that are mainly from TAPA member companies that are in the industry itself.

  • 322.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Brüls, Helmut
    FreightWatch International, Head of EMEA Intelligence.
    Wyer, Daniel
    Freightwatch International, EMEA Intelligence Analyst.
    Theft of pharmaceuticals during transport in Europe2015In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe the scale of cargo theft in

    the European pharmaceutical supply chain in 2014. The study is based on a systemtheoretical

    approach which emphasises a holistic rather than atomistic view. The

    research in this paper is deductive and descriptive in its nature and aims to present a

    current description of theft of pharmaceuticals in a European perspective. This paper’s

    hypotheses on cargo theft have been developed from theories of criminology, for

    applicable use, to strengthen the scientific field of logistics. A survey was conducted

    in autumn 2014 whereby the respondents were asked to provide their opinions in

    relation to eleven questions. The survey was sent out to all major players in the

    European pharmaceutical sector – manufacturers and logistics providers specializing

    in pharmaceuticals. The survey captured more or less 80 % of the European pharmaceutical

    manufacturers' market share.We found that the current threats against European

    pharmaceutical transport are small in relative occurrence terms (relatively few attacks on

    a yearly basis compared to other product categories) but on an impact basis thefts of

    pharmaceuticals place as one of the top targets (value wise) for criminals. This research

    supports other sources that the current geographical hot spot for these thefts in Europe is

    in Italy. The top risks are rated as either robbery or theft from vehicle at unsecure parking

    areas. These two different modi operandi can be divided into one frequency related

    threat (theft from unsecure parking) and one impact related risk (robbery).

  • 323.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lantz, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Cargo theft risk and security: product and location2017In: NOFOMA 2017 THE 29TH NOFOMA CONFERENCE: TAKING ON GRAND CHALLENGES / [ed] Daniel Hellström, Joakim Kembro, Hajnalka Bodnar, Lund, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of the study is to explore cargo theft risk and security for different product types at different locations along a transport chain. Design/methodology/approach - This study is based on a system-theoretical approach. The research method is deductive as the analysis is based on secondary data and results from a questionnaire. The results are analyzed based on supply chain risk management (SCRM) and criminology theories. Findings - Due to substantial interaction effects, the type of product and transport chain location must be considered to determine the correct level of security. Specifically, the product type is more significant since the general cargo theft risk is higher. Furthermore, the transport industry has three perspectives of security responses to cargo theft: demanded, needed, and actual security, which differ depending on the product type and transport chain location. Research limitations/implications - This study is limited by the content and classifications of the Transported Asset Protection Association (TAPA) of the Europe, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) Incident Information Service (IIS) database as well as by the attendees of the 2015 TAPA EMEA Q4 conference. Practical implications - This paper has both research and practical implications as it studies security within freight transport from three perspectives as linked to general cargo theft risk and goods owners’ requirements. Originality/value - This paper addresses the contemporary SCRM problem of cargo theft using actual crime statistics and the industry understanding of generic required security levels.

  • 324.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lantz, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    The use of violence in cargo theft – a supply chain disruption case2018In: Journal of Transportation Security, ISSN 1938-7741, E-ISSN 1938-775XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines patterns of reported cargo thefts involving violence in the Europe, Middle East, and Africa region with regard to the value of stolen goods, incident frequency, transport chain location, and incident category. The research method is deductive and is based on analyses of secondary data obtained from the Incident Information Service by the Transported Asset Protection Association. The results are discussed within a frame of reference based on supply chain risk management and supply chain disruption literature. We found that perpetrators who use violence seem to cause greater losses per theft than those who use other types of modus operandi. Further, the most common type of violent cargo theft occurs on Mondays in January when cargo vehicles are robbed on the road and consumer electronics are stolen. In terms of supply chain disruption, violent cargo thefts can be seen as externally-caused disruptions, which can indirectly cause major problems for the supply chain.

  • 325.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lantz, Björn
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    THEFT OF GOODS IN PORTS A review of TAPA EMEA IIS statistics2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines patterns of reported cargo thefts at maritime transport facilities in Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) with respect to frequency, incident category, modus operandi, and targeted product category. The analysis is based on data obtained from the Incident Information Service (IIS), a database of transport-related crimes from the Transported Asset Protection Association (TAPA) in the EMEA region. The results are analysed and discussed within a frame of reference based on supply chain risk management and criminology theories. We find that maritime transport facilities constitute a rare target location for cargo thieves, as only 102 of more than 24,500 incidents (0.4%) in the IIS database occur there. Nevertheless, some conclusions can be made. First, there seems to be seasonality in day of the week, but probably not in month of the year. Second, violent and fraudulent modi operandi of theft at maritime transport facilities are about as common as in the whole data set. Thus, it could be conjectured that the impact from violent and fraudulent incidents is several times higher than the most common types of incident category or modus operandi, although this is unsupported in this study. The product categories signal that there is big variation in value in stolen goods. Third, it is possible that potential perpetrators consider security levels at maritime transport facilities to be higher, leading to fewer theft attempts. This study is limited by the content of and classifications within the TAPA EMEA IIS database.

  • 326.
    Elfvik, Emilia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Cut and paste: exploring two-dimensional material collages for the use in clothing.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work explores how the idea of collage as ”components put together to create a new whole” can be used in the creation of garments and visual expressions in fashion design. As collage in fashion often is reduced to mere decoration in e.g. print design added to predetermined shapes, this work wishes to have the collage be the dominant factor in the creation of the garments in this collection. By two-dimensional material collages this exploration aims to investigate composition of material, colour, surfaces and shapes in dress. The technique of fusing is used to attach the different materials to each other using the material Vliesofix and heat. The garments are created flat with the possibility to enter in-between the layers of the materials and give shape on the body. By collaging with materials this work tries to bring the creation of material and construction closer together in the design process as well as bring the sketch closer to the final result by sketching directly in the material. The potential of having the material development be present in all the design steps is that it creates a greater relation between the material and shape. The result is a collection of eight outfits proposing new ways of constructing garments at the same time as exploring materials and the technique of fusing. The garments are somewhere in-between sketches and final results and the collection can be looked upon as a fashion collection or as a series of examples of possible outcomes from working with this method.

  • 327.
    Eliasson, Anna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A study of the performance of biochar as adsorbing agent in o‐DGT devices2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new complex aspect in the matter of water quality is the occurrence of emerging organic pollutants and contaminants in waste water. The currently low extent to which treatment of waste water is performed in Brazil, and in the world as a whole, there is a considerable need for development of cheap and accurate in-situ sampling methods for far-reaching studies of surface water quality. The lack of such methods today makes the maintenance and establishing of sanitary safety difficult. This diploma work gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of the passive sampling method known as Diffusive Gradient in Thin-films (DGT). A method that could be useful for such monitoring of quality in water bodies world wide. The aim of this study is to develop a method, for the detection of organic emerging pollutants and contaminants – i.e. compounds, which usually are present at very low concentrations when found in the environment as a result of human activity. More specifically, this work investigates the potential and usefulness of the application of DGT devices in detection of organic compounds that can affect human health and ecosystems, even at low concentrations, however, their effects still are in need of further investigations. This study focuses on both purely technical as well as practical points of views. The efficiency of organic DGT (o-DGT) with biochar as the adsorbing agent is examined targeting the detection of organic pollutants and contaminants in surface water. In this sense, the specific aim of the work is to evaluate the performance of biochar as adsorbing agent. This work showed that the performance of biochar as the adsorbing agent in binding layers in o-DGT sample devices can be considered as satisfactory since all compounds of interest in this study was successfully detected, quantified an identified. Further investigations in the future are needed to determine the effects of varying pH, temperature and ion concentration in the deployment media, as well as the properties of the binding layer in relation to concentration of biochar and the thickness of the layer. These in order to optimize the method for in-situ water sampling, aiming conventional use of biochar as the adsorbing agent in the future.

  • 328.
    Eliasson, Anna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    En studie av egenskaperna hos biokol som adsorberande agent i o‐DGTanordningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A new complex aspect in the matter of water quality is the occurrence of emerging organicpollutants and contaminants in waste water. The currently low extent to which treatment ofwaste water is performed in Brazil, and in the world as a whole, there is a considerable needfor development of cheap and accurate in‐situ sampling methods for far‐reaching studies ofsurface water quality. The lack of such methods today makes the maintenance andestablishing of sanitary safety difficult. This diploma work gives a brief introduction to thebasic principles of the passive sampling method known as Diffusive Gradient in Thin‐films(DGT). A method that could be useful for such monitoring of quality in water bodies worldwide.The aim of this study is to develop a method, for the detection of organic emerging pollutantsand contaminants – i.e. compounds, which usually are present at very low concentrationswhen found in the environment as a result of human activity. More specifically, this workinvestigates the potential and usefulness of the application of DGT devices in detection oforganic compounds that can affect human health and ecosystems, even at lowconcentrations, however, their effects still are in need of further investigations.This study focuses on both purely technical as well as practical points of views. The efficiencyof organic DGT (o‐DGT) with biochar as the adsorbing agent is examined targeting thedetection of organic pollutants and contaminants in surface water. In this sense, the specificaim of the work is to evaluate the performance of biochar as adsorbing agent. This workshowed that the performance of biochar as the adsorbing agent in binding layers in o‐DGTsample devices can be considered as satisfactory since all compounds of interest in this studywas successfully detected, quantified an identified. Further investigations in the future areneeded to determine the effects of varying pH, temperature and ion concentration in thedeployment media, as well as the properties of the binding layer in relation to concentrationof biochar and the thickness of the layer. These in order to optimize the method for in‐situwater sampling, aiming conventional use of biochar as the adsorbing agent in the future.

  • 329.
    Elonsson, Malin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Utveckling av måttlistor: Framtagning av kropps- och skillnadsmåttlistor för ett svenskt modeföretag.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this work is a field study conducted at a Swedish fashion company. In this field study a number of problems were identified which then formed the basis for this study. Many of the company's problems relate to its sizes and crux of the problem is that the company has no measurement charts to use for product development. Measurement charts that could improve the company's work are body measurement charts, where body measurements for different sizes are specified, and grading measurement charts that show the dimensional difference between the various sizes. The purpose of this work has been to develop these charts of measurements for two different types of sizes that the company uses. By comparing three body measurements established by the company, to already existing measurement charts and standards a new measurement chart was developed. To verify the result garments where graded according to the new charts and then evaluated by fitting on the person with the right body dimensions for each size. Fittings showed good results as the garments suited all models, but it also shows the complexity of making the same garment fit several people

  • 330.
    Emilsson, Annie
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Neumann, Nathalie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Betydelsen av CSR – Öst möter Väst2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the search for lower operating costs many textile companies choose to move their production abroad, with China being the biggest, most dominant player. As a result of this outsourcing, and the choices available in a global economy, society is placing more pressure on companies to establish both social and morally accepted practises across the whole supply chain. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has emerged as an increasingly expected practise within the textile industry and something that many companies strive to improve. In short, a company’s CSR activities can be described as taking responsibility within three sustainable areas; social, environmental and economical. The purpose of this study is to provide a greater understanding of the meaning and attitudes towards CSR and its implementation within a textile supply chain with manufacturing in China. Additionally, the study also aims to illustrate the perception of social and cultural sustainable development within and between different cultures. This study has been performed as a case study with a qualitative approach, where data have been conducted and collated through both semi-structured interviews as well as observations. Through contact with a Swedish company we received access to their Chinese suppliers and thereby found respondents who were appropriate for the aim of this study. By using a theoretical framework we were able to analyse and discuss our empirical findings, and could thereby make the conclusion that the awareness of CSR is low, especially amongst Chinese textile operators, where the results show that CSR is a concept which is not widely practised. The results also show a clash between Swedish and Chinese cultures, which indicates that implementing CSR guidelines along the whole supply chain is both complicated and convoluted. The attempt to replicate each other’s values in a completely different culture is also problematic. This complex equation raises questions about whose beliefs are correct and who decides what is right or morally wrong.This thesis will continue in English.

  • 331.
    Enberg, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hansson, Michael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Intäktsredovisning: IFRS 15 och IAS 112015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In May 2014 the IASB and the FASB published IFRS 15, a new accounting standard for revenue recognition. IFRS 15 will replace the current standards on revenue recognition, IAS 18 and IAS 11. The application of IFRS 15 may result in more or less extensive changes in revenue recognition. Revenue recognition and the effect resulting from the application of different standards and policies has long been a subject of discussion. The discussion stems from the different views regarding when the recognition of revenue take place, i.e. the necessary prerequisites which must exist for income to be included in the income statement/statement of comprehensive income. In this paper the necessary prerequisite for revenue recognition is applied in accordance with IFRS 15 and IAS 11 in order to highlight the effect in the income statement when the respective necessary prerequisites is applied in the context of construction contracts. The effect of the various necessary prerequisites for revenue recognition of construction contracts is analyzed by applying a model that illustrates the different information values arising from the application of the necessary prerequisites. Financial reports are designed to communicate information to stakeholders. The necessary prerequisites that underpin revenue recognition have a close connection to the information value that is obtained. Different stakeholders demand different information values in the financial statements. In some cases timeliness and relevance is rewarded, in other cases reliability. In this paper a stakeholder perspective is illustrated which is linked to the information value that the application of IAS 11 and IFRS 15 results in. Decision-usefulness and stewardship are the primary stakeholder perspectives that are analyzed in this study. The purpose of this study is to analyze the consequences on revenue recognition by applying IAS 11 and IFRS 15 on construction contracts. The information value resulting from the application of the standards is analyzed through an explanatory model with basis in the subject area. The findings shows that the application of the various necessary prerequisites can lead to information that appeals to different stakeholders based on their information needs. The application of IFRS 15 led in larger extent to various information values than the application of IAS 11. The findings also show that the necessary prerequisites for revenue recognition may give rise to different effects on the income statement. This paper is written in Swedish

  • 332.
    Eneh, Sandra
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Showroom the Future of Online Fashion Retailing 2.0: Enhancing the online shopping experience2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following have been rectified in response to previous evaluation by examiner Olof Bruninge. -We have solely chosen qualitative methods in data collection and analysis by making use of data gathered from focus group workshop. The findings have been coded and analysed descriptively. -We have reformulated research questions and replaced the hypothesis with open questions. Allowing us to explore the participants’ behaviour rather than testing hypothesis. -All quantitative measures have been replaced with qualitative analysis and descriptions. -We have provided tables with results from focus group findings to increase transparency in our data

  • 333.
    Enemar, Sara
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Employer branding: Ett kommunikativt instrument2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det blir allt mer värdefullt för företag att kommunicera ut sitt arbetsgivarvarumärke till sina medarbetare och till framtida potentiella medarbetare. Fenomenet benämns employer branding och diskuteras i de flesta branscher. Modeindustrin är, i detta sammanhang, definitivt inget undantag. Employer branding handlar om att göra ett företag till en attraktiv arbetsplats och erbjuda ett unikt värde till befintliga och framtida medarbetare. Utmaningen inom employer branding framhävs genom den omstridda konkurrensen över att finna de mest lämpade medarbetarna och behålla de rätta medarbetarna i kombination med att kommunicera sina unika förmåner för att tilltala den allt mer specialiserade kompetensen hos arbetssökande. Employer branding kan i många fall stå i relation till sociala medier, som på många och olika sätt kan tilltala den interna sfären och externa intressenter hos ett företag. Med detta som grund utvecklades studiens syfte att undersöka hur employer branding skapar en attraktiv arbetsplats genom att öka motivationen hos anställda och förmedla ett externt informationsvärde. Studien har utgått från en kvalitativ metod där fyra fallföretag har involverats för att få fram relevant information där semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts med samtliga fallföretag. Fallföretagens intervjuer presenteras under resultat för att tillsammans kunna mynna ut i en analys. Det har visats att fallföretagen arbetar främst internt med sin employer branding med en levande dialog kring företagets vision och värderingar tillsammans med att erbjuda sina medarbetare utveckling, karriärmöjligheter, trivselaktiviteter och se till den enskilde individen. Detta samtidigt som de har blicken mot de externa intressenterna genom att använda sig av sina befintliga medarbetare och sociala medier för att kommunicera sina unika värden. Dock framförde samtliga fallföretag att de måste utveckla sin externa kommunikation så inte en lämpad medarbetare går vidare till ett annat företag. Sammantaget visar studien hur fyra olika svenska modeföretag resonerar kring och använder sig av det allt mer aktuella fenomenet employer branding.

  • 334.
    Engelund, Emil Tang
    et al.
    Copenhagen University.
    Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht
    Copenhagen University.
    Svensson, Staffan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hill, Callum A. S.
    Napier University.
    A critical discussion of the physics of wood-water interactions2013In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 141-161Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 335.
    Engström, Adina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Johansson, Matilda
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Effektivisering av returflöden: ur ett tids-, flexibilitets-, miljö- och ekonomiskt perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In line with the growing population the demands on companies to act more sustainable are increasing. A prerequisite for continued development is efficiency enhancement where resources are used in a more efficient manner with the aim of reducing environmental impact but also from a cost reducing and social sustainability perspective. The focus is commonly placed on the forward flow of products, often with the goal to make as much money as possible and still please the customers.  The main purpose with this thesis is to map the return flow from companies located in Orust to examine the possibilities to enhance the efficiency from various aspects. To carry out the study, a survey was conducted involving 19 companies responding to 13 questions concerning their return flow. From the survey, it was found that almost all of the respondents in the study returned their goods directly back to the supplier in conjunction with the delivery. The remaining companies with return flow indicated that they sent goods to waste management. The return types of the companies ranged from return packaging to dangerous goods and the frequency of returnees varied from a few pallets per day to a few pallets per year.  There are two bridges over to the island of Orust where all the freight traffic is going: one in the north and one in the south. Following the respondents' responses, two fictional milk rounds were constructed by route where the two waste centers also represented an advantageous relocation point for waste disposal at the end of each bridge depending on the end destination of the goods. Prerequisites for this type of consolidation to be applicable are that the destination of the goods is similar, that the return flow rate and type of goods are of a similar nature. Carriage of waste in the same vehicle as food is no alternative due to regulations, but, for example, glass waste and return packaging can be returned in the same vehicle. In addition to the fictional milk round, a placement of two hubs outside Orust's borders is proposed in due to the heavy burden on the bridges connecting the municipality with the mainland. The hubs could also act as intermediaries for companies’ suppliers who instead of driving into Orust can pick up the goods in their respective hubs. In the fictitious solution, the current transport distance on the island would decrease from 466.6 kilometers to 157.5 kilometers. Although this type of consolidation often leads to reduced time efficiency, it can increase the efficiency of the companies from an environmental and cost perspective. The fictitious solution can similarly be applied to more companies located at Orust, depending on the business and location.

  • 336.
    Engström, Adina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Johansson, Matilda
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Effektivisering av returflöden: ur ett tids-, flexibilitets-, miljö- och ekonomiskt perspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In line with the growing population the demands on companies to act more sustainable are increasing. A prerequisite for continued development is efficiency enhancement where resources are used in a more efficient manner with the aim of reducing environmental impact but also from a cost reducing and social sustainability perspective. The focus is commonly placed on the forward flow of products, often with the goal to make as much money as possible and still please the customers.The main purpose with this thesis is to map the return flow from companies located in Orust to examine the possibilities to enhance the efficiency from various aspects. To carry out the study, a survey was conducted involving 19 companies responding to 13 questions concerning their return flow. From the survey, it was found that almost all of the respondents in the study returned their goods directly back to the supplier in conjunction with the delivery. The remaining companies with return flow indicated that they sent goods to waste management. The return types of the companies ranged from return packaging to dangerous goods and the frequency of returnees varied from a few pallets per day to a few pallets per year.There are two bridges over to the island of Orust where all the freight traffic is going: one in the north and one in the south. Following the respondents' responses, two fictional milk rounds were constructed by route where the two waste centers also represented an advantageous relocation point for waste disposal at the end of each bridge depending on the end destination of the goods. Prerequisites for this type of consolidation to be applicable are that the destination of the goods is similar, that the return flow rate and type of goods are of a similar nature. Carriage of waste in the same vehicle as food is no alternative due to regulations, but, for example, glass waste and return packaging can be returned in the same vehicle. In addition to the fictional milk round, a placement of two hubs outside Orust's borders is proposed in due to the heavy burden on the bridges connecting the municipality with the mainland. The hubs could also act as intermediaries for companies’ suppliers who instead of driving into Orust can pick up the goods in their respective hubs.In the fictitious solution, the current transport distance on the island would decrease from 466.6 kilometers to 157.5 kilometers. Although this type of consolidation often leads to reduced time efficiency, it can increase the efficiency of the companies from an environmental and cost perspective. The fictitious solution can similarly be applied to more companies located at Orust, depending on the business and location.

  • 337.
    Enlund, Linnea
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Forssman, Andrea
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Reducering av mängden topcoat vid beläggning av textil: En undersökning kring det tvärbindande skiktets inverkan på en belagd produkts funktionalitet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En funktionsbeläggning består av ett polymert material som beläggs till en textil yta. Denna typ av beläggning används för funktionsplagg och det belagda materialet har som uppgift att skydda användaren från vatten samtidigt som den har god ånggenomsläpplighet. För att tvärbinda funktionsbeläggningen och öka dess hållfasthet appliceras ett översta skikt av polymer som kallas topcoat. En topcoat innehåller tvärbindande ämnen som till exempel isocyanater eller formaldehyd. Dessa ämnen är mycket miljö- och hälsoskadliga. Denna studie har genomförts i syfte att undersöka möjligheten till en reducering av mängden topcoat och därmed minskning av skadliga kemikalier, i en funktionsbeläggning. En mikroporös polyuretanbeläggning applicerades på en polyesterväv med valsrakling. Därefter belades två vattenbaserade topcoats innehållande olika tvärbindare: en med formaldehyd och en med isocyanater, genom luftrakling. Genom att späda den ena topcoaten med olika mängd vatten, variera lutningen av beläggningskniven och ändra knivens tryck mot väven vid beläggning utvecklades sex olika material. Väven med beläggning och olika variation av topcoat testades sedan med avseende på kvalitet. Tester av materialens vattentäthet, ånggenomsläpplighet och nöthållfasthet utfördes. Mängden applicerad topcoat undersöktes genom areaviktoch tjockleksmätning. De belagda ytorna granskades i mikroskop för att analysera eventuella variationer mellan materialen. De belagda materialen var inte vattentäta (<100 cm vattenpelare). Studien visar dock att materialet belagt med en formaldehydbaserad topcoat som spätts med 68 % vatten visar statistiskt säkerställt högre medelvärde i vattentäthetstestet, jämfört med det material som belagts på samma vis men med den ospädda varianten av samma topcoat. Resultaten från areavikts- samt tjockleksmätningen visade inte med säkerhet om vinkeln på knivens lutning eller dess tryck mot väven hade någon påverkan på mängden topcoat som belades. Alla material med de spädda varianterna av topcoat visade god ånggenomsläpplighet, vilken också förbättrades avsevärt efter tvätt samtidigt som materialens vattentäthet inte försämrades i samma skala. Detta resultat är mycket intressant då bibehållen vattentäthet i kombination med god ånggenomsläpplighet efter tvätt är en viktig egenskap för funktionsbeläggningar. Slutledningsvis visar resultaten på möjligheter i att späda topcoaten innan applicering och därigenom uppnå intressanta materialegenskaper i kombination med minskad kemikalieanvändning. Vidare undersökningar krävs dock för att säkerställa eftersträvad vattentät funktion.

  • 338.
    Erdtman, Edvin
    et al.
    Linköping Universitet.
    Bohlén, Martin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ahlström, Peter
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gkourmpis, Thomas
    Borealis AB.
    Berlin, Mikael
    Tetra Pak Packaging Solutions AB.
    Andersson, Thorbjörn
    Tetra Pak Packaging Solutions AB.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A molecular-level computational study of the diffusion and solubility of water and oxygen in carbonaceous polyethylene nanocomposites2016In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 54, p. 589-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect on the solubility, diffusion, and permeability of water and oxygen when adding graphene or single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) to polyethylene (PE). When compared with pure PE, addition of graphene lowered the solubility of water, whereas at lower temperatures, the oxygen solubility increased because of the oxygen–graphene interaction. Addition of SWCNTs lowered the solubility of both water and oxygen when compared with pure PE. A detailed analysis showed that an ordered structure of PE is induced near the additive surface, which leads to a decrease in the diffusion coefficient of both penetrants in this region. The addition of graphene does not change the permeation coefficient of oxygen (in the direction parallel to the filler) and, in fact, may even increase this coefficient when compared with pure PE. In contrast, the water permeability is decreased when graphene is added to PE. The addition of SWCNTs decreases the permeability of both penetrants. Graphene can consequently be added to selectively increase the solubility and permeation of oxygen over water, at least at lower temperatures. 

  • 339.
    Ericsson, Amanda
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Brooks, Andrew
    African Second-hand Clothes: Mima-te and the development of sustainable fashion2015In: Routledge Handbook of Sustainability and Fashion, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge , 2015, p. 91-99Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A vast surplus of unwanted clothing is produced from excessive consumption in the Global North where a far greater volume of second-hand clothing is collected than can be locally retailed in charity shops or as ‘vintage fashion’. The majority of collected second-hand clothes are exported and sold overseas in market places in the developing world, with diverse and disputed economic and cultural effects. We discuss an African fashion brand, Mima-te which is collecting American and European second-hand clothes found in the markets of Maputo, Mozambique and up-cycling them, creating value and crafting new fashion.

  • 340.
    Ericsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lagergren, Ida
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lutens kretslopp på Södra Cell Värö2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten handlar om lutens kretslopp på Södra Cell Värö, dess betydelse för pappersmassaproduktionen samt riskerna som finns vid användning av lut. Lut används när pappersmassa framställs på Södra Cell Värö (sulfatprocess). Kokeriet kokar träflis, tunnlut (svartlut) och vitlut. Luten tillsätts för att lösa upp ligninet i träfibrerna. Lignin är som ett lim som håller ihop träfibrerna. Lutvätskan som lämnar kokeriet kallas för tunnlut och indunstningen torkar tunnluten i flera steg. När luten har torkats kallas den för brännlut (tjocklut) och förbränns i sodapannan. Smältan från sodapannan blandas med svaglut och bildar grönlut. I grönluten tillsätts bränd kalk och bildar kalkmjölk. Ur kalkmjölken separeras vitlut och mesa. Vitluten återinförs till kokeriet och kretsloppet fortsätter. Luten har stor betydelse för produktionen av pappersmassa på Södra Cell Värö. Om någon del i lutkretsloppet inte fungerar tvingas hela fabriken att stanna. Användning av lut är inte riskfritt. Lut är ett frätande ämne och det räcker med små kvantiteter för att orsaka stor skada. Därför är det viktigt att rätt skyddsutrustning används och respekt visas. Om Södra Cell Värö inte skulle använda lut skulle tillverkningsprocessen se annorlunda ut. Mekanisk process eller sulfitprocess skulle användas istället. Fördelarna med att använda lut är att kvalitén på pappersmassan blir bättre. Därför får pappersmassan ett större användningsområde. Nackdelarna med att använda lut är dels risken för olyckor, dels att vedutbytet endast är 50 %. Syftet med rapporten är att ge läsaren lärdom om hur lutens kretslopp fungerar och lutens betydelse på ett massabruk som Södra Cell Värö samt informera om vilka risker det finns vid arbete med lut.

  • 341.
    Eriksson, Christian
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Petersson, Åsa
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Big bath accounting: förekommer strategin i svenska börsnoterade företag?2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Big bath accounting is a strategy where the decision makers of a company manipulates the stated result according to their own preferences, most often to influence the result negatively by writing down its intangible assets. Earlier studies have shown that this phenomenon occurs more frequently in connection with a newly appointed CEO.This paper aims to investigate the occurrence of Big bath by writing down goodwill among public companies in Sweden, and to investigate if a newly appointed CEO could be one of the explanations to this phenomenon. This study has a deductive approach and the research questions have been analyzed with a quantitative data analysis.The data in this study have been collected from the companies financial statements during the time period between 2005-2013. The collected data have been used for the statistical tests that this paper contains. The result shows a positive connection between writing down goodwill and a newly appointed CEO and also between writing down goodwill and a negative result. Furthermore, a positive connection was found between Big bath and a newly appointed CEO and also between Big bath and a negative result which indicates that this strategy exists on the Stockholm stock exchange.The essay is written in Swedish.

  • 342.
    Eriksson, David
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lessons on knowledge creation in supply chain management2015In: European Business Review, ISSN 0955-534X, E-ISSN 1758-7107, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 346-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to convey lessons learned from a long-term research project and present a coherent approach for researching relevant areas, ranging from ontology to quality.

    Design/methodology/approach - A PhD process is used as a case to present conceptual ideas on performing research in logistics/supply chain management (SCM).

    Findings - The research integrates different views on knowledge and the world and how to perform research in logistics/SCM. Models explaining micro and macro abduction, and the relationship between research, the context and researcher subjectivity are suggested.

    Research limitations/implications - Knowledge on why and how critical realism can be used in logistics/SCM research is advanced. Abduction is presented as a micro/macro process, which should not have any specific "finish line", and is supported with both ontological and epistemological arguments.

    Practical implications - Research in logistics/SCM can be improved by connecting different aspects of viewing and creating knowledge. Reflecting on how exactly a publication is related to a project, researchers can better describe how they contribute to knowledge creation, and also understand the relationship between micro and macro abduction.

    Originality/value - Through presenting an approach to knowledge creation in the context of a PhD thesis, this research distinguishes itself in a field with a growing need to define its own views of the world and of knowledge. The paper advances current understanding of knowledge creation in logistics/SCM, expanding on earlier models and presenting a broader view of the research process and the associated dilemmas. The paper also contains novel considerations of the differences between publication types and how these affect the presentation of the research.

  • 343.
    Eriksson, David
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Svensson, Göran
    Elements affecting social responsibility in supply chains2015In: Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, ISSN 1359-8546, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 561-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to assess elements that affect social responsibility in supply chains and beyond. The elements are classified into drivers, facilitators and inhibitors.

    Design/methodology/approach– This paper presents an assessment of supply chain management research published over the period of 2009-2013.

    Findings– Sixteen elements are identified and presented in a framework along with their proposed constituents. The elements capture structures and management principles of supply chains that are important for social responsibility.

    Research limitations/implications– The elements provide a basis to better understand how social responsibility in supply chains is related to contextual factors. The framework of elements is still only an initial step toward enhanced understanding of how the context affects social responsibility in supply chains.

    Practical implications– The framework may guide companies to acknowledge elements that are known to improve or deteriorate social responsibility in supply chains.

    Originality/value– This paper contributes to capture the state-of-the-art knowledge based upon recent research. It is also a stepping stone toward improved insights on what drives, facilitates and inhibits individuals in social responsibility.

  • 344.
    Eriksson, David
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Svensson, Göran
    The Process of Responsibility, Decoupling Point, and Disengagement of Moral and Social Responsibility in Supply Chains: Empirical Findings and Prescriptive Thoughts2016In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 134, no 2, p. 281-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to explore and assess the process of responsibility, decoupling point, and disengagement of moral responsibility, in combination with business sustainability (BSus) in supply chains. The research is based on a qualitative approach consisting of two multifaceted case studies, each including multiple case companies and different empirical research characteristics, and a review of BSus in supply chain literature. The case studies apply moral disengagement (MDis) to propose how moral responsibility can deteriorate in supply chains, and the literature review identifies elements of BSus in supply chain management (SCM). The contribution of this paper is to compare these two research streams and evaluate the efficacy of the concepts proposed in the case studies. Through this study, BSus gains an entirely different and complementary toolkit which should facilitate further and more effective research in SCM. The theory of MDis also provides a foundation for reinforcing explanatory and prescriptive aspects of ‘best practices’ in the SCM literature. The findings also establish a basis for organizing and monitoring supply chains so as to improve BSus efforts. Considering moral responsibility as a flow this research explains why and how certain practices may impede BSus efforts in supply chains. Original and/or innovative outcomes include explanatory and prescriptive insights that emerge from a combination of empirical findings from two case studies, including seven companies and a framework for improving BSus management in supply chains, based on a typology of moral disengagement.

  • 345.
    Eriksson, Emelie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ärm och ärmhåls-konstruktioner i trikå: En undersökning i passformsproblem på trikåplagg med en förlängd axel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to try to solve fit problems on women’s jersey models with a dropped shoulder. The study is written in collaboration with a large Swedish clothing company and investigates a problem that the company itself has identified. The problem concerns the fit of some of the company's jersey sweaters for ladies, each with a dropped shoulder and a looser fit. The fit problems that the jersey models are having occurred at the shoulder, the armhole and bicep. In research and literature there is no information about fitting problems and how to adjust the construction of jersey garments with a dropped shoulder. At present, the company does not have time to test and develop the jersey models, and the study has therefore focused on trying to solve the problem of the fit for them. To achieve the aim, an experimental method has been used. This has been done through CAD-based pattern construction, sewing test prototypes and verified by fittings on human fitting models and on a dummy. The result of the study shows that a medium to high sleeve crown is needed for clothes with an extended shoulder to achieve good fit on the sleeve and around the armhole.

  • 346.
    Eriksson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wollin, Madeleine
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Born, Trained or Excluded Microentrepreneur2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The assumption that microcredit alone can contribute to worldwide povertyalleviation is debated, the opponents voicing the need of non-credit services in addition togive the poor access to capital. Social intermediation services are argued to be essential inmaking a difference in a time where the impact of microfinance itself has been reappraised inseveral studies. Simultaneously, the shift to commercialization of the industry due to pressureto accomplish self–sustainability is inescapable; concerns over its benefits for the poor ispronounced. Some are suggesting positive effects, others argue there being negative effectsdue to the change in focus. The purpose of this study is to generate knowledge about theinfluence MFIs have in enabling individuals to be microentrepreneurs in Sri Lanka.Design/methodology/approach– This will be accomplished through investigating theconditions and terminology used by MFIs in relation to entrepreneurship and theirrequirements of training. The findings may be used as guidance to other MFIs andstakeholders, both nationally and globally, who wish to engage in this field. The study relieson qualitative methodology where multiple case studies were analyzed and the findings basedon primary data conducted from nine semi-structured interviews. The cases have beenselected according to theoretical sampling.Findings– Based on the findings and theories applied, it can be stated that the ambition of theMFIs in Sri Lanka is to contribute to the microentrepreneurs development. This isaccomplished by giving them microcredit, training and motivation to start a sustainablebusiness and thus rise out of poverty. The findings suggest that the MFIs have an importantrole, but that the responsibility following as a result of their influence is compromised. Theconclusion is that the MFIs do not acknowledge everyone to be entrepreneurs, and are lackingin providing the most optimal training and supply of microfinance services for theirmicroentrepreneurs to succeed. This is limiting the microentrepreneurs progress and excludesan unknown part of potential microentrepreneurs.Originality/value– The findings of this study can help us to understand how MFIs in SriLanka enable or restrict the microentrepreneur because of their expectations and otherconsequences due to the market of microfinance and the fundamental assumptions whichmicrofinance is based on. Our contribution provides context on what conditions andlimitations MFIs create for microentrepreneurs in rising out of poverty with the assistance ofmicrofinance. The findings may be used as guidance to other MFIs and stakeholders, bothnationally and globally, who wish to engage in this field.

  • 347.
    Eriksson, Julia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Karlsson, Elin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Varför ändras hållbarhetsrapporter? En studie över Coops och ICAs förändringsbenägenhet i deras hållbarhetsrapporter.: En studie över Coops och ICAs förändringsbenägenhet i deras hållbarhetsrapporter.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our purpose of this survey is to explain and describe the underlying factors to the changes that have taken place in Coop's and ICA's sustainability report over time, with soft laws. To do this, we have chosen to investigate companies' sustainability reports for the years 2011-2016. In the survey of sustainability reports, we have used two analysis tools. One tool is a categorization chart based on the transition between GRI Guidelines G3 and G4. This transition gives us an insight into how adaptable organizations are in their reporting and how they aligned themselves to the G4 guidelines. The other tool we have used is the system-oriented theories. These theories have had the primary purpose of explaining underlying factors about organizations' choice of voluntary sustainability accounting. One of the major changes in the G4 is an increased focus on suppliers' work on sustainability. This is a change that is of high relevance to the food industry. The food industry is an industry with many and long supply chains and they have a significant and important role in reaching a more sustainable food cycle. Research shows that in recent years there has been a higher expectation from the food industry stakeholders on organizations in the industry to more clearly account for their suppliers' sustainability efforts. For the above reason, we consider it interesting to investigate the companies Coop and ICA. The survey has a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. We have analyzed the sustainability reports by using a categorization schedule. The categories are derived from GRI's guidelines, focusing on the new guidelines regarding suppliers. The schedule has enabled an overview of how the change has looked over time, as well as what the companies have chosen to change. The summary of this study has been analyzed primarily based on system-oriented theories. The study shows that there is a strong link between system-oriented theories and the choice of voluntary sustainability reporting. On the other hand, there has been no significant change in companies reporting sustainability in connection with the transition to G4. The reason is that, in accordance with GRI's guidelines, companies may choose what they consider to be essential for their business to report. The study shows that both Coop and ICA reach an acceptable level based on GRI's guidelines. The conclusion is that organizations report to the extent that they are required to maintain and win legitimacy. This thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 348.
    Eriksson, Kajsa
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Crowdfunding: flera nyanser av engagemang2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study addresses Internet-based crowdfunding, which is a financing methodwhere a large number of people give small amounts of money to a project via a crowdfundingplatform on the Internet. The focus of the study is engagement: what creates engagement incrowdfunding and what can increase the engagement. The study also examines ifcommunication only via the Internet is enough to create great engagement. The purpose of thestudy is to contribute to the knowledge development in the research area of crowdfunding. Bydoing that, it will also increase the knowledge among creators of crowdfunding campaignsand enable them to increase the engagement among backers and potential backers in thedevelopment of their campaigns. The research questions that will help achieve the purpose ofthe study are: why do people engage in crowdfunding? How can the interaction betweenbacker and creator of campaigns improve? How can face-to-face communication, throughevents, increase engagement in crowdfunding campaigns? To address these questions andachieve the purpose seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with people who hadbacked crowdfunding campaigns. The result of the study shows that there are differentmotives to why people engage in crowdfunding campaigns. The motives that was mostrepresented by the respondents was in order to help a friend and wanting to realize a certainproject. Other motives that were represented by several respondents were to back campaignsbecause they had confidence and trust in the creators of the campaigns, to receive rewards fortheir engagement, be a part of the community and to back a campaign because they like theidea of crowdfunding. The result of the study also shows three improvement possibilities inthe interaction between creator of the campaigns and the backers: 1) more dynamic updates onthe crowdfunding platform with focus on other than the financial aspect, 2) more updates afterthe end of the campaign and 3) that creators of the campaigns could show their projects in alivestream. The result of the study also shows that face-to-face communication, throughevents, can increase the engagement in crowdfunding campaigns. This is because backers canmeet the persons behind the crowdfunding campaign and see the result of the campaign in reallife and not just via Internet. How creators of crowdfunding campaigns can use the result ofthis study is indicated in the study. The language of the study is Swedish.

  • 349.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mattsson, Ellinor
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Vretlund, Johanna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Transparens: konsumenters inblick i den textila branschen: Ett medel för att öka medvetenhet?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transparency is a business approach which has become more and more popular for fashion companies to apply in recent years. The purpose of transparency is to publish internal company information for stakeholders. Most often, the information is about how companies act socially, environmentally and economically. This study investigates consumer attitudes towards fashion companies that have chosen to apply transparency in their business practices. In order to explicate previous research, the study also examines how consumers want this information assigned along with what specific information consumers’ request. The study’s empirical data is based on nine qualitative interviews conducted with female consumers of different ages.The result of the study shows that consumers in general have no deeper knowledge or awareness of transparency or corporate social responsibility. This unconsciousness proved to have a major impact on the consumer's behavior, attitude and preferences towards transparency. Even though all respondents have a positive attitude towards the idea of transparency, there is some skepticism about the concept. The intentions of applying transparency and the content that is being conveyed are questioned. Respondents believe that the content can easily be manipulated in order to make companies appear better than they actually are. However, this skepticism can be reduced if an external party can control and review the company's transparency.This study also shows that consumers are happy to see that companies publish and convey internal information. The information should be brief, straightforward and easy to understand. It should be assigned to the consumers, instead of asking the consumers to search for it themselves. Perceptions of how the information should be conveyed differ greatly among respondents depending on age and amount of prior knowledge. Therefore it is crucial for companies to adapt the content and pick an appropriate platform for their customers. By understanding the target group's preferences, companies can more easily find a starting point in their work with corporate social responsibility and more effectively to convey it to stakeholders. However, there is a need to raise general awareness of the industry's problems. A way to do this is by discussing the subject in broader channels. This study is written in Swedish.

  • 350.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mattsson, Ellinor
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Vretlund, Johanna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Transparens: konsumenters inblick i den textila branschen: Ett medel för att öka medvetenhet?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transparency is a business approach which has become more and more popular for fashion companies to apply in recent years. The purpose of transparency is to publish internal company information for stakeholders. Most often, the information is about how companies act socially, environmentally and economically. This study investigates consumer attitudes towards fashion companies that have chosen to apply transparency in their business practices. In order to explicate previous research, the study also examines how consumers want this information assigned along with what specific information consumers’ request. The study’s empirical data is based on nine qualitative interviews conducted with female consumers of different ages.

    The result of the study shows that consumers in general have no deeper knowledge or awareness of transparency or corporate social responsibility. This unconsciousness proved to have a major impact on the consumer's behavior, attitude and preferences towards transparency. Even though all respondents have a positive attitude towards the idea of transparency, there is some skepticism about the concept. The intentions of applying transparency and the content that is being conveyed are questioned. Respondents believe that the content can easily be manipulated in order to make companies appear better than they actually are. However, this skepticism can be reduced if an external party can control and review the company's transparency.

    This study also shows that consumers are happy to see that companies publish and convey internal information. The information should be brief, straightforward and easy to understand. It should be assigned to the consumers, instead of asking the consumers to search for it themselves. Perceptions of how the information should be conveyed differ greatly among respondents depending on age and amount of prior knowledge. Therefore it is crucial for companies to adapt the content and pick an appropriate platform for their customers. By understanding the target group's preferences, companies can more easily find a starting point in their work with corporate social responsibility and more effectively to convey it to stakeholders. However, there is a need to raise general awareness of the industry's problems. A way to do this is by discussing the subject in broader channels. This study is written in Swedish.

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