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  • 201. Thang, Nguyen Dang
    et al.
    Karlson, Björn Wilgot
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Characteristics of and outcomes for elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction: differences between females and males2016In: Clinical Interventions in Aging, ISSN 1176-9092, E-ISSN 1178-1998, Vol. 11, p. 1309-1316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed age-adjusted sex differences among acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients aged 75 years and above with regard to 7-year mortality (primary end point) and the frequency of angiograms and admission to the coronary care unit (CCU) as well as 1-year mortality (secondary end points).

    METHODS: A retrospective cohort study comprised 1,414 AMI patients (748 females and 666 males) aged at least 75 years, who were admitted to Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Gothenburg, Sweden, during two periods (2001/2002 and 2007). All comparisons between female and male patients were age adjusted.

    RESULTS: Females were older and their previous history included fewer AMIs, coronary artery bypass grafting procedures, and renal diseases, but more frequent incidence of hypertension. On the contrary, males had higher age-adjusted 7-year mortality in relation to females (hazard ratio [HR] 1.16 with corresponding 95% confidence interval [95% CI 1.03, 1.31], P=0.02). Admission to the CCU was more frequent among males than females (odds ratio [OR] 1.38 [95% CI 1.11, 1.72], P=0.004). There was a nonsignificant trend toward more coronary angiographies performed among males (OR 1.34 [95% CI 1.00, 1.79], P=0.05), as well as a nonsignificant trend toward higher 1-year mortality (HR 1.18 [95% CI 0.99, 1.39], P=0.06).

    CONCLUSION: In an AMI population aged 75 years and above, males had higher age-adjusted 7-year mortality and higher rate of admission to the CCU than females. One-year mortality did not differ significantly between the sexes, nor did the frequency of performed coronary angiograms.

  • 202. Thuresson, M
    et al.
    Haglund, P
    Ryttberg, B
    Herlitz, J
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Nilsson, U
    Impact of an information campaign on delays and ambulance use in acute coronary syndrome2014In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 297-298Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 203. Thuresson, M
    et al.
    Jarlöv, MB
    Lindahl, B
    Svensson, L
    Zedigh, C
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Factors that influence the use of ambulance in acute coronary syndrome2008In: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, E-ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 156, no 1, p. 170-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: National guidelines recommend activation of the emergency medical service by patients who have symptoms of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In spite of this, only 50% to 60% of persons with myocardial infarction initiate care by using the emergency medical service. The aim of this study was to define factors influencing the use of ambulance in ACS. METHODS: The method used in this study was a national survey comprising intensive cardiac care units at 11 hospitals in Sweden; 1,939 patients with diagnosed ACS and symptom onset outside the hospital completed a questionnaire a few days after admission. RESULTS: Half of the patients went to the hospital by ambulance. Factors associated with ambulance use were knowledge of the importance of quickly seeking medical care and calling for an ambulance when having chest pain (odds ratio [OR] 3.61, 95% CI 2.43-5.45), abrupt onset of pain reaching maximum intensity within minutes (OR 2.08, 1.62-2.69), nausea or cold sweat (OR 2.02, 1.54-2.65), vertigo or near syncope (OR 1.63, 1.21-2.20), ST-elevation ACS (OR 1.58, 1.21-2.06), increasing age (per year) (OR 1.03, 1.02-1.04), previous history of heart failure (OR 2.48, 1.47-4.26), and distance to the hospital of >5 km (OR 2.0, 1.55-2.59). Those who did not call for an ambulance thought self-transport would be faster or did not believe they were sick enough. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms, patient characteristics, ACS characteristics, and perceptions and knowledge were all associated with ambulance use in ACS. The fact that knowledge increases ambulance use and the need for behavioral change pose a challenge for health-care professionals.

  • 204.
    Torell, Matilda F
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Strömsöe, Anneli
    Dalarna University.
    Zagerholm, Ellen
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Claesson, Andreas
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Svensson, Leif
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Higher survival rates in exercise-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrests, compared to non-exercise-related - a study from the Swedish Register of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.2017In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 24, no 15, p. 1673-1679Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Despite the positive effects of physical activity, the risk of sudden cardiac arrest is transiently increased during and immediately after exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of exercise-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the general population and to compare characteristics and prognosis of these cardiac arrests with non-exercise-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. Methods Data from all cases of treated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest outside of home reported to the Swedish Register of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation from 2011-2015 in three counties of Sweden were investigated (population 2.1 m). This registry captures almost 100% of all out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in Sweden. Results Of 1825 out-of hospital cardiac arrests, 137 (7.5%) were exercise-related, resulting in an incidence of 1.2 per 100,000 person-years. The 30-day survival rate was significantly higher among exercise-related out-of hospital cardiac arrests compared to non-exercise-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (54.3 % vs 19.4%, p < 0.0001). Patients suffering an exercise-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were on average 10 years younger than those who had a non-exercise-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, 56.4 years compared to 67.2 years. Exercise-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrests were more often witnessed (89.4% vs 78.6%, p = 0.002), had higher rates of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (80.3% vs 61.0%, p < 0.0001) and were more frequently connected to an automated external defibrillator (20.4% vs 4.6%, p < 0.0001). Conclusions Cardiac arrests that occur in relation to exercise have a significantly better prognosis and outcome than non-exercise-related cardiac arrests. This may be explained by favourable circumstances but may also reflect that these persons experience a sudden cardiac arrest at a lower degree of coronary artery disease, due to their younger age and to exercise being a trigger.

  • 205.
    Viktorisson, Adam
    et al.
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology at Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Sunnerhagen, Katharina S
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology at Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Johansson, Dongni
    Rehabilitation Medicine, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology at Sahlgrenska Academy.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. Department of Metabolism and Cardiovascular Research, Institute of Internal Medicine at Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Axelsson, Åsa
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    One-year longitudinal study of psychological distress and self-assessed health in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.2019In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 7, article id e029756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated the psychological and health-related outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) over time. This longitudinal study aims to evaluate psychological distress in terms of anxiety and depression, self-assessed health and predictors of these outcomes in survivors of OHCA, 3 and 12 months after resuscitation.

    METHODS: Recruitment took place from 2008 to 2011 and survivors of OHCA were identified through the national Swedish Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Registry. Inclusion criteria were age ≥18 years, survival ≥12 months and a Cerebral Performance Category score ≤2. Questionnaires containing the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions 3 Level (EQ-5D-3L) were administered at 3 and 12 months after the OHCA. Participants were also asked to report treatment-requiring comorbidities.

    RESULTS: Of 298 survivors, 85 (29%) were eligible for this study and 74 (25%) responded. Clinically relevant anxiety was reported by 22 survivors at 3 months and by 17 at 12 months, while clinical depression was reported by 10 at 3 months and 4 at 12 months. The mean EQ-5D-3L index value increased from 0.82 (±0.26) to 0.88 (±0.15) over time. There were significantly less symptoms of psychological distress (p=0.01) and better self-assessed health (p=0.003) at 12 months. Treatment-requiring comorbidity predicted anxiety (OR 4.07, p=0.04), while being female and young age predicted poor health (OR 6.33, p=0.04; OR 0.91, p=0.002) at 3 months. At 12 months, being female was linked to anxiety (OR 9.23, p=0.01) and depression (OR 14.78, p=0.002), while young age predicted poor health (OR 0.93, p=0.003).

    CONCLUSION: The level of psychological distress and self-assessed health improves among survivors of OHCA between 3 and 12 months after resuscitation. Higher levels of psychological distress can be expected among female survivors and those with comorbidity, while survivors of young age and who are female are at greater risk of poor health.

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  • 206.
    Viktorisson, Adam
    et al.
    1 Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Rehabilitation Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Sunnerhagen, Katharina S
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Rehabilitation Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Pöder, Ulrika
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Axelsson, Åsa B
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Well-being among survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a cross-sectional retrospective study in Sweden.2018In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 8, no 6, article id e021729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The psychological outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) has been studied more extensively in recent years. Still, not much is known about the well-being among OHCA survivors. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we aim to investigate post-OHCA well-being among patients with a good neurological outcome, 3 months after the cardiac event. To assess well-being, we analyse the frequency of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and health within this group. Further, we aim to evaluate the importance of five prognostic factors for post-OHCA well-being.

    METHODS: Data collection took place between 2008 and 2012, and every OHCA survivor within one region of Sweden, with a cerebral performance category (CPC) score of ≤2 at discharge, was asked to participate. Survivors were identified through the Swedish Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Registry, and postal questionnaires were sent out 3 months after the OHCA. The survey included Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS), PTSD Checklist Civilian version (PCL-C) and European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions 3 level (EQ-5D-3L).

    RESULTS: Of 298 survivors, 150 were eligible for this study and 94 responded. The mean time from OHCA to follow-up was 88 days. There was no significant difference between respondents and non-respondents in terms of sex, age, cardiac arrest circumstances or in-hospital interventions. 48 participants reported reduced well-being, and young age was the only factor significantly correlated to this outcome (p=0.02). Women reported significantly higher scores in HADS (p=0.001) and PCL-C (p<0.001). Women also reported significantly lower EQ-5D index values (p=0.002) and EQ-visual analogue scale scores (p=0.002) compared with men.

    CONCLUSION: Reduced well-being is experienced by half of OHCA survivors with a CPC score ≤2, and young age is negatively correlated to this outcome. The frequency of anxiety and PTSD is higher among women, who also report worse health.

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  • 207.
    Wallengren Gustafsson, Catarina
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    De kan, de vill och de orkar, men...: studier av närstående till personer drabbade av stroke samt granskning av informationsmaterial från svenska strokeenheter2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Det övergripande syftet med denna avhandling var att öka förståelsen för närstående i deras föränderliga livssituation under de sex första månaderna efter en persons strokeinsjuknande, med särskild fokus på lärande. Vidare var syftet att utvärdera de skriftliga informationsmaterial som erbjuds närstående vid svenska strokeenheter. Metod: I delstudie I, intervjuades 16 närstående om vad det innebar att bli närstående till en person drabbad av stroke. I delstudie II, återintervjuades 9 närstående om vad det innebar att vara närstående till en person drabbad av stroke. Intervjuerna skedde sex månader efter den drabbades strokeinsjuknande. Data från de båda studierna analyserades med hjälp av Lindseth och Norbergs fenomenologiska hermeneutiska analysmetod som är inspirerad av Ricoeur. I delstudie III, intervjuades 16 respektive 9 närstående om vad de ville veta och förstå under de sex första månaderna efter den drabbades strokeinsjuknande. Krippendorffs metod för kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes för att analysera data. I delstudie IV, granskades 42 skriftliga informationsmaterial från 21 svenska strokeenheter. Data analyserades med hjälp av beskrivande statistik och Krippendorffs metod för kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat: Att bli närstående till en person drabbad av stroke innebar att uppleva kaos men också att nå en vändpunkt. Den var startskottet för en febril aktivitet som visade att närstående hade en beredskap att söka ordning i kaoset (I). Att vara närstående till en person drabbad av stroke innebar en kamp för frihet. Närstående ville inte anpassa sig till den drabbades ohälsa eller dess konsekvenser. De ville välja sitt eget levnadssätt och skriva sin egen historia och därför integrerade de ohälsan och dess konsekvenser i sina liv (II). Den information som närstående ville ha handlade om den strokedrabbade, de professionella och om sig själva. Dessutom visade resultatet att deras sökande efter information var relaterat till personlig involvering, situationella faktorer, olika kunskapsbehov och sätt att skaffa sig information (III). De skriftliga informationsmaterialen höll adekvat kvalitet gällande inre och yttre struktur. Dessutom höll de samma nivå när det gällde läsbarhet. Däremot varierade informationsinnehållet mellan de olika strokeenheterna (IV). Konklusion: Att bli närstående till en person som drabbats av stroke innebär att hamna i kaos men också att ganska snart nå en vändpunkt (I). Vid denna är personen beredd att ordna livet utifrån de nya förutsättningarna och därför behöver sjuksköterskor lära sig att identifiera vändpunkter och inkludera stöd till närstå8 ende i de nya och ovana livssituationerna. Att vara närstående under de sex första månaderna efter den drabbades insjuknande innebär att kämpa för frihet, dock utan att överge den drabbade (II). I denna process är det viktigt att den närstående får stöd i att hitta balansen mellan frihet och ansvar, mellan eget liv och omsorg om den drabbade och i relation till andra anhöriga. Närstående är kapabla att hantera sin föränderliga livssituation då de är aktiva, engagerade och framåtriktade personer (I, II, III). Därför behöver alternativa pedagogiska metoder och förhållningssätt utvecklas och testas. Sjuksköterskor behöver tränas i att använda sådana alternativa metoder. Innehållet i de skriftliga informationsmaterial som erbjuds närstående vid svenska strokeenheter varierar stort mellan olika enheter (IV). Därför vore det värdefullt att etablera ett elektroniskt informationscentrum på nationell nivå. Den svenska Hälso- och sjukvårdslagen värnar enbart om den drabbade och berör inte alls de närståendes behov eller situation. Med ett ökande antal äldre, och därmed ökat tryck på familjen, är det kanske hög tid att se över lagen för att undvika att närstående blir ”den andra patienten i familjen”.

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  • 208. Wennberg, Pär
    et al.
    Andersson, Henrik
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Wireklint Sundström, Birgitta
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Patients with suspected hip fracture in the chain of emergency care: An integrative review of the literature2018In: International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma NursingArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 209.
    Wennberg, Pär
    et al.
    Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    Möller, Margareta
    University Health Care Research Center, Region Örebro and School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Kenne Sarenmalm, Elisabeth
    Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    Fascia iliaca compartment block as a preoperative analgesic in elderly patients with hip fractures - effects on cognition.2019In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Impaired cognition is a major risk factor for perioperative delirium. It is essential to provide good pain control in patients with hip fractures and especially important in patients with severely impaired cognitive status, as they receive less pain medication, have poorer mobility, poorer quality of life and higher mortality than patients with intact cognition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between preoperative pain management with nerve blocks and cognitive status in patients with hip fractures during the perioperative period.

    METHODS: One hundred and twenty-seven patients with hip fractures participating in a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial were included in this study. At hospital admission, a low-dose fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) was administered as a supplement to regular analgesia. Cognitive status was registered on arrival at hospital before FICB and on the first postoperative day using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire.

    RESULTS: Changes in cognitive status from arrival at hospital to the first postoperative day showed a positive, albeit not significant, trend in favour of the intervention group. The results also showed that patients with no or a moderate cognitive impairment received 50% more prehospital pain medication than patients with a severe cognitive impairment. FICB was well tolerated in patients with hip fractures.

    CONCLUSION: Fascia iliaca compartment block given to patients with hip fractures did not affect cognitive status in this study. Patients with a cognitive impairment may receive inadequate pain relief after hip fracture and this discrimination needs to be addressed in further studies.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number 2008-004303-59 date of registration: 2008-10-24.

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  • 210.
    Wennberg, Pär
    et al.
    Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    Norlin, Rolf
    Capio Movement, Halmstad, Sweden; Department of Orthopedics, Örebro University Hospital, and Örebro University.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Sarenmalm, Elisabeth Kenne
    Research and Development Centre, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde.
    Möller, Margareta
    University Health Care Research Centre, Region Örebro, and School of Health Sciences, Örebro University.
    Pre-operative pain management with nerve block in patients with hip fractures: a randomized, controlled trial.2019In: International Journal of Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing, ISSN 1878-1241, E-ISSN 1878-1292, Vol. 33, p. 35-43, article id S1878-1241(18)30001-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Pain management in patients with hip fractures is a major challenge for emergency care. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the supplementation of pre-operative analgesia with low-dose fascia iliaca compartment block (FICB) compared with placebo would improve pain relief in patients with hip fractures.

    METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was conducted on 127 patients. At hospital admission, a low-dose FICB was administered to patients with hip fractures as a supplement to regular pre-operative analgesia. Patients with and without cognitive impairment were included. The instruments used were a visual analogue scale (VAS), a numerical rating scale and a tool for behavior related pain assessment. The primary endpoint was the change in reported pain on movement from hospital admission to two hours after FICB.

    RESULTS: The intervention group showed improved pain management by mean VAS score for pain on movement compared with the control group (p = 0.002).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the use of low-dose FICB as a pain-relieving adjuvant to other analgesics when administered to patients with a hip fracture.

  • 211. Werling, M
    et al.
    Thorén, A-B
    Axelsson, C
    [external].
    Herlitz, Johan
    [external].
    Treatment and outcome in post-resuscitation care after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest when a modern therapeutic approach was introduced.2007In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 73, no 1, p. 40-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The outcome among patients who are hospitalised alive after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is still relatively poor. At present, there are no clear guidelines specifying how they should be treated. The aim of this survey was to describe the outcome for initial survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest when a more aggressive approach was applied. PATIENTS: All patients hospitalised alive after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the Municipality of Göteborg, Sweden, during a period of 20 months. RESULTS: Of all the patients in the municipality suffering an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in whom cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was attempted (n=375), 85 patients (23%) were hospitalised alive and admitted to a hospital ward. Of them, 65% had a cardiac aetiology and 50% were found in ventricular fibrillation. In 32% of the patients, hypothermia was attempted, 28% underwent a coronary angiography and 21% had a mechanical revascularisation. In overall terms, 27 of the 85 patients who were brought alive to a hospital ward (32%) survived to 30 days after cardiac arrest. Survival was only moderately higher among patients treated with hypothermia versus not (37% versus 29%; NS), and it was markedly higher among those who had early coronary angiography versus not (67% versus 18%; p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: In an era in which a more aggressive attitude was applied in post-resuscitation care, we found that the survival (32%) was similar to that in previous surveys. However, early coronary angiography was associated with a marked increase in survival and might be of benefit to many of these patients. Larger registries are important to further confirm the value of hypothermia in representative patient populations

  • 212. Wibring, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Christensson, Lennart
    Lingman, Markus
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Prehospital factors associated with an acute life-threatening condition in non-traumatic chest pain patients - A systematic review.2016In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 219, p. 373-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chest pain is a common symptom among patients contacting the emergency medical services (EMS). Risk stratification of these patients is warranted before arrival in hospital, regarding likelihood of an acute life-threatening condition (LTC).

    AIM: To identify factors associated with an increased risk of acute LTC among patients who call the EMS due to non-traumatic chest pain.

    METHODS: Several databases were searched for relevant articles. Identified articles were quality-assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network checklists. Extracted data was analysed using a semi-quantitative synthesis evaluating the level of evidence of each identified factor.

    RESULTS: In total, 10 of 1245 identified studies were included. These studies provided strong evidence for an increased risk of an acute LTC with increasing age, male gender, elevated heart rate, low systolic blood pressure and ST elevation or ST depression on a 12-lead ECG. The level of evidence regarding the history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris or presence of a Q wave or a Left Bundle Branch Block on the ECG was moderate. The evidence was inconclusive regarding dyspnoea, cold sweat/paleness, nausea/vomiting, history of chronic heart failure, smoking, Right Bundle Branch Block or T-inversions on the ECG.

    CONCLUSIONS: Factors reflecting age, gender, myocardial ischemia and a compromised cardiovascular system predicted an increased risk of an acute life-threatening condition in the prehospital setting in cases of acute chest pain. These factors may form the basis for prehospital risk stratification in acute chest pain.

  • 213. Wibring, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Lingman, Markus
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Symptom description in patients with chest pain-A qualitative analysis of emergency medical calls involving high-risk conditions.2019In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 28, no 15-16, p. 2844-2857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the symptoms descriptions and situational information provided by patients during ongoing chest pain events caused by a high-risk condition.

    BACKGROUND: Chest pain is a common symptom in patients contacting emergency dispatch centres. Only 15% of these patients are later classified as suffering from a high-risk condition. Prehospital personnel are largely dependent on symptom characteristics when trying to identify these patients.

    DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive.

    METHODS: Manifest content analysis of 56 emergency medical calls involving patients with chest pain was carried out. A stratified purposive sampling was used to obtain calls concerning patients with high-risk conditions. These calls were then listened to and transcribed. Thereafter, meaning units were identified and coded and finally categorised. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative studies guidelines have been applied.

    RESULTS: A wide range of situational information and symptoms descriptions was found. Pain and affected breathing were dominating aspects, but other situational information and several other symptoms were also reported. The situational information and these symptoms were classified into seven categories: Pain narrative, Affected breathing, Bodily reactions, Time, Bodily whereabouts, Fear and concern and Situation management. The seven categories consisted of 17 subcategories.

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients with chest pain caused by a high-risk condition present a wide range of symptoms which are described in a variety of ways. They describe different kinds of chest pain accompanied by pain from other parts of the body. Breathing difficulties and bodily reactions such as muscle weakness are also reported. The variety of symptoms and the absence of a typical symptomatology make risk stratification on the basis of symptoms alone difficult.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study highlights the importance of an open mind when assessing patients with chest pain and the requirement of a decision support tool in order to improve risk stratification in these patients.

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  • 214.
    Wireklint Sundström, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Brink, Peter
    NU-Hospital Organisation.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    University of Gothenburg.
    The early chain of care and risk of death in acute stroke in relation to the priority given at the dispatch centre: A multicentre observational study2017In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, Vol. 16, no 7, p. 623-631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:The early chain of care is critical for stroke patients. The most important part is the so-called 'system delay' i.e. the delay time from call to the emergency medical services until a diagnosis is established (computer tomography).Aim:The purpose of this study was to relate the initial priority level given by the dispatch centre to the early chain of care in acute stroke and to short-term and long-term mortality.Methods:All patients hospitalised with the first and the final diagnosis of acute stroke, 15 December 2010?15 April 2011, were recruited across nine hospitals, each hospital with a stroke care unit.Results:In all, 897 stroke patients were included. Priority at the dispatch centre: 54% received highest priority 1, 41% priority 2 and 5% priority 3. Median system delay from call to emergency medical services until diagnosis by computer tomography was 2 h and 52 min, 4 h and 49 min and 6 h and 33 min respectively in the three priority groups (p<0.0001). There was a similarly strong association between priority level at the dispatch centre and system delay to arrival in a hospital ward, suspicion of stroke by the emergency medical services nurse as well as the physician on hospital admission and the proportion of patients given thrombolysis. Mortality during the subsequent 30 days was 22% among patients with priority 1 and 14% among patients with priority 2.Conclusion:Patients given a lower priority level at the dispatch centre had the longest system delay. Although many of these patients died, the risk of death was highest among those given the highest priority.

  • 215.
    Wireklint Sundström, Birgitta
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Winge, Karin
    Lundberg, Camilla
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Anxiolytics in patients suffering a suspected acute coronary syndrome: Multi-centre randomised controlled trial in Emergency Medical Service2013In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 168, no 4, p. 3580-3587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The prehospital treatment of pain and discomfort among patients who suffer from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) needs a treatment strategy which combines relief of pain with relief of anxiety. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact on pain and anxiety of the combination of an anxiolytic and an analgesic as compared with an analgesic alone in the prehospital setting of suspected ACS. Methods: A multi-centre randomised controlled trial compared the combination of Midazolam (Mi) + Morphine (Mo) and Mo alone. All measures took part: Prior to randomisation, 15 min thereafter and on admission to a hospital. Inclusion criteria were: 1) pain raising suspicion of ACS and 2) pain score ≥4. Primary endpoint: Pain score after 15 min. Results: In all, 890 patients were randomised to Mi + Mo and 873 to Mo alone. Pain was reduced from a median of 6 to 4 and finally to 3 in both groups. The mean dose of Mo was 5.3 mg in Mi + Mo and 6.0 mg in Mo alone (p b 0.0001). Anxiety was reported in 66% in Mi + Mo and in 64% in Mo alone at randomisation (NS); 15 min thereafter in 31% and 39% (p = 0.002) and finally in 12% and 26% respectively (p b 0.0001). On admission to a hospital nausea or vomiting was reported in 9% in Mi + Mo and in 13% in Mo alone (p = 0.003). Drowsiness differed; 15% and 14% were drowsy in Mi + Mo versus 2% and 3% in Mo alone respectively (p b 0.001). Conclusion: Despite the fact that the combination of anxiolytics and analgesics as compared with analgesics alone reduced anxiety and the requirement of Morphine in the prehospital setting of acute coronary syndrome, this strategy did not reduce patients' estimation of pain (primary endpoint). More effective pain relief among these patients is warranted.

  • 216.
    Zijlstra, Jolande A
    et al.
    Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center.
    Koster, Rudolph W
    Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center.
    Blom, Marieke T
    Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center.
    Lippert, Freddy K
    Emergency Medical Services Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen.
    Svensson, Leif
    Department of Medicine, Centre for Resuscitation Science, Karolinska Institutet.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Kramer-Johansen, Jo
    Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Prehospital Emergency Medicine (NAKOS) and Department of Anaesthesiology, Oslo University Hospital.
    Ringh, Mattias
    Department of Medicine, Centre for Resuscitation Science, Karolinska Institutet.
    Rosenqvist, Mårten
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet.
    Palsgaard Møller, Thea
    Emergency Medical Services Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen.
    Tan, Hanno L
    Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center.
    Beesems, Stefanie G
    Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center.
    Hulleman, Michiel
    Department of Cardiology, Academic Medical Center.
    Claesson, Andreas
    Department of Medicine, Centre for Resuscitation Science, Karolinska Institutet.
    Folke, Fredrik
    Emergency Medical Services Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen.
    Olasveengen, Theresa Mariero
    Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Prehospital Emergency Medicine (NAKOS) and Department of Anaesthesiology.
    Wissenberg, Mads
    Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte.
    Hansen, Carolina Malta
    Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte.
    Viereck, Soren
    Emergency Medical Services Copenhagen, University of Copenhagen.
    Hollenberg, Jacob
    Department of Medicine, Centre for Resuscitation Science, Karolinska Institutet.
    Different defibrillation strategies in survivors after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest.2018In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 104, no 23, p. 1929-1936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In the last decade, there has been a rapid increase in the dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for prehospital defibrillation of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients. The aim of this study was to study the association between different defibrillation strategies on survival rates over time in Copenhagen, Stockholm, Western Sweden and Amsterdam, and the hypothesis was that non-EMS defibrillation increased over time and was associated with increased survival.

    METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of four prospectively collected cohorts of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients between 2008 and 2013. Emergency medical service (EMS)-witnessed arrests were excluded.

    RESULTS: A total of 22 453 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with known survival status were identified, of whom 2957 (13%) survived at least 30 days postresuscitation. Of all survivors with a known defibrillation status, 2289 (81%) were defibrillated, 1349 (59%) were defibrillated by EMS, 454 (20%) were defibrillated by a first responder AED and 429 (19%) were defibrillated by an onsite AED and 57 (2%) were unknown. The percentage of survivors defibrillated by first responder AEDs (from 13% in 2008 to 26% in 2013, p<0.001 for trend) and onsite AEDs (from 14% in 2008 to 30% in 2013, p<0.001 for trend) increased. The increased use of these non-EMS AEDs was associated with the increase in survival rate of patients with a shockable initial rhythm.

    CONCLUSION: Survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest are increasingly defibrillated by non-EMS AEDs. This increase is primarily due to a large increase in the use of onsite AEDs as well as an increase in first-responder defibrillation over time. Non-EMS defibrillation accounted for at least part of the increase in survival rate of patients with a shockable initial rhythm.

  • 217.
    Årestedt, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Allert, Camilla
    Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Djucanovic, Ingrid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Israelsson, Johan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Schildmeijer, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Agerström, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Årestedt, Liselott
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Bremer, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Health Related Quality of Life Among In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Survivors in Working Age2018Conference paper (Refereed)
2345 201 - 217 of 217
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