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  • 301.
    Hedberg, Patrik
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Lind, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Talking about projects: a project generic model2000Report (Other academic)
  • 302.
    Hedman, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Henningsson, Stefan
    ERP Systems in the Extended Value Chain of the Food Industry2008In: Springer Series in Advanced Manufacturing / [ed] Bernard Grabot, Anne Mayère, Isabelle Bazet, Springer Verlag , 2008, 13-24 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 303.
    Hedman, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Henningsson, Stefan
    Information Infrastructure in the Extended Value Chain of the Food Industry.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 304.
    Hedman, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Henningsson, Stefan
    Johansson, Björn
    Towards a framework for IS integration in industries2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 305.
    Hedman, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Henningsson, Stefan
    Pierce, Paul
    The IS integration of Extended Value Chains from an Alliance perspective2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 306.
    Hedman, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Lind, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Is there only one systems development life cycle?2009In: Information Systems Development: Challenges in Practice, Theory, and Education Volume 1 / [ed] Chris Barry, Kieran Conboy, Michael Lang, Gregory Wojtkowski, Wita Wojtkowski, Springer-Verlag US , 2009, 105-116 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to the literature on information systems development life cycle (SDLC) by presenting an enhanced SDLC model, which integrated three interdependent and complementary, but different SDLCs. It is based on integration of the traditional and well-established idea of custom development with package development and commercially off the shelf (COTS) selection and implementation. Package development includes all software made for a market, whereas COTS selection and implementation refers to the selection and implementation of package software. Although there are many similarities between the life cycles, many differences are important to understand. We highlight both the differences and the intersection between the life cycles and outline an integrated SDLC model, which will be used to discuss future research and curricula issues.

  • 307.
    Hedman, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Lind, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Is there only one systems development life cycle?2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 308.
    Hedman, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Lind, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Andersson, Bill
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Forsgren, Olov
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Debattinlägg: Lyft fram goda it-exempel2007In: Computer Sweden, ISSN 0280-9982Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 309.
    Hedman, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Lind, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Forsgren, Olov
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Albinsson, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Business Models for Public Private Partnership: The 3PBM framework2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 310.
    Hedman, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Tschernin, Heidi
    Emotions, Possession and willingness to pay: The case of iPhone2008In: Collaboration and the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies, ISSN 1574-1230, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 311.
    Hedman, Jonas
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Tscherning, Heidi
    Evaluating Mobile Services: An Emotional Investigation2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 312.
    Hemlin, Sven
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Creative Knowledge Environments: An Interview Study with Group Members and Group Leaders of University and Industry R&D Groups in Biotechnology2009In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 18, no 4, 278-285 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study shows that effective knowledge management is essential in a creative knowledge environment of R&D groups in cutting-edge fields such as biotechnology. To a great extent, knowledge management is revealed as a group leadership task. Moreover, group leaders emphasize group organization as a way to generate ideas, while group members are concerned with creative leadership. Group climates are unanimously perceived to be conducive to creative output. Theoretical starting points taken in creativity are seen as fostered by the environment rather than by individual characteristics. Data were collected by semi-structured, oral interviews (N = 84) with group leaders and group members at universities and biotechnical companies in Sweden. Data were analysed by content and categorized accordingly. Future research on creative micro-environments should focus on leadership issues and knowledge management.

  • 313.
    Hemlin, Sven
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Peer review agreement or peer review disagreement: Which is better?2009In: Journal of Psychology of Science and Technology, ISSN 1939-7054, Vol. 2, no 1, 5-12 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peer review is generally considered the cornerstone of the scientific control system. Hence it is critical that peer review works well. The empirical finding that reviewers often disagree among themselves is the starting point for an analysis of peer review. Depending on the reasons for such disagreements, I argue that disagreement, as well as agreement, among reviewers can have both positive and negative effects for science. The empirical research on peer review is analyzed according to a categorization of review objects (manuscripts or research applications) and review outcomes (approval or rejection) and draws on psychological judgment and decision-making research. Moreover, bias in peer review is scrutinized. The conclusion offers implications for the peer review system and for scientific research.

  • 314.
    Hemlin, Sven
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Prpic, Katarina
    Denti, Leif
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Organizational support for innovation in biosciences: Comparing high and low performers in Sweden and Croatia.2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need to better understand the organizational factors influencing innovative performance. This cross-cultural study examined organizational support factors in biotech R&D groups differing in innovative performance. The objective was to twofold; first to explore how organizing influences innovativeness in R&D, and, second to examine if R&D organizing is related to nations having a low and high innovation degree, respectively. Results supported that organizing R&D as well as national innovation performance are related. Crucial organizational issues found were how much organizations encouraged innovations, the degree of perceived autonomy and to what extent organizations could supply knowledge. Some of the implications of these results are introduced.

  • 315. Henfridsson, Ola
    et al.
    Lindgren, Rikard
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    User involvement in developing mobile and temporarily interconnected systems2010In: Information Systems Journal, ISSN 1350-1917, E-ISSN 1365-2575, Vol. 20, no 2, 119-135 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems (IS) research on user involvement has primarily theorized relationships between developers, managers and users in systems development. However, so far, marginal attention has been paid to differences in user involvement practices between information systems. This paper explores user involvement in developing mobile and temporarily interconnected systems (MTIS). We refer to MTIS as heterogeneous systems that rely on network technologies for increasing the ubiquity of information services for users on the move. Such systems are becoming increasingly important in leveraging, e.g. car infotainment, supply chain management and wireless e-commerce. With particular emphasis on the nature of MTIS and its implications for user involvement, the paper analyses the systems development process of an action research project. The findings suggest that user involvement practices need to be adapted to accommodate features of this class of systems. Being an early attempt to trace the implications of technology features such as use context switches and temporary system relationships, the paper contributes to the development of an updated theory of the user role in an era of increased system complexity and stakeholder ambiguity.

  • 316. Henfridsson, Ola
    et al.
    Lindgren, Rikard
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    User Involvement In Developing Mobile and Temporarily Interconnected Systems.2010In: Information Systems Journal, ISSN 1350-1917, E-ISSN 1365-2575, Vol. 20, no 2, 119-135 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems (IS) research on user involvement has primarily theorized relationships between developers, managers and users in systems development. However, so far, marginal attention has been paid to differences in user involvement practices between information systems. This paper explores user involvement in developing mobile and temporarily interconnected systems (MTIS). We refer to MTIS as heterogeneous systems that rely on network technologies for increasing the ubiquity of information services for users on the move. Such systems are becoming increasingly important in leveraging, e.g. car infotainment, supply chain management and wireless e-commerce. With particular emphasis on the nature of MTIS and its implications for user involvement, the paper analyses the systems development process of an action research project. The findings suggest that user involvement practices need to be adapted to accommodate features of this class of systems. Being an early attempt to trace the implications of technology features such as use context switches and temporary system relationships, the paper contributes to the development of an updated theory of the user role in an era of increased system complexity and stakeholder ambiguity.

  • 317.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Behovet av struktur och frihet: en avhandling om situationsanpassad facilitering vid samarbetsinriktad modellering2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Informationssystem är resultatet av samarbete människor emellan. System designas, realiseras, testas och implementeras i de verksamheter som de ska stödja. Samarbetekrävs under alla dessa steg. I utvecklingsarbetets inledning är det inte ovanligt att kraven på systemen formuleras genom projekt som organiseras genom olika typer avsamarbetsformer. I föreliggande avhandling lyfter vi pä locket på samarbetsinriktad modellering och studerar i detalj vad som sker när krav på system formuleras. Genom en gedigen forskningsdesign och ett rikt datamaterial följer vi två modelleringsteam när de facililerar verksamhetsrepresentanter i olika situationer under tre modelleringsprojekt. Avsikten är att utveckla kunskap om vad som utmärker facililering i dessa situationersamt studera vad som utmärker situationsanpassning när modellerarna underlättar och möjliggör arbetet. Genom videobaserad forskning har modelleringsarbetet dokumenterats och med hjälp av olika analysmetoder, såsom konversationsinriktad handlingsanalys och multigrundad teoriutveckling, tolkas episoder i materialet och en plattform för en praktisk teori om facililering utvecklas. Resultatet utgörs av en typologi över samarbetsinriktad modellering, åtgärder för att utföra facililering av arbetet, samt insikter om vad som utmärker situationsanpassning när facilitering utförs och olika omständigheter måste mötas. Synsättet som förespråkas är att tillämpande av struktur och utnyttjandet av frihet är förutsättningar då goda krav på informationssystem ska formuleras genom samarbete.

  • 318.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Johannesson, Paul
    Juell-Skielse, Gustaf
    Rudmark, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Beyond innovation contests: A framework of barriers to open innovation of digital services2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 319.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Lind, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Challenges in establishing sustainable innovation2011In: ECIS 2011 Proceedings, Paper 162, AIS , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of information systems an interest in environmental issues has driven the agenda for research from green IT improvement to sustainable innovation. A challenge yet to investigate is how sustainable innovation involving a cluster of actors from multiple settings should be 1) designed and 2) orchestrated so that the innovation performed enables sustainable change. Processes for launching sustainable innovation should consequently be analysed in order to further investigate this notion. In northern Europe there is today a strong drive towards enabling initiatives utilizing mobile information technology improving the everyday transportation of people. This paper analysis the launch of a research and innovation cluster with the aim to develop information infrastructures and processes that stimulate distributed development of digital services for everyday travel. Events performed during the two-year start-up have been analysed identifying essential actions for network design and innovation orchestration, creating hypotheses, which enables further research about the establishment of sustainable innovation.

  • 320.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Designing Digital Innovation Contests2012In: Design Science Research in Information Systems. Advances in Theory and Practice / [ed] Ken Peffers, Marcus Rothenberger, Bill Kuechler, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg , 2012, 9-27 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the phenomena of open data have lent a promise to expand the innovation network of an organization. By allowing this type of access to organizational resources, developers beyond the organizational realm may hence generate new innovative artifacts surpassing existing capabilities. However, as an organization utilizes these innovation capabilities they simultaneously loose significant control over the innovations’ alignment with existing organizational goals. One way to nurture and harness this type of innovation is to arrange a contest where third party developers are invited to attend. Using a Design Science Research approach, such a contest - a type of artifact we coin Digital Innovation Contest - was designed and field-tested in 2011. The contest, WestCoast TravelHack 2011, summoned 76 developers distributed on 20 teams and was based on an idea to both generate novel digital service prototypes and having these applications promote the organizational goal of less energy-consuming ways of everyday travel. We conclude that by following our empirically grounded and theoretically informed guidelines, this type of contest can indeed increase the likelihood of both producing innovative artifacts and aligning these innovations with organizational goals.

  • 321.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Lind, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    The Green Travelling App: Changing Everyday Transport Behavior2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 322.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Lind, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    When Designers Are Not in Control: Experiences from Using Action Research to Improve Researcher-Developer Collaboration in Design Science Research2010In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 6105, 1-15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design science research (DSR) has received much attention in the past few years from the field of information systems. This paper argues that control in researcher-developer collaboration during artefact development has not yet received enough attention in design science research even though control is necessary for successful artefact instantiation.Experiences are presented from improving researcher-developer collaboration during DSR by using action research (AR) as means. These experiences are driven from the need to achieve meta-design control throughout the development of artefacts by non-researching system developers when DSR is performed in an authentic setting. The paper shows that the use of AR to both diagnose uncertainty and actively improve building activities may lead to sustainable improvements in researcher-developer collaboration, and hence achieve meta-design control in DSR performed in authentic development environments, as well as enhance progress in DSR methodology development.

  • 323.
    Hjelmgren, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Att ge kunderna positiva upplevelser i samband med deras vistelse i Ullared2010In: Vetenskap för profession, ISSN 1654-6520, 9-18 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Berry myntade 1983 begreppet ”relationsmarknadsföring” (Grönroos, 1994). Enligt Coviello et al. (2002) skiljer sig relationsmarknadsföring ifrån mer traditionell transaktionsmarknadsföring bl.a. genom att mindre fokus läggs på företagets möjligheter och förmåga att rekrytera nya kunder, och mer på dess möjligheter och förmåga att behålla och stärka kundrelationer. Reichheld and Sasser (1990) tar i sin studie av över 100 företag upp de ekonomiska fördelarna med att fokusera på att behålla kunder istället för att försöka rekrytera nya. Ett företag som minskar kundbortfallet med fem procent kan enligt Reichheld and Sasser öka sin vinst med inte mindre än 25-85 procent.

  • 324.
    Hjelmgren, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Combining resources and limiting the change boundary: the case of an ERP-system implementation2011In: Innovative Marketing, ISSN 1814-2427, Vol. 7, no 2, 8-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with combination and development of individual resource units that are embedded into networks of other units. The aim of the paper is to analyze the possibilities for a supplier and a buyer to limit the change boundary when adjusting their resources toward each other, and thus to predict the total outcome of a certain change. The paper is based on a case study on implementation of ERP (enterprise resource planning) systems. The case focuses on a Swedish ERP-supplier’s development of a customer specific solution in interaction with one particular buyer, whose requirements could not be met by existing product features. The buyer is a subcontractor on the second tier in the automotive industry and implemented the ERP system in order to improve the coordination of certain sequentially dependent operations. The case reveals four different ways in which a supplier and a buyer may try to limit the change boundary, each of them associated with certain problems in predicting the total outcome of a specific change.

  • 325.
    Hjelmgren, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Creating positive experiences2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 326.
    Hjelmgren, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Dubois, Anna
    Organising the interplay between exploitation and exploration: The case of interactive development of an information system2010In: 20th Nordic Workshop on Interorganizational Research, Aarhus, DenmarkArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 327.
    Hjelmgren, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Kan detaljhandeln bidra till att minska det textila avfallet?: Textilreturen i Ullared – ett experiment om återvinning2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konsumtionen av kläder har ökat dramatiskt under senare år och klädberget bara växer. Denna utveckling har bland annat aktualiserat frågan om hur vi kan finna nya system för insamling av de kläder som människor inte längre vill ha. Föreliggande rapport beskriver framväxten av en försöksverksamhet om insamling av kläder - belägen i nära anslutning till en stor shoppingdestination. På insamlingsplatsen - döpt till Textilreturen – kan både hela och trasiga kläder tas emot i stor skala. Genom att beskriva de olika överväganden och beslut som lett fram till Textilreturens slutliga utformning ges kunskap och insikt i projektets komplexitet. Denna kunskap är värdefull för andra företag och organisationer som planerar liknande anläggningar. Rapporten belyser svårigheterna att utveckla lösningar som kan bidra till att förändra människors beteende avseende klädinsamling.

  • 328.
    Hjelmgren, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Ekström, Karin M
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Re:design of textiles: opportunities and barriers in the Swedish furniture and clothing industries2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of textile waste has been increasing steadily in the Western world during the last decades. Its negative impact on the environment makes it important to investigate the possibility to increase the utilization of waste materials. The purpose of this paper is to study possibilities and structural barriers to utilize waste materials in the Swedish furniture and clothing industries. The study is based on semi-structured interviews with project managers, business developers, designers, and company representatives in the initiative Studio Re: design. The initiative aims to develop new techniques for making use of textile waste. Our study shows that the possibility for making use of waste materials is greater in the furniture industry than in the clothing industry. This is explained by more local production and flexible production in the furniture industry and also greater possibilities to utilize existing sales channels and interactive effects in the design process.

  • 329.
    Hjelmgren, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Ekström, Karin M
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Generation Y’s and Swing’s consumption of clothes: a cost/benefit analysis of sustainable behavior2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of clothes is high and steadily increasing. The garment industry’s resource-intensive manufacturing and consumers’ use and disposal of clothes therefore constitute an increasing environmental problem. The negative impact that consumption of clothes has on the environment makes it important to further investigate consumers’ acquisition, use and disposal of clothes. The aim of this paper is through a cost-benefit analysis of consumers’ consumption of clothes study what affect their propensity to consume more environmentally friendly – focusing on consumers representing generation Y and Swing. The study is based on three empirical studies: a survey at the largest retail store in Scandinavia, focus group interviews with members of the generation Y and Swing cohorts, and interviews and observations at a clothes swapping event. Our results show that the propensity to behave environmental friendly when consuming clothes is negatively affected by price sensitivity and various search cost, cost of disposal, information cost, and cost of use. The study also shows that the two cohorts experience different benefits in the consumption of clothes which also may affect their behavior.

  • 330.
    Höglund, Lars
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Persson, Bengt
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Nyström, Maria
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Forsgren, Olov
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Sarv, Hans
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Hallnäs, Lars
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Torhell, Catta
    University of Borås, Library and Learning Resources.
    Brorström, Björn
    Sundeen, Johan
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Lindh, Maria
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Benner, Mats
    Liedman, Sven-Eric
    Sahlin, Kerstin
    Från Högskolan i Borås till Humboldt, volym 12010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under våren 2010 genomfördes en serie om fyra seminarier med namnet ”Från Högskolan i Borås till Humboldt: Perspektiv på universitetsidén under 200 år”. Det primära syftet var att diskutera den svenska högskolans roller i en tid präglad av stora förväntningar och motsägelsefulla krav på akademin. Denna rapport utgör en dokumentation av seminarieseriens innehåll. Professor Sven-Eric Liedman skriver med samtidskritisk udd om universitetens historia; professor Mats Benner beskriver och analyserar fyra historiska idealtyper av universitet samt belyser det förändringstryck som högskolesektorn verkar under; professor Kerstin Sahlin riktar intresset mot hur universitet skiljer sig från andra organisationer och ger sin bild av hur detta faktum bör återspegla sig i besluts- och ledningsstrukturer. Seminarieserien och rapporten är ett led i Högskolan i Borås kontinuerligt pågående självreflektion och arbete med frågor som rör professionslärosätets identitet och profil. I rapportens senare del presenteras sex korta reflektioner om och/eller seminarieseriens teman utifrån Högskolan i Borås horisont. Reflektionerna är skrivna av professorer från alla högskolans sex institutioner.

  • 331.
    Ingdahl, Tina
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Söderbom, Arne
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Empirical Investigation of ABC: An Evolutionary Implementation1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Activity Based Costing often has a different meaning to academic researchers and to people involved in business. As organizations are rapidly changing in ways we have never seen or could have expected, theories are often corrected by reality found in business. In the world of rapidly changing global environments complex problems within companies more often are solved through the use of integrated multi-dimensional variables. With reference to the theorydevelopment of ABC we have focused on problems with implementation of ABC in a very specialized service organization. This article deals with three parts involved in one case: Theory, implementation and practical business operation. The enterprise involved in the case is Telia (33000 employees) and more specifically a subsidiary Telia Handel AB in Sweden (300 employees). The enterprise is the largest telecommunication operator in Scandinavia and is a distinctly service management unit. It is our aim to further develop theory connected to ABC action learning from this enterprise. The actual case was initiated in the autumn 1996, the empirical work started in January 1997. The most important contribution is: The ” institutionalized norms” of ABC show considerable tension and misfit between business reality and theory. Other contributions were: 1. The founding of a new factor related to the activity workforce that activities signify. 2. This study confirms earlier theory that it is a complicated and time-consuming process to find correct activity-drivers. 3. Traditional cost-allocation as the aim of an activity-based cost-system counteracts an effective implementation of ABC due to different purposes.

  • 332. Jan, Dushan
    et al.
    Herrera, David
    Martinovski, Bilyana
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Novick, David
    Traum, David
    A Computational Model of Culture-Specific Conversational Behavior.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a model for simulating cultural differences in the conversational behavior of virtual agents. The model provides parameters for differences in proxemics, gaze and overlap in turn taking.We present a review of literature on these factors and show results of a study where native speakers of North American English, Mexican Spanish and Arabic were asked to rate the realism of the simulations generated based on different cultural parameters with respect to their culture.

  • 333.
    Jansson, Karl
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Sundell, Håkan
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Boström, Henrik
    gpuRF and gpuERT: Efficient and Scalable GPU Algorithms for Decision Tree Ensembles2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present two new parallel implementations of the ensemble learning methods Random Forests (RF) and Extremely Randomized Trees (ERT), called gpuRF and gpuERT, for emerging many-core platforms, e.g., contemporary graphics cards suitable for general-purpose computing (GPGPU). RF and ERT are two ensemble methods for generating predictive models that are of high importance within machine learning. They operate by constructing a multitude of decision trees at training time and outputting a prediction by comparing the outputs of the individual trees. Thanks to the inherent parallelism of the task, an obvious platform for its computation is to employ contemporary GPUs with a large number of processing cores. Previous parallel algorithms for RF in the literature are either designed for traditional multi-core CPU platforms or early history GPUs with simpler architecture and relatively few cores. For ERT, only briefly sketched parallelization attempts exist in the literature. The new parallel algorithms are designed for contemporary GPUs with a large number of cores and take into account aspects of the newer hardware architectures, such as memory hierarchy and thread scheduling. They are implemented using the C/C++ language and the CUDA interface to attain the best possible performance on NVidia-based GPUs. An experimental study comparing the most important previous solutions for CPU and GPU platforms to the novel implementations shows significant advantages in the aspect of efficiency for the latter, often with several orders of magnitude.

  • 334.
    Jansson, Karl
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Sundell, Håkan
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Boström, Henrik
    Parallel tree-ensemble algorithms for GPUs using CUDA2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present two new parallel implementations of the tree-ensemble algorithms Random Forest (RF) and Extremely randomized trees (ERT) for emerging many-core platforms, e.g., contemporary graphics cards suitable for general-purpose computing (GPGPU). Random Forest and Extremely randomized trees are ensemble learners for classification and regression. They operate by constructing a multitude of decision trees at training time and outputting a prediction by comparing the outputs of the individual trees. Thanks to the inherent parallelism of the task, an obvious platform for its computation is to employ contemporary GPUs with a large number of processing cores. Previous parallel algorithms for Random Forests in the literature are either designed for traditional multi-core CPU platforms or early history GPUs with simpler hardware architecture and relatively few number of cores. The new parallel algorithms are designed for contemporary GPUs with a large number of cores and take into account aspects of the newer hardware architectures as memory hierarchy and thread scheduling. They are implemented using the C/C++ language and the CUDA interface for best possible performance on NVidia-based GPUs. An experimental study comparing with the most important previous solutions for CPU and GPU platforms shows significant improvement for the new implementations, often with several magnitudes.

  • 335. Jensen, Christian
    et al.
    Johansson, Staffan
    Löfström, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Island in the stream. The project organization as a policy tool in reforming the public sector.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 336. Jensen, Christian
    et al.
    Johansson, Staffan
    Löfström, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Projektledning i offentlig miljö2007Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet projekt har en positiv klang och projektformen används gärna som metod för att skapa innovation och förändring. Ett projekt utlovar en början och ett slut, och däremellan nyskapande, experimenterande och entreprenörskap. Boken fokuserar särskilt på omgivningens avgörande betydelse för projektens resultat och därmed också för dem som leder, finansierar eller medverkar i olika slags projekt. Boken beskriver och analyserar fyra olika typer av projekt: förändringsprojekt, försöksprojekt, samverkansprojekt och uppdragsprojekt.

  • 337. Jensen, Christian
    et al.
    Johansson, Staffan
    Löfström, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    The project organization as a policy tool in implementering reforms in the public sector.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 338. Jensen, Christian
    et al.
    Johansson, Staffan
    Löfström, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    The project organization as a policy tool in implementing welfare reforms in the public sector2012In: International Journal of Health Planning and Management, ISSN 0749-6753, E-ISSN 1099-1751, Vol. 28, no 1, 122-137 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational design is considered in policy literature as a forceful policy tool to put policy to action. However, previous research has not analyzed the project organization as a specific form of organizational design and, hence, has not given much attention to such organizations as a strategic choice when selecting policy tools. The purpose of the article is to investigate the project as a policy tool; how do such temporary organizations function as a specific form of organization when public policy is implemented? The article is based on a framework of policy implementation and is illustrated with two welfare reforms in the Swedish public sector, which were organized and implemented as project organizations. The case studies and the analysis show that it is crucial that a project organization fits into the overall governance structure when used as a policy tool. If not, the project will remain encapsulated and will not have sufficient impact on the permanent organizational structure. The concept of encapsulation indicates a need to protect the project from a potential hostile environment. The implication of this is that organizational design as a policy tool is a matter that deserves more attention in the strategic discussion on implementing public policies and on the suitability of using certain policy tools.

  • 339.
    Johansson, Kjell
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Substance over form: en redovisningsrättslig studie2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with substance over form and economic reality in accounting law. An extensive study is made of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) regarding accounting for inventories, property plant and equipment, investment property, intangible assets, construction contracts, finance and operating leases and some issues regarding consolidated financial statements, business combinations and consolidation of Special Purpose Entities (SPE). The study is intended to clarify whether the investigated rules in IFRS can express substance over form when they are applied in a Swedish legal context. An investigation is also performed as regards the question whether Swedish accepted industry practices for construction contracts express substance over form. In the analysis reference is made mainly to typical cases. The intention is to make evident the meaning of the complex principle based rules in a pedagogical way. The thesis also examines whether the investigated rules reflect the economic reality of the enterprise or the market or both. The investigation is also intended to identify the cases when the overriding rule might be applied to deviate from a standard in order to achieve fair presentation. In the thesis, the qualitative characteristics in the IASBs Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements are also studied to see whether they can express substance over form and economic reality. The results of the investigation are summarized in a model describing the different stages in the life cycle of an asset or a liability in a company, referred to as the circular flow model. The circular flow model is based on three frameworks: The legal framework, the Framework for the Preparation and Presentation of Financial Statements and the legal sources in IFRS. The stages of the circular flow model consist of definition/classification, recognition, initial measurement, measurement after recognition, transfers/reclassification and derecognition. Based on conclusions made for the investigated topics, a descriptive theory on economic reality called the life cycle theory is presented. Important components of this theory are significant/substantial risks and rewards from ownership, control, value, purpose, characteristics, space, time and ethics. A normative theory on economic reality is also proposed, referred to as the dimension theory. The dimension theory is based on the eight components of the life cycle theory. Every component is multidimensional. The purpose of the dimension theory is to supply tools to improve existing and develop new accounting standards representing economic reality. In the dimension theory another component is added, namely information quality, which has dimensions of relevance, comparability, neutrality, coherence and character of norms, meaning norms based on principles or rules. The theories proposed in the thesis can be looked upon as a basis and starting point for further development of a theory in the field of accounting law. Finally, two methods are proposed. The first method can be used by standard setters to develop accounting standards. The second method can be used for analysing existing accounting rules. It may also be utilised in legal argumentation with the intention of forming an accounting policy leading to fair presentation.

  • 340. Johansson, Staffan
    et al.
    Löfström, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Ohlsson, Östen
    Separation or integration? A dilemma when organizing development projects2007In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 25, no 5, 457-464 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 341.
    Johansson, T
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Forsgren, Olov
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Upplevelsearenor: Arenor – Teknik - Trender – Aktörer2009Report (Other academic)
  • 342. Johansson, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Forsgren, Olov
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    e-Tjänster för ungdomsdialog, kulturintegration och entreprenörskap2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 343.
    Johansson, Tore
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Tripplehelix-samarbeten ur ett västsvenskt perspektiv2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 344.
    Johansson, Ulf
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Obtaining Accurate and Comprehensible Data Mining Models: An Evolutionary Approach2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When performing predictive data mining, the use of ensembles is claimed to virtually guarantee increased accuracy compared to the use of single models. Unfortunately, the problem of how to maximize ensemble accuracy is far from solved. In particular, the relationship between ensemble diversity and accuracy is not completely understood, making it hard to efficiently utilize diversity for ensemble creation. Furthermore, most high-accuracy predictive models are opaque, i.e. it is not possible for a human to follow and understand the logic behind a prediction. For some domains, this is unacceptable, since models need to be comprehensible. To obtain comprehensibility, accuracy is often sacrificed by using simpler but transparent models; a trade-off termed the accuracy vs. comprehensibility trade-off. With this trade-off in mind, several researchers have suggested rule extraction algorithms, where opaque models are transformed into comprehensible models, keeping an acceptable accuracy. In this thesis, two novel algorithms based on Genetic Programming are suggested. The first algorithm (GEMS) is used for ensemble creation, and the second (G-REX) is used for rule extraction from opaque models. The main property of GEMS is the ability to combine smaller ensembles and individual models in an almost arbitrary way. Moreover, GEMS can use base models of any kind and the optimization function is very flexible, easily permitting inclusion of, for instance, diversity measures. In the experimentation, GEMS obtained accuracies higher than both straightforward design choices and published results for Random Forests and AdaBoost. The key quality of G-REX is the inherent ability to explicitly control the accuracy vs. comprehensibility trade-off. Compared to the standard tree inducers C5.0 and CART, and some well-known rule extraction algorithms, rules extracted by G-REX are significantly more accurate and compact. Most importantly, G-REX is thoroughly evaluated and found to meet all relevant evaluation criteria for rule extraction algorithms, thus establishing G-REX as the algorithm to benchmark against.

  • 345.
    Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Boström, Henrik
    König, Rikard
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Extending Nearest Neighbor Classification with Spheres of Confidence2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 346.
    Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Boström, Henrik
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Löfström, Tuve
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Conformal Prediction Using Decision Trees2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conformal prediction is a relatively new framework in which the predictive models output sets of predictions with a bound on the error rate, i.e., in a classification context, the probability of excluding the correct class label is lower than a predefined significance level. An investigation of the use of decision trees within the conformal prediction framework is presented, with the overall purpose to determine the effect of different algorithmic choices, including split criterion, pruning scheme and way to calculate the probability estimates. Since the error rate is bounded by the framework, the most important property of conformal predictors is efficiency, which concerns minimizing the number of elements in the output prediction sets. Results from one of the largest empirical investigations to date within the conformal prediction framework are presented, showing that in order to optimize efficiency, the decision trees should be induced using no pruning and with smoothed probability estimates. The choice of split criterion to use for the actual induction of the trees did not turn out to have any major impact on the efficiency. Finally, the experimentation also showed that when using decision trees, standard inductive conformal prediction was as efficient as the recently suggested method cross-conformal prediction. This is an encouraging results since cross-conformal prediction uses several decision trees, thus sacrificing the interpretability of a single decision tree.

  • 347.
    Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Boström, Henrik
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Löfström, Tuve
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Linusson, Henrik
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Regression conformal prediction with random forests2014In: Machine Learning, ISSN 0885-6125, E-ISSN 1573-0565, Vol. 97, no 1-2, 155-176 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regression conformal prediction produces prediction intervals that are valid, i.e., the probability of excluding the correct target value is bounded by a predefined confidence level. The most important criterion when comparing conformal regressors is efficiency; the prediction intervals should be as tight (informative) as possible. In this study, the use of random forests as the underlying model for regression conformal prediction is investigated and compared to existing state-of-the-art techniques, which are based on neural networks and k-nearest neighbors. In addition to their robust predictive performance, random forests allow for determining the size of the prediction intervals by using out-of-bag estimates instead of requiring a separate calibration set. An extensive empirical investigation, using 33 publicly available data sets, was undertaken to compare the use of random forests to existing stateof- the-art conformal predictors. The results show that the suggested approach, on almost all confidence levels and using both standard and normalized nonconformity functions, produced significantly more efficient conformal predictors than the existing alternatives.

  • 348.
    Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    König, Rikard
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Linusson, Henrik
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Löfström, Tuve
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Boström, Henrik
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Rule Extraction with Guaranteed Fidelity2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper extends the conformal prediction framework to rule extraction, making it possible to extract interpretable models from opaque models in a setting where either the infidelity or the error rate is bounded by a predefined significance level. Experimental results on 27 publicly available data sets show that all three setups evaluated produced valid and rather efficient conformal predictors. The implication is that augmenting rule extraction with conformal prediction allows extraction of models where test set errors or test sets infidelities are guaranteed to be lower than a chosen acceptable level. Clearly this is beneficial for both typical rule extraction scenarios, i.e., either when the purpose is to explain an existing opaque model, or when it is to build a predictive model that must be interpretable.

  • 349.
    Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    König, Rikard
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Löfström, Tuve
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Niklasson, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Increasing Rule Extraction Accuracy by Post-processing GP Trees2008In: Proceedings of the Congress on Evolutionary Computation, IEEE Press , 2008, 3010-3015 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic programming (GP), is a very general and efficient technique, often capable of outperforming more specialized techniques on a variety of tasks. In this paper, we suggest a straightforward novel algorithm for post-processing of GP classification trees. The algorithm iteratively, one node at a time, searches for possible modifications that would result in higher accuracy. More specifically, the algorithm for each split evaluates every possible constant value and chooses the best. With this design, the post-processing algorithm can only increase training accuracy, never decrease it. In this study, we apply the suggested algorithm to GP trees, extracted from neural network ensembles. Experimentation, using 22 UCI datasets, shows that the post-processing results in higher test set accuracies on a large majority of datasets. As a matter of fact, for two setups of three evaluated, the increase in accuracy is statistically significant.

  • 350.
    Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    König, Rikard
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Löfström, Tuve
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Niklasson, Lars
    Using Imaginary Ensembles to Select GP Classifiers2010In: Genetic Programming: 13th European Conference, EuroGP 2010, Istanbul, Turkey, April 7-9, 2010, Proceedings / [ed] A.I. et al. Esparcia-Alcazar, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg , 2010, 278-288 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When predictive modeling requires comprehensible models, most data miners will use specialized techniques producing rule sets or decision trees. This study, however, shows that genetically evolved decision trees may very well outperform the more specialized techniques. The proposed approach evolves a number of decision trees and then uses one of several suggested selection strategies to pick one specific tree from that pool. The inherent inconsistency of evolution makes it possible to evolve each tree using all data, and still obtain somewhat different models. The main idea is to use these quite accurate and slightly diverse trees to form an imaginary ensemble, which is then used as a guide when selecting one specific tree. Simply put, the tree classifying the largest number of instances identically to the ensemble is chosen. In the experimentation, using 25 UCI data sets, two selection strategies obtained significantly higher accuracy than the standard rule inducer J48.

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