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  • 201.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Maria
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Three dimensional woven bone tissue engineering scaffolds of melt-spun poly(lactic acid) fibres2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 202. Cho, Sung-Woo
    et al.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Hemanathan, Kumar
    Mahimaisenan, Pirabasenan
    Adekunle, Kayode
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Regenerated cellulose fibre reinforced casein films: Effect of plasticizer and fibres on the film properties2014In: Macromolecular Research, ISSN 1598-5032, E-ISSN 2092-7673, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 701-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of using man-made cellulosic fibres as reinforcement for casein films in this study was inspired by their well defined fibre diameter and availability in large quantity, eventually leading to a homogeneous high quality composite at low cost. The casein biofilms were fabricated by solution casting from an aqueous alkaline solution of the bovine milk protein casein in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer, and the fibre-reinforced biocomposites were prepared by the addition of regenerated cellulose fibre to the casein casting solution with various amounts of glycerol. The effects of glycerol content and cellulose fibre reinforcements on the mechanical, thermal and physiological properties were characterized. The results showed that increasing glycerol content decreased the film strength, Young’s modulus and thermal stability with a gradual increase in the elongation. However, the tensile properties were noticeably improved when reinforced with cellulose fibre. The composite with 20 wt% glycerol and 20 wt% cellulose fibre showed the maximum tensile strength of 23.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 1.5 GPa. The corresponding values for the composite with 30 wt% glycerol and the same fibre content were 15.1 MPa and 0.9 GPa, which were 2.3- and 3.2-fold higher compared to 30 wt% glycerol plasticized film. The thermal analysis revealed that the glass transition temperature and the thermal stability were decreased when the glycerol content was increased. Addition of cellulose fibres increased the glass transition temperature as well as the thermal stability. The gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis indicated that there was no significant decrease in the molecular weight of the casein protein during sample preparation. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the obtained composites with low glycerol content had adequate interfacial bonding, and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of molecular interactions between the cellulose fibres and the casein.

  • 203.
    Claesson, Frida
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Wikström Blomqvist, E.
    Johansson, A.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, B.J.
    Andersson, Bengt-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Annual variation in elemental, dioxin and PCB content within Swedish waste fuels: results from two plants2009In: Proceedings Sardinia 2009, Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy; 5-9 October 2009, 2009, p. 347-348Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the annual variation of the composition of waste fuels fed to two different Waste to Energy (WtE) plants in Sweden. Twelve waste fuel samples from one year of sampling in each plant were analysed with Ion Chromatography and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy to study the variation of elements within and between the fuels of the two different plants and also to investigate any seasonal variations. The ultimate analyses show that the composition was rather similar throughout the sampling period for both plants, respectively. However, there was a larger variation in the content of ash forming elements within and between the plants. Trace metals, present in low concentrations, showed the widest relative variation. The samples were also analysed for dioxin and PCB content. The reported average value for all samples is 29 ± 15 ng I-TEQ dioxin per kilo dry waste. The calculated toxicity of twelve PCB congeners, reported as WHO-PCB, is less or close to the detection limit < 0.02 μg PCB WHO-TEQ per kilo dry waste.

  • 204.
    Claesson, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Liljesand, Jonas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Användbarhet som värdeskapare: En studie om användbarhetens roll vid val av bärbara datorer hos studenter2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of usability is to help the user reach their goals in a simple and satisfactory manner. A product’s usability is therefore affected by various aspects. Aspects such as performance, hardware, user interface, and perceived quality, are some of the parameters that should be taken into consideration when students choose a laptop that will be beneficial for their studies. 225 students participated in a survey where they rated and explained how much certain aspects affected their choice of laptop. The results showed that students value laptops with good performance, long battery life, and technical aspects that suit their needs. The most common use of the laptops were to aid them in their studies, and aspects such as performance, weight and size of the laptop determined whether or not the laptop would be useful for this purpose. The study confirmed that brands are associated with quality and that product quality was one of the reasons to why students became loyal towards a brand of computers. Aspects such as hardware, performance, user interface, and quality affects the user’s ability to reach their goals in an effective manner, and therefore needs to be suited after the individuals’ functional and emotional needs to achieve optimal usability.

  • 205.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    A Navigation Framework: an aspect when designing CASE tools1997In: Proceedings of the 20th Information Systems Research In Scandinavia (IRIS 20), Braa K & Monteiro E (eds). Oslo, Norway, 1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Communicative Criteria for Usability Evaluation2010In: OZCHI 2010, November 22-26, 2010, Brisbane, Australia.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today we are primarily using computers for communication. We communicate via computers as professionals and at our spare time. One growing context of computer use is when we as citizens communicating with authorities. This paper suggests communication criteria for evaluation of public e- services. The suggested criteria are derived from a communication perspective and applied in a case study for evaluation of an e-service. Communication between authorities and citizens are often communication intensive and consequently conditions and consequences of communication should be evaluated. The aim of the suggested communication criteria is to be a complement to established traditional usability criteria.

  • 207.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. [external].
    Conceptualising Participatory Action Research: Three Different Practices2004In: Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, ISSN 1477-7029, E-ISSN 1477-7029, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 47-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 208.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    [external].
    Course Evaluation: When, How, What and Why2010In: Information Systems Education Journal, ISSN 1545-679X, Vol. 8, no 16, p. 8-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: This study is about course evaluation in Swedish higher education. Performing course evaluation is regulated in Swedish law. Despite this, only half of the courses are evaluated. The aim of this study is to understand why satisfactory course evaluations not are performed. Problems are identified from a student perspective and the paper provides proposals for reducing the problems. In order to tackle the problems an evaluation process model consisting of five phases is proposed. A main message is that there is need for an increased government from the university’s management levels to revise the incentives for performing a satisfactory course evaluation.

  • 209.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Data-Driven Innovation: Managing a Project Including Multiple Business Partners2019In: In proceedings of iConference 2019. Washington D.C., USA, March 31- April 3, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proposal describes an ongoing research project called Data-Driven Innovation which comprises 14 researchers and 13 business partners. The project is characterized by partnership, collaboration, and interaction between the involved researchers and the business partners. The purpose of the project is to identify tools that can support the business partners in their efforts to exploit data in order to enhance service delivery and to create competitive advantage. The project is applying a socio-technical perspective in order to avoid a too one-sided technical focus. The proposal ends with presenting a number of challenges due to the increased complexity concerning the management of multiple business partners and researchers. The challenges are: maintaining the balance between competing interests, managing the problem of generalization, mutual learning, and ensure partnership throughout the project.

  • 210.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Data-Driven Innovation: Managing a Project Including Multiple Business Partners2019In: Proceedings of iConference 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proposal describes an ongoing research project called Data-Driven Innovation which comprises 14 researchers and 13 business partners. The project is characterized by partnership, collaboration, and interaction between the involved researchers and the business partners. The purpose of the project is to identify tools that can support the business partners in their efforts to exploit data in order to enhance service delivery and to create competitive advantage. The project is applying a socio-technical perspective in order to avoid a too one-sided technical focus. The proposal ends with presenting a number of challenges due to the increased complexity concerning the management of multiple business partners and researchers. The challenges are: maintaining the balance between competing interests, managing the problem of generalization, mutual learning, and ensure partnership throughout the project.

  • 211.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. [external].
    Illustrating Multi-Grounded Theory: Experiences from Grounding Process2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper challenges traditional grounded theory. Both theoretical and empirical grounding is proposed as claims of validity for theory generation. This paper builds on a framework about multi-grounded theory (MGT) presented in Goldkuhl & Cronholm (2003). In that paper the framework is presented on a conceptual and procedural level. The aim of this paper is to support the use of multi-grounded theory. This paper also takes a critical stand towards MGT.

  • 212.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    [external].
    Information Systems Evaluation: adding process descriptions to six evaluation types2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All around the world there is a huge amount of money invested in IT. It is therefore important to evaluate the return on the investment. Evaluation is complicated and consequently there are a lot of proposals for how to evaluate IT-systems. Several of these proposals reside on the theoretical level. The aim of this paper is to be more concrete and discuss evaluation in terms of “how to do”. This paper builds on a evaluation framework presented by Cronholm & Goldkuhl (2003). In that paper, six generic types for evaluation are presented on an ideal typical level. In this paper, evaluation processes are suggested for how the generic types can be carried out in order to support the use of that framework.

  • 213.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    [external].
    Metodverktyg och användbarhet: en studie av datorstödd metodbaserad systemutveckling1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes usability goals for method tools. Method tools are a type of CASE-tool aiming to support computer- and method-based information systems development. The aim of the thesis is to develop knowledge in order to suggest recommendations for achieving more usable method tools. The thesis takes an action perspective. An important starting-point in identifying usability goals are the existing modelling acts in the system development process specifying requirements for how method tools shall be developed. The thesis is performed as a prototyping approach embracing three steps. Output from a previous step is used as input to the following step. Further the thesis is based on studies of real cases where actors have interacted with method tools. In order to gain data I have used questionnaires, interviews and observations. The thesis embraces 12 usability goals for method tools. These goals are empirically generated and theoretically grounded. The identified usability goals are primary oriented towards the use situation system developer, method tool and task. Several usability goals can be characterised as more general and therefore are valid in areas beyond this use situation. The main contributions of this thesis are recommendations for developing method tools, a goal-means hierarchy presenting a composite description of usability attributes for method tools, characterising knowledge in a taxonomic form and a model which describes how modelling acts are related to usability goals.

  • 214.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    [external].
    Multi-Grounded Theory in Practice: a Review of Experiences from Use2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 215.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Need for Action Oriented Design and Evaluation of Information Systems2003In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 306-310., 2003, p. 306-310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem we are approaching is that the actions offered by computerized information systems (IS) often seem to disharmonize with the actions performed in work practice. In this paper, we have analysed a representative usability-oriented checklist supporting design and evaluation of computer-based systems. The analysis has been made from an action perspective. One result is that the checklist is more oriented towards cognitive aspects. Action oriented improvements are suggested.

  • 216.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Nine Principles for Designing a Study Program2006In: Information Systems Education Journal, ISSN 1545-679X, Vol. 4, no 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: This paper outlines nine key principles to consider when designing a study program. Design principles are essential when revising education programs in the field of information systems due to the rapid changes in business technique. These principles are generated from an em-pirical study concerning the development of a modified study program. The principles identi-fied are: Vision; Traceability; Progression and Integration; Manning the development project and anchoring decisions; Pedagogy; Mandatory vs. free choice of courses; Implementation; Evaluation and Marketing. These are compared to a list of criteria generated by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education and the outcome of this comparison is that several of the principles can also be used for the evaluation of study programs. The research has been carried out as action research. This means that there has been an intervention in the process of the designing the study program. The target groups of this paper are study boards, faculty members, teachers and students that are active in different student associations.

  • 217.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Projekt, publikationer och personliga reflektioner2016In: 25 år av kunskapande: - Återblickar och uppskattning från Görans doktorander / [ed] Karin Axelsson & Ulf Melin, Linköpings Universitet , 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 218.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    The Usability of Usability Guidelines2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is challenging the usability of traditional usability guidelines. The claim is that guideline descriptions and explanations are not satisfactory. Analysis results demonstrate vagueness and are ambiguous in explanation. The aim of the paper is to propose a set of principles (meta-guidelines) to be used for improving the usability of guidelines.

  • 219.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    [external].
    Using Agile Methods?: expected effects2010In: Information Systems Development / [ed] G. A. Papadopoulus, G. Wojtkowski, S. Wrycza, J. Zupancic, Springer US , 2010, p. 913-921Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on the movement from traditional to agile methods. What are the expected benefits of using agile methods instead of traditional ones? The chapter compares identified benefits in traditional and agile methods and takes a critical attitude in order to reveal possibilities and risks with the expressed benefits in agile methods. The chapter also tries to answer the questions of what benefits are lost and what benefits are preserved when moving to agile methods.

  • 220.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Utvärdering av Vindtjänsten: en e-tjänst för analys av vindkraftsförhållanden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vindtjänsten är en e-tjänst för analys av vindkraftsförhållande om ansökan om tillstånd för konstruktion av vindkraftverk. Vindtjänsten har utvecklats med finansiellt stöd av VINNOVA och med Boverket som ursprunglig huvudman. Huvudmannaskapet för fortsatt utveckling och drift innehas av Energimyndigheten. Vindtjänsten utvecklades inom ramen för projektet Planeringsportalen som startade 2006 och avslutades under sommaren 2009. Syftet med att utveckla Vindtjänsten är att skapa en e-tjänst för en samlad planeringsinformation. Vindtjänsten skall stödja både vindkraftsentreprenörer och myndigheter i vindkraftsutbyggnadsprocessen och bidra till en snabbare och effektivare hantering. Två utvärderingsansatser har använts för att granska Vindtjänsten: målbaserad och kriteriebaserad utvärdering. Den målbaserade utvärderingen har resulterat i att flera överordnade mål har infriats. Den huvudsakliga karaktären på det stöd som erbjuds är texter för läsning. Information finns både internt i Vindtjänsten men är också externt åtkomlig vi länkar. Det interaktiva stöd som erbjuds motsvaras av den del som kallas för Kartvisaren. Den kriteriebaserade utvärderingen har fokuserat mer användbarhetsfrågor som t ex enkelhet, begripligt språk, handlingstransparens, feedback och informationsstrukturering. Utvärderingen har resulterat i att uppfattningen att Vindtjänsten (inklusive Kartvisaren) är enkel att använda även om en förbättringspotential finns. Studier av de arbetsdokument som framtagits under utvecklingsarbetet visar att projektet haft höga ambitioner inledningsvis som successivt reviderats. Vindtjänsten ger ett gott stöd för att få en samlad planeringsinformation men samtidigt finns en förbättringspotential. Den utvecklingsinriktning som rekommenderas för att ytterligare förbättra Vindtjänstens 1 2010-06-02 användbarhet är: interaktivt stöd för ansökan om tillstånd av vindkraftsetableringar, införande av interaktiva blanketter samt förbättrad pedagogisk uppbyggnad av informationsstrukturer genom en förbättrad kategorisering av information och menyindelning.

  • 221.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    [external].
    Varför CASE-verktyg i systemutveckling: En motiv- och konsekvensstudie avseende arbetssätt och arbetsformer1994Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 222.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    [external].
    Why CASE Tools in Information Systems Development?: an Empirical Study Concerning Motives for Investing in CASE Tools1995Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 223.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    [external].
    Bruno, Vince
    Do you Need General Principles or Concrete Heuristics?: a Model for Categorizing Usability Criteria2008In: Proceedings of the 20th Australasian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, OZCHI 2008: Designing for Habitus and Habitat, Cairns, Australia, December 8-12, 2008, 2008, p. 105-111Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the character of usability criteria found in lists, which are used for interface design and evaluation. In order to understand usability criteria and relations between different criteria, a categorization of six usability criteria lists has been performed. The analysis has shown that the formulations of criteria reside on different abstraction levels. The results consist of two knowledge contribution. The first contribution is a hierarchical categorization model. The role of this multilevel abstraction hierarchy is to support practical problem solving processes by enabling and supporting the explicit articulation of criteria for a given context. The second contribution is a categorization of usability criteria. The aim of this categorization is to support the understanding of how different usability criteria relate (e.g. overlap or complement) to each other and highlight possible gaps.

  • 224.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Bruno, Vince
    Usability of IT-Systems is More than Interaction Quality: The Need for Communication and Business Process Criteria2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 225.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    [external].
    Ericsson, Owen
    What could OOA&D Benefit from Grounded Theory?2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Doing research or developing information systems development (ISD) often means to use approaches or methods of different kind. Using methods means to use recommendations or guidelines for how something should be performed (see section 3). There exist a lot of different methods, both as support for the ISD process and as support for the research process. The research methods are often roughly divided into quantitative and qualitative methods (e.g. Patton, 1990; Walsham, 1993). In this paper we are interested in qualitative research methods (QRM). Examples of qualitative research approaches/methods are grounded theory (GT) (Glaser & Strauss, 1967; Glaser, 1992; Strauss & Corbin, 1998) and phenomenology (e.g. Heidegger, 1975; Alvesson & Sköldberg, 2000).

  • 226.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    [external].
    Fristedt, Dan
    CASE-shells: flexible and open environments for customizing CASE tools1993In: Proceedings of the 16th Information Systems Research In Scandinavia (IRIS 16), 1993Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 227.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    [external].
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Actable Information Systems: Quality Ideals Put Into Practice2002In: Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference On Information Systems Development (ISD 2002), 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem we are approaching in this paper is that the actions offered by information systems (IS) often seem to disharmonise with the actions performed in the work practice. Several researchers report lacks in IS use. For example, Hägerfors (1994) claims that there is a lot of IS which is not fully usable in the context wherein they exist. Henderson & Kyng (1994) claims that there is a discrepancy between creation of IS and work situations. Bannon (1994) claims that there is need for a better understanding among researchers and system designers about users and their work settings. We need to understand people as actors with a set of skills and shared practices based on work experiences (ibid.)

  • 228.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Competence Development among IT-Consultants2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about the knowledge transferring between IT-consultants. IT-consultants are involved in many complex and challenging situations. They need to manage organisational, semantic and technical issues. Managing this complexity requires a high and a variety of competences. Examples of competences needed are business development, project management, information system development methods and techniques. An IT-consultant often makes continuous movements between different assignments and clients. The competence developed is often individually based. Individually based knowledge is not sufficient since the IT-consultants have to carry organisational working procedures. Furthermore, the competence needed is not static; it is something that should evolve dynamically. In this paper we are proposing a collective competence development approach. The collective competence development approach consists of a process model and a conceptual model. The aim of both these models is to make individual based knowledge as subject to collective reflection.

  • 229.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    [external].
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Document-Driven Systems Development: an Approach Involving Novice Users2002In: Proceedings of the 7th Annual Conference of United Kingdom Academy for Information Systems (UKAIS) Leeds Metropolitan University, UK / [ed] B Howell, G Orange, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests a document-driven information systems development (ISD) approach. The reason for this approach is to find better ways to communicate with novice users. We have based our research on two principles: start with what is known and shift between abstractions and concretions. The concept “what is known” means that we have used existing familiar documents as a staring point. When modelling IS we always make abstractions. One way to confirm that we have made the right abstraction is to relate it something that is concrete to the user. We have used a shift between the abstract and the concrete in order to help the users to understand particular phenomena. We have experienced that this is especially important when developing IS that involves novice users. Our conclusion about the work practice is that document-driven systems development has led to improvements in the work practice. The approach has resulted in improved conditions for communication between the users, conceptual improvements and structural process improvements. Using the latter of the two principles means that the researchers/ISD professionals should be sensitive for when to make abstractions and when to make concretions. Using existing documents as starting point means to start with what is known. Our experience from this is that users have participated in a natural way during the analysis and design work.

  • 230.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    [external].
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Involving Novice Users in Document-Driven System Requirements Analysis2007In: Journal of Information, Information Technology, and Organizations, ISSN 1557-1319, E-ISSN 1557-1327, Vol. 2, p. 131-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes a document-driven approach to analysis of system requirements. The objective of this approach is to establish better ways of communicating with novice users. We have based our research on two principles: 'connecting to what is known' and 'shifting between abstractions and concretions.' The former principle means that existing familiar documents have been used as a starting point. The latter principle refers to relating the abstractions made in the system development process to something that is concrete to the user. Our document-driven approach was implemented in a case study discussed in the article. Our approach resulted in improved conditions for communication between users, in conceptual improvements, and in process improvements.

  • 231.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    [external].
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Meanings and motives of method customization in CASE environments: observations and categorizations from an empirical study1994In: Proceedings of the 5th European Workshop on Next Generation of CASE Tools., 1994Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 232.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Reflected Action Learning: a Method for Collective Competence Development2010In: 11th European Conference Knowledge ManagementArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about the knowledge transferring between IT-consultants. IT-consultants are involved in many complex and challenging situations. They need to manage organisational, semantic and technical issues. Managing this complexity requires a high and a variety of competences. Examples of competences needed are business development, project management, information system development methods and techniques. An IT-consultant often makes continuous movements between different assignments and clients. The competence developed is often individually based. Individually based knowledge is not sufficient since the IT-consultants have to carry organisational working procedures. Furthermore, the competence needed is not static; it is something that should evolve dynamically. In this paper we are proposing a collective competence development approach. The collective competence development approach consists of a process model and a conceptual model. The aim of both these models is to make individual based knowledge as subject to collective reflection.

  • 233.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    [external].
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Six Generic Types of Information Systems Evaluation2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to the decision of how to perform evaluation depending on the evaluation context. Three general strategies of how to perform evaluation together with two general strategies of what to evaluate are identified. From the three “how-strategies” and the two “what-strategies” we derive a matrix consisting of six generic types of evalua-tion. Each one of the six types are categorised on a ideal typical level.

  • 234.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University .
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University .
    Strategies for Information Systems Evaluation: Six Generic Types2003In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, ISSN 1566-6379, E-ISSN 1566-6379, Vol. 6, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to the decision of how to perform evaluation depending on the evaluation context. Three general strategies of how to perform evaluation are identified: Goal-free evaluation, goal-based and criteria-based evaluation. Two general strategies of what to evaluate are identified: IT-system as such and IT-system in use. From the three “how-strategies” and the two “what-strategies” we derive a matrix consisting of six generic types of evaluation. Each one of the six types are categorised on a ideal typical level. For each type there is suggested evaluation process model.

  • 235.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    [external].
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Understanding the Practices of Action Research2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to elaborate on the concept of action research. With inspiration from work performed by Checkland and McKay & Marchall the conceptualisation we are suggesting is illustrated in a model consisting of three different prac-tices. Action research means a meeting between a research practice and a business practice. This meeting constitutes a third practice, which is at the same time a business change practice and an intervening empirical research practice. In the paper, we show how the three practices are interlinked to each other. The analysis is based on a work practice theory (ToP).

  • 236.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    [external].
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Hedström, Karin
    Pilemalm, M-L
    Handlingsbart IT-system för kvalitetssäkring och individualisering av äldreomsorg.2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 237.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    [external].
    Guldkuhl, Göran
    Communication Analysis as Perspective and Method for Requirements Engineering2005In: Requirements Engineering for Sociotechnical Systems / [ed] J L Maté, A Silva, Idea Group Inc , 2005, p. 340-358Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter we challenge the view of perceiving information systems as systems for storing, retrieving, and organizing large amounts of data. We claim that the main purpose of information systems is to support the communication that takes place between different actors in a work practice. We describe a communication perspective on information systems and its consequences for performing requirements engineering. In this perspective business documents play a prominent role. The perspective is operationalized into a method and an example from a case study is used in order to describe the method.

  • 238.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    [external].
    Guss, Sarah
    Bruno, Vince
    Learning Observation: Introducing the Role of a Meta-Observer2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 239.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Action Design Research: Expanding the Scope2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 240.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Design Science Research Constructs: a Conceptual Model2019In: Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design science research (DSR) has become an accepted as well as legitimated research paradigm within the IS discipline. DSR has had a significant impact on IS research and it has the potential to become even more successful.One reason for not being fully adopted is due to gaps in the understanding of DSR constructs. Our literature review has revealed that constructs often are:abstract, synonymous, overlapping, offering slightly different definitions, and difficult to grasp. One implication of these problems is that it might be hard to communicate research results not only to other researchers within the DSR community but also to other disciplines. Consequently, the purpose of this study has been to suggest a conceptual model that includes key DSR constructs and their relationships that can contribute to the understanding and communication of the DSR phenomenon.

  • 241.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Empirical Experiences from the Use of Service-Dominant Logic in an IT-Project2019In: Proceedings ofthe 5thNaples Forum on Service, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose –Over the past several decades, we have witnessed a transformation from an industrial product-oriented economy to a service economy in the IT-sector. The goal of the organizations is to increase their digital organizational capability by implementing digital service transformations. However, adopting a service perspective in the management of digital services continues to be a challenging process for many organizations (Brown et al. 2016). The adoption of a service perspective is not about a minor change of attitude; it is a paradigm shift for the whole IT-sector. One contemporary service perspective is service-dominant logic (SDL). In our literature analysis, we identified that the development of SDL is primarily based on theoretical insights gained from previous prior work by several scholars. We can conclude that theoretical grounding of SDL is firm, but that SDL lacks empirical evidence concerning experiences from applying SDL in the IT-projects. Consequently, the purpose of our study is to present empirical evidence from the use of SDL in an IT-project. The IT-project included the design of a digital tool for service assessment and service innovation.

     

     

    Design/Methodology/approach – Our study has unfolded by means of a four-stage process: 1) Literature review of prior applications and evaluations of SDL, 2) Implementation of an IT-project concerning the development of a digital tool supporting service assessment and service innovation, guided by service-dominant logic, 3) Evaluation of SDL based on empirical experiences gained from the IT-project, 4) Formulation of complementing prescriptive guidance that overcomes the identified challenges in the IT-project. 

     

     

    Findings – The findings consist of three challenges:

    Challenge 1: The understanding of central conceptualizations in SDL.Challenge 2: The generic nature of SDL.Challenge 3: The lack of prescriptive guidance on how to use SDL in IT-projects.

     

     

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable) – Contribution to the knowledge of how to adopt SDL in IT-projects. 

     

     

    Practical implications (if applicable) – Prescriptive guidance that can support organizations in their efforts to transforming their business to become digital service oriented and increase their digital organizational capability.

     

     

    Originality/value – The main discourse about SDL has been largely theoretical. Little attention has been given to how empirical evidence gained from IT-projects can be used to inform the further theoretical development and the practical use of SDL.

  • 242.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Empirical Grounding of Design Science Research Methodology2015In: New Horizons in Design Science: Broadening the Research Agenda / [ed] Donnellan, B., Helfert, M., Kenneally, J., VanderMeer, D., Rothenberger, M., Winter, R., Springer, 2015, p. 471-479Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically ground design science research methodology. We claim that popular design science research methodologies lack empirical grounding based on primary data. That is, the empirical grounding is based on reconstructions of studies conducted for other purposes. To use an existing data set to answer new or extended research questions means to conduct a secondary analysis. We point at several risks related to secondary analyses and we claim that popular design science research methodologies should be based on primary data. Thus, we have systematically collected methodology users’ empirical experiences and reflections from DSR projects and structured them according to the Three Cycle View [23].  The overall findings show that the experiences are mainly positive. However, there are negative experiences such as the guidelines’ granularity, lack of rigorousness concerning evaluation of new knowledge, and support for collaboration.

  • 243.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Evaluation of Action Design Research2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0905-0167, E-ISSN 1901-0990, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 35-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design science research (DSR) is a legitimate research paradigm in the discipline of information systems (IS). One prominent DSR method is Action Design Research (ADR). The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the ADR method based on empirical experiences from a research project. We have found that the ADR method is highly relevant to an applied discipline such as IS. It creates a bridge between the organisational perspective and the technical perspective of the IT artefact. Moreover, the ADR method supports the dual mission of developing theory and producing knowledge that supports IS practitioners. The findings also include empirical evidence pointing towards a lack of prescriptive guidance with respect to the challenges such as: how to identify appropriate evaluation strategies, how to identify the abstraction mechanisms required to move from the specific-and-unique to the generic-and-abstract, and how to formulate design principles. Although we found adequate support at the macro level, the ADR method needs more detailed support for operationalisation in practice. To address this issue, we propose a number of guidelines that either seek to improve the ADR method or support those who apply ADR.

  • 244.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Evaluation of the Information Systems Research Framework: Empirical Evidence from a Design Science Research Project2016In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, ISSN 1566-6379, E-ISSN 1566-6379, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 157-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence that the design science framework Information System Research (ISR) works in practice. More than ten years has passed since ISR was published in the well-cited article ‘Design Science in Information Systems Research’. However, there is no thoroughly documented evaluation of ISR based on primary data. That is, existing evaluations are based on reconstructions of prior studies conducted for other purposes. To use an existing data set to answer new or extended research questions means to conduct a secondary analysis. We point to several risks related to secondary analyses and claim that popular design science research frameworks should be based on primary data. In this paper, we present an evaluation consisting of empirical experiences based on primary data. We have systematically collected experiences from a three-year research project and we present ting of both strengths and weaknesses are presented. The main strengths are: the bridging of the contextual environment with the design science activities and the rigorousness of testing IT artefacts. The main weaknesses are: imbalance in support for making contributions to both theory and practice, and ambiguity concerning the practitioners’ role in design and evaluation of artefacts. We claim that the identified weaknesses can be used for further development of frameworks or methods concerning design science research. 

  • 245.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Guidelines Supporting the Formulation of Design Principles2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design principles represent design knowledge and constitute a prescriptive component that is included in design theory. In design science research, the formulation of generalised and intelligible design principles that can be reused in new contexts is regarded as an important outcome. Our study has revealed that existing design principles vary in terms of structure, content, and level of abstraction. This variation and inconsistency may obstruct the reusability of the design principles. The purpose of this study is to suggest support for the formulation of design principles. In order to enhance the support for the formulation of design principles, we have suggested three guidelines, which are based on analyses of theoretical statements, existing guidelines, and existing design principles. The guidelines are illustrated by using material from a design science research project.

  • 246.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    I Am Busy Solving My Own Problems, Why Should I Bother About Yours?2014In: / [ed] Thomas Herrman, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 247.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    ITIL Compliance with a Service Perspective: a Review Based on Service-Dominant Logic2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology implementation continues to be a challenging process for many organisations and one of the challenges is the transition to service orientation. To apply a service perspective is not a minor change of attitude; it is a paradigm shift for the whole IT sector. Providers of IT services can no longer afford to focus on solving technical problems, they now have to consider the quality of the services and focus on the relationship with customers. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the popular ITIL frameworks comply with a service perspective. We have used service-dominant logic as an analysis model to find out how ITIL corresponds to a service perspective. The findings show that while ITIL highly corresponds to the service perspective in some aspects it fails in others, such as recognising the customers as value co-creators and that products are a distribution mechanism for services.

  • 248.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Problems in IT Service Management2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 249.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    The Need for Empirical Grounding of Design Science Research Methodology2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design Science Research (DSR) has been practiced for decades and is an accepted and wide spread research approach in the discipline of Information Systems (IS). DSR is The huge popularity of DSR has lead to that DSR has become the research paradigm within the IS discipline. One purpose of DSR is to guide design and evaluation of artifacts. However, popular DSR methodologies lack empirical evidence based on primary data. This lack is also recognized by several authors of DSR methodologies. Using secondary data for answering new questions implies an analytic expansion which means that methodological issues have to be considered. The purpose of this work-in-progress paper is to justify the need of empirically grounded DSR methodologies by using primary data.

  • 250.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Haraldson, Sandra
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Lind, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Seigerroth, Ulf
    Collaborative practice: an action research approach to efficient ITSM2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses collaborative research as an action research approach. Many times action research is described as embracing one research organisation and one business organisation. We are challenging this view by introducing the concept of collaborative practice. A collaborative practice can be seen as a cluster of local practices and researchers working together. In this way, a collaborative practice should enable joint learning between, and joint development efforts for, several business practices as well as contributing to general practice and the scientific body of knowledge. Based on a case study within efficient IT Service Management (ITSM), the concept of collaborative practice and its relation to other adjacent concepts (such as local practice, general practice and scientific body of knowledge) have been characterized. Our results should be viewed as preliminary since they are gathered from an ongoing project.

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