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  • 18301.
    Zimmerman, Fredrik
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Vad är skillnaden mellan att roa sig och att bli road?2009In: Filosofisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0348-7482, Vol. 30, p. 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18302.
    Zimmerman, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Rolandsson, Bertil
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Om medborgaren själv får välja2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport har varit att finna och beskriva strategiskt valda medborgargruppers (en invandrargrupp, en ungdomsgrupp och en grupp med äldre landsortsbor) förhoppningar och farhågor inför en ökad e-demokrati i en landsbygdskommun. Texten bygger på en kvalitativ studie gjord i Svenljunga kommun, inom ramen för ett EU-projekt (projektet går under namnet i-COIN). Rapporten beskriver de tydligaste mönster som uppkommit i gruppintervjuer med medborgargrupperna. Ett av de mönster som uppmärksammats är att medborgargrupperna ser positivt på att det går snabbare och enklare att hämta information genom e-service. Det finns dock farhågor att e-service skall medföra en standardiserad, och därmed sämre, kommunikation mellan medborgare och myndighet. Detta skulle i så fall medföra en sämre informationsinhämtning och allt sämre möjligheter för medborgare att påverka. Medborgargruppernas förhoppningar och farhågor har jämförts med intervjusvar från tjänstemän i kommunen. Svaren verkar i stort överensstämma mellan medborgargrupperna och tjänstemännen förutom på vissa punkter. Exempelvis diskuterar tjänstemännen i högre grad än medborgargrupperna att e-servicen måste vara enkel att använda. Medborgargrupperna oroar sig mer än tjänstemännen att e-service skall innebära ett informationsbortfall. Alla tjänstemän och medborgargrupper (förutom ungdomsgruppen) har tron att det är ungdomarna som främst kommer att använda eservice. Ungdomsgruppen visade dock en likgiltighet inför e-demokrati.

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  • 18303.
    Zimmerman, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Rolandsson, Bertil
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Oudhuis, Margareta
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Riestola, Päivi
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Theandersson, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bartley, Kristina
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Puaca, Goran
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Perspektiv på demokrati2007Report (Other academic)
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  • 18304.
    Zimmerman, Zeina
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    ”Det finns inga genvägar” En fallstudie av Södra Älvsborgs Sjukhus verksamhetschefers upplevelse av strategisk internkommunikation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Communication is essential for the survival of an organization. The management formulates strategies to ensure that the organization will get to where they want it to go. The strategy is then communicated to the co-workers through the line manager. But who is to say that the co-worker experience the message the same way as the line manager or the management for that matter? The purpose of this study is to investigate how the middle managers at Southern Älvsborg Hospital experience strategic internal communication and further how they communicate with their co-workers. Through a case study approach, the case being the communication of the hospitals research strategy, I conducted 13 interviews. I analyzed the material from the interviews using a hermeneutical approach and I used an interpretative approach to get a deeper understanding. The results show that the middle managers experience that the communication occurs through the transmission model. They also show an increased information overload, mainly due to e-mail. The middle managers strive for a sense making approach to communication and they believe that this is best achieved through meetings. Only half of them have communicated or will communicate the research strategy with their co-workers, using different strategies; 1) handing over the responsibility to a researcher, 2) handing over the responsibility to a research manager, 3) interpreting the information and dialoguing about it and 4) interpreting and dialoguing about the information and then working with it in various teams and thus reflecting on what it means for their own unit.

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  • 18305. Ziyarazavi, Seyed Merat
    et al.
    Andersson, Linda
    Vitalii, Budkevych
    Thach Doan, Thi Cam
    Martinovski, Bilyana
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Intercultural Communication Web Service Design2009In: Proceedings of 16th NIC Conference on Intercultural Communication, Borås, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18306.
    Zlateva, Iva Troj
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Omvärldsanalys och dess etiska aspekter: En kort studie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to examine Business Intelligence research conduct within Swedish government agencies and workplaces in order to understand the recent debate regarding Business Intelligence research ethics and thus answer the following question: Does Business Intelligence praxis in Sweden meet ethical guidelines recommended by international field experts? A theoretical analysis of relevant and also recent publications, including a Business Intelligence method review, was conducted using qualitative content analysis. In order to validate the results from my theoretical analysis I conducted a series of interviews with a number of professionals who use Business Intelligence research in their work and decisionmaking process.

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  • 18307.
    Zobec, Edward
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Lee, Helen
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    En abduktiv odyssé: en essä i författandet av en managementuppsats2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att förmedla en känsla, samt förståelse om våra upplevelser under en resa där vi blev utsatta för besvär och en rad prövningar. Avsikten är inte enbart att skildra en händelse utan vi vill även förmedla ett försök till förståelse av tillvaron. Vi hamnar ofta i situationer där vi stöter på svårigheter och utsätts för en rad prövningar i vårt dagliga liv. Vi måste följaktligen anpassa oss till förändringar. Denna anpassning sker oftast omedvetet utan att vi reflekterar över våra handlingar. Människor strävar hela tiden framåt. Jakt efter framgång och belöningar blir alltmera ett medel för att bekräfta status. Människor blir därmed inlåsta i sina tankar, vilket medför att de strävar efter att nå det onåbara. Det förblindar människor att handla irrationellt, då de inte stannar upp och reflekterar över sina handlingar. I denna uppsats vill vi skapa en intressant läsupplevelse. Vi vill ge läsaren utrymme att själv kunna reflektera kring vår berättelse innan vi talar om hur vi har tänkt och vad vill berätta med den. I berättelsen har vi framhävt de centrala delarna av händelseförloppet, med syftet att beskriva det vi vill förmedla till läsaren. För att kunna uppfylla vårt syfte har vi använt oss av den narrativa metoden. Detta metodval har delvis påverkat att vår uppsats inte har den traditionella vetenskapliga strukturen. För att inte förstöra läsupplevelsen har vi valt att inte avslöja för mycket i denna sammanfattning. Vi vill här och nu bjuda in läsaren till vår uppsats. Njut av denna läsning!

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  • 18308.
    Zou, Yi Qian
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zhang, Huicheng
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Consumers' and companies' attitudes to personalized advertising: a case study of Taobao2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The growing technology has changed the form of advertising and user behavior. Recent years, the amount of personalized advertising is on a steady rise. Personalized advertising is based on a method called retargeting to tailor the advertisements to individual consumers by inferring their interests and preferences.However, there are still many deficiencies in personalized advertising that reduce the user experience. Understanding the attitudes of users and companies to personalized advertising can help improve these deficiencies. Hence, the purpose of this study is to compare different opinions regarding personalized advertising from Chinese consumers and companies towards Taobao respectively.This investigation uses a case study method to study the purpose. Taobao is an e-commerce platform with a high frequency of personalized advertising and has a great impact on China. Therefore, Taobao has been chosen as our case. First the background of personalized advertising is introduced, and then personalized advertising in Taobao is described. The different opinions of both consumers and companies are studied. In general, consumers have a positive attitude towards personalized advertising. However, there is a need for improvement in terms of privacy, trust and effectiveness. For companies, the effect of personalized advertising is satisfying, but the price makes is difficult for them to afford it.

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    HT2018BBA02
  • 18309.
    Zunic, Azra
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Kiprijanovska, Sandra
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Att leda inom polismyndigheten: En kvalitativ studie om chefernas syn på sitt ledarskap2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A judicial system such as the police authority exists to maintain the security of Swedish society by protecting our citizens. Organizational changes have taken place at the police authority before, but not as big as the last one was. The police authority conducted a reorganization in 2015 that was aimed to establish "A coherent Swedish police", which means that all police authorities in Sweden were aligned so that coordination and management of operations would work more efficiently. The purpose of this study was to gain a clearer picture of the leadership of the police chiefs at the police authority and to try to interpret the importance of leadership within the organization according to the chiefs. In addition, we wanted to increase understanding of the reorganizations impact on leadership within the police authority.

    We have conducted a qualitative study where we interviewed five chiefs at the police authority. The analysis speaks that the chiefs encourage independence among their employees, and that the leadership of the police authority plays a major role, but that it may differ slightly depending on the level within the police authority. Respondents express their dissatisfaction with the reorganization and its problems with removing necessary resources. The conclusion we can get through our analysis is that we find clear similarities between the managers and the transformational leadership, but we also found small traces of transactional leadership. In addition, leadership plays a major role, but for some leadership may not be decisive for the survival of police forces. We can also see that a reorganization was necessary, but that certain measures should be taken, because the change took place at too high and rapid pace.

    Ett rättsväsende som Polismyndigheten finns till för att upprätthålla tryggheten i det svenska samhället genom att skydda oss medborgare. Det har tidigare genomförts organisationsförändringar på Polismyndigheten men inte en lika omfattande som den som skedde 2015. Polismyndighetens omorganisation syftade till att grunda “En sammanhållen svensk polis” vilket innebär att alla Polismyndigheter i Sverige likriktades så att samordningen och ledningen över verksamheten ska fungera mer effektivt. Syftet med denna studie var att få en bild av chefernas ledarskap på Polismyndigheten och se vilken betydelse ledarskapet har inom organisationen enligt cheferna. Dessutom ville vi öka förståelse kring omorganisationens påverkan på ledarskapet inom Polismyndigheten.

    Vi har utfört en kvalitativ studie där vi intervjuat fem chefer på Polismyndigheten. Analysen talar för att cheferna uppmuntrar självständighet vilket skapar en relation där cheferna har stort förtroende och tillit till sina medarbetare. Respondenterna uttrycker sin otillfredsställelse med omorganisationen och dess problematik med att ta bort nödvändiga resurser. Vår uppfattning som vi kan få fram genom vår analys är att vi finner tydliga liknelser mellan cheferna och det transformativa ledarskapet, som innebär att medarbetarna delar samma vision som sin ledare. Vi fann däremot även små spår av transaktionellt ledarskap, som innebär att en ledare vill ha mycket kontroll över medarbetarna. Ledarskapets betydelse på den direkta nivån där våra respondenter befinner sig på spelar ingen stor roll i jämförelse med hur cheferna på den högre nivån uppfattar ledarskapets betydelse. Resultatet visar att en omorganisation inte var nödvändig då vissa åtgärder bör utföras då förändringen skedde i för hastig takt.

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    A-K2017:30
  • 18310.
    Álvaro de Lima, Filipe Miguel
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    The State of QR codes: A qualitative research on Swedish premium fashion brands2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Brands are now more aware of the importance of implementing a mobile marketing strategy by employing a QR code campaign with the intent of enhancing brand awareness and strength the relationship with customers. Thus, an extensive research has been conducted on this subject with focus on the Swedish premium fashion market . The purpose of this research study is to analyze a new mobile marketing tool called Quick-response (QR) codes, and understand this phenomenon on the premium fashion segment in Sweden, while relating at the same time with concepts such as customer relationship management and brand awareness. In this study a qualitative research method was chosen, by applying qualitative semi-structured interviews and qualitative content analysis. The research shows that there is a problem with customers' awareness regarding QR codes and its usage. Companies should also be educated for the importance of integrating a mobile marketing program within their marketing and communication strategy. Nonetheless, the study has shown that brands may increase brand awareness and drive CRM if all the requirements above stated are fulfilled, since all of the participants in this research acknowledge the relationship between a brand and its customers extremely important.

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  • 18311.
    Ädel, Hans
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Orkar anestesisjuksköterskor arbeta fram till pensionsåldern?2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På frågan om vad verksamhetscheferna har för åsikt om hur de skulle kunna förhindra långtidssjukskrivningar, förtidspension eller sjukpension på sin avdelning så tar många i likhet med ambulanscheferna upp fysisk träning och ergonomi som områden där de lägger stor vikt. Ingen nämner handledning eller stödjande samtal som metoder man arbetar med. Ser man till resultatet på vad den vanligaste orsaken till långtidssjukskrivningarna är, nämligen muskel – skelettskador, så kan fysisk träning och ergonomi vara riktiga metoder. Stämmer dessutom arbetsgivarnas bedömning att skadorna uppkommit till stor del på fritiden så är arbetsplatsen och dess belastning inte skyldiga till långtidssjukskrivningarna. Men det finns skäl att tro att denna bild inte riktigt är sann.

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  • 18312.
    Ährlund, Anna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Musikalier på bibliotek: en outnyttjad resurs? En fallstudie2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The object of this master thesis is to question why the sheet music held by libraries is not used more than it is. I have mainly studied the inc idence of any cooperation between the music schools and libraries, whether there has been consultation on the purchase of sheet music and whether the music schools borrowed sheet music from the libraries. For the thesis qualitative methods were used in the form of interviews with ten leaders in music or cultural schools in Sweden. The main study has been focused on the library and music school in Vänersborg. To compare my results and draw conclusions I have used the work of Sanna Taljas: Music, Culture and the Library: an analysis of Discourses. The result of the study showed that there is very little cooperation between the library section for music and the music school. The greatest interest for cooperation appears to come from the library personnel. Both the library and the music school personnel claim insufficient time and money for their lack of cooperation.

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  • 18313.
    Åberg, Annica
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Klassifikationssystem i mångkulturella samhällen2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis deals with classifications schemes in multicultural societies. The aim is to investigate how well the Swedish classification scheme SAB has been adapted to the multicultural society of today. I have done a comparative analysis between the SAB and the UDC to see if an international classification scheme would have better possibilities to represent a multicultural society. I have asked some institutions that have a large collection of documents dealing with minority cultures how they experienced the SAB. I have also read literature about classification theories and compared universal enumerative, facetted and special classification schemes to see if the possibilities to classify documents on, or related to minorities differed from each other. My main results are that the possibilities to represent these documents in the UDC are only slightly different from those of the SAB, because both schemes have given priority to one perspective at the expense of another. This could mean that documents of different subjects could be found under the same classification code, which was a problem all the institutions had experienced. The possibilities to classify minority documents did not differ much between the three different kinds of classification schemes. In the end it was always a question of priorities. My conclusions are, therefore, that the theoretical and fundamental basis, as well as the epistemological theories a classification scheme can be based on, contributes to the outcome of compromises and priorities, where one perspective or viewpoint benefits at the expense of another. This means that a classification scheme can be developed according to quite ethnical conditions.

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  • 18314. Åberg, Annika
    et al.
    Fellesson, Markus
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Misbehaving Customers: Are We Creating Frankenstein's Monster in Service Research?2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The customer has become an organizational imperative, a “sovereign ruler” and orienting both organizational activities and individual subjectivities towards customer needs is therefore not merely a desirable ideal, but in many cases also an explicit norm. There are however few studies that directly address the more fundamental consequences of this customer paradigm. In this conceptual paper we address that there are potential structural conflicts between the customer-orientation/customer ideal and other, often unspoken, operational logics and argue that customer misbehavior emerges as a result of maintaining and reproducing the customer discourse. In addition we broaden the prevailing individual-centric view on misbehavior by bringing forward the structural positions held by customers and customer oriented staff.

  • 18315.
    Åberg, Daniel
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    De äldre samlingarnas betydelse för kulturarvet: En studie om hur tre bibliotek arbetar med äldre material i förhållande till nationell praxis.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to compare how three local libraries handle their collections, and to compare this with handling collections at national level. I have investigated librarian’s opinions of their collections and how they take care and preserve them for the future. It has also been studied if the libraries collections of old material contains more than just old book rarities. In this study I had compared my respondents answer with Svante Beckman and Magdalena Hillström`s theory of museum`s four idealtypes. Their view of a museum is in the forms of a treasury, archive, school and a theatre. The answers of the interviews are compared with the four different ideals from the museum, and from that conclusions are drawn. The main method that I have used for this study is qualitative interviews that handle different aspects of this subject. My respondents have been four different librarians from three local libraries in three counties. The results of the study were that all three libraries saw that their collections both have a regional and national value, and they represent both the social and cultural history of that county. Another result was that all three libraries felt that the audience should have the pleasure to view both the original of the collections and digital versions. Finally the study showed that the libraries would like that older collections in libraries should get the same protection as Cultural Heritage.

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  • 18316.
    Åberg, Elisabeth
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Öhgren, Katrin
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Intervju med Eric B. Svensson, Klippan1983Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Interview with Eric B. Svensson. The interview was conducted by Elisabeth Åberg and Katrin Öhgren, students of the Swedish School of Library and Information Science in Borås, on February 8, 1983.

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  • 18317.
    Åberg, Fredrik
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Biblioteket om biblioteket: En studie om hur den fysiska biblioteksmiljön uttrycker biblioteks verksamhetsidéer2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this thesis is studying how physical library environments express ideas on the function of the library, as stated in guiding documents. The “physical library” is defined as everything inside the library building, and excludes the library architecture, focusing on things like furniture, furnishing and the arrangement of physical media. The two questions asked in this thesis are: What aspects of the idea of a public library’s function, as expressed in the guiding documents of the library, are possible to study in the physical library environment? In what ways can these aspects be studied in the physical library environment? The study of the thesis is divided into two parts, a “prestudy” and a “main study”. In the pre-study aspects are identified by reading guiding documents from different public libraries, and analysing the result together with previous studies on physical library environments. In the main study three Swedish public libraries (located in Helsingborg, Åstorp and Klippan) are visited, and their environments are studied based on theory on what items and means of expression can influence the experience of the library function. The four aspects that are identified in the pre-study are culture, education, accessibility, and development. According to the results of the main study, culture is expressed in the library environment through aesthetics, education through the environment being inviting and stimulating for studies, accessibility by the environment being inviting, functional and democratic, and development by modernity. It is also concluded that the aspects are interrelated to each other.

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  • 18318.
    Åberg, Magnus
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Katalogisering och klassificering av sagor och folklore: en historisk översikt2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is dealing with the difficulties of cataloging and classifying anonymi and other kinds of literature without the components which have set the norm for bibliographic cataloging, i.e. a defined author, a standardized title etc. A typical example of this kind of literature is folklore and folktales, which are dealt with thoroughly here. The character of and the society's historical view upon the folk literature, as literature considered, are being described, as is the evolution of rules for cataloging in general. The folk literature is mostly systematized after a different pattern from other literature, since bibliographical facts are often missing. Therefore, this essay looks upon the ”ethnological” classification of tales and folklore, which means the thematic sorting of motifs in the plots of different tales, which is the most common method of organizing folk literature. The main purpose of this ethnological classification becomes in other words more or less the same as the purpose of bibliographical cataloging nowadays, namely a purpose of facilitating the retrieval of a certain literary unit and a certain common motif of several tales respectively. As the most successful attempt in the area of classification of folk literature (mainly ethnological) is mentioned the work by the Finnish researcher Antti Aarne, ”The Types of the Folktale : a Classification and Bibliography” from 1910, revised and enlarged by Stith Thompson in 1961.

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  • 18319.
    Åberg, Sofia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    "Jag blev galen i den där boken": En studie av vietnamesiska barns syn på läsning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this Bachelor thesis and Minor Field Study is, from the perspective of the Vietnamese children at The General Science Library in Ho Chi Minh City, to obtain a deeper understanding of the ways in which the reading environment of The Children's Room supports children's interest in reading and their reading experience. It is assumed that reading is a dynamic and social activity made possible by internal and external conditions. In this context limited freedom of expression is one of the external conditions that is taken into consideration.

    In order to obtain understanding of Vietnamese children's experiences of reading, I used Aidan Chambers' model of The Reading Circle as a theoretical framework. The methods used in this study were semi-structured interviews with Vietnamese young people at the library, four girls and five boys, aged between 10 and 15 years.

    The children in this study describe two types of reading experiences: 1) reading that gives feelings of excitement and joy, and makes them want to reread a book, talk about it with others, think of it, remember and analyse it. And 2) reading they describe as developing, either spiritually or intellectually, a form of reading for improvement. Four reading environments are identified that both enable and obstruct reading experiences, their homes, school, library and the bookstore. Primarily, The Children's Room enables reading.

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    k2016_32
  • 18320.
    Åberg, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Persson, Loella
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Att välja inskolningsmetod: en studie om förskollärares syn på inskolning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning

    När barnet börjar på förskolan medför det en stor förändring för både barn och föräldrar. Inskolningen innebär att barnet ska vänja sig vid en ny miljö och nya människor samt separera från sina föräldrar. Hur denna process påverkar alla inblandade är individuellt, men det är förskollärarens ansvar att planera och genomföra inskolningen. Från att inskolningarna under många år sett i stort sett likadana ut på de flesta förskolor, finns det idag en rad olika inskolningsmetoder att välja mellan.

    Syfte

    Syftet med vår studie är att undersöka vilka faktorer som kan avgöra vilken inskolningsmetod förskollärare väljer att använda sig av med de yngre barnen, samt hur de motiverar sina val.

    Metod

    Undersökningen är kvalitativ och har genomförts med intervjuer av fem förskollärare som arbetar med de yngre barnen. Vi har använt oss av anknytningsteorin som teoretisk utgångspunkt då den innefattar kunskap om hur viktig anknytningen är för barnets sociala utveckling och för utforskande och lärande.

    Resultat

    Resultatet visar att de begrepp som används för olika inskolningsmetoder i själva verket innebär olika saker för olika personer. Många pratar om föräldraaktiv inskolning, men det finns inte någon bestämd betydelse av begreppet. Det här kan lätt leda till missförstånd och osäkerhet, inte minst bland föräldrar. Det verkar finnas ett behov av forskning kring de olika inskolningsmetoder som används, samt teoretisk kunskap om separationer och anknytning för barn. Endast en av de intervjuade förskollärarna nämner anknytningsteorin. Det visade sig också att förskollärarnas möjlighet att själva påverka vilken inskolningsmetod som ska användas, är avgörande för om de är positivt inställda till den eller inte. Samtliga intervjuade förskollärare menar att inskolningen är en viktig period och att det är barnens behov som är viktigast när inskolningen planeras och genomförs. Det framkom ändå att föräldrarnas och pedagogernas behov i några fall går före.

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  • 18321.
    Åberg, Sofie
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    ”Seriously seeking comics”: Ämnesbestämning, klassifikation och indexering av tecknade serier2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this master’s thesis is to examine how comics, here defined as a combination of text and images, are handled by the libraries in regards to subject analysis, classification and indexing. A comparative approach has been used in this study. First, common practices, methods and theories concerning subject analysis developed for documents consisting of text or images are presented. Then the current systems at two special libraries, specializing in comics and consequently dealing with both text and images, are examined and related to the above mentioned practices, in order to discover differences and similarities. The results indicate that practices, methods and theories developed for documents consisting of text or images are applicable on comics as well. The two examined special libraries had both developed their own classification systems and lists of subject headings, to accommodate the special needs of their particular type of documents consisting of text and images, but these were based on similar principles as practices and methods developed for text or images. Also discussed here is that comics appear to lack general acceptance as a form of literature in the larger library sector. Special libraries dedicated to comics often develop their own in-house systems, while general libraries tend to overlook the special attention this type of documents need. As a result, and unless comics receive the same considerations as text and image separately, they may become more obscure as a genre within general libraries.

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  • 18322.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Elevers möte med diagram2011In: Matematik - ett grundämne / [ed] Berit Bergius, Göran Emanuelsson, Lillemor Emanuelsson, Ronny Ryding, Göteborgs universitet: Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning (NCM) , 2011, p. 2011-218Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18323.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    En presentation av antologin Att bedöma språkligkompetens: Rapporter från projektet Nationella prov i främmande språk2019In: Språklärarnas riksförbunds medlemstidning Lingua, Vol. 2, p. 12-17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18324.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Exploring the effects of following different tracks of study in upper secondary education on cognitive test performance2017In: Cognitive abilities and educational outcomes: A festschrift in honour of Jan-Eric Gustafsson / [ed] Monica Rosén, Kajsa Yang Hansen & Ulrika Wolff, Cham, Switzerland.: Springer , 2017, p. 173-188Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research presented in this chapter explores, using examples from an earlier version of the Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test [the SweSAT], the possible environmental influence on cognitive test performance with respect to the effects of differences in earlier education. Relatively large differences in results between students having attended different tracks of study in upper secondary school have been noticed in the SweSAT. Obviously, this may be due to initial differences when entering these tracks. However, it may also be assumed that different tracks followed in the upper secondary schooling may influence abilities measured by the SweSAT in a different manner. The present study tentatively proposes the effects of track of study both on the observed results in a set of sub-tests and on certain ability factors previously proposed to lie behind performance on the test, after control for marks, at the end of lower secondary education.

  • 18325.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The smaller the better? A review of research on small rural schools in Sweden2009In: International Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0883-0355, E-ISSN 1873-538X, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review of 30 years of research in small rural schools in Sweden includes projects focusing directly upon rural education and rural schools, reports from national agencies, and official statistics. Two main foci were found: (i) the quality of education and pupils’ academic performance, and (ii) the economics of running schools in different types of demographic areas. A concordant picture stands out: (a) there are no indications that small rural schools do not provide an equally good education as other schools, but (b) the higher expenditure per pupil and decreasing population in sparsely populated areas increases the risk of school closures. The importance of the small rural school to the community receives peripheral attention at best in this body of research.

  • 18326.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bergnell Karlsson, Anneli
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta
    Ottosson, Torgny
    Karlsson, Karl Göran
    Norberg, Malin
    Westman, Anna-Karin
    von Zeipe, Hugo
    När Agnes fick va solen så fattade man ju precis": Om illustrationer i undervisning av yngre elever2014In: Resultatdialog, Vetenskapsrådet , 2014, p. 246-254Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18327.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    Young primary students making sense of text and illustrations about how refuse can become soil2017In: International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education, ISSN 1038-2046, E-ISSN 1747-7611, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1150-1168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Explanatory pictures and models are frequently used in teaching and learning situations. However, it seems to be simply assumed that they are always beneficial. In this article results from an investigation with 16 Swedish pupils aged 7–9 year are presented based on an analysis that has examined how well this assumption holds up. Concepts from multi-modal theory have been used to investigate how young learners deal with illustrations and text from an early reader booklet about composting domestic refuse. The analysis suggests that expectations that illustrationsfacilitate the meaning-making of young pupils may be exaggerated. Although the booklet claimed to provide interactive support between image and text most of the examples show pupils ignoring pictures or misinterpreting vital information about composting in both the verbal and non-verbal material. The illustrations did not compensate for the most crucial deficiencies in the written text. 

  • 18328.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta
    von Zeipel, Hugo
    Illustrations making meaning? Young pupils encountering explanatory pictures and models in science and maths education2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18329.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Karlsson, Karl Göran
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Ottosson, Torgny
    Högskolan Kristianstad.
    “Can there be a full moon at daytime?”: Young students making sense of illustrations of the lunar phases.2017In: Science Education, ISSN 0036-8326, E-ISSN 1098-237X, Vol. 101, no 4, p. 616-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teaching and learning situations nowadays typically build on richly illustrated material or multimodal presentations. Under these circumstances, the transparency of images and models used for explaining various phenomena becomes central. The present study deals with 20 Swedish children, 9–12 years old, discussing an illustration meant to show the cause of the different appearances of the Moon in the sky. The students’ task was to place eight numbered moon phases in the lunar orbit in the image. The illustration in question was chosen (a) because it was of a kind frequently used to explain the lunar phases and (b) because the phenomenon is known to be difficult to understand for students of all ages. The analysis leans on historical and sociocultural approaches as well as on multimodal semiotics. The results show that a majority of students were able to make sense of the most central features of the illustration but that very few spontaneously reasoned in a way that could be interpreted as the intended meaning-making of the cause of the lunar phases. The results also indicate that the simultaneous adoption of two perspectives necessary for understanding the phenomenon was a stumbling block for most of the students.

  • 18330.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Ottosson, Torgny
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    What lies behind graphicacy? Relating students’ results on a test of graphically represented quantitative information to formal academic achievement2006In: Journal of Research in Science Teaching, ISSN 0022-4308, E-ISSN 1098-2736, ISSN 0022-4308, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 43-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on studies carried out on qualitative data an instrument was constructed for investigating how larger numbers of students handle graphics. This test, consisting of 18 pages, each with its own graphic display(s) and a set of tasks, was distributed to 363 students, 15–16 years of age, from five different schools. The format of the questions varied, as did the format of the graphics. As students’ performance was expected to be multidimensional, confirmatory factor analysis was carried out with a structural equation modeling technique. In addition to the identification of a general graphicacy-test factor (Gen) and an end-of-test effect (End0), a narrative dimension (Narr0) was vaguely indicated. This model was then related to a six-factor model of students’ formal academic achievement measured by their leaving certificates from compulsory education. The strongest correlation obtained was between the general graphicacy-test dimension (Gen) and a mathematic/science factor (MathSc0) in the grades model. In addition, substantial relationships were detected between the Gen factor and both an overall school achievement factor (SchAch) and a language factor (Lang0) in the grades model.

  • 18331.
    Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    von Zeipel, Hugo
    Ottosson, Torgny
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Can we take young pupils’ understanding of Illustrations for granted? Investigating multi-modally presented learning-contents in school science and mathematics2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New ways of presenting information have affected both contemporary society and education. School textbooks and other teaching aids for young pupils nowadays typically include, or sometimes entirely build on, illustrations and visual information. During the latest decades our view on literacy has shifted towards also comprising, as a necessity, visual and multimodal literacies Kress (2003). When using visual information in education, the transparency of pictures and models is often regarded as unproblematic. However, transparency is not an innate quality of illustrations and cannot be taken for granted (Pintó & Ametller, 2002). On the contrary, visual information is always coded and interpretations are always related to culture and context, so we must always ask what aspects of illustrations are easily understood by our young pupils’ and what aspects may be stumbling blocks for them.

  • 18332. Ågerfalk, P
    et al.
    Sjöström, J
    Eliasson, E
    Cronholm, S
    [external].
    Goldkuhl, G
    Setting the Scene for Actability Evaluation: Understanding Information Systems in Context2002In: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Information Technology Evaluation (ECITE 2002). Jul 15-16, Paris, France, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents an approach to the evaluation of information systems based on the concept of information systems actability, which is suggested as an important alternative way to understand the role and pragmatic use of IT-systems within organizations. the reults, empirically informed byt two case studies, show that the suggested approach can effectivly be used to direct evaluators' attention to import aspects of an IT-system related to the social actions performed by its use within a business context.

  • 18333. Ågerfalk, Pär
    et al.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Cronholm, Stefan
    [external].
    Information Systems Actability Engineering: Integrating Analysis of Business Processes and Usability Requirements1999In: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on the Language Action Perspective on Communication Modelling (LAP’99), pp.73–86. Sep 12–13, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18334. Ågerfalk, Pär J.
    et al.
    Aakhus, MarkLind, MikaelUniversity of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Proceedings of the Inaugural Meeting of AIS SIGPrag2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 18335. Ågerfalk, Pär J.
    et al.
    Delugach, HarryLind, MikaelUniversity of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on the Pragmatic Web: Innovating the Interactive Society2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 18336.
    Ågerfalk, Pär. J.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Exploring the Explanatory Power of Actability: The Case of Internet-based Software Artefacts2001Report (Other academic)
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  • 18337. Ågerfalk, Pär J.
    et al.
    Lind, MikaelUniversity of Borås, School of Business and IT.Jacucci, Gianni
    Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Action in Language, Organisations, and Information Systems2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 18338.
    Ågren, Ellen
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Andersson, Emanuel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kardell, Kasper
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Automatiserad utläggning och upptagning av temporära väglinjer med tillhörande materialvalundersökning2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The client for the project has been AstaZero who specializes in validation and research of active safety systems. A reliable active safety system is a very effective tool and will play a major role in reducing the number of traffic accidents worldwide. The reliability of the systems is based on the quality and quantity of simulation environments of traffic situations performed on specific test tracks, including AstaZero's facility in Hällered.

    This bachelor thesis has been focused on developing a concept for pick and placement of the temporary road lines used for the construction of different simulation environments, with an associated material selection analysis of the lines. At the present, the build-up is a resource-intensive process as it is performed manually and the temporary road-lines that AstaZero uses are sometimes hit. This leads to the current material for the road lines being deformed and unusable for future simulations. The aim of this thesis is to conceptualize an automated machine for the application and to do a materal analysis to eventually replace the existing lines.

    The project contains the phases relevant for the assignment from the traditional product development process. Concepts have been developed from an idea generation process and further evaluation of the concepts has been done in valuation matrices. 3D-drawings were created for the most favorable option. Selection of suitable materials for the purpose has been done via a material selection program and literature review of scientific articles. The materials that the examination resulted in have been produced in the university's laboratory department. Subsequently, selected mechanical properties were tested to validate its reliability to the existing data sheets available at our disposal. The work concludes with proposals for further research and refinement of chosen concept.

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  • 18339.
    Ågren, Helena
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Patienters upplevelser av information i samband med hjärtinfarkt under vårdtiden på sjukhus2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hjärtinfarkt är en allvarlig sjukdom, ofta förknippad med oro och ångest hos den drabbade. Patienter kan hamna i en akut kris till följd av sjukdomen och det plötsliga insjuknandet. Ett tydligt samband finns mellan livsstil, utvecklandet av och risken för återinsjuknande i sjukdomen. Patientinformation utgör en viktig del i vården och rehabiliteringen av hjärtinfarktpatienten. Informationens liksom vårdandets yttersta mål är att vägleda patienten mot en högre grad av hälsa och välbefinnande samt att lindra eller förhindra lidande. Vårdtiden för en okomplicerad hjärtinfarkt beräknas till 3-6 dagar. Under vårdtiden ska patienten hinna landa i sin nya situation och samtidigt hinna ta till sig given information. Patientinformation faller till stor del inom sjuksköterskans ansvarsområde. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie är att beskriva patienters upplevelser av information i samband med hjärtinfarkt, under vårdtiden på sjukhus. Sju kvalitativa artiklar har granskats utifrån Evans modell. Kvalitativ forskning syftar till att skapa förståelse för ett fenomen genom att likheter och olikheter identifieras ur informanternas levda erfarenheter. Analysen resulterade i fem teman, två av temana innehåller subteman: Upplevelser av alltför generell information, Svårigheter att ta till sig information, subteman: Tidpunktens betydelse vid information, Betydelsen av rätt mängd information, Upplevelser av informationens innehåll och information som anses viktig, subteman: Medicinsk information, Livsstilsråd, Metoder och hjälpmedel som tydliggör informationen, Det pedagogiska mötets betydelse vid information. Alla temana går in i varandra och måste alla samverka för att nå resultat. Upplevelser av generell information och behov av individuellt anpassad information löper som en röd tråd genom hela resultatet. Det bästa sättet att tillhandahålla individuell information enligt patienterna i resultatet var i det enskilda pedagogiska möte, mellan vårdare och patient, där patientens livsvärld bejakas i den stunden hon eller han fick information.

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  • 18340.
    Ågren, Jesper
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Olsson, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Robin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hållbar marknadsföring inom svenska modeföretag: En utforskande studie om dess påverkan på konsumenters förtroende2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies that are currently operating in the fashion industry have strong expectations from the outside world to act sustainable in their actions. In recent years, the consumer knowledge regarding the sustainable problems in the social, economic and ecological sectors have increased. This study identifies how Swedish fashion companies practice green marketing, and how brand, transparency and greenwashing as factors in sustainable marketing affect the trust of consumers belonging to generation Y. A theoretical framework was established with a theoretical model on how the various factors affect consumer trust. The data that the analysis of the study was based up on, was collected through interviews with the three Swedish fashion companies H&M, ARKET and Nudie Jeans, as well as two focus groups with consumers belonging to generation Y. The analysis shows how the selected Swedish fashion companies use direct and indirect communication in their sustainability work. Additionally, it is shown from the study's analysis that branding and transparency affect consumer trust positively, but that greenwashing has a negative effect on consumer trust. 

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  • 18341.
    Ågren, Johanna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Mr Chester Jester2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har i mitt projekt jobbat med mönsterformgivning och produktion av vävda möbeltyger, digitaltryckta tapeter- och textilier för en fiktiv hemmiljö. Mina designbeslut grundar sig på en fiktiv karaktär, Mr Chester Jester, hans estetiska preferenser och behov i samrådan med mina egna. Arbetets resultat är en gestaltning av världen han lever i, komprimerad till ett hemma hos reportage på gränsen mellan verklighet och illusion. Jag har jobbat med dubbelhet och speglingar - av mönster, av rummet, av tekniker och mig själv. Jag har undersökt illusionens verklighet och verklighetens illusion. My bachelor project is a work of pattern design and production of woven upholstery fabrics, digital prints on textile materials and wallpaper, made for a fictional home environment. The desicions for the designs are based on a fictional character, named Mr Chester Jester. His preferences and needs combined with my omn are the result of this project. The outcome of the work is a formation of his world, made into a study of his home on the edge of reality and illusions. It is a work of duplicities -of pattern, room, technique and of an alternate side of myself.I have investigated the illusion of reality, and the reality of illusions.

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  • 18342. Ågren, Malin
    Ledare i kris: En kritisk diskursanalys av överbefälhavarens ledare i personaltidningen Försvarets forum2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to gain knowledge about the discourse present in the written communication from the Supreme Commander (SC) of the Swedish Armed Forces (SAF) to SAF employees in situations of crisis where the employees are affected. The intention is also to clarify how power relations are expressed in the analyzed texts. The method used is critical discourse analysis (CDA). Strategic communication and crisis communication are the study’s theoretical foundations. The material consists of texts from four editorials from the SAF staff magazine Försvarets forum from December 2015 to October 2018. Because of the focus on crisis situations, two themes have been chosen in the analyzed material named ”special events” and ”internal issues”. These themes include events in which SAF employees have been attacked, injured or killed as well as occurrences of violation or harassment. The results of the study show an emphasis on equality and thus a lack of hierarchical power claims from the SC over the employees, as well as an effort to boost moral by heightening the status of the military profession. Lastly, the explicit mention of problematic occurrences like death or sexual harassment is either toned down or absent. In conclusion, the texts of the SC are very much in concordance with the strategic communication guidelines of the SAF.

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  • 18343.
    Ågren, Petra
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Öberg, Mari
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Millimetrar eller sjumilakliv: En studie kring vilka avtryck diagnosmaterialet Diamant har satt på Limmaredsskolan.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Bakgrunden tar upp matematik- och bedömningsforskning såsom måluppfyllelse inom matematik, betygssystemets förändring över tid, diagnoser i skolan, Diamantmaterialet samt olika former av bedömning. Bakgrunden tar även upp olika strategier och perspektiv rörande policyimplementering i verksamheter. Syfte Syftet med studien är att undersöka vilka avtryck diagnosmaterialet Diamant har satt i verk-samheten. Frågeställningar för studien: Hur har Diamant implementerats? Kan det urskiljas att Diamant används som ett formativt bedömningsinstrument? Metod Undersökningen är en studie som genomförs i samarbete med Tranemo kommun och Limmaredsskolan. Studie kan användas av skolan i deras utvärderingsarbete av matematikutvecklingen. Redskapet intervju har använts där gruppintervjuer har genomförts. Resultat De avtryck vi funnit i studien är att nivån på undervisningen har höjts beroende på att Dia-mantmaterialet tillsammans med de nya matematikmatriserna ställer högre kunskapskrav jämfört med den tidigare undervisningen. Även en större medvetenhet hos pedagogerna vad gäller vikten av gemensam grundsyn på matematiken, gemensamt språkbruk samt diskussioner gällande matematikprogressionen på skolan har upptäckts. Gällande implementeringen av Diamantmaterialet har vi funnit att verksamheten befinner sig i implementeringsfasen, vilket innebär att förändringar genomförts i verksamheten men förändringen är ännu inte institutionaliserad.

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  • 18344. Ågrén-Bolmsjö, I
    et al.
    Edberg, A-K
    Sandman, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Everyday Ethical Problems in Dementia Care: A teleological Model2006In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 340-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, a teleological model for analysis of everyday ethical situations in dementia care is used to analyse and clarify perennial ethical problems in nursing home care for persons with dementia. This is done with the aim of describing how such a model could be useful in a concrete care context. The model was developed by Sandman and is based on four aspects: the goal; ethical side-constraints to what can be done to realize such a goal; structural constraints; and nurses’ ethical competency. The model contains the following main steps: identifying and describing the normative situation; identifying and describing the different possible alternatives; assessing and evaluating the different alternatives; and deciding on, implementing and evaluating the chosen alternative. Three ethically difficult situations from dementia care were used for the application of the model. The model proved useful for the analysis of nurses’ everyday ethical dilemmas and will be further explored to evaluate how well it can serve as a tool to identify and handle problems that arise in nursing care.

  • 18345. Ågrén-Bolmsjö, I
    et al.
    Sandman, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Andersson, E
    Everyday ethics in the care of elderly people2006In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, E-ISSN 1477-0989, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 249-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the general ethical milieu in a nursing home for elderly residents and provides a decision-making model for analysing the ethical situations that arise. It considers what it means for the residents to live together and for the staff to be in ethically problematic situations when caring for residents. An interpretative phenomenological approach and Sandman’s ethical model proved useful for this purpose. Systematic observations were carried out and interpretation of the general ethical milieu was summarized as ‘being in the same world without meeting’. Two themes and four subthemes emerged from the analysis. Three different ethical problems were analysed. The outcome of using the decision-making model highlighted the discrepancy between the solutions used and well-founded solutions to these problems. An important conclusion that emerged from this study was the need for a structured tool for reflection.

  • 18346. Ågård, A
    et al.
    Bentley, L
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science. [external].
    Experiences and concerns among patients being treated for atypical chest pain2005In: European journal of internal medicine, ISSN 0953-6205, E-ISSN 1879-0828, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 339-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Many patients who are discharged from the hospital without receiving a clear-cut diagnosis of their chest pain continue to consume health care because of disabling physical and psychological symptoms. By identifying their experiences and concerns following hospitalization, an empirical basis for discussions on ways of improving the care of these particular patients will be obtained. Methods A qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with 38 patients with a diagnosis of unspecified chest pain was carried out. Results Two-thirds of the respondents had unanswered questions and concerns that had not been addressed. They found it difficult to understand why they had not undergone more tests. They requested an explanation for their chest pain, at the very least, or were worried about the future. Some respondents accepted the fact that they had not been given a sufficient amount of time and information. They referred to the stressful working situation of the physicians, the view that their admission could be regarded as unnecessary or that physicians at the hospital could not be expected to do more than exclude serious diseases. Conclusions Health professionals should address their patients' questions and fears properly and provide them with the most probable explanation for their symptoms. When taking the harmlessness of their symptoms or the situation of their caregivers into account, patients may find it inappropriate to impose further demands on care.

  • 18347. Ågård, A
    et al.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Castrén, M
    Jonsson, L
    Sandman, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Guidance for ambulance personnel on decisions and situations related to out-of-hospital CPR2012In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 27-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethical guidelines on out-of-hospital cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are designed to provide substantial guidance for the people who have to make decisions and deal with situations in the real world. The crucial question is whether it is possible to formulate practical guidelines that will make things somewhat easier for ambulance personnel. The aims of this article are to address the ethical aspects related to out-of-hospital CPR, primarily to decisions on not starting or terminating resuscitation attempts, using the views and experience of ambulance personnel as a starting point, and to summarise the key points in a practice guideline on the subject.

  • 18348. Ågård, A
    et al.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science. [external].
    Hermerén, G
    Obtaining informed consent from patients in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction: physicians’ experiences and attitudes2004In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 90, no 2, p. 208-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is possible to question whether patients suffering from the early phase of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are able to give free and informed consent and whether or not it is ethically defensible to include them—those patients suffering from more severe symptoms, in particular—in research projects. In fact, it has been shown that a reasonable number of patients who have given their consent in this situation are only able to recall very little of the information they received about the study and that only a minority read through the consent form before signing it. The aim of this study is to determine how physicians, who have been involved in including patients in intervention trials in the early phase of their AMIs, experienced the informed consent procedures. In our view, data obtained from those people who are actually confronted by the research subjects and who are responsible for carrying out the consent procedure should also be taken into account, when the most appropriate ways of including these patients in studies are discussed. To our knowledge no survey of physicians relating to this issue has previously been undertaken.

  • 18349. Ågård, A
    et al.
    Hermerén, G
    Herlitz, Johan
    [external].
    Informed consent: Are there ethically justified conditions for exceptions?2002In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 105-106Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Are good clinical practice and informed consent inseparable? This depends, to some extent at least, on what is meant by “inseparable”. Does this refer to a logical relation, on the assumption that “good clinical practice” by definition includes informed consent, to an empirical generalisation about current medical practice, or a normative statement about how it ought to be? Different arguments pro and contra are relevant depending on whether the statement is interpreted as a logical statement, an empirical generalisation, or as a normative statement.We do not dispute the moral ground for the requirement of informed consent in general,1 and we agree with the statement that “the clinical duty to obtain proper informed consent is now widely believed to be an essential component of good clinical practice”. Neither do we dispute that improved training in communication skills and more time for doctors to communicate with their patients would be a good thing—and probably make more patients participate in the decision process.2What we wished to do in our paper3 was to discuss whether there might not be situations in which exceptions from the general requirement of informed consent would be acceptable. We hope that such a debate could help to define stringent and precise conditions when such exceptions could be morally and legally acceptable. One general assumption we share is the idea that such an exception is reasonable, if insisting on the requirement of informed consent causes more harm than good. In its turn, this presupposes a discussion of criteria of harm and benefit and who should decide about the relative magnitude of harm and benefit. Verification after the event by the patients in question could in certain situations be worth investigating. If there is a verification by the patients concerned, in the sense that they afterwards confirm that they think that an exception from the general requirement was ethically justified, then the concept of an exception from the general main rule is supported by referring to what the patients themselves want. If autonomy is taken seriously, references to what the patients say they want cannot be dismissed lightly.Our ambition with the study published3 was not to suggest any radical changes regarding the informed consent procedure when a patient is suffering from an acute myocardial infarction and is a potential research subject, nor to draw any general conclusions from the results obtained. Instead, we wanted to elucidate the possible problems and disadvantages associated with the process of obtaining informed consent in this particular situation. Primarily we wanted to stimulate the debate on the following two issues:1. Does a patient in the midst of a life crisis have to put his/her signature on a consent form in order to be included in an intervention trial?2. Are there ethically justified alternatives to informed consent when a researcher wants to include a patient in a study, who is not capable of giving a free and informed consent in research?We stated: “All possible measures to increase the autonomy of the patients under the prevailing circumstances should be carried out”. Thus, we do not suggest that all patients with acute myocardial infarction should be treated as incompetent. However, what we have tried to do in our study is to bring forth and highlight empirical evidence, which seems to show that in this particular situation some patients do not have the capacity to give a true informed consent for study participation.Professor Doyal adds another argument, to the effect that even if the patients afterwards do not remember anything, this does not reduce the moral importance of relevant information disclosure. The main question is what is meant by “relevant information disclosure”, and who decides what this is. Suppose (a) that it is left to the patient to decide what is relevant information disclosure, (b) that additional information does not change the decision of the patient, and (c) they do not want this additional information, which conclusion should be drawn from this?We claim that it is time to adjust the informed consent procedure to the patients' capacity in this particular situation. Moreover, the patient should be spared the “actual demand” of signing the consent form in the early phase of an acute myocardial infarction.

  • 18350. Ågård, A
    et al.
    Hermerén, G
    Herlitz, Johan
    [external].
    Patients' experiences of intervention trials treatment of myocardial infarction: is it time to adjust the informed consent procedure to the patient's capacity?2001In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 86, no 6, p. 632-637Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate how patients included in trials on treatment in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction experience the consent procedure. DESIGN—A combined qualitative and quantitative interview concerning the patients' knowledge of the trial, their feelings about being asked to participate, and their attitudes towards the consent procedure. SETTING—Tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS—31 patients who had given written informed consent for their participation in randomised intervention trials of acute myocardial infarction. RESULTS—The patients interviewed had only fragmentary knowledge about the trial they were involved in. Most considered that reading and signing a consent form was an unwanted or unnecessary procedure. Instead, they would have preferred to have been given concise verbal information about the study. Most were willing to allow a physician to decide for them in the event of their being too ill to be asked about their participation. CONCLUSIONS—Patients who are asked to participate in intervention trials in the early phase of acute myocardial infarction often appear to lack sufficient knowledge to reach an autonomous choice. There were problems and disadvantages associated with the process of obtaining written informed consent in this particular situation, especially regarding the need for the patient to sign a consent form during the acute phase of the disease.

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