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  • 251.
    Nilsson, Linnéa
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Satomi, Mika
    Vallgårda, Anna
    Worbin, Linda
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Understanding the complexity of designing dynamic textile patterns2011In: Proceedings of the Ambience conference, Borås, Sweden, 2011, p. 28-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through a smart textile design project we have identified two sets of complex issues generally relevant for design with state changing materials. Specifically, we show how the temporal dimension of smart textiles increase the complexity of traditional textile design variables such as form and colour. We also show how the composite nature of smart textiles creates a series of interdependencies that make the design of the textile expressions additionally complex. We discuss how these forms of complexity provide opportunities as well as challenges for the textile expressions, and we show how we dealt with them in practice.

  • 252. Olabarrieta, Idoia
    et al.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Gällstedt, Mikael
    Sarasua, Jose-Ramon
    Johansson, Eva
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    Aging properties of films of plasticized vital wheat gluten cast from acidic and basic solutions2006In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 1657-1664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to understand the mechanisms behind the undesired aging of films based on vital wheat gluten plasticized with glycerol, films cast from water/ethanol solutions were investigated. The effect of pH was studied by casting from solutions at pH 4 and pH 11. The films were aged for 120 days at 50% relative humidity and 23 °C, and the tensile properties and oxygen and water vapor permeabilities were measured as a function of aging time. The changes in the protein structure were determined by infrared spectroscopy and size-exclusion and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and the film structure was revealed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The pH 11 film was mechanically more stable with time than the pH 4 film, the latter being initially very ductile but turning brittle toward the end of the aging period. The protein solubility and infrared spectroscopy measurements indicated that the protein structure of the pH 4 film was initially significantly less polymerized/aggregated than that of the pH 11 film. The polymerization of the pH 4 film increased during storage but it did not reach the degree of aggregation of the pH 11 film. Reverse-phase chromatography indicated that the pH 11 films were to some extent deamidated and that this increased with aging. At the same time a large fraction of the aged pH 11 film was unaffected by reducing agents, suggesting that a time-induced isopeptide cross-linking had occurred. This isopeptide formation did not, however, change the overall degree of aggregation and consequently the mechanical properties of the film. During aging, the pH 4 films lost more mass than the pH 11 films mainly due to migration of glycerol but also due to some loss of volatile mass. Scanning electron and optical microscopy showed that the pH 11 film was more uniform in thickness and that the film structure was more homogeneous than that of the pH 4 film. The oxygen permeability was also lower for the pH 11 film. The fact that the pH 4 film experienced a larger and more rapid change in its mechanical properties with time than the pH 11 film, as a consequence of a greater loss of plasticizer, was presumably due to its initial lower degree of protein aggregation/ polymerization. Consequently, the cross-link density achieved at pH 4 was too low to effectively retain volatiles and glycerol within the matrix.

  • 253.
    Olofsson, Benjamin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nordin, Gustaf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Textil produktförbättring: Hur konsumenter och klädföretag kan interagera för att utforma en produktförbättring2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New products are crucial for successful growth and competitiveness. A new product can sometimes be an improvement on a previous product in a company. Companies strive to deliver something that customers inquire for and it is at those times important to listen to consumers regarding what they want and how the products are designed, produced and managed. Consumers want a dialogue with companies as they want to be involved in the product development process. Consumers expect answers from companies and want to create a relationship. The purpose of this study is to get answers on how the consumer thinks about textile product improvement within clothing and how the product development process for a product improvement on a garment can look like. The study is based on a literature study and an empirical study. The literature study concerns the topics consumer behavior and New Product Development. The empirical material is from interviews with a strategic material developer and a global customer relationship management manager. In addition to this a questionnaire survey has been conducted aimed at consumers. Based on these, the results show several problems that can occur during the product development process regarding a product improvement. The result also shows how customers want to interact with the selected company, which factors that affect the consumer and how the consumer wants to be involved in a product improvement. The conclusion that the study has come up with shows that consumers want to participate and influence the product development process. Many of the consumers are dedicated regarding what the company is developing and therefore want to participate and affect. In the product development process, it showed that many technical problems could occur. Many tests and changes were therefore needed to achieve a good result.

  • 254.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Larsson, Jonas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Scott, Mirja
    Feasibility of Fashion Remanufacturing: Organizing fashion value chains for circularity through remanufacturing (including redesign)2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the increasing need of remanufacturing in fashion industry for leading towards dematerialization, higher revalue addition, possibility to generate highest profit margin, along with create more employment in the industry, it is still practiced on a very small scale. A net-positive environmental impact however, can only be made through remanufacturing with higher scale. However research investigations on this matter are insufficient and knowledge of the practices on new value chain models, associated processes, and designers’ approach to the product development process is still limited.

    The general aim of this study is to investigate how remanufacturing can be made feasible industrially for sustainable competitiveness in the fashion industry.

    This feasibility study was conducted by Re:Textile group in collaboration with several Swedish players, e.g. fashion branded retailers, local textile and apparel manufacturers, and charities. 3 participatory action projects were developed between 2017-2018 in order to elucidate the different possibilities of organizing remanufacturing in fashion industry context, and check the viability of these options. 3 different fashion remanufacturing models were considered to be interesting via literature review, and were planned for further exploration. These were: scaled remanufacturing, distributed redesign and PSS redesign-as-a-service.

    The study identifies the key decision making variables in each of these models, the critical success factors and also in connection assessing the feasibility of each model by constructing various scenarios.

  • 255.
    Paras, Manoj Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Curteza, A.
    Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania.
    Pal, Rudrajeet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A state-of-the-art Literature Review of Upcycling: A Clothing Industry Perspective2016In: CORTEP 2016 - Book of Abstracts: 16th Romanian Textiles and Leather Conference / [ed] Avadanei Manuela, Bucharest: Editura Acreditata de Cncsis Bucuresti , 2016, p. 121-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to review and appreciate the developments in the literature of upcycling domain; (i) To comprehend the concept of upcycling and subsequently, understanding the difference among the prominent terminologies used in the literature (ii) To identify application of upcycling across various industries; (iii) To propose a framework of upcycling practices for clothing industries based on the insights.

     Methodology: A scientific literature review procedure proposed by Mayring (2002) was adopted to select and screen the paper which comprised of four steps; (i) Material collection: The collection of material is well defined and delimited based on the profiling approach. Each paper is defined as unit of analysis; (ii) Descriptive analysis: Different criteria are set to analyze collected materials. These are publication year, journal, methodology and author affiliations; (iii) Category selection: To do analysis different categories have been identified. Further those categories were divided into sub-categories; (iv) Material evaluation: According to above mentioned categorization, research papers are analyzed and interpreted to form a conceptual framework.

     Result: The paper has identified terminologies and definitions used in the literature. Recycling may be considered as  the use of the material properties (e.g. as a fire retardant non-woven material in a mattress spring cover) (Morley, Bartlett et al. 2009). Down-cycling may be conceptualized as making an inferior product or broken down into raw material. However, several scholars proposed various definitions of upcycling. The prominent may include: (i) Value/quality of product is improved by making superior product. (Dervojeda, Verzijl et al. 2014); (ii) Giving new value to materials that are either discarded, or are not being used anymore" (Fletcher and Grose 2012); (iii) repurposing lower-value items such as a neck scarf to construct a higher-value end use item, such as a wrap skirt or halter top (Janigo and Wu 2015). The results indicated that designing may be considered as one of the important steps in upcycling process. The process of redesigning consists of ideation, reconstruction and fitting. The limitation of redesigning is variability in size and pattern. This can be overcome by; craftsmanship, time, innovation, provenance, desire, narrative.

     Conclusion: The extant literature revealed that no study so far has attempted to summarize the literature in upcylcing area. Thus, this could be seen as a significant and unique contribution to the literature. Further, the bibliography and insights provided in the study may be used by future scholars as a ready reference for their research.

  • 256.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Björquist, Stina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Aronsson, Julia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    re:newcell AB.
    Textile qualities of regenerated cellulose fibers from cotton waste pulp2017In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cotton is not the answer to meet the rapidly growing demand for textile fibers. Wood-based regenerated cellulosefibers are an attractive alternative. Since wood is a candidate to replace fossil raw materials in so many applications of thecircular economy, other sources need investigation. Cotton linters work in the viscose process – can cotton waste beused to make dissolving pulp? We describe the textile qualities of lyocell fibers from (i) pure cotton waste pulp and(ii) blending with conventional dissolving pulp. The staple fibers were tensile tested, yarns spun and tensile tested andknitted, and tested for shrinkage, water and dye sorption, abrasion resistance, fuzzing and pilling, staining and fastness.TENCEL staple fibers and off-the-shelf TENCEL yarn were used as references. The results show that the two studyfibers had tenacity and an E-modulus that exceeded the staple fiber reference. Also, the study yarns were at least as goodas the spun reference yarn and the commercial off-the-shelf yarn in terms of wet tenacity. Single jerseys made from thestudy yarns shrunk less upon laundering, which is surprising since they could absorb at least as much water at acomparable rate as the references. Dyeability, staining and color fastness, durability and pilling tendency showed thatthe two study fiber tricots performed at least as good as the references. This study suggests that cotton waste is apromising candidate for special grade pulp to suit niche regenerated fiber products or to spice up conventional woodbaseddissolving pulp.

  • 257.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Tanttu, Marjaana
    Aalto University.
    Michud, Anne
    Aalto University.
    Asaadi, Shirin
    Aalto University.
    Ma, Yibo
    Aalto University.
    Netti, Eveliina
    Aalto University.
    Kääriainen, Pirjo
    Aalto University.
    Berntsson, Anders
    Textilmuseet.
    Sixta, Herbert
    Aalto University.
    Hummel, Michael
    Aalto University.
    Ioncell-F: ionic liquid-based cellulosic textile fibers as an alternative to viscose and Lyocell2016In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 86, no 5, p. 543-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ioncell-F, a recently developed process for the production of man-made cellulosic fibers from ionic liquid solutions by dry-jet wet spinning, is presented as an alternative to the viscose and N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO)-based Lyocell processes. The ionic liquid 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene acetate was identified as excellent cellulose solvent allowing for a rapid dissolution at moderate temperatures and subsequent shaping into continuous filaments. The highly oriented cellulose fibers obtained upon coagulation in cold water exhibited superior tenacity, exceeding that of commercial viscose and NMMO-based Lyocell (Tencel) fibers. The respective staple fibers, which have been converted into two-ply yarn by ring spinning technology, presented very high tenacity. Furthermore, the Ioncell yarn showed very good behavior during the knitting and weaving processes, reflecting the quality of the produced yarn. The successfully knitted and woven garments from the Ioncell yarn demonstrate the suitability of this particular ionic liquid for the production of man-made cellulosic fibers and thus give a promising outlook for the future of the Ioncell-F process.

  • 258.
    Persson, Anna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Designing with heat2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The new spatial context in building design exceeds the limits of conventional architectural space. A major aim of the new architecture is to create a close emotional connection to the user besides physical enclosure. In this context the emotional of role of the surface is explored both visually and physically in the space perception (Schittich). The interaction between the viewer-user and the viewed space can also be expressed physically due to the integration of computer technology. By means of computational technology new possibilities for the traditional materials to express their aesthetic and haptic properties of the surface can be created in order to appeal to the user emotions. The architectural surfaces exceed their value in this case; from static they become dynamic (Addington and Schodek) interfaces between the user and the physical environment. By touching a complex perception concerning space and objects is provided through shape, softness, texture, vibration, temperature, etc. In this context the sense of touch in the perception of the space becomes fundamental together with the sense of sight. The present paper investigates the new forms of expression integrated into textile materials that are meant to participate actively to our space experience. By facilitating the relation userthe built environment, the focus of the project is to explore a dynamic way to design textile materials that join together aesthetics and computation as manner to expand human experiences. The purpose of the project is to correlate the physical and visual perception of space and focuses on tactility as asset to create interactive architectural environments. Tactility and heat are explored as integrative part of the textile design process in order to generate interactive patterns. By combining conventional textile yarns together with conductive yarns, the result investigates the emotional sensation of warmth through the design of two knitted structures capable to emit heat as a feedback to the human touch.

  • 259.
    Persson, Jessika
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Thorup, Emma
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sågskydd av 3D textilier: En undersökning av två nya konstruktioner av sågskydd för minskad vikt.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att arbeta med motorsåg kan under olika bidragande faktorer såsom väder och prestationsförmåga leda till olyckor, att använda rätt sågskyddskläder är därför väsentligt för att motverka skador på kroppen. Dessa finns i form av byxor, skor, jackor och handskar. Sågskyddskläder ska ge det skydd som krävs för att användaren ska vara säker vid eventuella olyckor, men inte förhindra eller försvåra arbetsförmågan. Därför är vikt, komfort, rörlighet, slitstyrka och god andningsförmåga viktiga egenskaper för dessa kläder. Dagens befintliga sågskydd uppnår kraven gällande säkerhet men upplevs som tunga. Detta arbetets syfte är att utveckla sågskydd med lika hög säkerhetsklass som de befintliga, men med lägre vikt. Två nya konstruktioner av sågskydd har tagits fram. En vävd struktur och en trikåvara. Den vävda varan är en fyralagers 3D-väv av honeycombstruktur som har kanaler längs med väftriktningen. Den stickade strukturen är en spacervara med kanaler. I båda dessa lösningar ligger fyllnadsgarn helt fritt i kanalerna. De valda materialen är polypropen, Dyneema och polyester. De nya lösningarna ger möjlighet till färre lager och minskad vikt. Dessa nya konstruktioner konfektionerades till 12 testpads i olika lager och kombinationer för att därefter testas för tvätt, dimensionstabilitet, krympning, och säkerhetsklass inom sågskydd. Tvättester, dimensionsstabilitet samt krymptester gav goda resultat. Gällande vikt, så väger samtliga pads mindre än referenspaden. Det slutgiltiga sågskyddstestet visade att arbetets referenspad höll måttet och blev godkänd för säkerhetsklass 1 enligt standard ISO SS-EN 381-1(SIS 1993) men inte de nya framtagna konstruktionerna. Vidare visade provningen för sågskydd att polypropen trasslar bra och slits lätt ut ur den vävda konstruktionen, men behöver kombineras med en starkare fiber för att ge goda resultat. Sågskyddstesterna visade också att de nya konstruktionerna behöver antingen fler lager, eller mer material i kanalerna, eller ett annat material i kanalerna, för att klara säkerhetsklass 1.

  • 260. Persson, Maria
    et al.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Finnilä, Mikko A J
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Tuukkanen, Juha
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Thermal and Mechanical Properties of PLA-HA Composite Fibres for Biomedical Applications2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 261. Persson, Maria
    et al.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Finnilä, Mikko
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Tuukkanen, Juha
    3D Woven Scaffolds of Melt-spun PLA Composite Fibres for Bone Regeneration2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fibres are the basic units of textiles and are desirable as scaffold matrix material since they provide a large surface area to volume ratio. Using the textile technology, fibres can also be processed to form a variety of shapes and sizes, thus be used in different biological and medical applications. Poly(lactic acid) is a widely investigated material for use as scaffold matrix material and may be transformed into fibres either by melt spinning or solution spinning [1]. However, its lack of cell recognition signal has limited its use in tissue engineering applications [2]. Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles, which mimics the natural bone mineral has been proven to stimulate and promote cell attachment [3]. From that point of view, the aim of this study was to produce a PLA/HA composite fibres that could be used in a 3D woven scaffold for bone regeneration.

  • 262. Persson, Maria
    et al.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Tuukkanen, J
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Poly (Lactid Acid)/Hydroxipatite Composite Fibres for 3D Osteoconductive Woven Scaffolds2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a method to melt-spun biocompatible composite fibres from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HAp) particles. Different loading concentrations of HAp particles in the PLA fibres and solid-state draw-ratios (SSDR) were evaluated in order to study their influence on the mechanical, thermal and morphological properties. The results showed that the incorporation of the HAp particles was homogeneously distributed in the PLA fibres towards their surface and that the SSDR played an important role in order to improve the mechanical properties. The melt-spun PLA/HAp composite fibres, produced in this study, had also the potential to be processed into a fibrous scaffold, which was demonstrated by a 3D woven structure.

  • 263. Persson, Maria
    et al.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    The effect of process variables on the properties of melt-spun poly(lactic acid) fibres for potential use as scaffold matrix materials2013In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 48, no 8, p. 3055-3066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodegradable materials in the form of fibres and yarns have attracted increasing attention due to a large surface area and various geometric possibilities in three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. In this study, poly(lactic acid) fibres were produced by melt spinning and subsequent solid-state drawing in order to serve as matrix materials for fibre-based scaffold architectures. The processing of both monofilament and multifilament fibres as well as draw ratios and temperatures were investigated to analyze the effect of process variables on the properties. Two different polylactides with different molecular weight were studied and characterized in terms of their tensile and thermal properties and morphology. The relevance of fibre formation, solid-state drawing and drawing temperatures was clearly supported by the results, and it was shown that the physical properties, such as crystallinity, mechanical strength and ductility can be controlled largely by the drawing process. The obtained fibres demonstrated great potential to be further processed into biotextiles (woven, knitted, or nonwoven scaffolds) using the textile technologies.

  • 264. Persson, Maria
    et al.
    Lorite, Gabriela
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Tuukkanen, Juha
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Melt Spinning of Poly(lactic acid) and Hydroxyapatite Composite Fibers: Influence of the Filler Content on the Fiber Properties2013In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 5, no 15, p. 6864-6872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite fibers from poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) particles were prepared using melt spinning. Different loading concentrations of HA particles (i.e., 5, 10, 15, and 20 wt %) in the PLA fibers and solid-state draw ratios (SSDRs) were evaluated in order to investigate their influence on the fibers' morphology and thermal and mechanical properties. A scanning electron microscopy investigation indicated that the HA particles were homogeneously distributed in the PLA fibers. It was also revealed by atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy that HA particles were located on the fiber surface, which is of importance for their intended application in biomedical textiles. Our results also suggest that the mechanical properties were independent of the loading concentration of the HA particles and that the SSDR played an important role in improving the mechanical properties of the composite fibers.

  • 265. Persson, Maria
    et al.
    Lorite, Gabriela
    Kokkonen, Hanna
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Tuukkanen, Juha
    Poly(lactic acid)/Hydroxyapatite Composite: a potential biomaterial for orthopedic applications2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 266. Persson, Maria
    et al.
    Lorite, Gabriela
    Kokkonen, Hanna
    Lehenkari, Petri
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Tuukkanen, Juha
    Effect of bioactive extruded PLA/HA composite films on focal adhesion formation of preosteoblastic cells2014In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 121, p. 409-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of the initial cell attachment to a biomaterial will influence any further cell function, including spreading, proliferation, differentiation and viability. Cell attachment is influenced by the material's ability to adsorb proteins, which is related to the surface chemistry and topography of the material. In this study, we incorporated hydroxyapatite (HA) particles into a poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composite and evaluated the surface structure and the effects of HA density on the initial cell attachment in vitro of murine calvarial preosteoblasts (MC3T3-EI). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the HA particles were successfully incorporated into the PLA matrix and located at the surface which is of importance in order to maintain the bioactive effect of the HA particles. SEM and AFM investigation revealed that the HA density (particles/area) as well as surface roughness increased with HA loading concentration (i.e. 5, 10, 15 and 20wt%), which promoted protein adsorption. Furthermore, the presence of HA on the surface enhanced cell spreading, increased the formation of actin stress fibers and significantly improved the expression of vinculin in MC3T3-E1 cells which is a key player in the regulation of cell adhesion. These results suggest the potential utility of PLA/HA composites as biomaterials for use as a bone substitute material and in tissue engineering applications.

  • 267. Persson, Maria
    et al.
    Lorite, Gabriele
    Kokkonen, Hanna
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Tuukkanen, Juha
    Initial cell attachment on hydroxyapatite/poly(lactic acid) composite films2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 268.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nextgeneration Smart Textiles - morphing and actuating devices2017In: E-MRS 2017 Spring Meeting, Strasbourg, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 269.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    High-strengthelectrically conductive fibers: Functionalization of polyamide, aramid andpolyester fibers with PEDOT polymer2017In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, high-performance fibers such as aramid (Twaron), polyamide (PA6), polyester (PET), and hybrid Twaron/PA6 fibers were transformed into electroactive fibers by coating them with conjugated polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) through vapor phase polymerization (VPP) method. The VPP is considered as an efficient technique for depositing CPs on different substrates regardless of their lower solubility in various solvents. In this paper, PEDOT-coated high-performance fibers were prepared under already optimized reaction conditions, and then a comparison between electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of different fibers, before and after coating, was made. The obtained coated fibers were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 2-probe electrical resistance measurement method, and tensile testing. It was revealed that at particular reaction conditions, all high performance textile substrates were successfully converted into electroactive fibers. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics showed that PEDOT-coated polyester fibers exhibited highest conductivity value among all other substrate fibers. The active PEDOT layers on high performance fibers could behave as an antistatic coating to minimize the risks associated with static charges at work places. Also, the obtained fibers have potential to be used as smart materials for various medical, sports, and military applications.

  • 270.
    Peterson, Joel
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Domestic Supply2014In: Knitting International, ISSN 0266-8394, no 7, p. 28-29Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In common with other developed nations, Japan is seeing a resurgence in domestically produced knitwear, allowing manufacturers to respond quickly to specific customer requirements. Joel Peterson profiles one family company capitalising on this demand

  • 271.
    Peterson, Joel
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Flat knitting of optical fibres2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an experimental research in the areas of knitting technology and optical fibres. The aim is to explore the possibilities to knit stiff monofilament optical fibres in flat knitting machines. The yarns used were transparent monofilament of polyester and optical fibres of PMMA (Polymethyl Metacrylate). Result shows that a hexagon shaped flat knitted prototype can be produced but also difficulties to knit monofilament yarn with optical fibres. The optical fibres was put into the structure in straight angles as weft insertion, to avoid bending and breakage of the monofilaments. Another problem was the take down device on the knitting machine but a solution of this is presented in the paper.

  • 272.
    Peterson, Joel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The Co-design Process in Mass Customization of Complete Garment Knitted Fashion Products2016In: Journal of Textile Science & Engineering, E-ISSN 2165-8064, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complete garment knitting technology is a method of producing products, generally fashion garments, readymade directly in the knitting machine without operations such as cutting and sewing. This makes it possible to manufacture a fashion garment with fewer processes then with conventional methods. Mass customisation is a customer co-design process of products and that tries to meets the needs of an individual customer's demand. The customer can order a garment with a customised style, colour, size, and other personal preferences. Co-design is a collaborative process between the customer, the retailer, and the manufacturer by which a product is customised to fulfil the customer's requirements. This paper is based on the results of a doctoral thesis. The process of codesign and manufacture of a customised complete fashion product is examined. Research was conducted by a retail concept simulation and three case studies. A cross-case analysis was done to analyse the data. The main findings are a description of two kinds of retail concepts for knitted customized fashion products. A knitted garment can be customized, produced, and delivered to the customer in three to five hours. In the Co-design process two kinds of interactions are feasible between the company and the customer: manual or digital co-design. A manual process has advantages such as: high service level for customers, no requirement of advanced technical equipment. However, manual co-design is labour intensive, a shop assistant can only serve one client at a time. It is also only pplicable to brick-and-mortar stores and not transferable to the Internet. Digital codesign, on the other hand, encourages customers to do the customisation on their own, without the aid of sales personnel and little risk of queues. Moreover, this technique is ideal for the Internet. Disadvantages to date have included limited design options and problem of taking body measurements.

  • 273.
    Peterson, Joel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Vegborn, Ellinor
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Andersson, Carl-Håkan
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Knittability of fibres with high stiffness2000Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knitting techniques and machinery are extensively used for the production of textile products for garmet and industrial use. Knitting is also gaining importance for composite materials performing. Basically two principles are in use. i) Weft knitting gives structures of for example traditional sweaters types suitable for structures taking impact loads. ii) Warp knitting gives the traditional tricot structures and the non crimped insert yarn DOS-fabrics extensively used for composite materials fabrication. In the knitting process do hooked needles pick up yarns and form closed loops. The stability of the loop formation depends on the bending of the fibres and type of friction on the needles during the different stages of the knitting process. The characteristics of static friction when the yarn is drawn by the needles into the machine, sliding friction in the loop formation and release after loop formation are of vital importance for the final product. The complexity of the yarn behaviour, the far from ideal mechanical and tribological behaviour of the fibres are mastered by many knitters. The history of knitting indicate the same kind of phenomena as indicated by the history of the steam engine: ”Science owes more to the steam engine than the steam engine owes to science”, lord Kelvin. The knitting process has however been modelled from first principles using models for friction of fibres on positively curved surfaces and simultaneous plastic deformation. A method and fixtures based on earlier work by Andersson et.al adopted for tests of the stress build up in fibres on knitting needles in order to study the knitting process in a tensile testing machine have been developed. Monofilaments and high modulus multifilament yarns known for giving difficulties in knitting process have been studied with respect to : – Static friction – Bending radius of the fibre during the process – Adhesion to needle at the end contact – Sliding friction Plain knitted fabrics and symmetric spacer fabrics have been produced of monofilament and multifilament nylon, PET and aramides. Analysis of fabrics in compression is going on.

  • 274. Poornejad, Nafiseh
    et al.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Salehi, S.M Amin
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Improvement of Ethanol Production from Spruce by Solvent Pretreatment2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignocelluloses are abundant and inexpensive resources that can be used for production of bioethanol. However, these materials, especially softwoods, are resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis and a pretreatment process is necessary for efficient conversion to ethanol. The pretreatment is intended to render the cellulose amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation to bioethanol. Several methods has been suggested for the pretreatment of lignocelluloses. The pretreatment with cellulose solvents are among the promising methods since they can perform in mild processing conditions. N-Methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) is among the industrial solvents which can dissolve cellulose by breaking intermolecular interactions. NMMO is nowadays used in the industrial Lyocell process, which is one of the modern and environmentally friendly industrial fiber-making technologies. It does not produce any toxic waste pollutants, and can be recovered over 98%. The pretreatment of lignocellulose by NMMO can modify the crystal structure of cellulose. In the current work a commercial grade 50% (W/W) NMMO solution was used for pretreatment of spruce. The NMMO solution was concentrated by vacuum evaporation to 85% NMMO. The pretreatment performed at 120ºC for 3 h. The pretreated wood species were then regenerated by addition of boiling distilled water, followed by vacuum filtration and washing. The pretreated and untreated spruce species were enzymatically hydrolyzed by commercial cellulase (celluclast 1.5L, Novozyme, Denmark) and Β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188, Novozyme, Denmark) at 45ºC for 96h. A thermotolerant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used for fermentation. Inoculum was aerobically cultivated at 30 °C and 120 rpm for 24 h. The enzymatic hydrolyzate was supplemented with necessary nutrient and fermented by the yeast for 24h at 30 °C and 120 rpm. The liquid samples were analyzed by HPLC. The results showed that the yield of ethanol increased from 7.2 g/g to 77 g/g, when the wood treated with the solvent. Formation of glycerol and other metabolites were also detected and discussed. It can be concluded that the method can be a promising alternative for pretreatment of softwoods for bioethanol production.

  • 275.
    Rafstedt, Josefina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Friberg Lundgren, Johanna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kreativitet vs Kapital: Användningen av innovativa marknadsföringsmetoder hos svenska modeföretag2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    År 2013 var den globala omsättningen för modeindustrin ca 76 tusen miljarder svenska kronor (Office of Textiles and Apparel, 2014). Bara i Sverige omsattes det 229 miljarder svenska kronor år 2012 inom denna sektor, en ökning på 11 % från föregående år (Tillväxtverket, 2014). Att modebranschen är under ständig utveckling och ökar i tillväxt kan man se då dessa siffror stiger varje år. Statistik från 2014 visar att trots denna ökning så överlever endast 47 % av nystartade modeföretag de tre första åren (Statistic Brain, 2014). Så hur lyckas man som modeföretag i early stage-fasen att med begränsade resurser stärka sitt varumärke och hålla sig kvar på marknaden? I denna studie berörs olika delar så som traditionell marknadsföring, okonventionell marknadsföring, branding samt transparens, där huvudfokus ligger på företag i early stage- fasen av sin uppstart. I uppsatsen genomfördes sju intervjuer med svenska modeföretag som är eller nyligen varit i denna fas för att få ett resultat med så hög validitet som möjligt. Brist på kunskap och kapital är inte ovanligt i denna bransch och med ökad medvetenhet hos konsumenter om de olika processerna, så kan det ibland uppstå svårigheter att försvara sig som nystartat företag. Då modebranschen är i ständig rörelse med stora förändringar från säsong till säsong måste man som nytt företag vara beredd på reformation samt att alltid tänka innovativt. Det är även viktigt att vara uppmärksam på kommande och rådande trender gällande alla aktiviteter ett företag arbetar med. Eftersom olika marknadsföringsstrategier både kan hjälpa och stjälpa ett varumärkes position på marknaden är den stora utmaningen att hitta rätt metod för just sitt företag (Easy, M. 2009). Resultatet av denna studie kommer alltså att bygga på de kvalitativa intervjuer som genomförts med de utvalda företag som har valt att medverka. De beskriver hur deras uppstart sett ut när det kommer till branding samt hur de i olika kanaler väljer att marknadsföra sig. I dessa intervjuer tittar vi även närmare på hur de lyckades starta sin verksamhet och vilka kapitalmedel de använt, deras syn på okonventionell marknadsföring samt hur marknadsföring och branding hänger samman.

  • 276. Rahimiashtiyani, Samaneh
    et al.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Preparation and characterization of bio-nanocomposites from biobased thermoset resin, montmorillonite and natural fiber2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study bio-nanocomposites were manufactured, using a thermoset resin based on lactic acid and nanoclay (montmorillonite) as a matrix for flax fibers. The obtained composites were characterized by dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and flexural testing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of bio-nanocomposites without any surface treatment of the nanoclay and to use the resin/clay blend as a matrix for natural fiber composite. Results showed the nanoclay improved the mechanical properties.

  • 277. Rahimiashtiyani, Samaneh
    et al.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Preparation and characterization of bio-nanocomposites from biobased thermoset resin and montmorillonite2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-nanocomposites are a new class of particle-based composites that have attracted much attention due to their environmental and economic advantages these years [1, 2]. In this study a biobased thermoset resin based on lactic acid was used and reinforced with montmorillonite (MMT). This resin consists of star-shaped oligomers of lactic acid, end-capped with methacrylate groups [3]. Thus, the resin can be cross-linked by a free radical polymerization. MMT consists of 1 nm thick aluminosilicate layers. Due to the high surface area, MMT has been evaluated as a reinforcement for several commercial polymers. While most commercial resins are non-polar, MMT is intrinsically polar. Therefore, MMT is usually surface treated in order to make it less polar. However, the resin used in this study is relatively polar and the purpose of this study was to evaluate if untreated MMT could be used to reinforce this resin. The curing was studied with isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the obtained composite were characterized by dynamic-mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Also transmission electronic spectroscopy (TEM) was used to characterize the structure. The result showed some improvements in mechanical properties. The DMTA results showed that the storage modulus and also loss modulus of the nanocomposite improved with respect to neat resin. Intercalated structures could be seen from the TEM micrographs.

  • 278. Rajan, R.
    et al.
    Sreekumar, P.A.
    Joseph, K.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Thermal and mechanical properties of chitosan reinforced polyhydroxybutyrate composites2012In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 3357-3362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article reports the results of studies on the effect of chitosan (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt %) on thermal and mechanical properties of poly(hydroxybutyrate) composites. The addition of chitosan causes an increase in the glass transition temperature (Tg) while a decrease in the enthalpy of fusion (DHfus), crystallization (DHcry) and percentage of crystallinity as determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The thermogravimetric analysis reveals that high amount of chitosan decreases the thermal stability of the composites. The Young’s modulus of the composite increases and is high for the composite having 40 wt % of chitosan. Increase in the amount of chitosan decreases the elongation at break and impact strength of composites. Finally, the Young’s modulus of the composites has been compared with the theoretical predictions.

  • 279.
    Rajan, Rathish
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Rainosalo, Egidija
    Centria University of Applied Sciences.
    Thomas, Selvin
    Royal Commission Yanbu Colleges and Institutes.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Vuorinen, Jyrki
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zavasnik, Janez
    Jožef Stefan Institute.
    Modification of epoxy resin by silane-coupling agent to improve tensile properties of viscose fabric composites2018In: Polymer Bulletin, ISSN 0170-0839, E-ISSN 1436-2449, Vol. 75, no 1, p. 167-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The modification of epoxy resin by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to improve the tensile properties of warp knitted viscose fabric composites is reported in this study. The study evaluates the efficiency of modification methods adopted to modify the epoxy resin and the influence of the resin modification on various properties of the cured castings. The influence of matrix resin modification on the tensile properties of viscose fabric composite is compared to those prepared from chemically modified fibre. The efficiency of the modification was determined through titration method to determine the epoxide content of epoxy resin, viscosity measurement and FTIR. The effect of APTES modification on various properties of cured castings is studied through differential scanning calorimeter, contact angle measurement and tensile testing. The addition of APTES into the epoxy resin decreased the epoxide content in the resin as evident from the titration method. The tensile strength of cured castings decreased after the resin modification. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the viscose fabric composites prepared from modified resin, increased up to 14 and 41%, respectively. The improved adhesion of APTES-modified epoxy resin to the viscose fibre is confirmed from SEM analysis of tensile fracture surface.

  • 280. Rajan, Rathish
    et al.
    Riihivuori, Johanna
    Rainosalo, Egidija
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Järvelä, Pentti
    Effect of viscose fabric modification on the mechanical and water absorption properties of composites prepared through vacuum infusion2014In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 33, no 15, p. 1416-1429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Viscose fabric-reinforced unsaturated polyester composites were successfully prepared through vacuum infusion process. Unidirectional viscose fabric was modified by two different organosilane coupling agents and by acetylation treatment. The main objective was to study the influence of fabric treatment on the mechanical and water absorption properties of the composites. Flexural, tensile and impact properties of composites were studied. The results from mechanical testing of composites pointed out that 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane treatment increased the flexural and impact strengths of the composites with respect to untreated fabric composite. The impact strength of 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane-treated fabric composites almost doubled compared to the value of untreated fabric composite. Among all the composites under study, those with fabrics treated by 2 vol% 3-aminopropyltriethoxy silane in ethanol/water (95:5) solution exhibited significant improvement in water uptake resistance. An unsaturated polyester gelcoat and topcoat were applied as the outer surface on the composites with untreated fabric. This was done in order to investigate the visual surface appearance and evaluate the gelcoat and topcoat effect on water absorption after accelerated water immersion test. The regenerated cellulose fibre as reinforcement shows high potential to be used as an alternative for natural bast fibres, especially, when toughness of material matters. Chemical treatment of regenerated cellulose fibres could result in improvement in properties of polymer composites, considering that the appropriate treatment method is selected for the corresponding fibre–matrix system.

  • 281. Rajan, Rathish
    et al.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Järvelä, Pentti
    Lactic acid polymers: synthesis, properties & applications2014In: Handbook of Green Materials, Vol. 5. Biobased composite materials: their processing, properties and industrial applications / [ed] Kristiina Oksman, Aji P. Mathew, Alexander Bismarck, Orlando Rojas, Mohini Sain, World Scientific Publishing , 2014, p. 49-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 282.
    Ramamoorthy, S. K.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Di, Q.
    Adekunle, K.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, M.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Effect of water absorption on mechanical properties of soybean oil thermosets reinforced with natural fibers2012In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 31, no 18, p. 1191-1200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural fiber composites are known to absorb more water than glass fiber reinforced composites. In this study, hybrid natural fiber composites were prepared by combining different fiber reinforcements, and both the water absorption and the mechanical properties were studied. Compression molding technique was used to manufacture composite laminates from a bio-based resin (acrylated epoxidized soybean oil) and natural fibers: non-woven and woven jute, non-woven regenerated cellulose mat (Lyocell and viscose), and woven glass fiber. The composite laminates were cured at 160–170 C and 40 bar, with a fiber content of 40 wt%. We investigated effect of pretreatment of regenerated cellulose fiber using 4% NaOH solution. The gravimetric water absorption was tested by exposure to water for 10 days. Specimens were cut from composites with laser-cutting technique according to ISO standards, and tested for tensile, flexural, and impact strength. To determine the influence of water absorption on the mechanical properties, specimens were immersed in distilled water for 10 days before testing. As a reference, dry specimens were tested. The results showed that water absorption was reduced by producing hybrid composites with jute fibers, glass fiber, and Lyocell fiber. The tensile, flexural, and impact properties were improved by inclusion of glass fiber and Lyocell in the composite. The tensile and flexural properties of natural fiber reinforced composites were mostly affected by the influence of water, but this was improved considerably by hybridization with glass and Lyocell fibers. The viscoelastic properties of the manufactured composites and hybrid composites were studied using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis.

  • 283.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bakare, Fatimat
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Herrmann, Rene
    Arcada University of Applied Science.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Performance of biocomposites from surface modified regenerated cellulose fibers and lactic acid thermoset bioresin2015In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of surface treatments, silane and alkali, on regenerated cellulose fibers was studied by using the treated fibers as reinforcement in lactic acid thermoset bioresin. The surface treatments were performed to improve the physico–chemical interactions at the fiber–matrix interface. Tensile, flexural and impact tests were used as indicator of the improvement of the interfacial strength. Furthermore, thermal conductivity, viscoelasticity measurements as well as microscopy images were made to characterize the fiber surface treatments and the effect on adhesion to the matrix. The results showed that silane treatment improved the mechanical properties of the composites as the silane molecule acts as link between the cellulose fiber and the resin (the fiber bonds with siloxane bridge while the resin bonds with organofunctional group of the bi-functional silane molecule) which gives molecular continuity in the interphase of the composite. Porosity volume decreased significantly on silane treatment due to improved interface and interlocking between fiber and matrix. Decrease in water absorption and increase in contact angle confirmed the change in the hydrophilicity of the composites. The storage modulus increased when the reinforcements were treated with silane whereas the damping intensity decreased for the same composites indicating a better adhesion between fiber and matrix on silane treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the reinforcement altered after treatments. The resin curing was followed using differential scanning calorimetry and the necessity for post-curing was recommended. Finite element analysis was used to predict the thermal behavior of the composites and a non-destructive resonance analysis was performed to ratify the modulus obtained from tensile testing. The changes were also seen on composites reinforced with alkali treated fiber. Microscopy images confirmed the good adhesion between the silane treated fibers and the resin at the interface.

  • 284.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Di, Qin
    Adekunle, Kayode
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Can the Outdoor Properties Of Natural Fiber Reinforced Bio-Based Composites Be Improved?2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural fiber composites are known to absorb more moisture than glass or carbon fiber reinforced composites. The hybrid natural fiber composites prepared in this study have relatively less moisture absorption than natural fiber composites. The composite laminates were manufactured by compression molding technique. A bio‐based resin known as acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) was used as a matrix, while jute fiber, regenerated cellulose fiber (Lyocell and viscose) and glass fiber were used as reinforcements. The composite laminates were prepared at temperature between 160‐170°C and pressure of 40 bar with natural fiber reinforcement between 30‐60 wt% of the fiber. Specimens were cut from the laminates with a laser cutting machine according to standard. The effect of pretreatment of natural fiber and regenerated cellulose fiber using 4% NaOH solution was investigated and discussed. The amount of water absorbed by the composites was determined by soaking the specimens in distilled water for 10 days. To see the influence of water absorption on mechanical properties of the composites, specimens were immersed in distilled water for 10 days before testing. Dry specimens were also tested for reference. Charpy Impact testing was performed on the composite laminates in order to calculate the energy absorbed by specimen during fracture. Water absorption behavior of the natural fiber composites was reduced by manufacturing hybrid composites with glass and Lyocell fibers. Tensile, flexural and impact properties of the natural fiber reinforced composites were improved by the inclusion of glass or Lyocell fiber. Tensile and flexural properties of natural fiber reinforced composites were affected largely by the influence of water and it could be improved by hybridization. Viscoelastic properties of the composites and hybrid composites were studied by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis.

  • 285.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Di, Qin
    Adekunle, Kayode
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Processing Of Non-Woven Lyocell Fabric And Mechanical Properties Of Non-Woven Fiber Reinforced Bio-Based Composites2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non‐woven Lyocell mats were made from the fibers by carding and needling process at Swerea IVF, Mölndal, Sweden. The carding was done first in order to align the clumps of fibers. And then needle punching was done to obtain compact and entangled fiber mat. The composites were made by compression molding technique at temperature between 160‐170°C and pressure of 40 bar with non‐woven Lyocell, jute and viscose fiber reinforcements. The hybrid bio‐based composites were produced in this study to improve the mechanical properties of the composites. Bio‐based thermoset resin known as acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) was used as matrix in the composites. Laser cutting technique was adopted to cut specimens from laminates according to standard. The dimensional stability of the composites was determined by soaking the composite specimens in water for 10 days. Tensile and flexural properties of the composites were determined before and after water uptake. Hybridizing the jute fiber with glass and Lyocell fibers reduced the water uptake. Mechanical properties of the non‐woven fiber reinforced composites were studied by tensile, flexural, impact tests. Viscoelastic properties were studied using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). Tensile, flexural and impact properties of natural fiber composites were improved by hybridizing with Lyocell fiber.

  • 286.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kundu, Chanchal Kumar
    Adekunle, Kayode
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Biocomposites From Regenerated Cellulose Textile Fibers And Bio-Based Thermoset Matrix For Automotive Applications2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biocomposites were produced from regenerated cellulose fiber reinforcement and soybean based bio-matrix. Mechanical, thermal, viscoelastic and morphological results show the good potential of these composites to be used as structural materials in automotive industries. This article focuses on manufacturing and testing of these composites for engineering materials. Regenerated cellulose fibers such as Lyocell and viscose were reinforced in soybean based thermoset matrix to produce composites by compression molding. Hybrid composites were produced by mixing both these fibers at known ratio and the total fiber content in composite was between 40 and 60 weight %. In general, Lyocell based composites showed better tensile properties than viscose based composites. Composites consisting 60 weight % Lyocell and rest with matrix had tensile strength of 135 MPa and tensile modulus of 17 GPa. These composites also showed good flexural properties; flexural strength of 127 Mpa and flexural modulus of 7 GPa. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis showed that these composites had good viscoelastic properties. Viscose based composites had better percentage elongation during tensile test. These composites also showed relatively good impact and viscoelastic properties. Scanning electron microscope images showed that the composites had good fiber-matrix adhesion. Several efforts are made to produce sustainable biomaterials to replace synthetic materials due to inherent properties like renewable, biodegradable and low density. Biocomposites play significant role in sustainable materials which has already found applications in automotive and construction industries. Many researchers produced biocomposites from natural fiber and bio-based/synthetic matrix and it had found several applications. There are several disadvantages of using natural fiber in composites; quality variation, place dependent, plant maturity, harvesting method, high water absorption etc. These composites also give odor which has to be avoided in indoor automotive applications. These natural fibers can be replaced with lignocelluloses, agro mass and biomass to develop biocomposites as they are from natural origin. Lyocell and viscose are manmade regenerated cellulose fibers which is from natural origin has excellent properties. These fibers can be used as reinforcements to produce biocomposites which can overcome most of the above listed disadvantages of natural fibers. Many composites were made from natural fiber reinforcement and petroleum based synthetic matrix. Researchers have been finding ways to get matrix out of natural resources like soybean and linseed on chemical modifications. This article is focused on producing and testing sustainable material with regenerated cellulose and soybean based bio-matrix for automotive applications.

  • 287.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kundu, Chanchal Kumar
    Adekunle, Kayode
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Characterization Of Wood Based Fiber Reinforced Bio-Composites2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural fiber composites have got more focus in recent times due to their intrinsic properties such as lightweight, biodegradable, low cost etc. Several researchers have made bio-composites out of many natural fibers such as jute, flax, sisal. These composites have large market in Europe and North America where it is used in automobile and construction industry. A lot of research has been done to improve the properties such as surface modification of fiber, manufacturing hybrid composites. However, the natural fibers are dissimilar and vary largely due to many factors such as variety, harvest, maturity, climate etc. Apart from technical drawbacks, these fibers grow only in certain countries such as India and China. High demand raised the price of these fibers which increases the product price as well. Wood-based fibers such as Lyocell and Viscose was used to make composites in order to make less variation in products, decrease the dependency of natural fibers, promoting locally available fibers and encourage forest products as value-added products. Lyocell and viscose fibers have relatively less variation and high quality. Bio-composites were made by reinforcing wood-based fibers in soybean based thermoset matrix. Hybrid composites were prepared by mixing two different wood-based fibers in known ratio. The fiber content in the composites was between 40 and 60 weight%. Mechanical properties were characterized by tensile, flexural and impact tests. Lyocell and viscose based composites had better mechanical properties than jute fiber composites. Alkali treatment of Lyocell fibers improved the mechanical properties of the composites. The behaviour of wood-based fiber composites were studied under wet environment as well. In wet environment, the mechanical properties of wood-based fiber composites were superior to jute fiber composites. Lyocell based composites had tensile strength of 135 MPa and tensile modulus of 17 GPa. The composites had flexural strength of 127 MPa and flexural modulus of 7 GPa. Better percentage elongation was obtained when viscose fiber was reinforced in matrix. Viscose composites had better impact strength and viscoelastic properties. The change in properties in two different wood-based fibers (Lyocell and viscose) lies in the morphology of the fiber itself. Hybrid composites were produced and the effect of hybridization was clear in most of the cases. The properties were able to be tailored by making hybrid composites, by changing the amount of each fiber in the composites. The results (tensile and flexural) were competitive and fulfil the requirements of these composites to be used in several applications including automotive headliners, car door panel, construction door frame etc. The forest products such as wood fibers could be used in composites to produce environmentally friendly products and promote forest industry. Wood-based fibers such as Lyocell and Viscose was used to make composites in order to make less variation in products, decrease the dependency of natural fibers, promoting locally available fibers and encourage forest products. Bio-composites were made by reinforcing wood-based fibers in soybean based thermoset matrix. Hybrid composites were prepared by mixing two different wood-based fibers in known ratio. Mechanical properties were characterized by tensile, flexural and impact tests. Lyocell and viscose based composites had better mechanical properties than jute fiber composites. Alkali treatment of Lyocell fibers improved the mechanical properties of the composites. The behaviour of wood-based fiber composites were studied under wet environment as well. In wet environment, the mechanical properties of wood-based fiber composites were superior to jute fiber composites. Lyocell based composites had tensile strength of 135 MPa and tensile modulus of 17 GPa. The composites had flexural strength of 127 MPa and flexural modulus of 7 GPa. Viscose composites had better impact strength and viscoelastic properties. The result fulfils the requirements of these composites to be used in several applications including automotive headliners, car door panel etc. The forest products could be used in composites to produce environmentally friendly products and promote forest industry.

  • 288.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kundu, Chanchal Kumar
    Adekunle, Kayode
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Properties of green composites with regenerated cellulose fiber and soybean-based thermoset for technical applications2014In: Journal of reinforced plastics and composites (Print), ISSN 0731-6844, E-ISSN 1530-7964, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 193-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composites were developed by reinforcing available non-woven Lyocell and viscose in acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO). Compression molding was used to make composites with 40–60 wt% fiber content. The fiber content comprises only Lyocell or viscose fiber, or mixture of these fibers in known ratio. Hybrid composites were made by a mixture of both the fibers in known ratio and it affects the properties. The effect of hybridization was evident in most tests which gives us an opportunity to tailor the properties according to requirement. Lyocell fiber reinforced composites with 60 wt% fiber content had a tensile strength and modulus of about 135 MPa and 17 GPa, respectively. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the Lyocell fiber reinforced composites had good viscoelastic properties. The viscose fiber reinforced composites had the high percentage elongation and also showed relatively good impact strength and flexural modulus. Good fiber-matrix adhesion reflected in mechanical properties. SEM images were made to see the fiber-matrix compatibility.

  • 289.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kundu, Chanchal Kumar
    Adekunle, Kayode
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Regenerated Cellulose Fiber Reinforced Composites2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood pulp based regenerated cellulose fibers like Lyocell and viscose which are from natural origin have high and even quality; used to develop superior composites with good properties. In this project, Lyocell and viscose fibers were reinforced in chemically modified soybean based bio-matrix, acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) by compression molding technique. The composites are characterized for mechanical performance by tensile, flexural and impact tests, viscoelastic performance by dynamical mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In general, Lyocell composites had better tensile and flexural properties than viscose based composites. The same goes with elastic and viscous response of the composites. Hybrid composites were formed by fiber blending; on addition of Lyocell to viscose based composites improved the properties. The amount of Lyocell and viscose fibers used determined the properties of hybrid composites and the possibility of tailoring properties for specific application was seen. Hybrid composites showed better impact strength. Morphological analysis showed that the viscose composites had small fiber pull out whereas Lyocell composites had few pores. Hybrid composite analysis showed that they had uneven spreading of matrix; delamination occurred on constant heating and cooling. To overcome the above mentioned issue and to reduce the water absorption, surface modification of the fiber was done by alkali treatment and silane treatment. The effect of treatment is done through swelling, water absorption and morphological analysis tests. The properties could be increased on proper modification of the fibers. The results show the good potential of these composites to be used in automotives and construction industries.

  • 290.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Kundu, Chanchal Kumar
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Green Composites Based On Regenerated Cellulose Textile Fibers For Structural Composites2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Composites were manufactured from regenerated cellulose and biobased matrix by compression molding. The reinforcing materials used were Lyocell and viscose, while the matrix used was chemically modified soybean oil. Hybrid composites were prepared by mixing both the fibers. The total fiber content in the composites was between 40-60 weight %. Lyocell based composites had better tensile properties than viscose based composites; composites consisting 60 weight % Lyocell impregnated with matrix had tensile strength of 135 MPa and tensile modulus of 17 GPa. These composites also showed better flexural properties; flexural strength of 127 MPa and flexural modulus of 7 GPa. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis results showed that these composites had good viscoelastic properties. Viscose based composites had better percentage elongation; these composites also showed relatively good impact and viscoelastic properties. Hybrid composites showed good mechanical and viscoelastic properties. Scanning electron microscope images showed that the composites had good fiber-matrix adhesion.

  • 291.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    BIOCOMPOSITES FROM SURFACE MODIFIED REGENERATED CELLULOSE FIBERS AND LACTIC ACID THERMOSET BIORESIN2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:

    Thermoset bioresin was synthesized from lactic acid and glycerol, and the resin was characterized for it to be used in composite applications. On the other hand, regenerated cellulose fibers were surface treated to improve the physico–chemical interactions at the fiber–matrix interface. The effect of surface treatments, silane and alkali, on regenerated cellulose fibers was studied by using the treated fibers as reinforcement in lactic acid thermoset bioresin. Mechanical tests were used as indicator of the improvement of the interfacial strength. Fiber surface treatments and the effect on adhesion to the matrix were characterized using microscopy images and thermal conductivity. Mechanical properties of the composites showed an increase when treated with silane as the bi-functional silane molecule acts as link between the regenerated cellulose fiber and the bioresin.

    Porosity volume decreased significantly on silane treatment due to improved interface and interlocking between fiber and matrix. Decrease in water absorption and increase in contact angle confirmed the change in the hydrophilicity of the composites. The storage modulus increased when the reinforcements were treated with silane whereas the damping intensity decreased for the same composites indicating a better adhesion between fiber and matrix on silane treatment. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the reinforcement altered after treatments. The resin curing was followed using differential scanning calorimetry and the necessity for post-curing was recommended. Finite element analysis was used to predict the thermal behavior of the composites and a non-destructive resonance analysis was performed to ratify the modulus obtained from tensile testing. The changes were also seen on composites reinforced with alkali treated fiber. Microscopy images confirmed the good adhesion between the silane treated fibers and the resin at the interface.

  • 292.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A Review of Natural Fibers Used in Biocomposites: Plant, Animal and Regenerated Cellulose Fibers2015In: Polymer Reviews, ISSN 1558-3724, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 107-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural fibers today are a popular choice for applications in composite manufacturing. Based on the sustainability benefits, biofibers such as plant fibers are replacing synthetic fibers in composites. These fibers are used to manufacture several biocomposites. The chemical composition and properties of each of the fibers changes, which demands the detailed comparison of these fibers. The reinforcement potential of natural fibers and their properties have been described in numerous papers. Today, high performance biocomposites are produced from several years of research. Plant fibers, particularly bast and leaf, find applications in automotive industries. While most of the other fibers are explored in lab scales they have not yet found large-scale commercial applications. It is necessary to also consider other fibers such as ones made from seed (coir) and animals (chicken feather) as they are secondary or made from waste products. Few plant fibers such as bast fibers are often reviewed briefly but other plant and animal fibers are not discussed in detail. This review paper discusses all the six types of plant fibers such as bast, leaf, seed, straw, grass, and wood, together with animal fibers and regenerated cellulose fibers. Additionally, the review considers developments dealing with natural fibers and their composites. The fiber source, extraction, availability, type, composition, and mechanical properties are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of using each biofiber are discussed. Three fabric architectures such as nonwoven, woven and knitted have been briefly discussed. Finally, the paper presents the overview of the results from the composites made from each fiber with suitable references for in-depth studies.

  • 293.
    Rao, P. V. Kameswara
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India.
    Rawal, Amit
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India; Fraunhofer Institute of Industrial Mathematics (ITWM), Fraunhofer-Platz 1, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Kumar, Vijay
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rajput, Krishn Gopal
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India.
    Compression-recovery model of absorptive glass mat (AGM) separator guided by X-ray micro-computed tomography analysis2017In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 365, p. 389-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Absorptive glass mat (AGM) separators play a key role in enhancing the cycle life of the valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries by maintaining the elastic characteristics under a defined level of compression force with the plates of the electrodes. Inevitably, there are inherent challenges to maintain the required level of compression characteristics of AGM separators during the charge and discharge of the battery. Herein, we report a three-dimensional (3D) analytical model for predicting the compression-recovery behavior of AGM separators by formulating a direct relationship with the constituent fiber and structural parameters. The analytical model of compression-recovery behavior of AGM separators has successfully included the fiber slippage criterion and internal friction losses. The presented work uses, for the first time, 3D data of fiber orientation from X-ray micro-computed tomography, for predicting the compression-recovery behavior of AGM separators. A comparison has been made between the theoretical and experimental results of compression-recovery behavior of AGM samples with defined fiber orientation characteristics. In general, the theory agreed reasonably well with the experimental results of AGM samples in both dry and wet states. Through theoretical modeling, fiber volume fraction was established as one of the key structural parameters that modulates the compression hysteresis of an AGM separator.

  • 294.
    Rawal, Amit
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India; Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics (ITWM), Kaiserslautern, Germany; Institut für Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik, Denkendorf, Germany.
    Kumar, Vijay
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hietel, Diemtar
    Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics (ITWM), Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Dauner, Martin
    Institut für Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik, Denkendorf, Germany.
    Modulating the Poisson’s ratio of articular cartilage via collagen fibril alignment2017In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 194, p. 45-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Articular cartilage possesses unique structure and composition giving rise to unusual mechanical behavior. Typically, it is a structurally graded material that displays variation in mechanical properties along the depth. In this communication, the geometrical probability approach has been used for predicting the in-plane Poisson’s ratio in the surface and middle zones of articular cartilage. The presented model has formulated a relationship between the Poisson’s ratio and collagen fibril alignment. A comparison has been made between the theoretical and experimental findings of Poisson’s ratio in the surface and middle zones of human patella cartilage, as obtained from the literature.

  • 295.
    Rawal, Amit
    et al.
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi; Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics (ITWM); Institut für Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik.
    Kumar, Vijay
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Saraswat, Harshvardhan
    MLV Textile & Engineering College.
    Weerasinghe, Dakshitha
    Institut für Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik.
    Hietel, Dietmar
    Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Mathematics (ITWM).
    Dauner, Martin
    Institut für Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik.
    Creating three-dimensional (3D) fiber networks with out-of-plane auxetic behavior over large deformations2017In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 2534-2548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fiber networks with out-of-plane auxetic behavior have been sporadically investigated. One of the major challenges is to design such materials with giant negative Poisson’s ratio over large deformations. Here in, we report a systematic investigation to create three-dimensional (3D) fiber networks in the form of needlepunched nonwoven materials with out-of-plane auxetic behavior over large deformations via theoretical modeling and extensive set of experiments. The experimental matrix has encapsulated the key parameters of the needlepunching nonwoven process. Under uniaxial tensile loading, the anisotropy coupled with local fiber densification in networks has yielded large negative Poisson’s ratio (up to −5.7) specifically in the preferential direction. The in-plane and out-of-plane Poisson’s ratios of fiber networks have been predicted and, subsequently, compared with the experimental results. Fiber orientation was found to be a core parameter that modulated the in-plane Poisson’s ratio of fiber networks. A parametric analysis has revealed the interplay between the anisotropy of the fiber network and the out-of-plane Poisson’s ratio based upon constant volume consideration.

  • 296.
    Sagen, Silje
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Borg, Jenny
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Tivell, Sara
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Att specificera ullgarn: en jämförande undersökning av ullgarn för mattor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates two yarns made of 100 % wool that have been ordered with the same specification but from different suppliers. The yarns are used by a company that produces carpets. During weaving these yarns don’t behave the same and therefore problems have appeared in production. The aim with this study is to investigate why the two yarns behave differently. A literature study has been conducted to assemble information about wool properties and how these can have an affect on different processing steps typical for wool. From these findings it was concluded which tests to perform during this study. Tests that measured tensile properties, moisture content and twist liveliness were first performed on uncoloured yarns. At fiber level the fibre width, length and crimp as well as proportions of medullated fibres were measured. A medullated fibers is a fiber with a bigger core than a regular wool fibre. Tests that showed significant differences were also carried out on coloured yarns to see if the differences remains after dyeing. Together with the test results and information from litteratur it's discussed how differences in parameters are related to the yarn properties and if it's possible to translate these findings into new demands for a yarn specification. These were considered to be fiber width and length specified with both a mean and distribution, proportion of medullated fibres, E-module and to specify the mechanical properties with cN/tex instead of only Newton to get a value that is more true to the variations in wool. It's concluded that the yarns differ sufficiently at fiber level to give them different properties, which shows in the mechanical properties. There is a difference in the two yarns ability to stretch and this can explain problems that arise during weaving. In addition to suggest parameters to specify it's discussed how desiding a standard to follow for measures and how to analyze the results could help to ensure demands in the specification.

  • 297.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Ragnerius, Anna
    Signals and Systems/Chalmers.
    Widelund, Frida
    Signals and Systems/Chalmers.
    Candefjord, Stefan
    Signals and Systems/Chalmers.
    Rundqvist, Karin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nilsson, Erik
    Swerea/IVF.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A piezoelectric smart textile sock for gait analysis - A feasibility study2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 298.
    Santamala, Harri
    et al.
    Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics.
    Livingston, R
    Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics.
    Sixta, Herbert
    Aalto University, Aalto University, School of Chemistry, Department of Forest Products Technology.
    Hummel, M
    Aalto University, School of Chemistry, Department of Forest Products Technolog.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Saarela, Olli
    Aalto University, School of Engineering, Department of Applied Mechanics.
    Advantages of regenerated cellulose fibres as compared to flax fibres in the processability and mechanical performance of thermoset composites2016In: Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, Vol. 84, p. 377-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Man-made cellulosic fibres (MMCFs) have attracted widespread interest as the next generation of fibre reinforced composite. However, most studies focused entirely on their performance on single fibre level and little attention has been paid to their behaviour on a larger application scale. In this study, MMCFs were utilized as reinforcement in unidirectionally (UD) manufactured thermoset composites and compared to several commercial UD flax fibre products. Specimens were prepared using a vacuum bag based resin infusion technique and the respective laminates characterized in terms of void fraction and mechanical properties. MMCF laminates had comparable or better mechanical performance when compared to flax fibre laminates. Failure mechanisms of MMCF laminates were noted to differ from those of flax-reinforced laminates. The results demonstrate the potential of MMCFs as a viable alternative to glass fibre for reinforcement on a larger scale of UD laminates. These results were utilized in the Biofore biomaterial demonstration vehicle.

  • 299.
    Satomi, Mika
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Lundstedt, Lotta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Dumitrescu, Delia Mihaela
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Persson, Anna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Repetition2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    “Repetition” is a Fashion Design and E-textile design project, which explore the use of thermo-chromic ink fabric and its interaction when designing a garment for performance art centering the body and movement as its design element.

  • 300.
    Satomi, Mika
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Nilsson, Linnéa
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Vallgårda, Anna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Worbin, Linda
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Recurring Patterns2011Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What if your furniture expresses appreciation when you sit on them? Or what if they call for attention if they have been empty for too long? Textiles always change expression over time due to use and exposure to sunlight, moist, etc. The textile on these pouffes changes expressions in a dynamic interplay with their use. A bright pattern is gradually revealed when someone sits on them but hid again when they stand idle by. In other words, their patterns are recurring in both space and time.

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