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  • 251.
    Beach, Dennis
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    The Problem of how Learning should be Socially Organised2005Inngår i: Reflective Practice, ISSN 1462-3943, E-ISSN 1470-1103, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 473-489Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 252.
    Beach, Dennis
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    The public costs of the re-structuring of adult education: A case in point from Sweden2004Inngår i: The Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, ISSN 2051-0969, E-ISSN 1740-2743, Vol. 2, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper takes up a concrete example of education restructuring, that of adult education in Gothenburg, Sweden in recent years. This example has been studied through ethnographic data about changes to the supply of basic adult education – an education that is given to adults who have a school education below that provided by the compulsory school – and upper secondary adult education – an education at an approximately ‘A’ level and/or NVQ level. SFI education, Swedish for immigrants, has been focussed in particular. Sfi is important in relation to the restructuring in Gothenburg as this was initiated there first, based on decisions in the Gothenburg Municipal Council in 1999, near to the completion of the National Adult Education Initiative. The restructuring processes followed guidelines from the 1992 Purchasing Act and had consequences for all education suppliers, but in particular one of them, an adult education company called Studium Ltd, which was created in 2001 when the municipal adult education service (Komvux) was converted into a municipal company. Studium was the largest deliverer of adult education in 2001 but lost its contracts during tendering and is now on the brink of bankruptcy. From having had over 3000 sfi students in 2001, for which they were fully reimbursed, Studium now has less than 250 such students on role and a reduced budget for each student. As disclosed in a recent City Audit, the local tax-based economy footed the bill of the conversion processes and salary costs of under employed Studium employees. Public funds paying for the conversion of public services to private seems to be a consistent element of education restructuring according to international research.

  • 253.
    Beach, Dennis
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    The Social Construction of Student Learning Preferences in School Classrooms2008Inngår i: Ethnography and Education, ISSN 1745-7823, E-ISSN 1745-7831, Vol. 3, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 254.
    Beach, Dennis
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    The Socialisation and Commercialisation of Professional Work in Education and Health Professions.2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 255.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Bagley, Carl
    Changing professional discourses in teacher education policy: A comparative study2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Most modern definitions of professions connect professional knowledge to higher scientific studies and a higher education degree. One example is Talcott Parsons’ definition of professions requiring formal technical training for the mastery of a generalized cultural tradition in a manner giving prominence to an intellectual component as applied to a particular field. Another is the definition of Eliot Freidson, which describes professions as links between high levels of formal education and rewards in the social division of labour. Basil Bernstein (2000) discusses this in relation to teacher education as professional knowledge based on and achieved following years of higher education training. This issue is discussed and illustrated in the present paper in relation to teacher education policy developments in two European countries; Sweden and England. Some common elements are described as is a tendency to turn away from scientific professional knowledge in the two countries in recent decades towards a more generic professional knowledge.

  • 256.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Bagley, Carl
    Changing professional discourses in teacher education policy back towards a training paradigm: a comparative study2013Inngår i: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928, Vol. 36, nr 4, s. 379-392Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern definitions of professions connect professional knowledge to scientific studies and higher education. In the present article we examine the changing nature of this relationship in initial teacher education in two European countries: Sweden and England. The article is based on policy analyses from recent decades of teacher education reforms. The findings suggest a policy convergence through a shared policy return that has moved teacher education back toward a teacher training paradigm.

  • 257.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Bagley, Carl
    High Quality Teacher Education in Advanced Knowledge-Based Economies.2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 258.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Bagley, Carl
    New Threats in Advanced Knowledge-based Economies to the Old Problem of Developing and Sustaining Quality Teacher Education2011Inngår i: Developing quality cultures in teacher education: Expanding Horizons in Relation to Quality Assurance / [ed] Eve Eisenschmidt, Erika Löfström, Tallin University Press , 2011, s. 15-35Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Our analysis starts from the 1974 Teacher Education Inquiry (SOU 1978:86). From this inquiry (and to some degree perhaps even earlier than this: Beach 1995, Eriksson 2009) and up to and including the 1997 Teacher Education Commission (LUK 97: SOU 1999:63) teacher education policy writers in Sweden seemed to be trying to establish foundations for a regional knowledge base in teacher education as a central part of the education of all teachers and for all pre-service teacher education (Carlgren 1992, Eriksson 2009, Beach 2000). Recent policy seems to have abandoned these aims (Sjöberg 2011, Beach 2011). This is most clearly exemplified in relation to a recent Green Paper (SOU 2008:109) and the subsequent government White Paper (Top of the Class: Government proposition 2009/10:89) that was based on the recommendations of the commission (Ahlström 2008) and its statement that knowledge about the professional, societal and institutional context of teaching – what was termed general pedagogical knowledge in previous Green and White papers (see e.g. SOU 1952:33, 1965:29, 1978:86, 1999:63) – has little real significance for the quality of teacher-work and that providing student-teachers with an understanding of the social, sociological, political, ideological, cultural and economic landscape in which they and their pupils live, work and learn has little effect on effective pupil learning. Instead, as also Sjöberg (2011) shows us, subject knowledge and vocational pedagogical skills are emphasised as of singular importance (e.g. Proposition 2009/10:89, p 9, p19, p24, p 26, p 41) as is organising teacher education in accordance with current school and pre-school organization(e.g. op cit, p 12, p 18, p 25). The professional knowledge that is given most value is once again described as founded on the subject knowledge domains of university singularities (e.g. physics, history and geography) together with some technical knowledge related to how to communicate subject knowledge effectively to pupils (Sjöberg 2011). This is against the grain of earlier policy developments and it may, in line with for instance Beck and Young (2005), help make future teachers and their practices more easily economically managed and controlled and more susceptible to political manipulation and economic exploitation (also Codd 2005). This shift has strong consequences for professional knowledge. As is suggested by for instance Apple (2001) and Ball et al (1994, 1996) in relation to developments in the USA and UK respectively, it suggests how neo-conservative standards about subject knowledge value and discipline together with new-managerial aims and technologies for increasing ‘efficiency, speed, and cost control’ now prevail (Apple 2001, 192) and have ‘replaced more substantive concerns about social and educational justice’ (ibid). These are important points that signal that there has been a clear turn of interests in education (Antikainen 2010) that as Apple says (2001,189) is crucial to recognize in any attempt to think through the running of the education systems in the future. More not less power is being consolidated within the national administrative structure of education and more time and energy are being spent on controlling performances and public image. Scientific content for teachers in teacher education relating to education and teaching as political and sociological objects of knowledge is being removed and replaced by subject and performance content at the same time as other changes in the political economy of the education landscape may render the sociological, political and ideological knowledge that has been lost more valuable and necessary than ever before.

  • 259.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Bagley, Carl
    The Weakening Role of Education Studies and the Re-traditionalisation of Swedish Teacher Education2012Inngår i: Oxford Review of Education, ISSN 0305-4985, E-ISSN 1465-3915, Vol. 38, nr 3, s. 287-303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research suggests that certain common policy presuppositions can be identified regarding teacher education programmes in advanced knowledge-based economies, most notably?the relationship between formal education (schooling) and economic production, and the role of teacher education in respect to this relationship. This article draws on the work of Basil Bernstein to engage theoretically and critique the nature of that evolving policy relationship within the context of Sweden. While the article concentrates on developments in one country, however, it is contended that the findings are symptomatic of a wider European or even global trend in which the scientific foundation of teacher education is under threat.

  • 260.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Bagley, Carl
    Eriksson, Anita
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Player-Koro, Catarina
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Changing teacher education in Sweden: Using meta-ethnographic analysis to understand and describe policy making and educational changes2014Inngår i: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480, Vol. 44, s. 160-167Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article derives from policy ethnographic research on teacher-education change in Sweden concerning the development of a unified profession with a common professional-knowledge base. This was a social democratic government policy for teacher education from the 1950s up until 2007, when the newly elected right wing government turned away from unification and toward re-traditionalisation. Based on a meta-ethnographic analysis of the policy ethnographies the article illustrates resistance toward unification and raises critical questions concerning the intellectual foundations and integrity of reform processes. Attempts are also made to locate the disclosures in relation to international research.

  • 261.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT. University of Gothenburg.
    Bagley, Carl
    Eriksson, Anita
    Player-Koro, Catarina
    Changing teacher education in Sweden: Using meta-ethnographic analysis to understand and describe policy making and educational changes2014Inngår i: Teaching and Teacher Education: An International Journal of Research and Studies, ISSN 0742-051X, E-ISSN 1879-2480Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article derives from policy ethnographic research on teacher-education change in Sweden concerning the development of a unified profession with a common professional-knowledge base. This was a social democratic government policy for teacher education from the 1950s up until 2007, when the newly elected right wing government turned away from unification and toward re-traditionalisation. Based on a meta-ethnographic analysis of the policy ethnographies the article illustrates resistance toward unification and raises critical questions concerning the intellectual foundations and integrity of reform processes. Attempts are also made to locate the disclosures in relation to international research. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 262.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Bagley, Carl
    Marques da Silva, Sofia
    Ethnography of Education: Thinking Forward, Looking Back2018Inngår i: The Wiley Handbook of Ethnography of Education / [ed] D. Beach, C. Bagley, and S. Marques da Silva, London and New York: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2018Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 263.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Bagley, Carl
    Marques da Silva, Sofia
    Introduction to The Wiley Handbook of Ethnography of Education2018Inngår i: The Wiley Handbook of Ethnography of Education, London and New York: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2018Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 264.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Bagley, CarlMarques da Silva, Sofia
    The Handbook of Ethnography of Education2018Collection/Antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 265.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Carlén, Margareta
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Från neo-fordism till post-fordism i utbildning och arbetsliv. I vems intresse?2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt undersökte ett nytt post-Fordistiskt utbildningspartnerskap mellan en facklig organisation (Svenska Byggnadsarbetareförbundet: Byggnads) och en av byggbranschens arbetsgivarorganisationer (BI). Två olika kurser undersöktes (Lagbas-utbildningar och MB-utbildningar) i tre olika nationella kontexter. Vi försökte ge svar på vad det nya partnerskapet hade för konsekvenser för utbildningarnas innehåll, form och lärande. Forskningen bedrevs etnografiskt. Vi dokumenterade och analyserade texter, tal och handlingar från de utbildningar vi besökte. Vi ställde frågor till deltagarna från såväl den fackliga organisationen som den privata industrin. Frågan om i vems intressen det nya partnerskapet verkade fungera var central. Men vi hade även andra frågor. Bland dessa var frågor kring vilka organiserande begrepp användes av olika individer och grupper och vilka meningar tillskrevs och tolkades ut av dessa begrepp i utbildningspraktiken. På vilket sätt förståelsen för utbildningsförändring och behov av utbildningsförändring uttrycktes var en annan fråga liksom frågan om behov av förändrade partnerskapsförhållanden på arbetsmarknaden och utbildningens roll i detta. Vi försökte identifiera olika visioner om och motiveringar för förändring i utbildning och arbetsliv i konkreta termer. Vi intresserade oss också för vad de olika deltagarna i de nya utbildningarna lärde sig i de olika kontexter som utgjordes av de olika kurserna som ingick i projektet, vad som verkade ha inverkan på likhet och olikhet i lärandet, hur tidigare erfarenheter spelade in och hur och på vilka dimensioner deltagarna tillskrev meningsfullhet till sitt lärande.

  • 266.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Creativity as a Cultural Commodity: An Ethnographic Investigation of Struggles over Creativity in Three Swedish Schools2005Inngår i: The Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, ISSN 2051-0969, E-ISSN 1740-2743, Vol. 3, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 267.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Education and the Commodity Problem: Ethnographic Investigations of Creativity and Performativity in Swedish Schools2007Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 268.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    Gothenburg University.
    Equity and choice for newly arrived migrants2019Inngår i: Neoliberalism and Market Forces in Education: Lessons from Sweden / [ed] Magnus Dahlstedt, Andreas Fejes, London: Routledge , 2019Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Neoliberalism and Market Forces in Education provides a wide perspective on the dramatic transformation of education policy in Sweden that has taken place during the last 30 years, with a specific focus on marketization. The marketization of education in Sweden is set in the wider international context of changes in education systems. Markets have shown themselves to be very poor arbiters of justice and equity in education. This chapter shows one example.

  • 269.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    L'educazione svedese verso un cambiamento? La riforma della scuola e della pedagogia, o nuovi modi per la riproduzione sociale2006Inngår i: Le scuole degli altri. Le riforme scolastiche nell'Europa che cambia / [ed] Franscesca Gobbo, Torino: SEI , 2006Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 270.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    New schools and new pedagogy? Ethnographic Investigations of Creativity and Performativity Discourses in Four Swedish Schools.2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 271.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Twelve years of upper-secondary education in Sweden: the beginnings of a neo-liberal policy hegemony?2011Inngår i: Educational review (Birmingham), ISSN 0013-1911, E-ISSN 1465-3397, Vol. 63, nr 3, s. 313-327Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we discuss data produced about learning practices and learner identities during the past 12 years of upper-secondary school development in Sweden based on ethnographic fieldwork that has examined these issues with respect to two sets of pupils from these schools: one successful, one unsuccessful. Two things are considered in particular. One is how these pupils and their school activities are described and positioned by teachers. Another is how pupils describe their own activities and position themselves. Some policy changes have been noted across the researched period. Questions relating to participation are considered in relation to them and there is also an attempt to make a connection to a possible social-class relationship. Our main concern however, is for how recent policy changes have been enacted in schools and classrooms and what effects this enactment seems to have had on learner subjectivity and learner identities.

  • 272.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Dovemark, Marianne
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Schwartz, Anneli
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Öhrn, Elisabet
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Ethnographic studies of education inclusion and marginalisation in multi-ethnic, multi-racial suburbs: teacher and pupil perspectives2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 273.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Dyson, Alan
    Equity and education in cold climates2016Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 274.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Dyson, Alan
    Introduction2016Inngår i: Equity and education in cold climates / [ed] D. Beach and A. Dyson, London: Tufnell Press, 2016Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 275.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Dyson, Alan
    Tentative conclusions2016Inngår i: Equity and education in cold climates / [ed] D. Beach and A. Dyson, London: Tufnell Press, 2016Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 276.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Eriksson, A.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    The relationship between ethical positions and methodological approaches: A Scandanavian perspective2010Inngår i: Ethnography and Education, ISSN 1745-7823, E-ISSN 1745-7831, Vol. 5, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, based on reading ethnographic theses, books and articles and conversations with nine key informants, we have tried to describe how research ethics are approached and written about in educational ethnography in Scandinavia. The article confirms findings from previous research that there are different methodological forms of ethnography there. It adds that although ethical descriptions can of course be described by using formal-philosophical ethical-typographies there is also a relationship between ethical holdings and methodological approaches. The different approaches reflect critical, feminist, interactionist and micro-ethnographic forms. The ethical types have been termed utilitarian, deontological, relational and ecological. The main conclusions are that the research we have analysed has always considered ethical issues and that these considerations often in some sense reflect national ethical guidelines from research authorities and financiers. A drift can also be discerned away from utilitarian ethics to relational and ecological thinking in accordance with methodological and ideological commitments and beliefs.

  • 277.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Eriksson, Anita
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Research Ethics in Scandinavian Education Ethnography2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 278.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Eriksson, Anita
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    The relationship between ethical positions and metodological approaches: a scandinavian perspective2010Inngår i: Ethnography and Education, ISSN 1745-7823, E-ISSN 1745-7831, Vol. 5, nr 2, s. 129-142Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, based on reading ethnographic theses, books and articles and conversations with nine key informants, we have tried to describe how research ethics are approached and written about in educational ethnography in Scandinavia. The article confirms findings from previous research that there are different methodological forms of ethnography there. It adds that although ethical descriptions can of course be described by using formal-philosophical ethical-typographies there is also a relationship between ethical holdings and methodological approaches. The different approaches reflect critical, feminist, interactionist and micro-ethnographic forms. The ethical types have been termed utilitarian, deontological, relational and ecological. The main conclusions are that the research we have analysed has always considered ethical issues and that these considerations often in some sense reflect national ethical guidelines from research authorities and financiers. A drift can also be discerned away from utilitarian ethics to relational and ecological thinking in accordance with methodological and ideological commitments and beliefs.

  • 279.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Eriksson, Anita
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Player-Koro, Catarina
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Changing teacher education in Sweden2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite attempts through official policy over the past forty years and up to the end of the first decade of the new millennium to ‘unite’ teacher education and provide a common teacher education programme for all teachers with a common professional scientific knowledge content, as in many other countries teacher education in Sweden today is still currently subjectively structured in accordance with a vertically and horizontally differentiated school system that gives rise to different teacher educational traditions and different ways of perceiving what characterizes the teachers’ mission and professional expertise. Moreover, recent developments are reinstating this distinction even at an objective level of formal policy. The present paper discusses and illustrates these issues based on data from three separate ethnographic studies of teacher education over the past twenty five years by the authors. This research constitutes thus a series of policy ethnographic investigation across three decades of policy making in Swedish teacher education.

  • 280.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Fritzsche, Bettina
    b Institut für Erziehungswissenschaft, Pädagogische Hochschule Freiburg.
    Kakos, Michalis
    ; c Carnegie School of Education, Leeds Beckett University.
    Stigmatisation, identity, and educational exclusion in postindustrial societies: A qualitative synthesis of research from UK, Germany, and the Nordic countries2019Inngår i: Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 54-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    From existing research, we know segregation in poverty-intensive and immigrant-dense suburban spaces cannot be easily dissociated from educational inequality and exclusion. Our aim in this paper is to explore the link between urban segregation, social deprivation, migration and education by bringing together the findings from several ethnographic studies conducted in Europe. The starting point for our discussion is the findings from one meta-ethnogaphy which examined youth experiences of territorial stigmatisation, ethnification of poverty and educational inequality in economically challenged residential areas in Nordic cities. Our analysis has attempted to synthesise the findings from that study with those from ethnographies conducted in England and Germany. Results show how formal education is not only failing to contribute to the disruption of the processes which sustain social segregation, poverty and territorial stigmatisation but it is itself subjected to those. We argue that the value of education when this is conceptualised as commodity and promoted in the context of a market economy cannot but be at least partially dependent upon the inequality in its provision.

  • 281.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    From, Tuuli
    University of Helsinki.
    Johansson, Monica
    University of Gothenburg.
    Öhrn, Elisabet
    University of Gothenburg.
    Educational and spatial justice in rural and urban areas in three Nordic countries: a meta-ethnographic analysis2018Inngår i: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on a meta-ethnographic analysis of educational research from rural and urban areas in Finland, Norway and Sweden following the reorganisation of educational supply there in line with market policies. Edward Soja’s concept of spatial justice shapes the analysis. Using meta-ethnography, we try to present a contextualising narrative account of spatial justice and injustice in the education systems in the three countries. Thirty-one Nordic ethnographic publications (a mix of monographs, book chapters and articles) have been used in the meta-analysis. Just over half of them come from Sweden, and most are from urban education studies. The other half are relatively evenly divided between Norway and Finland. All were published between 2000 and 2017. Sweden represents an extreme position in relation to the new politics of education markets. Its promotion of school choice and schools-for-profit has attracted significant attention from ethnographic researchers in recent decades and is given particular attention in the article.

  • 282.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Gordon, TuulaHögskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.Lahelma, ElinaHögskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Democratic education: ethnographic challenges2003Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of democratic schooling with its emphasis on equality is seriously attacked by the marketisation of education. New policies of educational restructuring emphasise accountability and close links between school and industry, where schools and students become targets of constant evaluation and competition. This book challenges such policies and practices through analyses of their negative consequences for social justice and democracy. It explores the effects of restructuring on everyday life in schools and other educational institutions and presents analyses of how differences based on gender, social class, ethnicity, nationality and embodiment are dealt with in educational settings. The authors draw on a range of theories, including poststructuralist, postcolonial, feminist and Marxist perspectives, and the localised ethnographies are contextualised in changing educational politics. How policies are contradicted by practices is discussed in relation to the classroom, teacher education and issues of inclusion and exclusion. A critical gaze is directed at Nordic countries where restructuring processes contradict a political discourse based on equality and comprehensive education. It is the immersion in the daily life of institutions and their participants that gives ethnography a particular edge in obtaining insights into what changes and what stays the same. This book provides a looking glass into the tensions and contradictions that New Right policies have introduced in educational institutions. Actors in the field experience frustration in introducing changes and controlling the direction of those changes. It is their voices that ethnographers try to hear and disseminate. Most ethnographers do not simply tell a (more or less) gripping story about the field - they aim to analyse the practices they encounter, and endeavour to render them into analytical narratives that tell different stories than those produced through policy research or questionnaires and interviews. Although these are not necessarily better stories, we suggest that they are particularly relevant in demonstrating the organisation and practice of producing difference. (Description by the publisher).

  • 283.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Johansson, Monica
    Education politics and rural secondary schools2019Inngår i: Young People’s Life and Schooling in Rural Areas / [ed] Elisabet Öhrn and Dennis Beach, London: Tufnell Press, 2019Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter has attempted to draw out and focus on some of the major relevant themes that have emerged from the analyses in the previous chapters. There are many but we will discuss five of them here. One of them is that rural areas, the schools in them, the pupils that go there, and the relationships (real and present and imaginary and future) that they form with education institutions and their agents to create educational opportunities and experiences are not uniform within let alone also across rural areas (as seems to be understood by national policy makers), but quite different. As the chapters show, there is no one standard form of rurality or rural educational relation or output. Rather this summarising and disfiguring norm is a chimera produced and reproduced through metro-centric lenses. Another relates to the identification of an ‘us and them’ discourse in rural areas that challenges the dominant urbanite /metro-centric representations of people from rural places and rural regions with cultural deficiencies (Corbett, 2015).

    The next theme is connected to the first. It is that despite differences, there are some consistencies with respect to rural education and schools, the people in them, and the educational and life opportunities they create that are not simple metro-centric aberrations and some of them seem to be present in schools and education social relations in urban areas as well. It is the hegemony of private ownership and private value within a current global politics of market governance in education and a general fall in educational performance standards and increasing inequalities in schools (Yang Hansen & Gustafsson, 2018) and between densely and sparsely populated areas (Fjellman, Yang Hansen & Beach, 2018). Although not dwelt on extensively in the chapters as such, there are two sub-points. The first is that market politics is now the ubiquitous policy context for and framework of the educational macro level. The second is that market governace has completely failed to live up to the promises made for it by the governments who proposed and introduced it. This applies both nationally (SOU 2017:35; Yang Hansen & Gustafsson, 2018) and internationally (Verger, Fontdevila, Zancajo, & Steiner-Khamsi, 2016), particularly in rural and poor sub-urban spaces (Åberg-Bengtsson, 2009; Fjellman, 2019). Market governance has not produced a uniformly rich expansion of choice options, national system efficiency and quality improvements of the kind promoted in proposal by the national government (see e.g. Swedish Government Proposition 1991/91: 95), but rather instead a lack of educational (choice) possibilities for economically subordinated groups in territorially stigmatised “off-places” in urban areas and in remote rural areas that also strikes unevenly in terms of social class, ethnicity and educational special needs (Berhanu, 2016a, 2016b; Lundahl, 2016; Beach, 2018; Beach, From, Johansson & Öhrn, 2018; Bunar & Ambrose, 2016; Fjellman et al., 2018; Forsberg, 2018).

    Although again not extensively dwelt on in the earlier chapters the deterioration of educational quality and equality in Sweden following marketization is apparent and has also been identified in other works, such as by Östh, Andersson and Malmberg (2013) in relation to school choice and Yang Hansen & Gustafsson (2018), who identified increases in inequities particularly from the late1980s onwards that were distinctly acute in sub-urban spaces and for children from families with a migrant history (Bunar & Ambrose, 2016; Beach, 2017). Increased segregation with respect to student composition and academic outcomes across different schools was found to be a main driver and differential trends in the relationship between family educational background and school outcome between immigrant and non-immigrant sub populations were also indicated. Between-school differences in achievement levels have increased in all regions and school segregation with respect to SES composition of students has increased too (Yang Hansen & Gustafsson, 2018)....

  • 284.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Johansson, Monica
    University of Gothenburg.
    Öhrn, Elisabet
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rönnlund, Maria
    University of Umeå.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Umeå.
    Rurality and education relations: Metro-centricity and local values in rural communities and schools2018Inngår i: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in six different types of rural area and their schools in different parts of Sweden, this article identifies how rural schools relate to the local place and discusses some of the educational implications from this. Recurrent references to the local community were present in some schools and people there explicitly positioned themselves in the local rural context and valorised rurality positively in education exchanges, content and interactions, with positive effects on young people’s experiences of participation and inclusion. These factors tended to occur in sparsely populated areas. An emphasis on nature and its value as materially vital in people’s lives was present as was a critique of middle-class metrocentricity. Such values and critique seemed to be absent in other areas, where rurality was instead often represented along the metrocentric lines of a residual space in modernizing societies.

  • 285.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT. University of Gothenburg.
    Johansson, Monica
    University of Gothenburg.
    Öhrn, Elisabet
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rönnlund, Maria
    Umeå university.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    Umeå university.
    Rurality and education relations: Metro-centricity and local values inrural communities and rural schools2019Inngår i: European Educational Research Journal (online), ISSN 1474-9041, E-ISSN 1474-9041, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 19-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in six different types of rural area and their schools in different parts of Sweden, this article identifies how rural schools relate to the local place and discusses some of the educational implications from this. Recurrent references to the local community were present in some schools and people there explicitly positioned themselves in the local rural context and valorised rurality positively in education exchanges, content and interactions, with positive effects on young people’s experiences of participation and inclusion. These factors tended to occur in sparsely populated areas. An emphasis on nature and its value as materially vital in people’s lives was present as was a critique of middle-class metrocentricity. Such values and critique seemed to be absent in other areas, where rurality was instead often represented along the metrocentric lines of a residual space in modernizing societies.

  • 286.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Predicting the use of praise among pre-service teachers: The influence of implicit theories of intelligence, social comparison and stereotype acceptance2012Inngår i: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 3, nr 2, s. 259-281Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation concerns feedback praise (person and process praise) and how it relates to implicit theories of intelligence (entity and incremental theories) among pre-service teachers. In the first study 176 pre-service teachers participated, while in the second study 151 of such teachers participated. Two new measures, one of feedback praise and the other of social comparison, were found to be reliable and valid. In the first study, process praise was predicted by the variable incremental theories of intelligence and person praise was predicted by the acceptance of stereotypes. However, these results suffered in the reliability analyses and, even if the models are significant, they should be rejected. The results of the second study are more reliable, with regression analyses showing that person praise can be predicted from the two predictor variables of entity theories of intelligence, and social comparison. Some positive effects of teacher education were found in the second part; for example, the preference for person praise was significantly lower in the last semester than in the first.

  • 287.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Jonsson, Anna-Carin
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Erlandson, Peter
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Korp, Helena
    Do we really need more maths trained teachers in primary and elementary schools? Some problematic aspects2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 288.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Lundahl, L
    Öhrn, Elisabet
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Spaces for influence2012Inngår i: Cultural practices and transitions in education / [ed] T Tolonen, T Palma, S Lappalainen, London: Tufnell Press , 2012, s. 59-71Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 289.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    Öhrn, Elisabet
    Synthesis2011Inngår i: Young people's influence and democratic education: Ethnographic studies in upper-secondary schools / [ed] Elisabet Öhrn, Lisbeth Lundahl, Dennis Beach, Tufnell Press , 2011, s. 139-150Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 290.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    Öhrn, Elisabet
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Young people and democratic education: On formal schooling, student initiatives, class and gender2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces the symposium Active citizenship for whom? On democratic education in the upper secondary school, from a national Swedish project that set out to explore democratic education in various upper secondary school programmes. The aim of the paper is to provide a context for the empirical results from the project, by presenting central themes, concepts, discussions and results in the area of democratic education in upper secondary and secondary education. Citizenship and democracy in formal schooling and young people’s initiatives to influence and pursue these issues in school and also other settings are two central themes explored in the paper. In particular, we bring together research on the teaching of citizenship and democracy with research focussing on the attempts of young people to influence and make a difference in school and other parts of society. The paper also provides an overview to the design of the research project and the relations between the empirical papers that are to be presented at the symposium.

  • 291.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Lunneblad, Johannes
    Ethnographic Investigations of Issues of Race and Ethnicity in Scandinavian Education Research2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 292.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Lunneblad, Johannes
    Ethnographic Investigations of Issues of Race in Scandinavian Education Research2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 293.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Lunneblad, Johannes
    Ethnographic Investigations of Issues of Race in Scandinavian Education Research2011Inngår i: Ethnography and Education, ISSN 1745-7823, E-ISSN 1745-7831, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 29-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we aim to present an overview of some of the ways in which issues of race and ethnicity are represented and researched in educational ethnography in Scandinavia. Several things are suggested. Amongst them is that educational ethnographers in Scandinavia rarely use the concept of race. The term (im)migrant(s) is used instead and the relationships in education between Scandinavians and (im)migrants and between educational results and (im)migrant culture and/or languages is often in focus. Integration has also been an issue. History may give an indication as to how this may have become so. Research on immigrants, immigration and integration has been promoted in national policies and these policies highlight language, culture and diversity but for historical and political reasons they often avoid ethnicity and ignore race and color altogether. Moreover, when ethnicity is used it seems to be used more as an ontological marker than as an epistemological concept. This has repercussions we suggest for understanding the politics of race and ethnicity relations in relation to education.

  • 294.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Player-Koro, Catarina
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Authoritative Knowledge in Initial Teacher Education: Studying the Role of Subject Textbooks through Two Ethnographic Studies of Mathematics Teacher Education.2012Inngår i: Journal of Education for Teaching, ISSN 0260-7476, E-ISSN 1360-0540, Vol. 38, nr 2, s. 115-125Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two related ethnographic research projects on mathematics teacher education in Sweden are presented in this paper. They represent a response to recent policy developments that reaffirm the value of authoritative subject studies content as the central and most important component in the professional knowledge base of would-be teachers and concomitant increases in the amount of subject studies in teacher education. These policy changes, in Sweden at least, lack scientific research support and the article argues that these policies need to be seriously rethought, as the increased emphasis on subject content may undermine the development of key professional skills.

  • 295.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Player-Koro, Catarina
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    The Politics of Textbook Use: An Ethnographic Investigation2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject textbook has been studied and described by amongst others Michael Apple (Apple 1991 and John Dewey (Dewey 1966). However, as yet little attention has actually been paid tothis artefact in use and to its role in definingwhose culture is taught and learned and what the mechanisms of this process are. By ethnographically studying the use of textbooks in everyday educational interchanges we contribute insight into these processes based on an investigation of the use, content and effects of subject textbooks in mathematics in the subject studies education in pre-service mathematics education courses. Dewey and then later Apple regarded textbooks as instruments for the moral regulation of (subordinated) individuals (i.e. pupils) in the struggle by powerful groups to build political and cultural accord within various levels of society. This political, economic, ideological or cultural power, they also noted, was exerted by dominant groups over others regardless of the explicit consent of the latter. This has also been suggested by amongst others Judy Trecker (Trecker 1973) and in de Castell et al (eds) (1989). However, as these authors also note, the curriculum of the school and other education institutions – like the university and its teacher education programmes (Beach 1995, 1997, 1999, 2000) - does not represent neutral knowledge, so textbooks are also potential sites of popular resistance toward the interests underlying official knowledge with a potential for developing alternative ideas and ideologies (Stubbs 1996). What comes to count as legitimate knowledge is the result of complex powerrelations, struggles, and compromises among different classed,raced, gendered, and religious groups around the messages, values, implicit ideologies and recognized possibilities in educational texts (Trecker 1973, Apple 1992).

  • 296.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Puaca, Goran
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Changing higher education by converging policy-packages: Education choices and student identities2014Inngår i: European Journal of Higher Education, ISSN 2156-8235, E-ISSN 2156-8243, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 67-79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The past two decades of higher education research in Europe describe new-managerial and neo-liberal turns in governance policies that have brought shifts in the way institutions of higher education are defined and run, justify their existence and practices, and recruit and educate students. The expansion of higher education is often lifted as a key feature and motivation of these changes and it is also used in arguments for the need to change further. The European Union Lisbon Agreement is often referenced when changes are discussed and motivated by change agents. It describes needs of effectiveness and new kinds of programmes and courses to deal with increased volume and widening participation. New demands are described as having been placed on teachers, students and leadership, including an expanded role for student choices of and in higher education. Based on ethnographic research key aspects of extended choice are examined in the present article. Keywords: cultural capital, choice rationalities, skilled/semi-skilled choices, generification

  • 297.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Sernhede, Ove
    From learning to labor to learning for marginality: Neo-liberalism, new socialhierarchies, school and impoverished suburbs in Swedish Metropolitan districts2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The organization of schools in Sweden has recently taken a significant turn toward neo-liberalism. A number of elements are involved. In this article we point to a risk of self segregation in these developments by means of which ethnic minority, economically disadvantaged and immigrant groups become concentrated in the same schools, within mainly the public sector. We also suggest that these schools thus face serious difficulties when it comes to creating encounters between different social, ethnic and religious groups as a school capable of mobilization for citizenship. We need such schools but there is no evidence that schools are developing in these directions in the neo-liberal era.

  • 298.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Sernhede, Ove
    From Learning to Labour to Learning for Marginality: School Segregation and Marginalisation in Swedish Suburbs2011Inngår i: British Journal of Sociology of Education, ISSN 0142-5692, E-ISSN 1465-3346, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 257-274Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, using data from ethnographic research, we try to present some glimpses of the way education is described as an experience and possibility ‘from below’, by pupils who grow up and study in schools in the most segregated and territorially stigmatized suburbs on the outskirts of our major cities. What we feel they describe is an experience of schooling for surviving the social and economic consequences of curtailed citizenship in a post-industrial society rather than one of schooling that offers possibilities of integration and full citizenship or social transformation. Our findings have significant policy implications in this respect. Sweden has historically pursued projects aimed at educational inclusion but has recently taken a significant turn toward neo-liberalism and educational consumerism, since which time various disadvantaged groups have become increasingly concentrated compared to others in under-achieving schools in an economically threatened public sector. The article discusses some aspects and possible consequences of this development.

  • 299.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Sernhede, Ove
    Learning Processes and Social Mobilization in a Swedish Metropolitan Hip-Hop Collective2012Inngår i: Urban education (Beverly Hills, Calif.), ISSN 0042-0859, E-ISSN 1552-8340, Vol. 5, nr 47, s. 939-958Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on ethnographic research on the encounter between local culture and schools in multicultural suburban areas, this article explores possibilities suggested by autonomous learning activities in a hip-hop collective that may have a potential to break urban segregation patterns. The collective?s artistic production raises questions that have not been answered in schools, such as how the increasing class divisions between different parts of the urban landscape should be understood and dealt with. Different types of learning are identified connected to the self, others, and careers. Implications for schooling are briefly discussed.

  • 300.
    Beach, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Sernhede, Ove
    On creativity and resistance in Nordic youth culture on the margins2013Inngår i: Young people and marginalisation: Young people from immigrant families in Scandinavia / [ed] Gestur Gudmundsson, Dennis Beach, Viggo Vestel, Tufnell Press , 2013, s. 61-84Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last twenty-five years the urban music and dance style known as Hip-hop has become a widespread form of communication carried out and enjoyed by people throughout the world. However it has grown from its original roots in rap music and break dancing in many different directions. On the one hand it represents a multi-billion dollar industry of big-time, best-selling artists who market songs that focus on wealth, possessions and crime, often with a misogynistic attitude. But on the other it is a way of life for many young people with a political awareness that is intricately woven into every aspect of their daily lives. The present chapter explores some dimensions of the creativity of Hip-hop. In particular the critical potential and transformative capacity of these activities are discussed.

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