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  • 17351.
    Wester, Emma
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Negativ word of mouth: olika WOM-källors inflytande på köpbeslutet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Word-of-mouth has been an important phenomenon in marketing for a very long time. With the introduction of the Internet and the growing popularity of social media, word-of-mouth communication has changed and is now available for consumers from all over the world with just the click of a mouse on your computer. This phenomenon has been given the name electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM). This study has examined the influence of different WOM-sources, specifically traditional oral WOM and electronic WOM to see if there are any differences in how consumers search and use different WOM-information in their purchase decision. This study has also taken an approach to only look at the influence of negative word-of-mouth from different WOM-sources and their influence. To research this an electronic questionnaire has been used and distributed to student at the University of Borås and also over Facebook. The questionnaire consists of questions regarding how important looking for WOM information before a purchase it, trustworthiness of WOM, how WOM can change your attitude to a product or service and the possibility of not going through with a purchase based on information from WOM-sources.Results from the questionnaire shows that traditional oral WOM is still considered to be the best, most used and trustworthy source of WOM as it scored highest in all categories of the questionnaire. eWOM from rating sites scored second in all categories, and eWOM from Facebook friends scored lowest in all categories. It can therefore be concluded that negative WOM-information can influence consumer purchase decision in different ways, and even though eWOM is widely used it is considered to be less informative and trustworthy than traditional oral WOM.

  • 17352.
    Westerberg, Maria
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Indexering av skönlitteratur: En undersökning av folkbibliotek som inte köper indexerade poster från Bibliotekstjänst2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate how the indexing of fiction for adults looks like in the public libraries that don’t buy indexed records for fiction from Bibliotekstjänst (BTJ). The questions that I want these libraries to answer is: - Public libraries that index fiction for adults themselves: 1. What tools do they use when indexing?, 2. How do they proceed when indexing?, 3. How do they experience that indexing works in practice?, 4. How large knowledge of Svensk Biblioteksförening’s subject headings list for adults do they have? - Public libraries that don’t index fiction for adults: 1. What factors lie behind the decision not to index?, 2. Do they have plans to either start indexing themselves or to start buying indexed records?, 3. How large knowledge of Svensk Biblioteksförening’s subject headings list for adults do they have? The study showed that in libraries that index themselves, many use Svensk Biblioteksförening’s subject headings list. They use the binding lists from BTJ and the text on the back cover of the book when choosing index terms and they think that indexing is interesting, useful but that it takes time. The libraries that don’t index say that it is lack of time or staff that has made them take that decision. Half of these libraries say that they will start buying indexed records or do the indexing by themselves. In both types of libraries the knowledge of Svensk Biblioteksförening’s subject headings list is basic or good.

  • 17353.
    Westerbotn, Margareta
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet University, Box 5605, 114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kneck, Åsa
    Sciences Karolinska Institutet, Division of Nursing, Department of Neurolobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Sweden.
    Hovland, Olav Johannes
    University of Agder, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, Institute of Health and Nursing Science, Postbox 422, 4604 Kristiansand, Norway.
    Elrond, Malene
    University College Sjælland (UCSJ), Sygeplejerskeuddannelsen, Ingemannsvej 17, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark.
    Pedersen, Ingrid
    University College Lillebaelt, 5220 Odense SØ, Denmark.
    Lejonqvist, Gun-Britt
    Arcada University of Applied Sciences, Jan-Magnus Janssons plats 1, 00550 Helsingfors, Finland.
    Dulavik, Johild
    Faculty of Natural and Health Sciences, Department of Nursing, University of the Faroe Islands, Jónas Broncksgøta 25, Fo 100 Tórshavn, Faroe Islands.
    Ecklon, Tove
    University College Lillebaelt, Department of Nursing, Svendborg, Baagoesalle 8 b, 5700 Svendborg, Denmark.
    Nilsson, Inga-Lill
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Sigurdardottir, Árún K.
    School of Health Sciences, University of Akureyri, Nordurslod, 600 Akureyri, Iceland.
    Taking part in Nordic collaboration; nursing students' experiences and perceptions from a learning perspective: A qualitative study2015In: Nurse Education Today, ISSN 0260-6917, E-ISSN 1532-2793, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 712-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SummaryBackground Nordic networking of different kinds has a long tradition aiming to increase collaboration and understanding between citizens in different countries. Cultural competence in relation to health care and nursing is important for clinical nurses and is a central issue in nurse education. Objective To gain an understanding of what nurse students experienced and learned during an intensive course in diabetes together with students and nurse educators from Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and the Faroe Islands. Methods In 2012, an intensive course within the Nordic network, Nordkvist, was conducted in Faroe Islands with the theme “Nursing — to live a good life with diabetes”. To answer the objective of the study, 26 students conducted written reflections based on two questions. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Through meetings with nurse students and educators from the Nordic countries the intensive course strengthened the students' identification with the nursing profession. The students gained new perspectives on diabetes, such as how complex it can be to live with a chronic illness. Because of the difficulties in understanding one another and because of different mother tongues, the students gained a better understanding of patients' vulnerability in relation to hospital jargon and how it felt to be in an unfamiliar place. Conclusions The intensive course increased the students' personal and professional growth, cross-cultural competence, and their identification with nursing. Students' understanding of health care in the Nordic countries improved as similarities and differences were recognized.

  • 17354.
    Westerdahl, Diana
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Lön för mödan?: – Professionaliseringens betydelse för bibliotekarieyrket och dess status2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis is to develop knowledge about the professionalization development of the librarians in Sweden and what it has resulted in, mainly in terms of professional status. What has been the content of the professionalization agenda for the librarians? Is professionalization an efficient way forward in order to enhance the status of the profession? The thesis suggests that probably there are other methods to be explored in order to increase the status of the librarians.

  • 17355.
    Westerdahl, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Bernson, Amanda
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Vem vill gå en mil för att skänka sin textil?2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att världens konsumtion leder till stora påfrestningar på miljön är ingen nyhet, och eftersom det årligen produceras cirka 80 miljarder plagg är textilbranschen en stor bidragande faktor. Kläder har dessutom en relativt kort livstid i dagens samhälle, innan konsumenterna väljer att bortskaffa dem för att följa nya modetrender och få mer plats i garderoben. En stor mängd av bortskaffade kläder ges bort eller skänks till bättre behövande. Dock finns det fortfarande kläder som också slängs i hushållssoporna, trots att upp till 95 procent av slängda plagg skulle kunna återanvändas eller återvinnas. Syftet med denna studie var därför att undersöka hur unga svenska kvinnor gör när de bortskaffar kläder, och varför de väljer de alternativ de gör. Studien har genomförts med en kvalitativ metod och det empiriska materialet samlades in genom en förundersökning samt via sju semistrukturerade intervjuer. Resultatet visade att unga kvinnor bortskaffar kläder som de har tröttnat på, som är trasiga eller som upplevs som ofräscha. Som tidigare studier visat var det mest förekommande alternativet att bortskaffa på att skänka kläderna vidare, vilket dock endast gällde hela och rena plagg. Av de plagg som kvinnorna ansåg att ingen annan skulle vilja bära slängde de flesta sina gamla kläder i soporna. Detta berodde framförallt på brist på kunskap om andra möjliga alternativ. Dessutom framkom även att kvinnorna generellt valde de sätten att bortskaffa kläder på som de ansåg vara enklast, varför tillgängligheten av alternativ också var en avgörande faktor. Studien bidrar till att skapa förståelse för konsumenters beteende vid bortskaffning av kläder.

  • 17356.
    Westerlund, Anna
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Beslutsprocessen kring offentlig konst. En undersökning av Borås kommun.2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this Master's thesis is to examine the decision-process concerning public art in Borås municipality. My questions have been from where the initiatives come, who the decision-makers are, how the decisions are taken and which questions are discussed. I have examined this through partly interviews with the members of the deciding organ in Borås municipality, partly through literary studies. I have also analysed texts such as debates and protocols from the Swedish parliament. I have also been present at two of the committees meetings. I have through the protocols from the art-committee examined six projects, which they have carried out during 2000 and 2001 to be able to get a more clear view of the committees work. In Borås the decisions concerning public art are taken by an art-committee, which consist of five municipality politicians who are entitled to vote and three experts who are not entitled to vote but have great influence on the decisions. The committee have 500 000 SEK which are to be spent on public art every year. There are many factors that influence the decision-process, both on a national and on a municipality level, such as the relation to the users, the art-unions, politicians and The National Public Art Council. Both on a national and a municipality level there are few factors politicians agree on, for example the relation to the users, which some think is adequate and some dont.

  • 17357.
    Westerlund, Ann-Catrin
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Hur fungerar indexering av skönlitteratur? En konsistensundersökning2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this master thesis is to find out how indexing of fiction works. I look at the consistency when users’ choices of index words are compared with each other and I also compare users’ choices to the current indexing made by libraries. I examine the subject heading list, Att indexera skönlitteratur, to find out how well it works in this particular context. The investigation included seven users who, in three steps, are creating a subject heading index of the Swedish novel Klippdockan by Cecilia Dahlheim. On the basis of their choices the results may either indicate that the consistency is good enough for subject heading index fiction, or if it is just a waste of time depending on how it is done today. The results show that consistency is low overall and that certain aspects point out changes that can be made to make subject heading index for fiction more efficient and effective. The survey shows that consistency is higher if the document text is short, if a subject heading list is used and if the words are not too specific. Today there is an increase in the amount of fiction held by libraries and there is a need for more user-friendly systems as users increasingly search in the catalogues themselves. The conclusions are that there is a need for a subject heading index for fiction in our libraries, and that there are ways to improve today's situation.

  • 17358.
    Westerlund, Caroline
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Urval och inköp av spelfilm till biblioteket- en studie om bibliotekariers arbete med spelfilm på folkbiblioteket2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine how librarians are working with the selection and purchase of feature films in Swedish public libraries. I was interested in examining the underlying reasons behind the selections. I chose to focus on how librarians are working and reason about the library´s film collection. The purpose of my study is to answer the following questions: • How are librarians working with selection and purchase of feature films in the public library? • What factors motivate librarians´ selection of feature films? • What do librarians reason about the public library film collection? To answer these questions I performed interviews with seven librarians in five different public libraries. The results of the interviews have been analyzed on the basis of the theories and theoretical model of Sanna Talja. I used a translated and modified version of Talja´s model in my analysis. Results showed that the economy was a factor influencing the selection and purchases of films. The accessibility to the films was another factor that influenced the librarians. Librarians can only purchase films with licenses that can be lent to borrowers. Librarians have to purchase films from the contracted sources. Most of the librarians strive to that the library should have a varied film collection. They buy both old films as classics but also more recent films. Some also buy narrower films as an alternative to the commercial films

  • 17359.
    Westerlund, Frida
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Schysst byxa!: En barnbyxa med justerbar benlängd framtagen ur hållbarhetssynpunkt2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En barnbyxa med justerbar benlängd som möjliggjorde att längden kunde justeras allt efter barnet växte togs fram av ett svenskt modeföretag. Därmed ökade livslängden på plagget. Byxan återkallades från marknaden då den bröt mot produktsäkerhetslagen för att den dragsko som utgjorde lösningen kunde innebära stryprisk för barnen. Om en farlig produkt når marknaden kan det ha förödande konsekvenser för både konsumenter och företag, därför är det viktigt att företagen har kunskap om de lagstiftningar som gäller för deras produkter och fastställa dess säkerhet innan de lanseras på marknaden. Det finns ett ökat hållbarhetstänk idag och produkter och processer blir allt grönare, men samtidigt ökar konsumtionen vilket gör att resultatet blir plus minus noll. Syftet med denna studie är därför att, ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv, ta fram en konceptuell barnbyxa med justerbar benlängd med produktsäkerhetslagen och konsumenters preferenser i åtanke. Det sistnämnda är viktigt då byxan inte kan bidra till minskad konsumtion om föräldrar och barn inte vill köpa plagget. Studien baserades på analys av tidigare forskning och en enkät- och marknadsundersökning. Utifrån det insamlade materialet fastställdes en kravspecifikation för den nya lösningen och det gjordes en riskanalys av den nya byxan för att garantera dess säkerhet gentemot slutkund. Baserat på vad som framgick i jämförelsen med kravspecifikationen och riskanalysen gjordes justeringar och sedan togs en slutgiltig lösning fram. Den nya lösningen har kanaler sydda längs med benens framsida och i dem löper ett tygskärp som är fastsytt vid fotändarna. Tygskärpets ände kommer fram vid sömmen mellan byxben och linning. Benlängden justeras som ett skärp och gör att byxan draperas längs benet. Tygskärpets längd kan justeras 12 cm vilket gör att byxan bör kunna brukas över tre år. De delar av tygskärpet som hänger utanför kanalerna placeras i hällor längs med kanalernas framsida. Genom barnbyxor med justerbar benlängd, tillverkade i god kvalitet, kan den problematiska masskonsumtionen minskas. Minskningen sker då detta plagg inte behövs bytas ut lika frekvent och en av de vanligaste anledningarna till köp av barnkläder är just att barnet vuxit ur sina plagg. Resultatet visar att det går att tillverka en barnbyxa som stämmer väl överens med produktsäkerhetslagen och konsumenters preferenser samt som går i linje med det ökade hållbarhetstänket.

  • 17360.
    Westerstedt, Jerry
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Analys av värmesystem Effektreducering2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Innehållet speglar både kostnadseffektiv ingenjörskonst och driftstrategiska investeringar dels i form av analyser av nuvarande och kommande effektkonsumtion samt effektbehov, dels idéer på hur vidsträckta problem kan lösas med relativt enkla tekniska konstruktioner. Analyserna omfattar undersökning av potentiella värmekällor vilket resulterat i konkreta förslag på vilka som kan vara aktuella samt vilka som ej kommer att hålla rätt kvalité. Undersökningen innefattar även beskrivning av rådande förutsättningar för rekommenderad värmekälla samt hur en eventuell projektering bör formas med avseende på vilka materiella val samt variabler som bör beaktas vid installation. Framförallt hur stor den primära effektreduceringen blir genom att följa de åtgärder som rekommenderas i rapporten, dels analyseras det befintliga värmesystemets olika delar genom en momentan jämförelse som ger en bild av delsystemens inbördes betydelse beroende på vad de faktiskt bidrar med effektmässigt. Rapporten innefattar även en undersökning av det befintliga värmesystemets komponenter och rekommenderar vilka komponenter som bör åtgärdas omgående samt varför och hur det bör ske. Innehållet som helhet belyser betänkliga råd som bör beaktas inom en snar framtid, rapporten framhäver stora som små investeringar med avseende på att öka driftsäkerheten samt att på sikt generera en större reducering av nuvarande driftkostnad. Det återfinns ett förslag på en intelligent styrning som till viss del kan ersätta de fördelar som en manuell styrning faktiskt medför i form av de sinnen och egenskaper som den mänskliga faktorn bidrar med såsom syn, känsel och erfarenhet.

  • 17361. Westin, Ellen
    Framtagning av en grundkonstruktion för en klänning med sänkt midja: Framtagning av en grundkonstruktion för en klänning med sänkt midja2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie görs på uppdrag av ett mindre modeföretag som har problem med att midjan är i obalans på deras åtsittande klänningar. Problemet är återkommande och är oberoende av plaggmodell eller provperson. Enligt företagets standard är midjan sänkt från dess naturliga position vilket indikerar på att det är den sänkta midjan som orsakar balansfelet. Litteraturen beskriver olika balansfel orsakat av kroppshållning men detta anses inte vara källan till problemet. Balansfel som uppstår på grund av mönterkonstruktionens utförande saknas inom litteraturen och ska därför utforskas. Syftet med denna rapport är att ta fram en klänningsgrund med fokus på att undersöka orsaken till balansfel kring en sänkt midja och vilka åtgärder som krävs för att generera bättre passform. Genom att sy upp några av litteraturens grundkonstruktioner med naturlig midja för att sedan sänka den till företagets utvalda position för målgruppen har dessa analyserats och jämförts mot varandra för att upptäcka balansfel enbart vid sänkt midja. Detta balansfel exponeras tydligast i profil där midjan inte håller en horisontell linje. Sidan och bak är på en lägre position än fram och kräver därför justering. För att generera bättre passform utan balansfel kring midjan bör sänkning ske olika fram, i sidor samt bak.

  • 17362. Westin, Lars
    et al.
    Sundler J, Annelie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Berglund, Mia
    Students' experiences of learning in relation to didactic strategies during the first year of a nursing programme: a qualitative study.2015In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In university undergraduate nursing programmes, didactic strategies that enable students to learn nursing skills, solve problems and develop reflective and critical thinking and practice are needed. The aim of this study was to explore how different didactic strategies support nursing students' experiences of learning during the first year of a reconstructed nursing curriculum.

    METHODS: This study employed a qualitative approach. The data were gathered through written narratives that were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: Nursing students' experiences of learning through different didactic strategies, were evident in the text. These perspectives were organised into the following themes: To focus on the patient perspective and paying more attention to others, Learning from discussions and reflections on one's own learning, Training for the professional role and becoming more courage, and Gaining insights into nursing and increasing one's self-awareness. The education increased the students' self-awareness, which helped them to pay greater attention to patients and their relative. During the learning process, the students became more courageous, reflected and discovered their shortcomings.

    CONCLUSION: Stated didactic strategies supported a broad base of knowledge on nursing and the professional role of nurses. Educators are challenged to strengthen meaningful learning in nursing and to facilitate the progression of nursing programmes.

  • 17363.
    WESTIN, WESTIN
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    TORSTENSSON, KAJSA
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Ett starkt varumärke når fram2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den ökade betydelsen av att som företag ha ett starkt varumärke för att synas på marknaden har inneburit att det läggs ner allt mer tid och resurser på varumärkeshöjande aktiviteter inom företagen. Den växande virtuella världen och den ökade handeln på Internet har i kombination med vikten av ett starkt varumärke skapat en komplicerad situation. Vagabond är ett svenskt varumärkesproducerande skoföretag som har ställts inför de möjligheter och svårigheter som den ökade Internetanvändningen har inneburit. Expansionen genom försäljning via återförsäljare på Internet har inneburit att svårigheterna med att kontrollera hur varumärket framställs på olika sidor på Internet har ökat. Den totala skokonsumtionen har ökat de senaste åren och konkurrensen på skomarknaden har blivit stor, vilket bidrar till att vikten av att sticka ut blir allt större. Syftet med vår studie är att förklara hur det varumärkesproducerande företaget, i vårt fall Vagabond, arbetar med att framställa och bevara sitt varumärke och vidare hur de Internetbaserade återförsäljarna resonerar kring sina produkters varumärken. Syftet är på så sätt också att undersöka och analysera vilka attityder de Internetbaserade återförsäljarna har, vilket ansvar de känner gentemot framställandet av varumärkena samt hur viktigt det är för dem att framställa dem på rätt sätt. Vi har i vår studie fokuserat på relationen mellan företag och har på så vis inte beaktat konsumenten till någon högre grad. Vårt huvudproblem lyder: Hur säkerställer företaget sitt varumärkes profil och image vid försäljning via återförsäljare på Internet? I vår teoretiska referensram förklaras begrepp som behandlar de ämnen som hjälper till att svara på vår huvudfrågeställning, det vill säga litteratur som behandlar områden som varumärke, marknadskommunikation, ”Visual Merchandising” och Internethandel. Som tillägg till litteraturen har vi funnit intressanta teorier i vetenskapliga artiklar som behandlar ämnen så som ”online branding” och ”online Visual Merchandising”. Tillsammans har teorierna gett oss en bra och översiktlig bild av vår problemställnings bakomliggande omständigheter. Vi har genomfört en fallstudie där det empiriska materialet har samlats in genom intervjuer med relevanta parter samt egna observationer av ett urval av de Internetbaserade återförsäljarnas webbplatser. Relevanta parter definieras som representanter från fallföretaget Vagabond samt Internetbaserade återförsäljare av skor. Insamlat empiriskt material har sedan applicerats på uppställda teorier som sedan använts som grund till vår analys och slutsats. De slutsatser som dragits i studien kan kort sammanfattas i att det i slutändan handlar om att varumärket ska arbeta med sin egen image och varumärkesbyggande för att göra det så tydligt och starkt som möjligt. En slutsats är också att det kan underlätta om det varumärkesproducerande företaget ger återförsäljarna korrekt information om varumärkets värden och produkter. På så sätt uppfattar både återförsäljare och konsumenter varumärket på önskat sätt och genererar goda associationer och en hög förväntad kvalitet.The increased importance of having a strong brand to be differentiated on the market has lead to that companies put more time and resources on brand-enhancing activities. The ever growing virtual world and the increased phenomenon of Internet trade have in combination with the importance of a strong brand created a complicated situation for the companies and their brand. Vagabond is a Swedish designer and distributor of shoes that has to face the opportunities and difficulties that the increased usage of the Internet has lead to. The expansion of selling your products through resellers online has increased the difficulties of how to control in what way the company’s brand is emitted on the Internet around the world. The consumption of footwear has increased in recent years and the competition in shoe business has become fierce, which has contributed to the enhanced importance of differentiation. The purpose of our study is to explain how the brand manufacturer, in our case Vagabond, works with the exhibition and preserving of the company’s brand, and further how the online resellers deliberates when it comes to their product’s brands. The purpose is in that way also to investigate and analyze what attitudes the online resellers have, their responsibilities when it comes to exhibition of brands and how important it is for them to exhibit them correctly. We have in our study focused on the relationship between companies, and have thus not taken into account the consumer to any great extent. Our main problem follows: How can the company ensure their brand’s profile and image when selling their products through resellers online? Our study can be defined as a case study where the empirical material has been gathered through interviews with the company Vagabond and two online resellers, and observations of a selection of online resellers and their websites. In our theoretical framework we explain different concepts that discuss the subjects that help to answer our main problem, i.e. literature that discuss subjects such as branding, market communication, visual merchandising, and trading on the Internet. In addition, we found interesting theories in scientific articles about online branding and online visual merchandising. Altogether the theories have given us a good and perspicuous view of the underlying circumstances of the problems discussed in our study. The conclusions that came out from our study can be summarized as follows; in the end, it’s all about the brand manufacturer and its’ own brand building activities to make the brand as strong and clear as possible. A second conclusion is that the brand manufacturer can facilitate for themselves and for the online reseller if they provide correct information about the brands’ values and products. In that way, both the resellers and the consumers can understand the content of the brand and generate positive associations about the brand and a high level of perceived quality.

  • 17364.
    Westlin, Jenny Green
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Den gränslösa samlingen: de fria webbresursernas plats i beståndsutvecklingen på några svenska forskningsbibliotek2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this master's thesis is to describe the management of free Internet resources in three Swedish research libraries. With the starting point in the increased quantity and importance of these resources, together with reflections on the change of the concept of collection, the thesis shows how and to what extent these freely accessible Internet resources are being integrated in the day-to-day work with collection development. It also elucidates the problems with the free Internet resources from the research libraries points of view. The study is based upon analyses of collection management literature and qualitative interviews with librarians at the chosen libraries. The thesis shows that the research libraries still have not come very far in their work of integrating the free Internet resources in their collections. Only one of the examined libraries mentions the free Internet resources in its collection development policy, and none of them have worked out routines for how to manage these resources. What characterizes the management of free Internet resources in the examined libraries is a kind of uncertainty of what is possible to do with them, a fear of the uncontrollable part of the medium, and an expectant attitude. There are no signs of a fundamental transformation of collection management, but rather of a cautious modernization of already existing structures and routines. The barriers for a more widespread use of the free Internet resources that were found, are almost identical with those mentioned in the literature, and consist of institutional inertia as well as the transient character of Internet resources.

  • 17365.
    Westman, J.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bonander, N.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, C.J.
    Improved sugar co-utilisation by encapsulation of a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain in alginate-chitosan capsules2014In: Biotechnology for Biofuels, ISSN 1754-6834, E-ISSN 1754-6834, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 102-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Two major hurdles for successful production of second-generation bioethanol are the presence of inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic media, and the fact that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot naturally utilise pentoses. There are recombinant yeast strains that address both of these issues, but co-utilisation of glucose and xylose is still an issue that needs to be resolved. A non-recombinant way to increase yeast tolerance to hydrolysates is by encapsulation of the yeast. This can be explained by concentration gradients occuring in the cell pellet inside the capsule. In the current study, we hypothesised that encapsulation might also lead to improved simultaneous utilisation of hexoses and pentoses because of such sugar concentration gradients. Results In silico simulations of encapsulated yeast showed that the presence of concentration gradients of inhibitors can explain the improved inhibitor tolerance of encapsulated yeast. Simulations also showed pronounced concentration gradients of sugars, which resulted in simultaneous xylose and glucose consumption and a steady state xylose consumption rate up to 220-fold higher than that found in suspension culture. To validate the results experimentally, a xylose-utilising S. cerevisiae strain, CEN.PK XXX, was constructed and encapsulated in semi-permeable alginate-chitosan liquid core gel capsules. In defined media, encapsulation not only increased the tolerance of the yeast to inhibitors, but also promoted simultaneous utilisation of glucose and xylose. Encapsulation of the yeast resulted in consumption of at least 50% more xylose compared with suspended cells over 96-hour fermentations in medium containing both sugars. The higher consumption of xylose led to final ethanol titres that were approximately 15% higher. In an inhibitory dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, freely suspended yeast cells consumed the sugars in a sequential manner after a long lag phase, whereas no lag phase was observed for the encapsulated yeast, and glucose, mannose, galactose and xylose were utilised in parallel from the beginning of the cultivation. Conclusions Encapsulation of xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae leads to improved simultaneous and efficient utilisation of several sugars, which are utilised sequentially by suspended cells. The greatest improvement is obtained in inhibitory media. These findings show that encapsulation is a promising option for production of second-generation bioethanol.

  • 17366.
    Westman, J
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Mapelli, V.
    Taherzadeh, M.J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzen, C.J.
    Flocculation causes inhibitor tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 2nd generation bioethanol production2014In: Applied and Environmental Microbiology, ISSN 0099-2240, E-ISSN 1098-5336, Vol. 80, no 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yeast has long been considered the microorganism of choice for second generation bioethanol production due to its fermentative capacity and ethanol tolerance. However, tolerance towards inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic materials is still an issue. Flocculating yeast strains often perform relatively well in inhibitory media, but inhibitor tolerance has never been clearly linked to the actual flocculation ability per se. In this study, variants of the flocculation gene FLO1 were transformed into the genome of the otherwise non-flocculating laboratory yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D. Three mutants with distinct differences in flocculation properties were isolated and characterised. The degree of flocculation and hydrophobicity of the cells were correlated to the length of the gene variant. The effect of different strength of flocculation on the fermentation performance of the strains was studied in defined medium with and without fermentation inhibitors as well as in media based on dilute acid spruce hydrolysate. Strong flocculation aided against the readily convertible inhibitor furfural, but not against less convertible inhibitors, such as carboxylic acids. During fermentation of dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, the most strongly flocculating mutant with dense cell flocs showed significantly faster sugar consumption. The modified strain with the weakest flocculation showed a hexose consumption profile similar to the non-transformed strain. These findings may explain why flocculation has evolved as a stress response, and can find application in fermentation-based biorefinery processes on lignocellulosic raw materials.

  • 17367.
    Westman, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ethanol production from lignocellulose using high local cell density yeast cultures. Investigations of flocculating and encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Efforts are made to change from 1st to 2nd generation bioethanol production, using lignocellulosics as raw materials rather than using raw materials that alternatively can be used as food sources. An issue with lignocellulosics is that a harsh pretreatment step is required in the process of converting them into fermentable sugars. In this step, inhibitory compounds such as furan aldehydes and carboxylic acids are formed, leading to suboptimal fermentation rates. Another issue is that lignocellulosics may contain a large portion of pentoses, which cannot be fermented simultaneously with glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this thesis, high local cell density has been investigated as a means of overcoming these two issues. Encapsulation of yeast in semi-permeable alginate-chitosan capsules increased the tolerance towards furan aldehydes, but not towards carboxylic acids. The selective tolerance can be explained by differences in the concentration of compounds radially through the cell pellet inside the capsule. For inhibitors, gradients will only be formed if the compounds are readily convertible, like the furan aldehydes. Conversion of inhibitors by cells close to the membrane leads to decreased concentrations radially through the cell pellet. Thus, cells closer to the core experience subinhibitory levels of inhibitors and can ferment sugars. Carbohydrate gradients also give rise to nutrient limitations, which in turn trigger a stress response in the yeast, as was observed on mRNA and protein level. The stress response is believed to increase the robustness of the yeast and lead to improved tolerance towards additional stress. Glucose and xylose co-consumption by a recombinant strain, CEN.PK XXX, was also improved by encapsulation. Differences in affinity of the sugar transporters normally result in that glucose is taken up preferentially to xylose. However, when encapsulated, cells in different parts of the capsule experienced high and low glucose concentrations simultaneously. Xylose and glucose could thus be taken up concurrently. This improved the co-utilisation of the sugars by the system and led to 50% higher xylose consumption and 15% higher final ethanol titres. A protective effect by the capsule membrane itself could not be shown. Hence, the interest in flocculation was triggered, as a more convenient way to keep the cells together. To investigate whether flocculation increases the tolerance, like encapsulation, recombinant flocculating yeast strains were constructed and compared with the non-flocculating parental strain. Experiments showed that strong flocculation did not increase the tolerance towards carboxylic acids. However, the tolerance towards a spruce hydrolysate and especially against furfural was indeed increased. The results of this thesis show that high local cell density yeast cultures have the potential to aid against two of the major problems for 2nd generation bioethanol production: inhibitors and simultaneous hexose and pentose utilisation.

  • 17368.
    Westman, Johan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Mapelli, Valeria
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    High local cell density for efficient 2nd generation bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17369.
    Westman, Johan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Mapelli, Valeria
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Together we are strong: Yeast flocculation for efficient fermentation of toxic hydrolysates2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17370.
    Westman, Johan O.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Together we are strong! Second generation bioethanol production by flocculating and encapsulated yeast2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17371.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Babikondu, Ramesh Babu
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Encapsulation-Induced Stress Helps Saccharomyces cerevisiae Resist Convertible Lignocellulose Derived Inhibitors2012In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 11881-11894Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of macroencapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS8066 to withstand readily and not readily in situ convertible lignocellulose-derived inhibitors was investigated in anaerobic batch cultivations. It was shown that encapsulation increased the tolerance against readily convertible furan aldehyde inhibitors and to dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, but not to organic acid inhibitors that cannot be metabolized anaerobically. Gene expression analysis showed that the protective effect arising from the encapsulation is evident also on the transcriptome level, as the expression of the stress-related genes YAP1, ATR1 and FLR1 was induced upon encapsulation. The transcript levels were increased due to encapsulation already in the medium without added inhibitors, indicating that the cells sensed low stress level arising from the encapsulation itself. We present a model, where the stress response is induced by nutrient limitation, that this helps the cells to cope with the increased stress added by a toxic medium, and that superficial cells in the capsules degrade convertible inhibitors, alleviating the inhibition for the cells deeper in the capsule.

  • 17372.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzen, CJ
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Characterization of Domsjö flocculating yeast strain2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17373.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Phenotypical and Physiological Characterization of a Flocculating Yeast Strain2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17374.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzen, Carl Johan
    Inhibitor tolerance and flocculation of a yeast strain suitable for second generation bioethanol production2012In: Electronic Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0717-3458, E-ISSN 0717-3458, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Robust second generation bioethanol processes require microorganisms able to ferment inhibitory lignocellullosic hydrolysates. In this study, the inhibitor tolerance and flocculation characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCUG53310 were evaluated in comparison with S. cerevisiae CBS8066. Results: The flocculating strain CCUG53310 could rapidly ferment all hexoses in dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, while CBS8066 was strongly inhibited in this medium. In synthetic inhibitory media, CCUG53310 was more tolerant to carboxylic acids and furan aldehydes, but more sensitive than CBS8066 to phenolic compounds. Despite the higher tolerance, the increase in expression of the YAP1, ATR1 and FLR1 genes, known to confer resistance to lignocellulose-derived inhibitors, was generally smaller in CCUG53310 than in CBS8066 in inhibitory media. The flocculation of CCUG53310 was linked to the expression of FLO8, FLO10 and one or more of FLO1, FLO5 or FLO9. Flocculation depended on cell wall proteins and Ca2+ ions, but was almost unaffected by other compounds and pH values typical for lignocellulosic media. Conclusions: S. cerevisiae CCUG53310 can be characterised as being very robust, with great potential for industrial fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates relatively low in phenolic inhibitors.

  • 17375.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzen, Carl Johan
    Proteomic Analysis of the Increased Stress Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Encapsulated in Liquid Core Alginate-Chitosan Capsules2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 11, p. 12-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS8066 encapsulated in semi-permeable alginate or alginate-chitosan liquid core capsules have been shown to have an enhanced tolerance towards complex dilute-acid lignocellulose hydrolysates and the lignocellulose-derived inhibitor furfural, as well as towards high temperatures. The underlying molecular reasons for these effects have however not been elucidated. In this study we have investigated the response of the encapsulation on the proteome level in the yeast cells, in comparison with cells grown freely in suspension under otherwise similar conditions. The proteomic analysis was performed on whole cell protein extracts using nLC-MS/MS with TMT® labelling and 2-D DIGE. 842 and 52 proteins were identified using each method, respectively. The abundances of 213 proteins were significantly different between encapsulated and suspended cells, with good correlation between the fold change ratios obtained by the two methods for proteins identified in both. Encapsulation of the yeast caused an up-regulation of glucose-repressed proteins and of both general and starvation-specific stress responses, such as the trehalose biosynthesis pathway, and down-regulation of proteins linked to growth and protein synthesis. The encapsulation leads to a lack of nutrients for cells close to the core of the capsule due to mass transfer limitations. The triggering of the stress response may be beneficial for the cells in certain conditions, for example leading to the increased tolerance towards high temperatures and certain inhibitors.

  • 17376.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Car Johan
    Encapsulated vs. free yeast: A comparative proteomic study2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the search for a replacement for fossil fuels, due to their depletion as well as an increased concern about our environment, 2nd generation bioethanol comes out as one of the most promising alternatives. There are challenges in several steps of lignocellulose processing – especially due to the formation of for yeast inhibitory compounds during pretreatment and hydrolysis. It has previously been shown that encapsulation of the yeast in membranes made of an alginate gel enables the yeast to survive otherwise toxic hydrolysates. The physiological changes arising from encapsulation are however largely unknown, although it has been shown that the macromolecular composition of the yeast changes during prolonged cultivation. In this study we have therefore performed a comparative proteomic study of yeast grown in capsules and in suspension in anaerobic batch cultivations.

  • 17377.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Inhibitor tolerance and flocculation: Characterization of a yeast strain suitable for 2nd generation bioethanol production2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Robust second generation bioethanol processes require microorganisms able to obtain high yields and production rates while fermenting inhibiting hydrolysates. However, tolerance towards inhibitors like, carboxylic acids, furan aldehydes and phenolic compounds, is still an issue and the factors contributing to improved tolerance are not well known. In this study, the constitutively flocculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain CCUG 53310, with good ability to ferment toxic hydrolysates, was compared with S. cerevisiae CBS 8066 in order to characterize the mechanisms of flocculation and the fermentative performance in different inhibitory media. The flocculation of CCUG 53310 depended on cell wall proteins and was partly inhibited by mannose. The flocculating cells also exhibited a significantly higher hydrophobicity than the cells of the non-flocculating strain CBS 8066, which might contribute to the flocculation. The flocculating strain was more tolerant to carboxylic acids and furan aldehydes, but more sensitive to phenolic compounds. Surprisingly, the expression increase of YAP1, ATR1 and FLR1, known to confer resistance against lignocellulose-derived inhibitors, upon addition of various inhibitors to the fermentation medium, was less in CCUG 53310 than in CBS 8066 in most cases. This indicates that the flocculating strain experienced the cultivation conditions as less stressful. The flocculation in itself is a likely cause of this by creating subinhibitory local levels of inhibitors for most cells, allowing the cells in flocs to experience a lower collective stress level.

  • 17378.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Inhibitor tolerance by high local cell density Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17379.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Investigations of the inhibitor tolerance of encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17380.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Physiological consequences of encapsulating Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A proteomic approach2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17381.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Physiologiccal consequenses of high local cell density saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17382.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Talebnia, Farid
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzén, Carl Johan
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Together we are strong! Inhibitor tolerance conferred by good neighbors?2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17383.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ylitervo, Päivi
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Franzen, Carl Johan
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Effects of encapsulation of microorganisms on product formation during microbial fermentations2012In: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, ISSN 0175-7598, E-ISSN 1432-0614, Vol. 96, no 6, p. 1441-1454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews the latest developments in microbial products by encapsulated microorganisms in a liquid core surrounded by natural or synthetic membranes. Cells can be encapsulated in one or several steps using liquid droplet formation, pregel dissolving, coacervation, and interfacial polymerization. The use of encapsulated yeast and bacteria for fermentative production of ethanol, lactic acid, biogas, l-phenylacetylcarbinol, 1,3-propanediol, and riboflavin has been investigated. Encapsulated cells have furthermore been used for the biocatalytic conversion of chemicals. Fermentation, using encapsulated cells, offers various advantages compared to traditional cultivations, e.g., higher cell density, faster fermentation, improved tolerance of the cells to toxic media and high temperatures, and selective exclusion of toxic hydrophobic substances. However, mass transfer through the capsule membrane as well as the robustness of the capsules still challenge the utilization of encapsulated cells. The history and the current state of applying microbial encapsulation for production processes, along with the benefits and drawbacks concerning productivity and general physiology of the encapsulated cells, are discussed.

  • 17384.
    Westman, Malin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Babewear: Questioning the way society force childrenswear into two set genders, translated in adultwear2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From the day we are born, we are divided into a gender. This work will look into the way society force children wear into two set genders. I expect to enlighten the problems in set genders in clothes.

    By studying the characteristics in children wear, scale them up into an adult size and see what happens to the proportions, details and expression. Different kinds of garments with different kind of details. The result is a collection that represents todays features of children wear, pointing out the issues of how society gives children a set identity by the dressing them in a specic way, often by using prints or typical colors.

  • 17385.
    Westrum, Randi
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Uppdatering av Listdok: arbetsbeskrivning1982Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bearbetning i LIBRIS från ISDS eller äldre LIBRIS-format till nu gällande SKR 74, samt användning av LIBRIS databas för att få versaler och gemena i referenserna som ligger till grund för LISTDOKs andra upplaga.

  • 17386.
    Wetherall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Werner, Fredrik
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Användbara mobila reseplanerare2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt kommunikationsmyndigheten PTS finns det cirka 10miljoner mobiltelefonabonnemang endast i Sverige. Telefonerna innehåller operativsystem där det tillåts mängder av olika sorters program. I och med att Apple 2007 introducerade sin iPhone exploderade marknaden för så kallade Nomadic Devices. En telefon som mer är tänkt att fungera som någon form av handdator. Dessa telefoners utformning och funktioner möjliggör för utvecklare att ta fram mer avancerade program än man tidigare sett för mobiltelefoner. Inom Sveriges tre största regioner(Stockholm, Västsverige och Sydsverige) finns det representerade reseplanerarapplikationer för mobiltelefonen som stödjer resenären i sitt kollektivåkande. Vid applikationsutveckling är det viktigt att ta begrepp såsom användarvänlighet, användbarhet i beaktning samt riktlinjer som harmoniserar med detta vid utformning av gränssnitt. Studien genererar ett antal riktlinjer grundat i redan befintliga och mer generella riktlinjer för utformning av gränssnitt. Förändringarna som är gjorda ligger i appliceringen till den givna kontexten, reseplanerare. Ett antal nya riktlinjer har också vuxit fram grundat på den empiriska undersökning som genomförts.

  • 17387.
    WETTERBORG, MALIN
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Micro and nano sized textile topography for improved water repellence2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water repellent fabrics with superhydrophobic properties have been constructed during this diploma work. First the fabrics were woven using six different weft yarns creating micro roughness and then a nanoparticle and surface energy lowering treatment was made. Contact angle measurements, contact angle hysteresis measurements, roll-off angle measurements and spray tests were made on the fabrics to investigate the hydrophobicity and water repellence. Also the durability was tested to examine the fastness of the treatments. It was found that the nanoparticles boosted the hydrophobicity of the hydrophobic treatments. Also by varying the size of textile filaments in yarns, the hydrophobicity of the material was affected. In this study, it was found how small textile parameters in the fabric could be changed to increase both durability and water repellence.

  • 17388.
    Wetterlund, Moa
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mattisson, Emma
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Från tillskärningsspill till garn: Garnspinning med mekaniskt återvunner merinoull och polyamid 6.62017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta projekt har garn spunnits fram med olika blandningar av återvunna och jungfruliga fibrer av merinoull/polyamid 6.6. Detta för att möjliggöra återföring av tillskärningsspill i produktionskedjan åt företaget Woolpower® då spillmaterialet idag används till att tillverka filtsulor. Genom att spinna garn av spillmaterialet kan det därmed sluta kretsloppet för deras återvinningsprocess då garnet kan återinföras i den ursprungliga produktionskedjan. Fokus under projektet låg på att undersöka hur fint garn som kan spinnas med så hög andel återvunna fibrer som möjligt.  Mätning av fiberlängdsfördelning genomfördes av både återvunna fibrer och jungfruliga fibrer, garn spanns med olika fraktioner inblandning av återvunna fibrer samt dragprovning utfördes på de garnprover som tagits fram för att jämföras med referensgarn.   Det spanns sex garner med olika fraktioner inblandning av återvunna och jungfruliga fibrer, där de inblandningar som gjorts innehöll 10 %, 20 % eller 30 % återvunna fibrer samt två garn med 100 % jungfruliga fibrer. Det starkaste garnet innehållande återvunna fibrer som spanns under projektet var ett garn innehållande 20 % återvunna fibrer. Garnet hade dock en signifikant minskning av styrka jämfört med referensgarnet, vilket ledde till slutsatsen att det inte går att spinna ett garn med liknande garnnummer utan statistisk signifikant minskning av garnets mekaniska styrka som referensgarnet som Woolpower® använder i produktion idag.  Hos de återvunna fibrerna observerades en procentuell minskning av fiberlängden på strax över 82 %.  Minskningen tros bero på att de har genomgått fler process- och produktionssteg samt en slitsam textilupprivning i jämförelse med de jungfruliga fibrerna. 

  • 17389.
    Wettersten, Sofia
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Obradovac, Belma
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Öppenhet i redovisning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Öppenhet är en allt viktigare del av företagens årsredovisningar. I en mer och mer komplex värld har öppenheten blivit en större fråga för företagen vid upprättandet årsredovisningarna. Det ostabila förtroendet för företagen har resulterat i större press öppenhet. Därför är det inte konstigt att redovisningskvalité har blivit en viktig aspekt intressenter, problemet är att kvalité ses på olika vis. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) har i sin senaste utgåva av International Accounting Standards (IAS) skrivit 50 sidor om redovisningskvalité. SEC anser kvalitén på redovisningen bestäms av rådande standarder samt respektive lednings ansvar att korrekt tillämpa dessa. Ett annat alternativ är användarnas perspektiv, det vill säga investerarnas, aktieägarnas och vilka krav de vill ställa på öppenheten. Det råder stor oenighet kring vilket perspektiv man ska se öppenheten ifrån. Denna studie fokuserar på öppenhet med motiveringen att kvalité är ett resultat öppenhet i redovisning. Syftet är att klargöra hur begreppet öppenhet presenteras upprättandet av företags resultaträkning. Vidare kopplas detta till redovisningskvalité med centrum på intäkterna. I studien undersöks åtta olika företags årsredovisningar. Avgränsningen innebär att studien endast undersöker fyra valda poster resultaträkningarna. Vi har utgått från ett textanalysperspektiv, där redovisning ses som ett kommunikationsmedel för företagen. Texten analyseras ur följande fyra perspektiv; intertextrelationer, användare, revisorer och tillverkare. Studien har visat att företagen inte alltid följer de krav som finns på öppenhet. Detta trots att studien fokuserar på ett av de allra viktigaste områdena i årsredovisningen. Intäkterna har en central och avgörande roll i redovisningen och därmed även vad gäller öppenheten. Företagen som undersökts i studien ligger relativt jämnt vad gäller kvalitén öppenhet avseende obligatorisk öppenhet. Tilläggsinformationen skiljer dock företagen väsentligt. Vissa poster är det vanligare att utlämna mer information kring än andra. Studien har visat att det inte är populärt att redovisa beräkningen av resultat per aktie på så vis som IAS kräver att företagen ska göra. Atlas Copco, Scania och Volvo är de företag som bäst lever upp till kraven som ställs utifrån standarderna. Det är de företag som ger ut mest tilläggsinformation i sina årsredovisningar, de ger framförallt ut information då det gäller rörelsesegment och resultaträkningen. Det är dessutom de företagen som ger ut mycket information i sina noter till årsredovisningarna.

  • 17390.
    Wiberg, Karolina
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Naturskildringen i ett samhällsperspektiv: en ekokritisk studie av Gösta Berlings saga och Händelser vid vatten2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year))Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this master thesis is to examine how the relationship between humans and nature is expressed in the imaginative literature. My aim is to identify ideological reproductions in the analyzed works. Therefore I have chosen one work from late 19th century and one from late 20th century. This makes it possible to examine the contextual anchorage of the found ideological expressions. The study’s theoretical framework is primarily based on ecocriticism, and especially on Greg Garrard’s and Kate Soper’s thoughts. The method used is critical ideology analysis. The result shows that nature and culture is paradoxical and highly ideological conceptions. In The story of Gösta Berling, an anthropocentric and religiously oriented notion of nature is dominating, though there are some elements of an early deep ecology to be found. In Blackwater we can see a more rational and objective notion of nature as dominating, even if we sometimes can see a shallow romanticism of nature expressed by the characters, where also some groups of humans that are considered to be “closer to nature” is romanticized (for example minority groups). This is explained by the works historical contexts, where The story of Gösta Berling is written in a time of early modernism, where nature is not fully conquered, and therefore seen as mystical and sometimes as a threat to humans. Blackwater was written in a postmodern time where nature is demystified and fully conquered, and strictly speaking no “pure” and untouched nature is left to be found anymore.

  • 17391. Wibring, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Christensson, Lennart
    Lingman, Markus
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Prehospital factors associated with an acute life-threatening condition in non-traumatic chest pain patients - A systematic review.2016In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 219, p. 373-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chest pain is a common symptom among patients contacting the emergency medical services (EMS). Risk stratification of these patients is warranted before arrival in hospital, regarding likelihood of an acute life-threatening condition (LTC).

    AIM: To identify factors associated with an increased risk of acute LTC among patients who call the EMS due to non-traumatic chest pain.

    METHODS: Several databases were searched for relevant articles. Identified articles were quality-assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network checklists. Extracted data was analysed using a semi-quantitative synthesis evaluating the level of evidence of each identified factor.

    RESULTS: In total, 10 of 1245 identified studies were included. These studies provided strong evidence for an increased risk of an acute LTC with increasing age, male gender, elevated heart rate, low systolic blood pressure and ST elevation or ST depression on a 12-lead ECG. The level of evidence regarding the history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris or presence of a Q wave or a Left Bundle Branch Block on the ECG was moderate. The evidence was inconclusive regarding dyspnoea, cold sweat/paleness, nausea/vomiting, history of chronic heart failure, smoking, Right Bundle Branch Block or T-inversions on the ECG.

    CONCLUSIONS: Factors reflecting age, gender, myocardial ischemia and a compromised cardiovascular system predicted an increased risk of an acute life-threatening condition in the prehospital setting in cases of acute chest pain. These factors may form the basis for prehospital risk stratification in acute chest pain.

  • 17392. Wibring, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Lingman, Markus
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Symptom description in patients with chest pain-A qualitative analysis of emergency medical calls involving high-risk conditions.2019In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 28, no 15-16, p. 2844-2857Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the symptoms descriptions and situational information provided by patients during ongoing chest pain events caused by a high-risk condition.

    BACKGROUND: Chest pain is a common symptom in patients contacting emergency dispatch centres. Only 15% of these patients are later classified as suffering from a high-risk condition. Prehospital personnel are largely dependent on symptom characteristics when trying to identify these patients.

    DESIGN: Qualitative descriptive.

    METHODS: Manifest content analysis of 56 emergency medical calls involving patients with chest pain was carried out. A stratified purposive sampling was used to obtain calls concerning patients with high-risk conditions. These calls were then listened to and transcribed. Thereafter, meaning units were identified and coded and finally categorised. Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative studies guidelines have been applied.

    RESULTS: A wide range of situational information and symptoms descriptions was found. Pain and affected breathing were dominating aspects, but other situational information and several other symptoms were also reported. The situational information and these symptoms were classified into seven categories: Pain narrative, Affected breathing, Bodily reactions, Time, Bodily whereabouts, Fear and concern and Situation management. The seven categories consisted of 17 subcategories.

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients with chest pain caused by a high-risk condition present a wide range of symptoms which are described in a variety of ways. They describe different kinds of chest pain accompanied by pain from other parts of the body. Breathing difficulties and bodily reactions such as muscle weakness are also reported. The variety of symptoms and the absence of a typical symptomatology make risk stratification on the basis of symptoms alone difficult.

    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study highlights the importance of an open mind when assessing patients with chest pain and the requirement of a decision support tool in order to improve risk stratification in these patients.

  • 17393.
    Wibring, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Department of Prehospital Emergency Care, Region Halland, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Carl
    Department of Prehospital Emergency Care, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Lundgren, Peter
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Towards definitions of time-sensitive conditions in prehospital care2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 28, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Prehospital care has changed in recent decades. Advanced assessments and decisions are made early in the care chain. Patient assessments form the basis of a decision relating to prehospital treatment and the level of care. This development imposes heavy demands on the ability of emergency medical service (EMS) clinicians properly to assess the patient. EMS clinicians have a number of assessment instruments and triage systems available to support their decisions. Many of these instruments are based on vital signs and can sometimes miss time-sensitive conditions. With this commentary, we would like to start a discussion to agree on definitions of temporal states in the prehospital setting and ways of recognising patients with time-sensitive conditions in the most optimal way.

    MAIN BODY:

    There are several articles discussing the identification and management of time-sensitive conditions. In these articles, neither definitions nor terminology have been uniform. There are a number of problems associated with the definition of time-sensitive conditions. For example, intoxication can be minor but also life threatening, depending on the type of poison and dose. Similarly, diseases like stroke and myocardial infarction can differ markedly in terms of severity and the risk of life-threatening complications. Another problem is how to support EMS clinicians in the early recognition of these conditions. It is well known that many of them can present without a deviation from normal in vital signs. It will most probably be impossible to introduce specific decision support tools for every individual time-sensitive condition. However, there may be information in the type and intensity of the symptoms patients present. In future, biochemical markers and machine learning support tools may help to identify patients with time-sensitive conditions and predict mortality at an earlier stage.

    CONCLUSION:

    It may be of great value for prehospital clinicians to be able to describe time-sensitive conditions. Today, neither definitions nor terminology are uniform. Our hope is that this commentary will initiate a discussion on the issue aiming at definitions of time-sensitive conditions in prehospital care and how they should be recognised in the most optimal fashion.

  • 17394.
    Wickenberg, Maria
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Library and Information Science.
    Biovetare, bibliotek och bioinformatiska resurser2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary scientific subject which connects biology, biomedicine and information science. Bioinformatics generates new biological knowledge by using computer methods and biological databases and can thereby play an important role for the understanding of diseases and be used for development of new medicines. The appearance of bioinformatics has thereby had a big impact on biomedical research. In this study, I have examined bioscientists' use of bibliographical databases, bioinformatic databases/web sites and bioinformatic tools and their needs of support concerning these resources. I have also examined which support the scientific libraries offer their users concerning bibliographical databases, bioinformatic databases/web sites and bioinformatic tools and have compared it with the needs the libraries think that the users have and the needs the users state that they have. The results from the study show that there is a wish for library support concerning bibliographical databases, bioinformatic databases/web sites and bioinformatic tools. The wishes of the respondents are in contrast to the libraries' view about bioscientists interest concerning bioinformatic databases/web sites and bioinformatic tools. A few libraries offer support concerning bioinformatic databases/web sites and bioinformatic tools. The knowledge among the library staff in bioinformatic databases/web sites and tools is limited. The scientific libraries' support concerning bioinformatic databases/web sites and bioinformatic tools should be developed and offered in collaboration with researchers and teachers within bioscience to better match the needs of the users.

  • 17395.
    Wickman, Clara
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kloth, Rebecka
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Environmental impact of textile barriers: A comparative study of coated and laminated textile2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examined how the sustainability of laminated and coated textile barriers can be compared by analysing them through an environmental and functional perspective. This was done by building an evaluation model in which an analysis of the functional performance and an analysis of the environmental performance was combined and applied on a case study of a laminated and a coated material used for workwear. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the environmental impact. To evaluate the functional performance a series of material testing was made for tear strength, waterproofness and permeability. The LCA measured the environmental impact in terms of water use, climate change, and human toxicity. The results showed a similar impact on climate change and water use for both barriers. The assessment of human toxicity showed that the solvent dimethylformamide, used in the coating paste, meant a potential risk for human health. From the material testing it could be stated that the coating performed better in terms of tear resistance and waterproofness, but that the laminate showed more even results and higher breathability. To conclude, the study showed that the production of the coated textile barrier had the largest environmental impact due to the use of a toxic solvent, but that the functional performance generally was better for this coated material. The use of an evaluation model to compare coated and laminated textiles demanded knowledge and experience of LCA to be used. Though with the right LCA knowledge, the combined methods of functional testing and environmental impact may lead to conclusions which would otherwise go unnoticed.

  • 17397.
    Widegren, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nymberg, Pamela
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Marknadsanalys av hopfällbart modulhus i massivträ2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for temporary accommodations in modular sizes within several groups. Of the four we studied at least help organizations had a need for them and also there were solutions that could make both military, camps and events to potential customers. However, MFB falls in the competition with today existing products on the market. It is too heavy, expensive and unwieldy to be transported long distances and also requires a crane to be mounted, something our target groups surveyed expressed as a clear aggravating factor. The target audience that remained was that one within Sweden that we call camping sites / events. Here is an interest, albeit relatively weak, for the loan of MFB for short periods. After doing a cost study on the proposal to create a company and instead of selling MFB rent them out, however, we could once again conclude that MFB was too heavy, expensive and unwieldy to be profitable. Our conclusion is that it is not worthwhile to proceed with the current proposal for modular housing. Lighter materials, assembly using only man power and smaller size are all necessary steps to have a chance to compete in today's market.

  • 17398. Widell, Anita
    et al.
    Carlsson, Eva
    Läsprojekt i årskurs 32006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17399.
    Widlund, Kajsa
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Kommunikationens roll för möjligheten till gemensam lek2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    BAKGRUND: Leken är viktig för barns utveckling och välbefinnande. Då och då händer det att barn hamnar utanför leken i förskolan – de får inte tillgång till lekens många positiva kvaliteter. Att barn hamnar utanför kan ha många olika orsaker. Jag har valt att undersöka vilken roll kommunikationen spelar då förskolebarn hamnar utanför eller bjuds in i leken. SYFTE: Syftet med arbetet är att undersöka hur förskolebarn kommunicerar med varandra i lägen där de stänger eller stängs ute från leken och i lägen där de bjuder eller bjuds in i leken. Hur kommunicerar barn sinsemellan i situationer av exkludering eller inkludering av varandra i sociala leksammanhang ? METOD: För att besvara undersökningens syfte har jag använt mig av observationer. Observationsmaterialet har jag analyserat med hjälp av Erving Goffmans teori om de territorier människor gör anspråk på, samt William Corsaros teori om tillträdesstrategier. RESULTAT: Barns kommunikation i lägen av inneslutning och uteslutning sker genom verbal kommunikation och ickeverbal kommunikation – såsom kroppsspråk och kommunikativa handlingar. De olika formerna av kommunikation flätas samman och används i kombination med varandra i de situationer där barn utesluter eller bjuder in varandra i leken. De kommunikativa handlingarna uttrycks i de strategier barnen använder för att få tillgång till leken, samt i hur de gör anspråk på olika territorier. Just hur hårt barnen håller på sina anspråk är avgörande för om en gemensam lek kan uppstå. Villigheten att avstå ifrån ensamrätten till leksaker eller utrymme möjliggör lek.

  • 17400.
    Widlund, Victor
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Se till mig som liten är: Anmälningsplikt i förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Anmälningsplikten är juridiskt bindande för de som är verksamma inom förskolan. En anmälan ska göras vid minsta misstanke om att ett barn far illa och det finns då inte heller några krav på bevis för den subjektiva tolkningen en pedagog eller annan personal gör. Hur viktigt stödet av övriga i arbetslaget upplevs är självklart individuellt, men alla pedagoger är inte nödvändigtvis lika självsäkra att genomföra en anmälan på egen hand. Tecken på vanvård kan vara allt från allehanda märken på kroppen till ett barns beteende eller yttringar. Genom att vara välinformerad samt ha djup kunskap kan en pedagog ändå vara någorlunda förberedd på de svårigheter en anmälan kan medföra. Pedagoger ska också upprätthålla en nära och förtroendefull relation till vårdnadshavare även efter en eventuell anmälan är gjord. Att relationen eventuellt raseras i och med en anmälan kan därav lätt ses som ett problem. Studien avser belysa olika aspekter gällande anmälningsplikten och vilka svårigheter verksamma pedagoger kan uppleva i samband med misstanke om att barn far illa. Studien använder intervju som redskap för att få en djupare och mer detaljerad bild av de medverkandes subjektiva syn på ämnet. Intervjufrågorna var utformade på ett sådant sätt att det gavs möjlighet för mer uttömmande svar. Intervjuerna spelades även in, vilket tillät intervjuaren att helt fokusera på vad respondenten sa och därmed också lättare kunna komma med relevanta och givande följdfrågor. Studiens resultat pekar på brister i hur pedagoger informerats och utbildats gällande anmälningsplikten men även vikten av väl genomarbetade kris- och handlingsplaner ute i verksamheten. Samtliga informanter hade svårt att definiera ”minsta misstanke” i förhållande till deras eller arbetslagets handlande. Ingen av informanterna uttryckte någon erfarenhet av att ha varit oeniga i sina respektive arbetslag vid något anmälningstillfälle men pekade likaså på att ansvaret är individuellt. Det framkom att det finns en viss rädsla att ha gjort fel när det kommer till anmälningar och att då anmäla ”i onödan”, men även att det tyvärr är lättare när det är tydliga tecken eftersom det lämnar mindre utrymme för spekulationer. En annan gemensam nämnare i svaren var att alla medverkande hellre anmälde med risk för att ha fel än att inte ha anmält alls och då också behöva gå i ovisshet.

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