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  • 18201.
    Yudianto, D.
    et al.
    Quality Assurance of Food Industry, Politeknik AKA Bogor.
    Nainggolan, E. A.
    Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Faculty of Biotechnology, Institut Teknologi Del. Sitoluama.
    Millati, R.
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Hidayat, C.
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Universitas Gadjah Mada.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Niklasson, C.
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bioconversion of pretreated wheat straw to ethanol by monascus purpureus CBS 109.07 and fusarium venenatum ATCC 20334 using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation2019In: Biodiversitas, ISSN 1412-033X, E-ISSN 2085-4722, Biodiversitas, Vol. 20, no 8, p. 2229-2235Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18202.
    Yusuf Kocer, Ahmet
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Mahmood Zubair, Muhammad
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Product Requirements for Fabric Sofa Covers in Accordance with Customer Life Situation at Home2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IKEA is a unique home furnishing retailer in selling water washable slip covers for living room sofa.The aim of this research is to set product requirements for sofa covers in accordance with the usage at home by customers.This was done by conducting consumer survey to understand need, reviewing existing quality, test methods and proposal of new requirements and test methods. The overall objective is every day quality guarantee and better communication with customers in store.

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  • 18203. Yusuf, S
    et al.
    Estrada-Yamamoto, M
    Reyes, CP
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Hjalmarson, Å
    Factors of Importance for QRS Complex Recovery after Acute Myocardial Infarction1982In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 211, no 3, p. 157-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The regression of the ECG signs of myocardial infarction has been studied in 101 patients. A significant increase in R wave amplitude and decrease in Q wave depth on the standard ECG was observed over three months. In 21% of the patients, Q waves disappeared completely. In inferior infarction, these changes were more apparent in the lateral V leads than in the inferior limb leads. Patients with intraventricular conduction defects were excluded. Two factors associated with the Q and R wave changes have been identified. Lower heart rates appeared to facilitate the recovery of R waves, and smaller infarcts, as assessed by peak LDH, showed greater ECG recovery. This study raises the interesting possibility that modification of the heart rate may affect favourably the healing process after an acute myocardial infarction.

  • 18204.
    Zaarour, Carlos
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hormez, Helen
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Total Quality Management VS Six Sigma: En jämförelsestudie av drivkrafterna bakom implementering av respektive metod2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis includes a literature study comparing two major methodologies applied worldwide within an organisation to improve the quality of work. Total Quality Management and Six Sigma are the chosen methods and are both theoretically described from the different key areas covering the entire organisation: measured values, focus, leadership, employees, implementation tools, and criticism. This study involves the most fundamental and effective factor of the quality control and quality in general within an organisation.   The two methods mentioned above are compared by an inductive study, in which we collect various data through literature and scientific studies. Furthermore, the collected data will amplify the purpose of this study by explaining and providing a clearer picture of the basic reasons for the choice of implementation of each method within the organisation.   The results obtained show several similarities between TQM and Six Sigma. However, there are areas that differ in many approaches which can be decisive for the choice of each method.   As an example of some differences, we can highlight the impact of the financial goal of a company working or willing to work with Six Sigma. However, TQM differs from Six Sigma, if focuses on involving every party within the organisation and emphasises the so-called quality thinking. Nevertheless, it is significant to mention that there is a positive relation between customer satisfaction and financial performance of the companies adapting to these two methods. Moreover, there is also a strong correlation between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. This means that even if the main objective of TQM is to increase customer satisfaction, there is a strong motivation for achieving a better financial position within the organisation, although it may take longer.   The results clarify that there is no “one size fits all” improvement method for real business issues. The management team within each organisation are encouraged to develop the ability to critically assess a number of theoretical concepts for improving the program in terms of strengths and weaknesses in order to best achieve a good result.   It may also in some cases be an advantage to combine two different methods to obtain better results. Further research and future studies in this area will contribute to a better understanding of the concepts that are most appropriate in different situation and if a combination of these methods is a better solution.  

  • 18205.
    Zabihi, Mehri
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Esmaili, Parichehr
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Den vuxna patientens upplevelser kring vad som främjar och hindrar egenvård hos patienter med diabetes typ 2: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Diabetes typ 2 medför oftast förhöjda blodsockernivåer och om sjukdomen inte behandlas kan allvarliga komplikationer uppstå. Egenvård är mycket betydelsefullt för att bibehålla en jämn blodsockernivå. Livsstilsförändringar kan behöva göras vilket kan vara en stor utmaning för patienten. Sjuksköterskan har ett ansvar i att fungera som stöd samt ge god kunskap och försöka motivera patienter till god egenvård och därmed förebygga komplikationer. Även anhöriga utgör ett viktigt stöd och har en roll till att bidra till patientens förmåga att utföra egenvård.

    Syftet med studien är att beskriva den vuxna patientens upplevelser kring vad som främjar och hindrar egenvård hos patienter med diabetes typ 2. En litteraturstudie gjordes och 15 artiklar analyserades med hjälp av Fribergs modell. Resultatet visade både hindrande och främjande faktorer som påverkar egenvård. Faktorerna bestod av familj och sociala nätverk, kunskap, motivation och sjuksköterskans roll. I diskussionen diskuteras familj och sjuksköterskans stöd samt kunskap och motivation och det påvisas hur en fungerande egenvård främjas av dessa faktorer. Sjuksköterskans ansvarsroll för att patienten ska kunna göra livsstilsförändringar som krävs för patientens sjukdom och därmed bidra till en hållbar utveckling i vården, synliggörs.

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    K2018:89
  • 18206.
    Zachrisson, Hanna
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Shahir, Sara
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    CSR in SMEs inside the fashion industry: opportunities and difficulties2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a research about how Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) can be integrated within Small to medium sized enterprises (SME) inside the fashion industry. It examines the drivers for fashion companies to take social and environmental responsibility and what difficulties and opportunities that they might face in their work towards a more sustainable supply chain. There is no doubt about that the fashion industry needs to re-think their strategies in order to be ethical and environmentally friendly, however focus usually lies on the large chains and their impact. In this report, focus lies on fashion companies that belongs to the category “SME”. SME plays a significant role to the economy and have a great impact on the society yet there is little research and empirical findings on how SME can contribute in a profitable way to a sustainable future. A literature review was made to find the current status of how small companies work with CSR together with relevant theories on how to apply it in reality. Three companies chose to participate in an interview in order to get empirical findings and to connect the literature review with reality. The main barrier for SMEs within the fashion industry to involve in CSR is the financial aspect however there is many advantages such as improved stakeholder relationships as well as improved brand reputation that will generate profit in the long run. This study tries to motivate fashion companies to engage in CSR in order to build a stable business.

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  • 18207.
    Zafar, Spogmay
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Elyasvand, Sheilan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Booshi, Fatima
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Logistiklösningar & säkerhet av omledningsvägar2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the center of Gothenburg different projects are ongoing around Lilla Bommen, one ofwhich is Vasakronans reconstruction of Kvarteret Platinan. There is also an immersion of E45in the center of these projects. When many projects are working in the same place at the sametime, risks of collision between these projects becomes larger that affects road users,emergency vehicles, public transport and others.The focus of this report was from the perspective of Trafikverket and its project E45 and howit influences the project flow. The purpose was to find solutions for the following questions:● How can Trafikverket deliver a secure way for pedestrians and people riding bicyclesthrough the construction projects?● What demands can Trafikverket as road manager place on Platinan consideringlogistic solutions?The questions were answered with several methods which were put together and examined forpossible solutions. Studies of literature and interviews were performed with Marika Åkerman,project manager from Trafikverket and Mohammad Jahan, consultant from Tyrens.The report does not include information that did not involve Trafikverket and Vasakronan.The first problem was analyzed by photographing different places around the constructionprojects, this to study the progress during the construction time. Thereafter, reflections andexaminations were made on the road conditions through five different factors which were:availability, orientation, safety, traffic safety and attractiveness.Because of future planned demolitions, crane placements and other dangerous constructionwork, a proposition to use open containers was made, but with a more appealing appearancethat could protect pedestrians.For the logistic solutions, several suggestions were presented such as Constructionconsolidation centre (CCC) which can be explained as a distribution center. The advantagewith a CCC was that it was located near Platinan and gave the opportunity to use trucks andsmaller vehicles instead of larger ones. The second suggestion was to use the harbor byshipping containers.Finally, several other solutions were also described in the report that could reduce transportaround the diversion roads, such as using several different roads, that no personal vehiclesshould be parked by the construction site and a suggested carpooling between projects, ifpossible.

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  • 18208.
    Zahid Iqba, Muhammad
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Sustainable Fashion Consumption and Consumer Behavior2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thesis was carried out to make an estimation of the willingness of consumers to buy the clothes produced under eco-friendly and decent way. Neoclassic demand theory was used and basic idea was to know that either moral effects on a consumer’s individual decision while choosing the products manufactured under friendly environment or not; if yes, then how and how much. Survey method along with choice experiment analysis was used to collect the data. Selected area was Boras Sweden and 50 respondents were considered for the survey. To estimate the degree of willingness of a consumer to pay for a Swan labeled and/or Fairtrade labeled jeans, choice experiments was used. Afterwards, the collected data was used within econometric models. It has been observed from results that consumers were more willing to pay for a Swan labeled and/or Fairtrade labeled jeans than non-labeled jeans. The responsible individuals regarding environment were much more willing to pay for Fairtrade and/or Swan labeled clothes, considering the factor that production does not affect the environment in negative way and it was done under socially acceptable conditions.

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  • 18209.
    ZAHID NAEEM, MUHAMMAD
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    MEHMOOD, SHAHNAWAZ
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Applications of Ultra Smart Textiles in Sportswear and Garments2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Smart textiles especially Phase Change Materials (PCMs) are getting attention because these materials can provide regulation of wearer’s body climate and provide comfort in the temperature fluctuations during the physical activity like sports. These materials have the advantage of latent heat energy storage that can absorb and release high amount of energy over a narrow temperature range around the human’s body temperature to provide thermal comfort. Phase Change Materials (PCMs) absorb energy during the heating process as phase change takes place and release energy to the surroundings during the reverse cooling process. The types of phase change materials that are suitable for sports applications are hydrated inorganic salts, linear long chain hydrocarbons, Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG). The concept of thermal comfort and working of PCMs in the textiles garments are important for determining the functionality of PCMs. Phase Change materials are micro capsulated in the shells by “Situ polymerization technique before application to sportswear and garments. The PCMs microcapsules are incorporated in the sportswear and garments by fiber technology, lamination, foaming and coating. The testing of clothing containing micro capsulated PCMs is discussed after the incorporation of PCMs in textiles. Quality parameters that are key for getting good results are mentioned i.e. particle size, thermal conductivity, fire hazard treatment, durability and performance of micro capsulated PCMs and clothing. In the last section findings, suggestions and conclusion are discussed.

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  • 18210.
    Zahid, Umber
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Shamyana, the out door pleasure2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is a continuation of the ideas developed in previous projects during my Masters studies that explored the relation between pattern, form and space. Starting from the pattern multiplication for space construction the present project proposes textiles as an assortment of flexible expressions. The purpose of the project is to explore aesthetic and functional potential of textiles for out door temporary structures. This is to create a pattern interface which filters sunlight through a textile surface to offer instant sheltering solutions for out door activities. The project combines research and analyses of outdoor temporary structures and scope of textile in the area. The research is interpreted into a concept of a portable space for relaxation. The design process shapes this concept of relaxation into a sun shelter.

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  • 18211.
    Zall, Davood
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Visual Data Mining: An Approach to Hybrid 3D Visualization2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By increasing the volume and complexity of datasets, Visual Data Mining (VDM), new visualization techniques evolved and new techniques released. However, some of these techniques performing well and cover all expectations; the others failed to save their positions. The main issue of such techniques is problem dependency. In this study, after a short description about necessity of Visual Data Mining techniques, I will provide a classified review of previous researches. This will result in a deep understanding as well as simple accessibility to previous researches, in a concise manner. This will facilitate the extraction of the specifications of 3D visualization technique and will provide a comprehensive knowledge of this technique in a classified manner. After that, all possible combination of 3D visualization technique will review. 3D Visualization technique as a popular technique is a concrete foundation for visualization of multi-dimensional datasets, but it has some limitations. To overcome these limitations, previous studies in literature as well as the experiences of professionals will gather. The results will prove the theoretical findings as well as offering new hybrid techniques (combination with 3D visualization and other visual data mining techniques). The contribution of professionals will empower and complement the results of this study, as they can address solutions for the weaknesses of 3D Visualization technique in their business which is new combination of techniques. These combinations of techniques will create the basis for future researches in order to discover new limitations and provide solutions to overcome by use of hybrid techniques.

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  • 18212.
    Zaltash, Maryam
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Barns uppfattningar om vuxnas yrke.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    BAKGRUND: Bakgrunden belyser, utifrån litteratur och tidigare forskning, barns uppfattningar om yrke som de vuxna utför i samhället. Barnen orienterar sig med hjälp av sin fantasi och undersöker olika roller för att skapa uppfattningar som de senare kan bygga vidare på. Barnen har i flera fall besökt sina föräldrars arbetsplatser och i samtal runt middagsbordet hört föräldrar prata om sina arbeten. SYFTE: Syftet med studien är att undersöka sexåringars uppfattningar om vuxnas yrke. METOD: I studien används en kvalitativ undersökning som inspireras av fenomenografin kring barns uppfattningar av de vuxnas arbeten. Intervju används som redskap för att på ett mer djupgående sätt undersöka barnens uppfattningar. Metod valdes utifrån önskan om att sexåringarnas uppfattningar skulle vara i centrum. Sammanlagt intervjuades 10 barn. RESULTAT: De resultat som denna studie genererat visar att de intervjuade barnen har en stor uppfattning om vuxnas yrke för deras låga ålder. Detta bekräftas utifrån vad barnen svarat och vad som anges i litteraturen samt framkommit i tidigare forskning. Sexåringar kunde på ett korrekt sätt berätta om föräldrarnas och deras bekantas arbete. Deras uppfattningar om arbete har att göra med det som de ser vuxna utföra och de kunde med lätthet nämna mer än ett yrke vardera. Sexåringarna ser nödvändigheten med att ha kunskaper och träning samt att skaffa utbildning som faktorer för att få vissa yrken. Sexåringarna har en tydlig uppfattning och ser sambandet mellan arbete och pengar. De förstår den grundläggande mekanismen med att ha pengar för att köpa nödvändiga saker. Sexåringar berättade med egna ord om deras uppfattningar och erfarenheter om olika arbetsplatser.

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  • 18213.
    Zamani, Akram
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Superabsorbent Polymers from the Cell Wall of Zygomycetes Fungi2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis presents new renewable, antimicrobial and biodegradable superabsorbent polymers (SAPs), produced from the cell wall of zygomycetes fungi. The cell wall was characterized and chitosan, being one of the most important ingredients, was extracted, purified, and converted to SAP for use in disposable personal care products designed for absorption of different body fluids. The cell wall of zygomycetes fungi was characterized by subsequent hydrolysis with sulfuric and nitrous acids and analyses of the products. The main ingredients of the cell wall were found to be polyphosphates (4-20%) and copolymers of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine, i.e. chitin and chitosan (45-85%). The proportion of each of these components was significantly affected by the fungal strain and also the cultivation conditions. Moreover, dual functions of dilute sulfuric acid in relation to chitosan, i.e. dissolution at high temperatures and precipitation at lowered temperatures, were discovered and thus used as a basis for development of a new method for extraction and purification of the fungal chitosan. Treatment of the cell wall with dilute sulfuric acid at room temperature resulted in considerable dissolution of the cell wall polyphosphates, while chitosan and chitin remained intact in the cell wall residue. Further treatment of this cell wall residue, with fresh acid at 120°C, resulted in dissolution of chitosan and its separation from the remaining chitin/chitosan of the cell wall skeleton which was not soluble in hot acid. Finally, the purified fungal chitosan (0.34 g/g cell wall) was recovered by precipitation at lowered temperatures and pH 8-10. The purity and the yield of fungal chitosan in the new method were significantly higher than that were obtained in the traditional acetic acid extraction method. As a reference to pure chitosan, SAP from shellfish chitosan, was produced by conversion of this biopolymer into water soluble carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS), gelation of CMCS with glutaraldehyde in aqueous solutions (1-2%), and drying the resultant gel. Effects of carboxymethylation, gelation and drying conditions on the water binding capacity (WBC) of the final products, were investigated. Finally, choosing the best condition, a biological superabsorbent was produced from zygomycetes chitosan. The CMCS-based SAPs were able to absorb up to 200 g water/g SAP. The WBC of the best SAP in urine and saline solutions was 40 and 32 g/g respectively, which is comparable to the WBC of commercially acceptable SAPs under identical conditions (34-57 and 30-37 g/g respectively).

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  • 18214.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Edebo, L.
    Niklasson, C.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Temperature Shifts for Extraction and Purification of Zygomycetes Chitosan with Dilute Sulfuric Acid2010In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 11, no 8, p. 2976-2987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature-dependent hydrolysis and solubility of chitosan in sulfuric acid solutions offer the possibility for chitosan extraction from zygomycetes mycelia and separation from other cellular ingredients with high purity and high recovery. In this study, Rhizomucor pusillus biomass was initially extracted with 0.5 M NaOH at 120 °C for 20 min, leaving an alkali insoluble material (AIM) rich in chitosan. Then, the AIM was subjected to two steps treatment with 72 mM sulfuric acid at (i) room temperature for 10 min followed by (ii) 120 °C for 45 min. During the first step, phosphate of the AIM was released into the acid solution and separated from the chitosan-rich residue by centrifugation. In the second step, the residual AIM was re-suspended in fresh 72 mM sulfuric acid, heated at 120 °C and hot filtered, whereby chitosan was extracted and separated from the hot alkali and acid insoluble material (HAAIM). The chitosan was recovered from the acid solution by precipitation at lowered temperature and raised pH to 8-10. The treatment resulted in 0.34 g chitosan and 0.16 g HAAIM from each gram AIM. At the start, the AIM contained at least 17% phosphate, whereas after the purification, the corresponding phosphate content of the obtained chitosan was just 1%. The purity of this chitosan was higher than 83%. The AIM subjected directly to the treatment with hot sulfuric acid (at 120 °C for 45 min) resulted in a chitosan with a phosphate impurity of 18.5%.

  • 18215.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Edebo, Lars
    Sjöström, Björn
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Extraction and Precipitation of Chitosan from Cell Wall of Zygomycetes Fungi by Dilute Sulfuric Acid2007In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 3786-3790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method was developed in this work for extraction of chitosan and partial characterization of zygomycetes fungi. The method is based on temperature-dependent solubility of chitosan in dilute sulfuric acid. Chitin (acetylated chitosan) is neither soluble in cold nor hot dilute sulfuric acid. Similarly chitosan is not soluble at room temperature. However, it is dissolved in 1% H2SO4 at 121°C within just 20 min. The new method was developed to measure the chitosan content of biomass and cell wall materials derived from different sources. The procedures were investigated by measuring phosphate, protein, ash, glucuronic acid and degree of acetylation. The cell wall derivatives of fungus Rhizomucor pusillus were then examined by this new method. The results indicated 8% of the dry biomass as chitosan. After treatment with NaOH, the alkali insoluble material (AIM) contained 45.3% chitosan. Treatment of AIM with acetic acid resulted in acetic acid soluble material (AcSM), 16.5% and alkali and acid insoluble material (AAIM), 79.0%. AcSM is traditionally cited as pure chitosan, but this new method shows major impurities by e.g. phosphate. Furthermore, traditional methods usually consider AAIM as chitosan-free fraction of the cell walls, while this new method shows more than 76% of the chitosan present in AIM to be found in AAIM. It might indicate the inability of acetic acid to separate fungal chitosan from the cell wall.

  • 18216.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Henriksson, D.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    A new foaming technique for production of superabsorbents from carboxymethyl chitosan2010In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 80, no 4, p. 1091-1101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A foaming technique was developed for production of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) from carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) with high, medium and low molecular weights. In this method n-pentane was used as a blowing agent due to low boiling point and immiscibility with water. n-Pentane was added to a warm aqueous solution of CMCS and boiled. CMCS was then gelled by adding the crosslinking agent glutaraldehyde and consequently n-pentane was captured inside the polymer network. The n-pentane was evaporated from this network while drying in oven. It resulted in stable foam that prevented the hydrogel from collapsing and the dried product had a porous structure with a high water-binding capacity (WBC). The effects of molecular weight of CMCS and its concentration, and the amounts of glutaraldehyde and n-pentane used, on WBC were investigated and optimized using response surface experimental design. The best result for WBC of foam-dried SAP was 107 (g/g) after exposing for 1 h in pure water and 60 (g/g) and 37 (g/g) after exposing for one min in pure water and 0.9% NaCl solution, respectively. The WBC of the SAP produced by the foaming technique was more than five times higher than the WBC of the oven-dried crosslinked CMCS.

  • 18217.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Jeihanipour, Azam
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Edebo, Lars
    Niklasson, Claes
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Determination of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine in fungal cell walls2008In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 56, no 18, p. 8314-8318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method was developed to determine glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) in materials containing chitin and chitosan, such as fungal cell walls. It is based on two steps of hydrolysis with (i) concentrated sulfuric acid at low temperature and (ii) dilute sulfuric acid at high temperature, followed by one-step degradation with nitrous acid. In this process, chitin and chitosan are converted into anhydromannose and acetic acid. Anhydromannose represents the sum of GlcN and GlcNAc, whereas acetic acid is a marker for GlcNAc only. The method showed recovery of 90.1% of chitin and 85.7-92.4% of chitosan from commercial preparations. Furthermore, alkali insoluble material (AIM) from biomass of three strains of zygomycetes, Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor indicus, and Rhizomucor pusillus, was analyzed by this method. The glucosamine contents of AIM from R. oryzae and M. indicus were almost constant (41.7 +/- 2.2% and 42.0 +/- 1.7%, respectively), while in R. pusillus, it decreased from 40.0 to 30.0% during cultivation from 1 to 6 days. The GlcNAc content of AIM from R. oryzae and R. pusillus increased from 24.9 to 31.0% and from 36.3 to 50.8%, respectively, in 6 days, while it remained almost constant during the cultivation of M. indicus (23.5 +/- 0.8%).

  • 18218.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Effects of partial dehydration and freezing temperature on water binding capacity of chitosan-based superabsorbents2010In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 49, no 17, p. 8094-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) were prepared from carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) cross-linked to a gel, concentrated by partial dehydration in a rotary evaporator (at 70, 85, and 100 °C), frozen at −5, −20, and −196 °C, and then freeze dried. A 0.9% aqueous solution of CMCS was gelled by addition of glutaraldehyde and partially dehydrated to 1.3−16.8% dry matter (DM) before freeze drying. The water binding capacity (WBC) of the products was up to 171 g/g of superabsorbent. The best results were obtained when 32−81% of the water in the gel was removed in the evaporator at 85−100 °C, and the concentrated gel (1.3−4.7% DM) was frozen in liquid nitrogen at −196 °C before freeze drying. On average, these SAPs, according to SEM micrographs, had a porous sponge-like structure and absorbed 35 and 32 g/g of saline and urine solutions after 10 min exposure, respectively. The corresponding WBC of two commercial polyacrylate-based SAPs was 34−57 g/g for saline and 30−37 g/g for urine solutions.

  • 18219. Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Production of low molecular weight chitosan by hot dilute sulfuric acid2010In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 1554-1564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method was developed for production of low molecular weight chitosan, in which high molecular weight chitosan was treated with dilute sulfuric acid at 120°C. Chitosan was dissolved in the acid solution in a few minutes, and as depolymerized to low molecular weight chitosan by longer times. Low molecular weight chitosan was recovered from the acid by cooling down the solution and increasing the pH to 8-10. A low molecular weight chitosan with Mv (viscosity average molecular weight) of 174×103 was prepared from a high molecular weight chitosan (Mv = 1,388×103) with 82% recovery by using 72 mM sulfuric acid solution for 30 min. Increasing the time to 240 min reduced the Mv to 24×103, though the recovery of chitosan was reduced to 54%. Higher concentrations of acid (216 and 360 mM) resulted in higher depolymerization degrees and lower recoveries of chitosan in identical treatment times. Analysis of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine showed that the prepared low molecular weight chitosan had more than 80% purity.

  • 18220.
    Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Effects of partial dehydration and freezing temperature on the morphology and water binding capacity of carboxymethyl chitosan-based superabsorbents2010In: Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0196-4321, Vol. 49, no 17, p. 8094-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) were prepared from carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) cross-linked to a gel, concentrated by partial dehydration in a rotary evaporator (at 70, 85, and 100°C), frozen at -5, -20, and -196°C, and then freeze dried. A 0.9% aqueous solution of CMCS was gelled by addition of glutaraldehyde and partially dehydrated to 1.3-16.8% dry matter (DM) before freeze drying. The water binding capacity (WBC) of the products was up to 171 g/g of superabsorbent. The best results were obtained when 32-81% of the water in the gel was removed in the evaporator at 85-100°C, and the concentrated gel (1.3-4.7% DM) was frozen in liquid nitrogen at -196°C before freeze drying. On average, these SAPs, according to SEM micrographs, had a porous sponge-like structure and absorbed 35 and 32 g/g of saline and urine solutions after 10 min exposure, respectively. The corresponding WBC of two commercial polyacrylate-based SAPs was 34-57 g/g for saline and 30-37 g/g for urine solutions. 

  • 18221. Zamani, Akram
    et al.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Production of superabsorbents from fungal chitosan2012In: Iranian polymer journal, ISSN 1026-1265, E-ISSN 1735-5265, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 845-853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) were prepared from fungal chitosan through three steps of carboxymethylation, cross-linking, and freeze drying. The alkali-insoluble material (AIM) of the cell wall of zygomycetes fungus Rhizomucor pusillus was first pretreated with 72 mM sulfuric acid at room temperature to release the phosphates from the cell wall. The phosphate-free AIM was then either subjected directly to carboxymethylation, or treated with 72 mM sulfuric acid at 120 C to extract and recover the fungal chitosan prior to carboxymethylation. The carboxymethylated derivative of pretreated AIM (CM-P-AIM) and carboxymethyl fungal chitosan (CM-f-CS) exhibited 50 and 100 % water solubility, respectively. Glutaraldehyde was subsequently added to aqueous mixtures of CM-f-CS and CM-P-AIM to cross-link the water-soluble fractions. These mixtures were then frozen at -20 C and freeze dried. The water-binding capacity (WBC) of the final product obtained from CM-f-CS (30% of AIM) was 77, 30, 33 and 45 g/g after 10 min of immersion in water, urine, 0.9 % NaCl and artificial blood solutions, respectively. The respective WBCs of the product obtained from CM-P-AIM (90 % of AIM) were 73, 22, 24 and 37 g/g at identical conditions. SEM micrographs indicated that the SAPs prepared from CM-f-CS and CM-P-AIM had porous sheet-like structures.

  • 18222.
    Zand Karimi, Tina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Subasic, Lejla
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Den mansdominerande branschens inverkan på kvinnligt chefskap: En studieinom IT-branschen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine experiences of female leadership and representation of their characteristics in a male-dominated industry. The study finds out how the male dominated context influences women's leadership when it comes to experience and representation of their characteristics. The focus is on being able to interpret the impact of the male construction on both the individual level and the environmental. The previous research gives an insight into women as managers' experience of obstacles and opportunities in their managerial position. Furthermore, the theoretical reference frame has shown how the social environment has created expectations in gender roles and characteristics that are linked to woman and man. The study uses twelve female managers in higher management positions who work within IT at Volvo. The response of the female managers contributes to an understanding of their leadership in the male-dominated IT industry. The result of the study states that the experience for the female managers has been influenced by the male-dominant context. Key factors that are influencing their experience in their management have been the minority position, the balance between the private and professional role, structural barriers and a higher demand on their work performance. The result has continued to show that all female managers have been characterized to produce male characteristics in order to blend into the male-dominated work environment. The most imitated male features have proven to be, strategic, analytical and decision makers. In summary, the female managers have agreed that the experience and representation of characteristics is influenced by personality and surroundings.

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  • 18223.
    Zandelin, Carina
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Barnbibliotek på Internet en studie av tre svenska barnbibliotek på Internet2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this master thesis was to find out about librarians opinions of childrens libraries on the Internet, if it is a resource to reach children. Qualitative interviews were conducted with three librarians who had participated in the construction and development of childrens libraries on the Internet. IT and the Internet play an important role in childrens lives and children are using it to a greater extent. Libraries have begun to integrate IT and Internet into their services and are offering service on the Internet. The public library websites are usually for grown-ups and very few are directed to children. In Europe and Sweden attempts have been made to create childrens libraries. The result of this study shows that according to the librarians interviewed a childrens library is a resource to reach children and the library on the Internet is complementary to the traditional library. My conclusion is that libraries need to integrate IT and Internet into their services to survive in the future and one way to meet the users and their needs is to offer service of the library on the Internet.

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  • 18224.
    Zandén, Christer
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Omvärldsanalys i olika typer av organisationer. En jämförande studie av omvärldsanalysen i en kommun och ett företag.2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis deals with the differences in the design of the environmental scanning between different kinds of organisations, as well as the demands and regulations etc. in the respective environments that influence the environmental scanning. The content of the environmental scanning and the organisation of the function are outside the scope of this study. Two organisations that do not have an organised function but are scanning their environment were chosen for the investigation. A model for conducting the environmental scanning developed by Frankelius is used to analyse the practice of environmental scanning. Thus comparable material is acquired for the purpose of the study. The organisations in the study are: a local authority Marks municipality, and a company Berg Propulsion. The results of the study show that environmental demands influence the vision of the organisation, which in turn influences the environmental scanning. For the local authority this means that the obligations to the citizens and the state demand a long-time planning. Therefore the vision/goal/strategy remind a plan of handling. This influences the environmental scanning that has to meet the information needs for specific actions. The business company has a different kind of environment that demands quick actions and flexibility. Therefore their vision/goal/strategy reminds the way of conducting business, and the environmental scanning is more used for constant observation of different factors. Berg Propulsion exists in a quite stable business, which the managers know quite well. The source they use mostly is personal contacts, and they have a network of sources that they think work well. The choice of information sources of Marks municipality is related to finding information for the specific needs.

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  • 18225.
    Zareibezini, Shahram
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Yaparla, Ravi Sankar Reddy
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Pre-treatment of straw and forest residue for biogas production; Recycling and Reuse of NMMO2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide has shown a positive effect for the pretreatment of lignocelluloses. Pretreatment by NMMO was developed to enhance the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. Barely straw and forest residue were pretreated by N-methylmorpholine-Noxide (NMMO) prior to anaerobic digestion. The effectiveness of NMMOtreatment on straw and forest residue was examined as well as the recycling and reuse of NMMO for the next pretreatment process. During the first experimental series pretreatments were performed at 90 °C for 3h and 30h, followed by digestion of the pretreated material for 41 days. Low methane yield was found in these experiments due to high organic loading rate. In the second series the recycling and reuse of NMMO was investigated on straw. The pretreatments were carried out at 90 °C for 30 hr and the recycling and reuse were performed in three times. After treatments with fresh, as well as 1, 2, 3 times recycled NMMO methane yield of 0.45, 0.42, 0.38 and 0.4 Nm3/kg VS were obtained.

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  • 18226.
    Zarif, Neela
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Andersson, Linn
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Butikslayout- mer än bara estetik2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the connection between store layout and how it affects us as shoppers. We formed our research questions based on literature. The study was based on observations of shoppers without their knowing they were observed. We didn’t tell shoppers since the science of shopping says that shoppers pattern of movement is something that’s subconscious and if the shoppers had known it would have affected the result of the study. The character of this study therefore demanded that shoppers were free to move naturally around in the stores where our study took place. After only a few observations we could see what the result was going to be. Shoppers were affected by the store layout. We also discovered a pattern of the shoppers’ movement and came to the conclusion that the store layout at MQ in Borås wasn’t optimal. The back part of their store wasn’t as well visited by the shoppers as it could have been with a better layout. The store manager, Jägmark, had in an interview confirmed that products that were places in this back part weren’t as new and even as trendy as the products in the front part of the store. She also said that this was due to products that was placed in the back part didn’t get as much attention as the ones in the front part. We came to the same conclusion but could see that this was partly because of a lack of understanding of their costumers’ pattern of movement through the store. Based on our research we think that MQ should make a few changes and by that receive a higher number of visitors in their back part of the store as well as get a better flow through the store. We found it especially interesting that the store, after all, already had a good store layout. For example we observed a phenomenon called “the pinball effect” which is a very good way of leading the shoppers through different parts of the store. We were surprised by the fact that Jägmark already had an understanding of how her costumers moved around in her store. Even if her understanding, according to us, can become better it was a new fact for us that managers or store owners already was considering the science of shopping as a tool for improving their store layout. The fact that shop owners should consider shopping as a tool for development and to improve their store layout is something we have made the conclusion of with this study. Perhaps even more important is that we think shop owners should all take some time to observe their shoppers in order to make improvements on their layout in order to enhance their strength as competitors. Since the costumers are kings in today’s competitive business of fashion retailer, all store owners should consider that the best place to influence consumers is in the store.

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  • 18227.
    Zaring, Per
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    On Process Quality in Integrative Frameworks for Information Systems Development1993Report (Other academic)
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  • 18228.
    Zawadzka, Sonia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Implementation of Marketing Strategies Practiced by Western and Eastern European Fashion Brands: H&M and Reserved Case2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to examine diverse marketing strategies used by Western and Eastern European originated fashion brands based on H&M and Reserved cases as well as which of them are the most appealing to Polish students. Additional aspect of the diploma is to research if there are some evident differences or similarities in implementing these tactics. Method: The study implemented both qualitative and quantitative research. Data collection was based on two types of data, secondary and the primary one. The secondary data was derived from fashion marketing literature, scholar articles and fashion blogs. The primary data included a semi- structured interview with Reserved's assistant marketing manager and questionnaires provided to Polish students. Subsequently, systematic combining was applied, that can be described as nonlinear process of matching theory and reality. Conclusion: Fashion marketing tools implemented in both companies can be assessed as quite similar with no evident difference, yet they differ from each other in certain aspects. In both cases advertising and sales promotion are the most employed tactics. Both companies are seen as international ones, though H&M seems to follow more fashion oriented approach engaging in fashion shows or providing their customers with their own glossy magazine. The study also revealed that advertising activities and sales promotion seem to be the most appealing marketing techniques for the respondents. In addition social media proved to be an essential element to build a connection with consumers. However, this communication channel is often neglected or not utilized to its' full potential.

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  • 18229.
    Zaya, Johan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Strömberg, Amanda
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Optimering av St1s anläggning med integrering: Vägen till en hållbar utveckling2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många företag och industrier arbetar idag ständigt med att utveckla mindre miljöbelastande sätt att arbeta på, det beror på hårdare lagar och regler än tidigare angående utsläpp till miljön. Företag inventerar mycket resurser på ny forskning och ta fram nya metoder, allt för att bidra till en hållbar utveckling. St1 är ett av de företagen som vill vara med i arbetet för en hållbar utveckling och främst av förnybara bränslen. St1 har utvecklat en ny metod för framställning av etanol utav restråvaror från livsmedelsindustrin. Det bildas även drank som är en biprodukt som man kör ut till lantbruk för att använda som djurfoder eller vid produktion av biogas. Metoden benämns som Etanolix och den nya anläggningen på St1 Refinery AB är den senaste som fått namnet Etanolix 2.0. Syftet med rapporten är att visa hur integrering kan göras med en ny anläggning tillsammas med en redan befintlig och hur man kan ta till vara på outnyttjade resurser. I rapporten beskrivs de olika hjälpsystem som är integrerade med Etanolix 2.0 som processvatten, kvävgas samt ånga och kondensat. Det beskrivs också hur första året med Etanolix 2.0 i drift har gått och vad som varit utmaningarna vid uppstarten. Slutsatsen vi kom fram till är att Etanolix metoden bidrar till en hållbar utveckling och steget närmare att skapa framtida förnybara bränslen. Projekt Etanolix 2.0 är fortfarande i uppstartningsfasen och behöver ytterligare utveckling innan optimal produktion av etanol kan ske.

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  • 18230.
    Zayton, Hedro Gabriel
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Singh Nagra, Jaspreet
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Energianalys av äldre flerbostadshus: Kvarter Kommissionären i Mariestad2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis does an energy analysis of six multi-family houses. The properties are located in the housing block called Kommissionären and are owned by Mariehus AB. This company manages and develops renting apartments and make sure that their residents feel good in their properties. The purpose of this diploma work is to help the company analyze their properties from both an energy and a building technical point of view. The purpose is to study energy usages and energy losses. This proposes a couple of steps to reduce and improve the energy efficiency in the houses. The six houses were built between in the 1940´-s and the 1960’-s and are in need of refurbishment to become more energy efficient. The reason is large energy losses through different parts of climate shell. Regarding ventilation, a lot of energy is lost annually which, through simple measures, can be saved. In summary, the six multi-family houses are in fairly good condition considering their age, but that there is still potential for saving energy due to the high energy losses.

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  • 18231.
    Zboinska, Malgorzata A.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Dumitrescu, Delia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Landin, Hanna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Expressing and Sensing Hybrid Materiality: Voluminous Interactive Architectural Substance2019In: TEI '19 Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction: Pages 483-489, Tempe, Arizona, USA — March 17 - 20, 2019, ACM New York, NY, USA ©2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this architectural research exploration, we challenge the notion of an interactive architectural surface as single-layered, two-dimensional interaction interface. Instead, we propose the notion of Interactive Voluminous Substance, which moves the interaction experience into four dimensions, shifting it from far-field, proximity-based interaction to a near-field, tactile one. We present four features of architectural expression that could potentially sustain the embodiment of this Substance: spatial positioning, geometry, expression, hybrid material composition and interaction design. If the future architectural interiors and exteriors are made from Voluminous Architectural Substance, how will it be to dwell with them? We propose two physical prototypes and two interaction stories as speculative objects probing this question.

  • 18232.
    Zeb, Irfan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Fahad, Shah
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    The Concept of Mental Models in Co Design2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study will provide an overview of mental models in teams and the significance of this particular concept for design teams. Researchers have applied the concept of mental models to understand how people perform tasks on the basis of their knowledge, assumptions, predictions and expectation. An overview is also provided on the relation between performance and mental models and their effect on stakeholders. The implications for design field are discussed. Through the study of two organizations in the same industry, the teams are studied in detail for each of these companies and hence leading to the study of mental models of stakeholders. Through the use of interviews, a detailed analysis is done on the team mental models. The mental models of stack holders and their influence on different aspects of company and team performance are discussed in detail. The methodology for the study of mental models is also proposed in the study. The findings are based on the data collected through interviews in both the organizations. The empirical study is designed in such a way that it investigates further the validity of theoretical concepts. Warid is a major telecommunication brand in Pakistan that provides services in all the regions of the country. Ufone is also a well-known telecommunication brand, known for its innovative and creative TVCs (TV commercial). Interviews with the marketing and sales officials of both these organizations provided an insight into the teams behind their advertising/marketing campaigns and the affect of stakeholders’ mental models on the performance and sales of the companies. The comparative analysis between the theoretical and empirical studies suggests that the quality of mental models is affected by diversity in the team, education and experience of the team members. This may be brought in for future research to further verify the effectiveness of mental models for design teams and eventually the whole organization. Finally the implications of our findings are discussed.

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  • 18233.
    Zeb, Irfan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Fahad, Shah
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    What improves the user-designer communication in co-design?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s business and IT systems have strongly focused on effective communication. The communication based on poor foundation might create huge communication problems for the system designer and user. These communication problems have a severe impact on the efficiency of information system and most importantly when it comes to the building of a new information system through co design process. For any business organization, IT plays a huge role these days. Although this is not given much emphasis sometimes, it is important to understand that the use of IT in business cannot be taken for granted because it is viewed as part of business organization these days. The business needs to continuously make investments in their IT systems. This will not only help the organization, but the industry as a whole. Effective communication is extremely important for business and IT systems now-a-days. With the help of this particular thesis, the importance of effective communication would have been reflected accordingly. The purpose of this research is therefore to analyze the communication problem between the designer and user during co-design mainly in the field of business and information technology and to create an understanding for how it is possible to create a better communication between the different parties in system development through co-design. Research can also be classified on the basis of the structure of the problem to be solved into exploratory, descriptive and casual research. The research can be regarded as exploratory research because large amounts of data can be gathered from the past researches and literature. Exploratory research explores the parameters of the problems in order to identify what should be measured and how best to undertake a study. In this research the qualitative data is gathered through detailed interviews and literature review. This helps in better understanding through words. Data is generated through the method of triangulation. The results will be presented using detailed analysis of data gathered from interviews and the analysis of theoretical part. It is a very challenging task to meet the changing needs of the business world. Designing effective information technology for this purpose is also very challenging. The co-design of business and IT systems has a lot of benefits for the organizations. The information technology is basically used to support business and its functions. Therefore it is extremely important that the information technology is aligned with the business processes. It should be considered as a part of the business and should not be designed independently. Effective Communication is important for managers in the companies in order to perform the fundamental management functions, i.e., Planning, Leading, Organizing, and Controlling. Communication facilitates managers to execute their jobs as well as responsibilities. Communication provides a foundation for planning. All the vital information should be communicated to the managers who consecutively should communicate the plans in order to apply them. Organizing also needs efficient communication with others regarding their job task. Hence, we can say that “effective communication is a basic element of successful business”. In other words, communication works as blood of organization. Strong literature review as well as strong capabilities towards research methodology and analytical part will certainly enhances the productivity of this thesis and will furnish good understandings among the readers.

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  • 18234. Zedigh, C
    et al.
    Alho, A
    Hammar, E
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Kellerth, T
    Svensson, L
    Grimbrandt, E
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Aspects on the intensity and the relief of pain in the prehospital phase of acute coronary syndrome: experiences from a randomized clinical trial2010In: Coronary Artery Disease, ISSN 0954-6928, E-ISSN 1473-5830, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 113-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the pain relief and tolerability of two pain-relieving strategies in the prehospital phase of presumed acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and the secondary aim was to assess the relationship between the intensity and relief of pain and heart rate, blood pressure, and ST deviation. Patients with chest pain judged as caused by ACS were randomized (open) to either metoprolol 5 mg intravenously (i.v.) three times at 2-min intervals (n = 84; metoprolol group) or morphine 5 mg i.v. followed by metoprolol 5 mg three times i.v (n = 80; morphine group). Pain was assessed on a 10-grade scale before randomization and 10, 20, and 30 min thereafter. The mean pain score decreased from 6.5 at randomization to 2.8 30 min later, with no significant difference between groups. The percentages with complete pain relief (pain score <=1) after 10, 20, and 30 min were 11, 16, and 21%, respectively, with no difference between groups. Hypotension was less frequent in the metoprolol group compared with the morphine group (0 vs. 6.3%; P=0.03), as was nausea/vomiting (7.2 vs. 24.0%; P=0.004). At randomization intensity of pain was associated with degree of ST elevation (P=0.009). The degree of pain relief over 30 min was associated with decrease in heart rate (P=0.03) and decrease in ST elevation (P=0.01). In conclusion, in the prehospital phase of presumed ACS, neither a pain-relieving strategy including an anti-ischemic agent alone nor an analgesic plus anti-ischemic strategy in combination resulted in complete pain relief. Fewer side effects were found with the former strategy. Other pain-relieving strategies need to be evaluated.

  • 18235.
    Zekarias, Awet
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Salazar Delgado, Jakob
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Panic, Nemanja
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Vad påverkar användarens förtroende inom e-handel: en undersökning med fokus på omdömessystem2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att skapa förtroende har visat sig vara en utmaning för företag inom e-handel. Syftet med studien är att ta reda på hur omdömessystem kan komma att påverka en användares förtroende och lyfta fram en möjlig förtroendekomponent i utformningen av en pålitlig e-handelsplats. Ett kundbaserat omdömessystem är en interaktiv försäljningskomponent som erbjuder kunder att dela och ta del av andras omdömen, åsikter, tankar och tidigare erfarenheter kring en produkt. De huvudbegrepp som behandlas i studien är omdömessystem, e-handel, förtroende och användbarhet. Studien utformades utifrån en kvalitativ forskningsmetod i syfte att få en djupförståelse inom området. Den empiriska insamlingsmetoden genomfördes i form av intervjuer som baserades på användbarhetstester ur sex olika användarperspektiv. Uppgifterna utfördes på två webbplatser, nelly.com och madlady.se, en webbplats med omdömessystem och en webbplats utan omdömessystem. I analysen ställdes den empiriska insamlingen mot den teoretiska referensramen för att skapa ett mönster och underlätta slutsatsen av studiens huvudfråga. Slutsatserna baserades på att utifrån delfrågorna besvara huvudfrågan och hur användarens förtroende påverkas i användningen av ett omdömessystem. Studiens reslutat understryker att omdömessystem är en förtroendeingivande komponent och möjliggör att användare på ett mer säkert och tryggt sätt kan handla över nätet. Omdömessystems effekter möjliggör att det kan ses som en avgörande faktor i val av produkt inom e-handel.

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  • 18236.
    Zeraatkar Dehnavi, Gholamali
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Fractionation of the main components of barley spent grains from a microbrewery2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Barley spent grain, the main residue of the brewing industry, is a lignocellulosic material, which could be considered a potential raw material for ethanol production. In this work, spent grains generated in a microbrewery were fractionated by acid hydrolysis and delignification. The investigated sort of barley spent grains had high carbohydrate content, accounting for 60% of the dry matter, while its lignin content was lower than that reported for other sorts of spent grains. Since the used spent grains contained residual starch different treatment approaches were used for separating their main components without affecting the sugars generated by starch hydrolysis. Two kinds of acid hydrolysis processes, namely single-step and two-step hydrolysis, were used for solubilising the carbohydrate fraction. Single-step hydrolysis was performed either at 100oC or at 121oC. In the two-step approach, a second hydrolysis, at 121oC, was performed after the first hydrolysis step. The dilute-acid hydrolysis at 100oC removed all the starch, whereas the hydrolysis at 121oC removed also a part of the hemicelluloses in addition to starch. During the second hydrolysis step, the content of easily hydrolysable polysaccharides decreased from 32.5 to 7.6% in the material pre-hydrolyzed at 100oC and from 20.3 to 10.6% in the material pre-hydrolyzed at 121oC. The amount of easily hydrolysable polysaccharides removed in the second step corresponded to 83% and 81.5% of the total removed matter in the materials pre-hydrolyzed at 100 and 121oC, respectively. In the next step, acetosolv and alkaline delignification, either alone or combined with acid hydrolysis, were used for dissolving the lignin fraction. A higher solubilisation occurred after alkaline delignification, where 83% of the initial material was removed. Only 34% of the initial lignin was removed by direct acetosolv, while the combined acid hydrolysis/acetosolv approach resulted in lignin removal between 70 and 75%. However, the resulted pulp still contained important amount of lignin. The acid prehydrolysis was also beneficial for alkaline delignification, but the effect was less noticeable than for acetosolv. Lignin removal increased from 95% in direct alkaline delignification to nearly 100% in the acid hydrolysis-assisted alkaline treatment. Two different methods were carried out for lignin precipitation. In the liquid fraction obtained by acetosolv, lignin was precipitated by water addition after concentration of the liquors to 75% of the initial volume. Although the visual inspection of the liquors after water addition revealed a relatively good lignin precipitation, the separation by filtration of the precipitated material was difficult, apparently due to the small particle size of precipitated lignin molecules. Some improvement was observed for the combined treatments, especially for those including two-step acid hydrolysis. The best recovery, 54% of the precipitated lignin, occurred for the process including consecutive acid hydrolyses at 100 and then at 121oC before acetosolv. In the alkaline liquors, lignin was precipitated by pH adjustment to 2.0 by HCl. Around 40.5% of the solubilised lignin was precipitated, and it increased to 85-100% when combined treatments were applied. The best results were achieved upon the treatment including acid prehydrolysis at 121oC before alkaline process.

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  • 18237.
    Zetterberg, Anna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Form, funktion & frihet: utveckling av längdskidåkningsjackor med fokus på mönsterkonstruktion2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till denna rapport är att det sportvarumärke jag samarbetat med ville utveckla en modell av längdskidåkningsjacka som fanns i deras sortiment. Undersökningen gällde att identifiera förbättringspunkter på en dam- och herrvariant av denna jacka. Avsikten var att bevara plaggens design och genom förändringar i mönstrens konstruktion förbättra passform och rörelsefrihet, och därigenom plaggets funktion. Genom att konstruera, sy toiler och prova av dessa på provmodeller, har rörelsefrihet och passform kunnat utvärderas. Resultatet visade att viktiga punkter var raglanärmens konstruktion, böjningen av ärmen, kragens form, ärmhålsdjup och placering av skärlinjer. Det blev också tydligt att kombinationen av designerns och konstruktörens kunskaper tidigt i processen är a och o för ett lyckat resultat. En tydlig kommunikation mellan dessa parter kan minska antalet provplagg under produktutvecklingen. Ämnen som också behandlats under arbetet är gradering, produktspecificering och deras betydelse för plagg och produktion. I undersökningen har jag även tittat på möjligheter till ytterligare utveckling av jackornas funktion om designen kan förändras, till exempel genom att flytta skärningar och på så vis ändra modellens utseende. This study was made due to a sports brand wanting me to develop a style of cross country ski jacket that are currently part of their collection. The study contained identifying areas of possible improvement in both a men and women´s jacket. The mission was to keep the design of the jacket and on the same time improve the fit and ease of movement in the garment (and thereby the function). Through analysis of style samples, pattern construction, sewing of proto samples and fittings on models, the fit and ease of movement has been evaluated. The results are that important garment elements are the neck width, scye depth, construction of the raglan sleeve, the pre-bent sleeve and the placement of cut lines. A conclusion is that to reach a functional and nice looking garment, the designer and the pattern constructor need to cooperate in the product development phase. Good communication between these two departments can reduce the number of proto samples that has to be made. Pattern grading, product specifications and their impact on the style and production process are subjects that are also presented and discussed in this report. During the project I have also studied the possibilities of further development through style design changes.

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  • 18238.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Body & Space2007Other (Other academic)
  • 18239.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Nordic days in Croatia 20072007Other (Other academic)
  • 18240.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Part of workshop with weaving and LED lights2008Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Part of workshop with Barbara Lane (Canada) in Borås 18 feb 2008 with weaving and LED lights

  • 18241.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Textile sound design2008Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims at developing conceptual and methodological tools in order to adapt sound within the textile design area. Occupational groups working with sound are to a large extent problem driven. Accordingly, textile designers working with sound- affecting properties of textiles concentrate on their dampening qualities. The ambition with this research project is to make suggestions how textile designers can work practically with textile sound design, in a more nuanced way. The overall aim of the thesis is to develop a vocabulary to make textile designers able to express the sound affecting qualities of textiles in a language full of nuances. As a starting-point the thesis briefl y describes commonly used methods and processes used to describe the expressiveness of a design, followed by a more thoroughly analyze of the textile design process illustrated by a practical example. These studies constitute a foundation to make it possible to see in what way these methods and processes will be affected when sound is added as new design tool. By studies of two sound design models, the fi rst attempts to develop a vocabulary concerning how to describe sound affecting qualities of a textile are developed. Research focusing on language issues, especially on the development of conceptual tools done at the research institute CRESSON, provides descriptive sound concepts, “sound effects”, embracing the interaction between human and his sound environment. These concepts are followed by a model of how to describe just a sound or “sound object” in “itself” (not in relation to anything else), developed by Pierre Schaeffer. These theoretical models have been complemented with empirical studies in form of a survey, named LISTEN. Interviews were performed from a phenomenological perspective. A number of informants were asked to tell about the sound environment and single sounds occurring at their working places. The interviews were interpreted from a phenomenographic perspective. A number of design projects are fi nally presented as practical examples of different ways to work with textiles and sound. The theoretical models provided by Schaeffer have been used to make the fi rst systematic attempts to describe sound environments; sounds and textiles sound affecting properties. Since the model presented by Schaeffer is developed to be used within musical composition the concepts have to be additionally modifi ed to be a useful tool within the textile design area. The thesis presents just the fi rst attempts to use this model. The next step to take in the research project is to adjust the theoretical systems of CRESSON and Schaeffer to suit the special area of textile design. The interactive ideas of a sound-affecting textile will also be a subject of further development.

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  • 18242.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Textile Sound Design2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis aims at developing conceptual and methodological tools in order to adapt sound in a “designerly” way within the discipline textile design. Occupational groups working with sound are to a large extent problem driven. This implies knowledge regarding sound and sound design mostly focuses on defensive strategies, not creative possibilities. The ambition with this research project is to make suggestions how textile designers can work practically with textile sound design, in a more nuanced way. /br As a starting point the thesis describes commonly used methods and processes used in the design process within an industrial context, followed by a more thorough analyze of the textile design process. These studies constitute a foundation to make it possible to see in what way these methods and processes will be affected when sound is added as new design tool./br By studies of two sound design models, the first attempts to develop a vocabulary concerning how to describe sound affecting qualities or sound expression of a textile are presented. Research focusing on language issues, especially on the development of conceptual tools done at the research institute Cresson, provides descriptive concepts, “sound effects”, embracing the interaction between human and his sound environment. These concepts are followed by a model of how to describe a “sound object” in “itself” (not in relation to anything else), developed by Pierre Schaeffer./br The theoretical models have been applied on the outcome of an phenomenological study named Describe. A number of design examples are finally presented as methodological examples of different ways to work with textiles and sound./br Keywords: sound, design, textile design, sound effect, sound object.

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  • 18243.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Textile sound design2008Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Part of the exhibition Body and Space, Riga Latvia February 14- March 4 2008. Oral presentation concerning my research February 15 2008.

  • 18244.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Textile microphone elements2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper "Textile microphone elements" and oral presentation at the conference on the 23 of June 2008.

  • 18245.
    Zetterlund, Angela
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Att utvärdera i praktiken: en retrospektiv fallstudie av tre program för lokal folkbiblioteksutveckling2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is placed within the area of library and information science (LIS) known as evaluation research and in particular, the area that relates to theory of evaluation practice. An analysis of previous research reveals that there is a need for conceptualising evaluation activities in the real life of libraries and information services and to reflect further on the conditions for evaluation in various institutional contexts. The aim of this study is to identify evaluation practice in public libraries, delimited to programs for local change and development, and to create an understanding for how this practice reflects institutional conditions within this particular context. The theoretical frame combine concepts from theories of program evaluation, theories of evaluation in library and information service and institutional theory. Evaluation is here considered as an ex post, systematic study with the purpose of describing and judging the merit of the implementation and results of a given activity and intervention. In this study an interpretative approach, based on the principles of hermeneutics and phenomen-ology, is used. The empirical study follows guidelines for qualitative case study and is designed in a retrospective and comparative manner. The study includes three different programs directed towards local change in public libraries, during the period 1986-1999. The sample includes thirty-nine (39) single studies each aimed at evaluating the programs. Data were collected from interviews and program documentation and were analysed on three levels. The first level concentrated on mapping the complex network of evaluation activities and identifying participants and their role in different evaluation processes. The second level was directed towards a clarificat-ion of the activities and subjective meaning of different tasks of evaluation in the context of each single program. On the third level of analysis certain aspects of evaluation practice were compared between the cases, which led to an aggregated description of both the pattern related to single tasks as well as to a more holistic description of the basic approaches through which evaluation practice in these kinds of programs can be understood. One conclusion is that evaluation practice, even in this limited context, is experienced as a com-plex phenomenon filled with contradictions and paradoxes. The main result of this thesis is the identification of a certain pattern, here conceptualised as three strategies. Strategies are labelled participatory evaluation , rational-managerial evaluation and pragmatic-political evaluation . Some remarks are made about in what way this pattern correspond to traditional theories of practice in LIS. One conclusion is that the practice of evaluation has almost nothing in common with scientific-expert approaches, mainly, it is argued, because the basic conditions for such a model do not seem to exist. Another conclusion is that institutional rules and norms are reflected in evaluation practice in varied ways and that evaluation both produces and reproduces the legitimacy of institutional identity. Evaluation cannot and should not be seen as a neutral or technical tool. It is suggested that further research should focus more on problems related to pragmatic-political aspects of evaluation practice as well as going further in the analysis of the deeper interaction between evaluation practice and institutional change.

  • 18246.
    Zetterlund, Angela
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Utvärdering av offentlig verksamhet: begrepp kontext, motiv, strategier, användningen och aktörerna1997Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a review of literature on evalution of public activities and in purpose to introduce a more general framework, this study describes a picture of the concept, context, motives, strategies, use and actors in Evaluation as these are experienced outside the field of library and information. The background is the increased need for" evaluations in public libaries and a need for new LIS knowledge about it. The reviewed literature has its origin in different disciplinary contexts and the study include contributions from policy studies, sociologi, education research, business administration, philosophy and anthropology. The focus, though, is not placed upon differences in the literature but on similarities. The review is organised in six parts. In the first part a presentation is given of how evaluations are conceptualized and its meaning in a historical perspective. In the second the focus is upon the context of public descision making, implementation and public programming. Different · purpuses of evaluation is discussed in the third part followed by a description of strategies and models in the fourth. Issues of evaluation use is discussed in part five and finally is a presentation of those actors of particular-importance in evaluations given in part six. In the reviewed literature the -author finds some general patterns, who are assembled and described in a comprehensive discussion. In the contusion some claimes are made about the nature of evaluation. One claim is that evaluations are of great complexity and given several functions. This complexity is explained by the fact that evaluative activities are of increased concern and importence for numeorous actors and their relevance for many fields of practice. Future research is suggested to focus on the role of evaluation in the perspective of politicaland adminstrative governance, program change and development, scientific knowledge and in the perspective of negotiations and communication in social and political conflicts.

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  • 18247.
    Zetterlund, Angela
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Utvärdering och folkbibliotek: En studie av utvärderingens teori och praktik med exempel från folkbibliotekens förändrings- och utvecklingsprojekt1997Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 18248. Zetterlund, Angela
    et al.
    Lundqvist, Maria
    Futurum.kom: förändringsarbete genom marknadskommunikation2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a report from an ongoing project directed to marketing in Public libraries. The authors outlines the aims and strategy for the marketing effort which is designed in three basic steps: First; the building of a new brand for the libraries, second; conducting a general marketing campaign and third; conducting partial campaigns directed to some selected segments of the population. The project is wide in scope and involves 25 different local libraries in the south-east of Sweden. This papers also presents three different strategies for evaluating the project, and gives a brief description of the theoretical perspecitives as well as the empirical base used in the research. The paper also discuss some of the preliminary results of the marketing campaign this far in the project, especially the results related to the second step; the general marketing campaign.

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  • 18249.
    Zetterlund, Sofia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av bedömningsinstrumentet: Klinisk slutexamination av sjuksköterskans vårdande utifrån omvårdnadsprocessen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Landets sjuksköterskestudenter genomgår i slutet av sin utbildning ett slutprov, där både teoretiska och praktiska moment ingår. Tillvägagångsättet för bedömningen av studenten sker med varierande metoder och utifrån olika bedömningsinstrument beroende på vilket lärosäte studenten studerar vid. Bedömningsinstrumentens gemensamma syfte är att de ska utgöra en garanti för att studenten når den kunskapsnivå som krävs för en svensk sjuksköterskelegitimation. Studenten vid Högskolan i Borås ska inför sin examen genomgå kliniska slutexaminationer och lärosätet har valt att tillsammans med vårdverksamheten utveckla en Boråsmodell: Klinisk slutexamination av sjuksköterskans vårdande utifrån omvårdnadsprocessen, här förkortat (KSE).

    Syftet med studien är att beskriva handledares erfarenheter av att handleda och bedöma studenter utifrån bedömningsinstrumentet KSE. Detta har gjorts med hjälp av sju intervjuer som analyserats utifrån en tematisk metod. Resultatet pekar på att handledarna upplever en tydlig struktur, vilket förenklar handledningsprocessen och minskar stressnivån. Erfarenheterna visar på att bedömningsinstrumentets enkelhet tillsammans med och den handledningsmodell som tillämpas, medverkar till en personlig process hos både handledare och student genom att reflektionen ges stort utrymme. Resultatet ger ett genomgående positivt intryck. Det framkommer dock vissa otillfredsställande detaljer i bedömningsinstrumentet och moment som upplevs påfrestande. Upplevelser som tycks påverka negativt som erfarenheter av samvetsstress. Diskussionen tar fasta på de erfarenheter och tankar som förmedlats om bedömningsinstrumentet i relation till yttre faktorer, där förslag på kliniska implikationer avslutar studien.

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  • 18250.
    Zgrdja, Sonja
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Strukturerad kreativitet2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ordet kreativitet används flitigt idag av ledare, kreativitetskonsulter, konstnärer, unga som gamla. Vissa ser kreativiteten som en ekonomisk drivkraft, andra tycker att den gör vårt liv mer spännande. På sistone har det vuxit fram många kreativitetsprofessioner, så kallade kreativitetsexperter som säger sig veta vad kreativiteten är och har en universal lösning för stimulering av den och vet hur man leder den. Jag kallar det att strukturera kreativiteten genom klichéspråk. Genom att kommunicera kreativiteten med det klichéspråket gör vi illa själva kreativiteten. Vi beundrar kreativiteten och vi plundrar kreativiteten. Vi förtar möjligheten med ordet, den rena kreativiteten, spontana kreativiteten som finns i alla människor, som bara existerar. Syftet med uppsatsen är att åstadkomma en reflektion runt frågan vad händer med kreativiteten när man utnyttjar den och jag förväntar mig att inte ställas till svar om vad kreativiteten är, för jag har ingen facit. Den här essän är en berättelse där jag, genom det hermeneutiska synsättet, tolkar teori och intervjuer med kreativa människor som jag har i studien ur ett ironiskt perspektiv. Det ironiska perspektivet hjälper mig att handskas med motsägande situationer, och skyddar mig själv mot mina egna emotionella reaktioner som den strukturerade kreativiteten förorsakar. Att vi själva är en del av den strukturerade kreativiteten utan att vi är medvetna om det är svårt att förklara på något annat sätt än ironiskt.

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