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  • 301.
    Satomi, Mika
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Nilsson, Linnéa
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Vallgårda, Anna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Worbin, Linda
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Recurring Patterns2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What if your furniture expresses appreciation when you sit on them? Or what if they call for attention if they have been empty for too long? Textiles always change expression over time due to use and exposure to sunlight, moist, etc. The textile on these pouffes changes expressions in a dynamic interplay with their use. A bright pattern is gradually revealed when someone sits on them but hid again when they stand idle by. In other words, their patterns are recurring in both space and time.

  • 302.
    Satomi, Mika
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Worbin, Linda
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Scholtz, Barbro
    Textilt Motstånd: Textile Resistance2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Textilt Motstånd / Textile Resistance is a collaborative project between Smart Textiles Design Lab and Syntjuntan. The project explores design possibilities of raw textile materials that can be used as textile music instruments, which will be used by Syntjuntan in their music performances.

  • 303. Schneegass, Stefan
    et al.
    Hassib, Mariam
    Zhou, Bo
    Cheng, Jingyuan
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Amft, Oliver
    Lukowicz, Paul
    Schmidt, Albrecht
    SimpleSkin: towards multipurpose smart garments2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing and Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computers, ACM Publications, 2015, p. 241-244Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 304.
    Schulz, Anika
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Supercritical carbon dioxide as a green media for simultaneous dyeing and functionalisation: A study on disperse dyeing and silicone functionalisation for water repellency of polyester fabric2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Textile processing methods such as conventional exhaustion dyeing, pre-treatments and printing consume high amounts of water and use partly toxic and hazardous chemicals which are non-degradable. These chemicals (e.g. excess amount of dye, additives and catalysts) remain partially in the waste-water which is drained out and ends up polluting the environment. The supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing technology presents an eco-friendly and water-free method with reduced use of chemicals and energy. The benefits of such technology are currently not overcoming the relative high investment costs which impede its full implementation into the textile industry. This study presents an approach to extent the application of the eco-friendly supercritical carbon dioxide technology. It combines the well-studied supercritical carbon dioxide dyeing process for polyester with the functionalisation process to obtain water repellent surface properties. As water repellent (substance) environmentally benign silicones are used. Results showed that the simultaneous dyeing and functionalisation process was feasible assessed by the compatibility of the dye and silicone in the system. Silicone and dye did not interfere in each other’s functionality (colour strength and water contact angle). Further the process temperature and silicone molecular weight showed no influence on the colour strength of the fabric whereas the water contact angle (water repellence) increased with increasing temperature. The resulting polyester fabric showed acceptable colour strength yet did not obtain sufficient water repellent properties despite the increase in water contact angle of the treated samples to the untreated reference sample. The poor water repellence is suggested to be caused by the hydrophobic functional groups of the silicones oriented towards each other rather than toward the outer fabric surface. Overall the thesis is promoting research which combines eco-friendly technologies including environmental benign chemicals for the textile industry. Silicones are widely used in textile processing not only as water repellents, but also as anti-foaming agents, lubricants and softeners. Therefore a water-free and eco-friendly application method can benefit a wide range of finishing processes.

  • 305.
    Seipel, Sina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Resource-efficient production of a textile UV-sensor for healthcare applications2017In: Books of abstracts: Aachen-Dresden-Denkendorf International Textile Conference, Stuttgart, 2017, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 306.
    Seipel, Sina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Viková, Martina
    Technical University of Liberec.
    Vik, Michal
    Technical University of Liberec.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Inkjet printing and UV-LED curing of photochromic dyes for functional and smart textile applications2018In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 8, no 50, p. 28395-28404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health concerns as a result of harmful UV-rays drive the development of UV-sensors of different kinds. In this research, a UV-responsive smart textile is produced by inkjet printing and UV-LED curing of a specifically designed photochromic ink on PET fabric. This paper focuses on tuning and characterizing the colour performance of a photochromic dye embedded in a UV-curable ink resin. The influence of industrial fabrication parameters on the crosslinking density of the UV-resin and hence on the colour kinetics is investigated. A lower crosslinking density of the UV-resin increases the kinetic switching speed of the photochromic dye molecules upon isomerization. By introducing an extended kinetic model, which defines rate constants kcolouration, kdecayand kdecolouration, the colour performance of photochromic textiles can be predicted. Fabrication parameters present a flexible and fast alternative to polymer conjugation to control kinetics of photochromic dyes in a resin. In particular, industrial fabrication parameters during printing and curing of the photochromic ink are used to set the colour yield, colouration/decolouration rates and the durability, which are important characteristics towards the development of a UV-sensor for smart textile applications.

  • 307.
    Seipel, Sina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Development of a Textile UV-Sensor2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 308.
    Seipel, Sina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Digital inkjet printing as flexible and resource-saving production technique for a smart textile UV-sensor2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 309.
    Seipel, Sina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Periyasamy, Aravin
    Technical University of Liberec.
    Viková, Martina
    Technical University of Liberec.
    Vik, Michal
    Technical University of Liberec.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Resource-Efficient Production of a Smart Textile UV Sensor Using Photochromic Dyes: Characterization and Optimization2018In: Narrow and Smart Textiles / [ed] Prof. Dr. Yordan Kyosev, Prof. Dr. Boris Mahltig, Prof. Dr. Anne Schwarz-Pfeiffer, Springer Publishing Company, 2018, p. 251-257Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 310.
    Seoane, Fernando
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ferreira, Javier
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Marquez, Juan Carlos
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Conductive Polymer Films as Textrodes for Biopotential Sensing2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: After several years of progresses in textile technology and wearable measurement instrumentation, applications of wearable textile-electronics systems are arising providing a stable background for commercial applications. So far, the available commercial solutions are centered on fitness applications and mostly based in the acquisition of heart rate through Textile Electrodes (Textrodes) based on metallic threads or on conductive rubber compounds. Methods and Materials: In this work a novel material approach is presented to produce Textrodes for acquisition of Electrocardiographic (ECG) signals using a conductive polypropylene (PP1386 from Premix, Finland) polymer material. The polymer was film extruded into thin films, and used as such in the Textrode. Conductive Polymer Films (CPF) have been used to produce Textrodes, and its measurement performance has been compared with the ECG signals obtained with commercial Textrode fabrics and conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes. In order to set up the same measurement conditions, a chest strap tailored to host the testing electrodes has been used. Results: The close resemblance of the ECG acquired with the textile fabric electrodes, the Ag/AgCl electrodes and the PP1386 CPF electrodes suggest that the Polymer Electrodes PP1386 are a feasible alternative to the current textile fabrics that use silver thread as conductive material and also to conductive rubber material. Discussion & Conclusion: The availability of the Conductive Polymer Electrode PP1386 in a film form allows the manufacturing of electrodes by conventional textile processes, like lamination or sewing, therefore facilitating the transition from lab prototyping to industrial manufacturing. Replacing the traditional silver thread as conductive element in the fabrication of Textrodes will definitely reduce the material cost per Textrode. Biocompatibility issues and manufacturability issues must be addressed but the exhibited functional performance is showing encouraging results.

  • 311.
    Seoane, Fernando
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    KTH, Medicinsk teknik.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Printed Electronics Enabling a Textile-friendly Interconnection between Wearable Measurement Instrumentation & Sensorized Garments2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 312.
    Skelte, Gabrielle
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Enhancing colour development of photochromic prints on textile: Physical stabilisation during UV-radiation exposure2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Textile UV-radiation sensors has lately been introduced to the field of smart textiles. Inkjet printing has been used as means of application due to the effective and resource efficient process. UV-LED radiation curing has been used in combination with inkjet printing in favour of low energy requirements, solvent free solution and reduced risk of clogging in the print heads. The problems arising when exposing photochromic prints to UV-radiations are that oxygen inhibition during the curing and photo-oxidation in the print reduces the prints ability to develop colour. It is the oxygen in the air in combination with UV-radiation that gives the photo-oxidating behavior. The aim of the study is to with the aid of physical protection reduce the effect of oxygen inhibition and photo-oxidation in the prints. Three types of physical treatments were used, wax coating, protein based impregnation and starch based impregnation. Treatments were applied before curing as well as after curing and the colour development after activation during 1 min of UV-radiation was measured with a spectrophotometer. Multiple activations were also tested to see how the treatments affected the fatigue behaviour of the prints over time. The aim was to have as high colour development as possible reflecting reduced oxygen inhibition and photo-oxidation. Results showed significantly higher colour development for samples treated with wax and whey powder before curing, but reduced colour development for amylose impregnation. Over time whey powder before curing showed highest colour development due to highest initial colour development. Lowest fatigue was seen for washed samples containing the chemical stabiliser HALS, showing an increased colour development. In reference to earlier studies the protective properties of wax and whey powder is due to their oxygen barrier properties protecting the print. The tested treatments have shown that it is possible to reduce the effect of photo-oxidation during curing leading to prints giving higher colour development. This gives a great stand point when improving existing and future application of photochromic prints on textiles.

  • 313.
    Skrifvars, M.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Development of regenerated cellulose reinforcement fabrics and their use in structural composites2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 314.
    Skrifvars, M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    Development of regenerated cellulose reinforcements and their use in structural composites for automotive applications2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 315.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Biopolymers and green polymers: the materials for sustainable textiles?2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 316.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Conductive textile fibres for smart textiles: novel concepts and applications2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 317.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Development of functional fibres for textiles and composites2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 318.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Development of natural fibre composites for automotive applications2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 319.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Development of regenerated cellulose reinforcement fabrics and their use in structural composites2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 320.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Natural fibers for structural composite applications: concepts and opportunities2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 321.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Polymerteknikens mångsidiga nytta2009In: Vetenskap för profession, ISSN 1654-6520, Vol. 10, p. 83-88Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 322.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Preparation of conductive viscose fibres by vapour deposition polymerisation of polythiophene2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 323.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Research on funcional fibres at University of Borås2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 324.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Structural composites from cellulose reinforcements: material concepts and production strategies2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 325.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Development of hybrid natural fibre reinforcements for structural composites: Concepts and opportunities2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 326.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rajan, Rathish
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Regenerated cellulose fibres for structural composites2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 327.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rissanen, Marja
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mechanical and thermal characterization of compression moulded polylactic acid natural fiber composites reinforced with hemp and Lyocell fibers2014In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 131, no 15Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 328.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Hemanathan, Kumar
    Mahimaisenen, Pirabasenan
    Adekunle, Kayode
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Regenerated cellulose fibre reinforced case in films: Effect of plasticizer and fibre content2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 329.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Maria
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Resorbable porous scaffolds fabricated via melt spinning and weaving of the fibres: novel means for engineering bone tissues2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 330.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rajan, Rathish
    Joseph, Kuruvilla
    Assessing thermal characteristics of polyhydroxybutyrate based composites reinforced with different natural fibres2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 331.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rajan, Rathish
    Riihivuori, Johanna
    Järvelä, Pentti
    Mechanical and water absorption behaviour of textile composites on chemical treatment of reinforcements2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 332.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Development Of Regenerated Cellulose Reinforcements And Their Use In Structural Composites For Automotive Applications2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is need for the bio‐based materials which could fully or partly replace the synthetic materials in automotive components. Several studies have been suggested to incorporate natural fiber based materials into automotives, and regenerated cellulose fibers could have a great potential several automotive applications. In the paper we will describe ongoing research where we study non‐woven viscose and Lyocell as well as uniaxial continuous viscose filament reinforcements for the use in structural composites. Hybrid reinforcements based on regenerated cellulose fibers and glass fibers have also been studied, with the intention to optimize the reinforcement durability. The uniaxial viscose filament reinforcements were prepared by a winding technique, and we have also combined the viscose filament with continuous hemp yarns as well as different thermoplastic yarns. Both thermoset and thermoplastic composites were then produced by compression moulding with a pressure of 40 bar and at the temperature between 160‐170°C for 5 minutes. The resulting composites have been characterized regarding mechanical and thermal properties.

  • 333.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Rehnby, Weronika
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Gustafsson, Maria
    Coating of textile fabrics with conductive polymers for smart textile applications2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 334.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Melt spinning of carbon nanotube modified polypropylene conducting nanocomposite fibres2009In: Solid State Phenomena, ISSN 1012-0394, E-ISSN 1662-9779, ISSN 1012-0394, Vol. 151, p. 43-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blends of polypropylene with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been prepared and melt spun to fibre filaments. The resulted filaments have been characterised regarding conductivity, thermal properties, and morphology. DSC suggests that carbon nanotubes act as nucleating sites in polypropylene and the TGA shows a high increase in thermal stability. Conductivity around 0.001 S/cm are achieved for both as-spun fibre and drawn fibre. A higher load of CNT up to 15 wt % increases the conductivity to 2.8 S/cm in as-spun fibre, but due to a high fibre diameter variation during spinning resulting in fibre breakage, melt spinning is very difficult. This is due to a non-uniform stress distribution during the drawing steps which can be a result of a non-homogeneous PP-CNT blend and the spinning machine process limitations. Differences in conductivities for extruded rods, as-spun fibre and drawn fibre which are made from the same blends, suggests that the crystallinity can affect the conductivity of the PP/CNT fibre.

  • 335.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Melt spinning of carbon nanotube modified polypropylene for electrically conducting nanocomposite fibres2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 336.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Preparation of conducting fibres by melt spinning of polyaniline-polyproplene blends modified with carbon nanotubes2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 337.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Strategies for the preparation of conductive textile fibres for smart and functional textiles2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation will discuss some on-going efforts regarding the development of conductive fibres by melt spinning of polyaniline-polypropylene blends. The blend was also modified with multi wall carbon nanotubes. The presentation will also review in the literature presented concepts regarding processing and manufacture of electrically conductive textile fibres.

  • 338.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Preparation of conductive textile fibres by melt spinning and coating methods by utilising carbon nanotubes and conjugated polymers2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Pettersson, C.
    Andreassson, S.
    Återvinning av kompositer genom mikrovågspyrolys2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Melt Spun Electro-Conductive Polymer Composite Fibers2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One interesting approach is the development of conductive polymer composite fibers for innovative textile applications such as in sensors, actuators and electrostatic discharge. In this study, conductive polymer composite fibers were prepared using several different blends containing conductive components: a conjugated polymer (polyaniline-complex) and/or carbon nanotubes. Different factors such as processing parameters, the morphology of the initial blends and the final fibers, fiber draw ratio and material selection were studied separately to characterize their effects on the fiber properties. In binary blends of PP/polyaniline-complex, the processing conditions, the matrix viscosity and the fiber draw ratio had substantial effects on the electrical conductivity of the fibers and linearity of resistance-voltage dependence. These factors were associated with each other to create conductive pathways through maintaining an appropriate balance of fibril formation and breakage along the fiber. The blend morphology was defined as the initial size of the dispersed conductive phase (polyaniline-phase), which depended on the melt blending conditions as well as the PP matrix viscosity. Depending on the initial droplet phase size, an optimum draw ratio was necessary to obtain maximum conductivity by promoting fibril formation (sufficient stress) and preventing fibril breakage (no excess stress) to create continuous pathways of conductive phase. Ternary blend fibers of PP/PA6/polyaniline-complex illustrated at least three-phase morphology with matrix/core-shell dispersed phase style. When ternary fibers were compared to binary fibers, the former could combine better mechanical and electrical properties only at a specific draw ratio; this showed that draw ratio was a more determinant factor for the ternary fibers, as both conductivity and tensile strength depended on the formation of fibrils from the core-shell droplets of the PA6/polyaniline-complex through the polypropylene matrix. The achieved maximum conductivity so far was in the range of 10 S/cm to 10 S/cm, which for different samples were observed at different fiber draw ratios depending on the mixing conditions, the matrix viscosity or whether the fiber was a binary or ternary blend. To improve the properties, PP/polyaniline-complex blends were filled with CNTs. The CNTs and the polyaniline-complex both had an increasing effect on the crystallization temperature and the thermal stability of PP. Furthermore, the maximum conductivity was observed in samples containing both CNTs and polyaniline-complex rather than the PP with either one of the fillers. Although increasing the content of CNTs improved the conductivity in PP/CNT fibers, the ease of melt spinning, diameter uniformity and mechanical properties of fibers were adversely affected. Diameter variation of PP/CNT as-spun fibers was shown to be an indication of hidden melt-drawings that had occurred during the fiber extrusion; this could lead to variations in morphology such as increases in the insulating microcracks and the distance between the conductive agglomerates in the drawn parts of the fiber. Variations in morphology result in variations in the electrical conductivity; consequently, the conductivity of such inhomogeneous fiber is no longer its physical property, as this varies with varying size.

  • 341.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hernández, Niina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wipenmyr, Jan
    Rise Acreo.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Surface modification of textile electrodes to improve electrocardiography signals in wearable smart garment2019In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482X, Vol. 30, no 17, p. 16666-16675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recording high quality biosignals by dry textile electrodes is a common challenge in medical health monitoring garments. The aim of this study was to improve skin–electrode interface and enhance the quality of recorded electrocardiography (ECG) signals by modification of textile electrodes embedded in WearItMed smart garment. The garment has been developed for long-term health monitoring in patients suffering from epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. A skin-friendly electro-conductive elastic paste was formulated to coat and modify the surface of the knitted textile electrodes. The modifications improved the surface characteristics of the electrodes by promoting a more effective contact area between skin and electrode owing to a more even surface, fewer pores, greater surface stability against touch, and introduction of humidity barrier properties. The modifications decreased the skin–electrode contact impedance, and consequently improved the recorded ECG signals obviously when low pressure was applied to the electrodes, therefore contributed to greater patient comfort. The created contact surface allowed the natural humidity of the skin/sweat to ease the signal transfer between the electrode and the body, while introducing a shorter settling time and retaining moisture over a longer time. Microscopic images, ECG signal measurements, electrode–skin contact impedance at different pressures and times, and water absorbency were measured and reported.

  • 342.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Boras.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Electro-conductive polyblend fibers of Polyamide-6/polypropylene/polyaniline: electrical, morphological and mechanical characteristics2012In: Polymer Engineering and Science, ISSN 0032-3888, E-ISSN 1548-2634, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 1606-1612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Melt spun drawn fibers were prepared using a ternary blend of PP/PA6/PANI-complex (polypropylene/polyamide-6/polyaniline-complex). Their electrical and mechanical properties were compared to those of binary blend fibers of PP/PANI-complex. The results of the morphological studies on 55:25:20 PP/PA6/PANI-complex ternary fibers were found to be in accordance with the predicted morphology for the observed conductivity vs. fiber draw ratio. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of the ternary blend illustrated at least a three-phase morphology of a matrix/core-shell dispersed phase style, with widely varying sizes of droplets. This resulted in a dispersed morphology that, in some parts of the blend, approached a bicontinuous/dispersed phase morphology due to coalescence of the small droplets. The matrix was PP and the core-shell dispersed phase was PA6 and PANI-complex, in which a part of the PANI-complex had encapsulated the PA6 phase and the remaining was solved/dispersed in the PA6 core, as later confirmed by X-ray mapping. When the ternary blend fibers were compared to the binary fibers, the formers were able to combine better conductivity (of an order of 10−3 S cm−1) with a greater tensile strength only at a draw ratio of 5. This indicated that the draw ratio is more critical for the ternary blend fibers, because both conductivity and tensile strength depended on the formation of fibrils from the core-shell dispersed phase of the PA6/PANI-complex.

  • 343.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Fabrication of melt spun electro-conductive fibres using multi-walled carbon nanotubes, polypropylene and compatibilizers2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 344.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Preparation of conductive polyaniline/polypropylene blends and their melt spinning to fibre filaments2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 345.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Preparation of melt spun conductive polypropylene/polyaniline fibres for smart textile applications2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 346.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ternary composites made of carbon nanotubes/polypropylene/Polyaniline and melt spinning to conductive fibers2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ternary blends of polyaniline-complex, polypropylene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been prepared and melt spun to fibre filaments. Prepared filaments have been characterised regarding electrical and thermal properties as well as microscopic morphology. Electrical conductivity measurements showed that the maximum conductivity is obtained in polypropylene containing both CNT and Polyaniline rather than polypropylene with only one of the conductive materials. In SEM images for cross section of as-spun fibres, PP/polyaniline-complex/CNT shows much more homogeneous structure than PP/polyaniline-complex prepared at the same blending and spinning conditions. Fibres made of PP/CNT and PP/ CNT/polyaniline-complex show the electrical resistance dependency on time as well as applied voltage within the chosen range of measurements.

  • 347. Soudham, Venkata Prabhakar
    et al.
    Rodriguez, Dani
    Rocha, George J M
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Martin, Carlos
    Acetosolv delignifi cation of marabou (Dichrostachys cinerea) wood with and without acid prehydrolysis2011In: Forestry Studies in China, ISSN 1008-1321, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 64-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical composition of marabou (Dichrostachys cinerea) wood and its treatment with acetic acid were investigated. Two different treatment approaches, direct acetosolv and combined acid prehydrolysis/acetosolv, were evaluated. The effects of acetic acid concentration (50%, 70% and 90%) and temperature (normal boiling temperature and 121°C) on yield of solids, solubilization of lignin and hemicelluloses and recovery of cellulose were evaluated for both treatments. High solubilization of marabou components was observed in the direct acetosolv treatment at 121°C, especially at the highest acetic acid concentration, where around 84.8% of lignin and 78% of hemicelluloses were removed. When the material was subjected to acid prehydrolysis prior to acetosolv treatment, lignin solubilization was improved, especially at low acetic acid concentrations. Above 80% of the solubilized lignin was recovered from the liquors in the direct acetosolv treatment, but the recovery was lower in the combined treatment. Cellulose was well preserved in all the treatment schemes.

  • 348.
    Steenari, Martin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Herbertsson, Viktoria
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Varpklister: En studie kring biologiskt klister2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today the environment is currently a hot topic. An area that applies to the textile industry to a great extent. To convert textile fibers to a complete textile product needs to go through many different processes which requires chemicals.Textile sizing is an important step to produce woven materials of high-quality which requires a large amount of chemicals. Tensile strength, elongation and abrasion resistance is a few characteristics you want to add through sizing. These characteristics of the yarn is something that is required to cope with the different forces that the yarn is exposed to during weaving.This study examines how a wax based biological size-agent could be used as an alternative to synthetic size from a non-renewable source. By applying size on two different PET-yarns and two polyamide yarns with a foulard the objective of the study is to evaluate how the different sizes affect the yarn characteristics. Since the biological size is not used commercially today two different concentration of the sizing agent, 1% and 2,5%, and two different pressures in the squeezer, 2 bar and 4 bar. To evaluate the effect of the size on tensile strength, elongation, friction, yarn structure and weight change after sizing.The results of the tests show that the size add-on ratio was less than 1 % when sized with the biological size. The tensile strength, elongation, friction and yarn structure showed no significant difference between the biological sized yarn and the non-sized yarn.Based on the performed tests there was no conclusions to be made about how the biological size affect the characteristics of the yarn because of the low size add-on ratio. Further tests have to be made before it is possible to ensure that wax based biological size can replace the conventional sizing agents.

  • 349.
    Sundberg, Fanny
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Anderhell, Max
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Washing and drying reusable sanitary pads2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Period poverty is a problem mainly found in places characterized by poverty. The lack of means for women and girls to properly handle their menstruation is the essence of the problem. With a lack of both quantity and quality regarding water often being an issue in such places, the hygiene is a constant challenge. Two different kinds of sanitary products are used globally, disposable and reusable. The reusable ones are often being made of cotton or other absorbent materials. Regardless the material, reusable products need cleaning between the times of use, which could be a challenge when water is not always accessible. To have a reusable sanitary pad that efficiently can be cleaned with low amounts of resources is important, especially in impoverished places. Spacerpad is a reusable sanitary pad and a part of a project at the University of Borås. The aim for the project is to reduce period poverty and to educate women and girls in menstrual hygiene management. The pad is made of polyester which does not absorb blood or water, instead the pad merely contains the fluids. This thesis was conducted as a field study in Nairobi, Kenya. The study aimed to simulate a menstruation, in order to analyze the microbial activity in two different reusable sanitary pads, during as well as after menstruation. With the influences from interviews and resources found in Kibera (a slum in Nairobi) a simulation of five days was executed, with nutrient solution instead of menstrual blood. The Spacerpad and a cotton pad were exposed to the same procedures and the effects of washing and drying were studied. The microbial activity was measured with the help of dipslides, a growth medium. The results of this study show that both Spacerpad and the cotton pad could be carriers of heavy growth of bacteria. Increasing microbial activity throughout the simulation as the days went by, ended with a dividing result after a soap wash as the final washing procedure. The pad made of cotton still carried above slight growth, compared to Spacerpad that showed almost no activity after the final cleanse. Even though the microbial activity reached high levels during the simulation, the fact that the Spacerpad can be cleaned with limited resources could be reason enough to consider the Spacerpad as a sufficiently sanitary product in an impoverished place like Kibera.

  • 350.
    Sundqvist, Lovisa
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wrang, Annie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Vikten att följa trender - en inköpares dilemma?: En tvärsnittsstudie om beslutsfattandet inom svenska modeföretags inköpsprocesser2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan millenniumskiftet förändrades modevärlden radikalt av fler säsonger, ökad mångfald av trender samtidigt som trendernas livslängds blev allt kortare. Hos inköparna på de stora klädbolagen ställs det idag ett allt större krav att veta vad som kommer att sälja i framtiden. Idag måste besluten tas snabbt så att kläderna hinner producera och levereras i tid innan modet hinner ändra sig. Som ett hjälpmedel för inköpare och designers om i vilken riktning modet kommer att gå finns trender som fungerar som ett avgränsat modeuttryck för att förmedla och tolka en viss stil och därmed ge en tydlig bild om vad som bör produceras och efterfrågas. Men eftersom internet har medfört en ökad acceleration av trender kan det upplevas svårt att veta vad som kommer sälja i framtiden och det är här ser vi trendbyråernas roll. Trendbyråer har en koordinerande roll på marknaden där de ger företag vägledning om förändringar i modet. Genom trendanalyser får företag en överblick hur riktningen i modet kommer att gå, förstå vilka globala influenser som påverkar modet och en reflektion kring hur allt återspeglas till modet. Vad gäller tidigare forskning av begreppen trender och trendbyråer vid beslutsfattande, har ingen omfattande undersökning tidigare gjorts vilket har medfört att vår uppsats känns värdefull för en mer förståelse kring ämnet. Avsikten med vår uppsats är att undersöka och analysera hur trender och trendanalyser har för betydelse vid beslutsfattande inom inköpsprocessens tidiga stadium hos svenska modeföretag. Studien har efter insamling av teori inom områdena beslut, trender och trendanalyser genomförts med en kvalitativ grund där insamling av det empiriska materialet har utgått från semistrukturerade intervjuer. Intervjuer har främst genomförts med respondenter som innehar en roll inom inköp på svenska modeföretag som ingår i beteckningen SME (Small medium Enterprises). Dessa företag är Ellos, Lindex, Gina Tricot och MQ. För att öka förståelsen kring trender och trendanalyser har intervjuer även genomförts med en trendanalytiker från Svenska Moderådet och en författare bakom boken Trendmakarna. Insamlad data har därefter analyserats och ställts mot teorier angående beslut, trender och trendanalyser i syfte att kunna uttala oss om hur inköpare ser på trender och trendbyråers betydelse vid beslutsfattande av inköp. De resultat som empirin bestått av ger indikationer på att trender har en betydande roll men att det både kan öka och minska på osäkerheter samt risker. Inköparna anser att det finns många risker med trendbaserade produkter men att trendanalyser vid beslutsfattande kan användas för att förstå riktningen modet går i för att därefter kunna anpassa inköpen genom volym, budget, material och leverantörer. Därmed kan de vara ett hjälpmedel för att minska på både ett besluts risk och osäkerhet, vilket bekräftar de teorier som tagits upp. Dock kan vi uttala oss om att beslutsfattande inom inköp inte bara baseras på trendanalyser utan andra faktorer och variabler spelar också in.

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