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  • 151.
    Bendzovski, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Trend-sandwich: Exploring new ways of joining inspiration, such as different kinds of trends, through processes of morphing and melding different trendy garments and materials, for new methods, garment types, materials and expressions.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to explore the joining of inspiration, such as different garments and materials, in relation to commonly used methods in the fashion industry when it comes to joining of different trends and references such as clashing and collaging. The work proposes a new method and framework for join- ing inspiration which generates different results depending on what kind of inspiration that is put in to it. A garment can roughly be broken down to a silhouette and shape, materials and details. The material put in to the method and framework is based on information from trend seminars for SS16, because that is how many of today’s trend-oriented fashion brands get there inspiration. Trendy garment silhouettes are mixed through processes of computational morphing in Adobe Flash by a generation of spin in the mixing process were shape hints are used in a new manner. The new generated silhouettes are further developed and materialized through procedures of interpretation and figuration. Different trendy materials are melded in a direct and concrete way through mixed media techniques such as laminating, fusing and vacuum-techniques. The final steps of the method is a garment shape and material synthesis with starting point in the generated shape with the final material. The projects intention is to let the physical experimentation, interpretation and figuration play a central role in the research process for new types of methods, garments, materials and expressive pos- sibilities.

  • 152.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Investigations into light-front interactions for massless fields (I): Non-constructibility of higher spin quartic amlplitudes2016In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, Vol. 12, p. 134-, article id 134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamical commutators of the light-front Poincar{\'e} algebra yield first order differential equations in the $p^+$ momenta for the interaction vertex operators. The homogeneous solution to the equation for the quartic vertex is studied. Consequences as regards the constructibility assumption of quartic higher spin amplitudes from cubic amplitudes are discussed. The existence of quartic contact interactions unrelated to cubic interactions by Poincar{\'e} symmetry indicates that the higher spin S-matrix is not constructible. Thus quartic amplitude based no-go results derived by BCFW recursion for Minkowski higher spin massless fields may be circumvented.

  • 153.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Notes on Cubic and Quartic Light-Front KinematicsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this short note is to collect a set of formulas pertaining to momentum kinematics for higher spin light-front vertices. At least one of the formulas seems to be previously unknown.

  • 154.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Quartic amplitudes for Minkowski higher spin2016In: Higher Spin Gauge Theories / [ed] Lars Brink, Marc Henneaux, Mikhael A Vasiliev, Singapore: World Scientific, 2016, p. 353-370Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The old problem of finding general quartic interaction terms between fields of higher helicities on the light-front is discussed from the point of view of calculating the corresponding amplitudes directly from the cubic vertices using BCFW recursion. Amplitude based no-go results that has appeared in the literature are reviewed and discussed and it is pointed out how they may perhaps be circumvented.

  • 155.
    Bengtsson, Andréa
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pietruszka, Kamila
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hot mot revisorns oberoende: en studie som berör digitalisering, konkurrens samt lagförändringar i revisorsbranschen2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The independence of the auditor is a crucial aspect of the audit industry. Independence is important for maintaining public confidence in the capital market’s functions and the credibility of financial reports. However, there are several factors that that threaten independence. There are some well-known threats since previous research, but in line with the development in the society, new threats to independence for today’s auditors arise. The purpose of the essay is to create an understanding of how the new threats; digitization, competition and changes in law can affect the auditor’s independence regarding objectivity, impartiality or autonomy. In previous research and the theoretical reference framework, the auditor’s task as well as the threats existing and new threats arising in the market are described. For the essay, a qualitative method is used to answer the purpose and in the chapter of the results presents the collected empirical evidence to give and account of the auditor’s perception of the various threat parameters. In the analysis, theory and empiricism are linked together and the discussion shows similarities between the old threats and the new ones. The conclusion of the essay is that the new threats both show similarities to existing threats as well as new trends which make these important to consider. Proposals for further research are to study the new threat of digitization as there appears to be something that increases to an extent and seems to take over auditor’s work more and more.

  • 156.
    Bengtsson, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bäckström, Agnes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    CSR och transparens: två verktyg för ökad köpbenägenhet?: En kvalitativfallstudie om grön konsumtion2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    CSR and transparency are becoming two common tools for companies to highlight consumers about the company’s responsibility and sustainable work. In order for these activities to reach the consumers, a communication from the company is required. As a consumer, it may be difficult to perceive and interpret the information in a way that the company desires. This study investigates how consumers consider H&M’s marketing communication regarding these topics and how this communication affects consumers’ willingness to buy green fashion products at H&M. In the study, seven semistructured interviews were conducted with female students in the ages between 21-26. In the interviews the informants explained their opinions on the company’s marketing communication of these subjects and how they perceived H&M’s communication. After a succeeded the matic analysis of the empirical data material it has been found that the consumers had difficulty understanding H&M’s marketing communication regarding its sustainable work. The information obtained has thus been received with insufficient credibility. This is stated as not related to the level of knowledge the respondents possessed or their commitment in sustainability.

  • 157.
    Bengtsson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wik, Sanne Maria
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    ”I Göteborg springs det inte i rulltrapporna”: En studie om hur besökare upplever Göteborg2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s modern society people tend to travel more due to the globalization and the fact that people are spending more money. As a result of the increasing competition within the field of tourism it has become even more important for destinations to create a clear profile and a target group when marketing destinations; it is extremely essential to have a positive image, which is genuine and perceived by visitors. This essay is written to explore how tourists experience Gothenburg as a tourist destination and how marketing is creating the city image. The study is qualitative and consists of interviews with visitors of Gothenburg to see how they perceived the city. Further one interview is performed with the communication manager of Göteborg & Co to explore how they want to be perceived by tourists. The entire essay is written in Swedish. The result of the essay shows that the image does reflect how the city wants to be perceived, but Gothenburg needs to better their marketing to gain more tourists in the future.

  • 158.
    Bengtsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hulthén, Erik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Evertsson, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Asbjörnsson, Gauti
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Advanced Material Modelling In Crushing Plants Using Real Time Algorithms2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In process control of crushing plants the traditional control is focused on stability control of single machines and not on controlling material utilization. The reason for this is that the use of material property models is not that well known. The material models describe properties as e.g. capacity over time for a given product and this may depend on many parameters and dynamic effects in the process. Due to this it is complicated to model and thus a methodology is needed to solve this problem. In this paper a novel method for modeling the current effect that the production units have on the material presented. The paper presents a methodology how to use process data from SCADA system to analyze and suggest dynamic material model properties in real time.

  • 159.
    Benjaminsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Johansson, Louise
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Human resources: att beräkna värdet av volontärer på idrottsevenemang2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay deals with human resources and whether or not they should be treated as an asset or not for organisations and it focuses primarily on nonprofit sport organisations. Theory and empirics show that humans are an important asset in an organisation. The essay focuses on applicating the measurement of the value of personnel as an asset to nonprofit sport organisations, where the volunteers make up for a big part of the staff. In spite of it being donated workforce there are costs to consider in the usage of volunteers, which is proved in the empirics of the essay. It is made clear both by volunteers and people responsible for volunteers that some compensation, in the form of food and clothes for example, is expected by volunteers and these are significant cost to account for. Well-being and the social environment in events are shown to be of significance regarding a continued commitment from the volunteers and also to maintain a positive and motivating environment.

  • 160.
    Bensköld, Anna
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Forsman, Jessica
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Westerberg, Linda
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Turismens påverkan: hur turism påverkar individer i ett lokalsamhälle2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global travel has had a strong positive growth in recent years and is forecasted to increase byabout three percent per year until 2030, according to international assessments. The tourismindustry is growing at a rapid pace and has become a major source of income for manycountries, in some the largest employer. In 2013 the Swedish tourism industry had a turnoverof 284,2 billion which is an increase by 3,9 percent compared to the previous year. Due to thecentral importance of tourism worldwide, we believe that there is an interest to investigatehow the local residents at a destination are affected by its tourism. The study aims to examinehow different individuals among the local population are affected by tourism. The purpose ofthe study is to create new understanding and to develop knowledge about how individualswith different backgrounds such as occupation, age and connection to tourism experience andare affected by tourism, and thereby contribute to previous research in the field. A qualitativeresearch method was used to answer the following research question: How are individuals ata destination affected by tourism in their own community? A case study has been completedand the study used Marstrand, situated in Bohuslän Sweden, to answer the research question.Several positive and negative aspects of tourism have been identified and then analysed byusing the theories presented. The TALC model was used to determine which phase Marstrandas a destination is in. This due to the fact that the local residents’ opinion may vary dependingon the phase the destination is in and also to find out the destination´s potential fordevelopment. The study concludes that Marstrand is in the stagnation stage during highseason and the development stage during low season.The result of the study indicates that different individuals put emphasis on different aspects oftourism depending on their life situation and the connection they have to tourism.Furthermore the study shows similar results as presented in recent research made in othercountries. Although the extent of the study is not sufficient enough to draw any generalconclusions, this may indicate that individuals from a local population has a similar view ontourism, regardless of geographic location and the country's level of development.

  • 161.
    Berg, Alina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Dahlström, Sebastian
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Internt upparbetade immateriella tillgångar: En komparativ studie aveuropeiska korsnoterade företag på NYSE och NASDAQ2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade companies, nations and economies are increasingly becoming moreknowledge oriented. Meanwhile the world globalization of economies means, to multinationalcompanies, that the holding of internally generated intangible assets is increasing and is ofincreasing importance. The globalization has led to an expansive growth of the stock marketsand has increased the number of cross-listed multinational companies. Investments ininternally generated intangible assets are capital as well as resource intensive and listing onforeign markets is seen as a suitable alternative to finance these assets. The US stock marketshave long been attractive to foreign cross-listed companies in obtaining capital, and wereconsistent with heavy regulations on accounting and reporting. IASB became the leadingstandard setter in the EU and therefore SEC chose to eliminate the conversion of necessaryprerequisite in Form 20-F for the companies operating in the US stock markets. Europeancross-listed companies avoid reporting under US. GAAP as long as they establish theconsolidated financial statements according to IFRS. The removal of Form 20-F was seen asan effect of the IASB and FASB convergence project. Opinions have been raised that theremoval was premature because the difference between the standard setters are essential,particularly in the area of internally generated intangible assets.The purpose of this study is to describe how the European cross-listed companies on the USstock markets, the NYSE and NASDAQ, account and report internally generated intangibleassets relative to market capitalization, industry and nationality. The annual report should alsohave been established with the Form 20-F. Another reason with this study is to identifydifferences in the accounting and reporting, which recognize the effects on comparabilitybetween companies. Our study is based on 40 annual reports of companies based in Europe.The methodology we’ve chosen for this study is similar to a hermeneutic approach and theannual reports are considered using a multiple case study with comparative elements. The aimis to provide a deeper understanding of the accounting and reporting of internally generatedintangible assets.This study shows the use of IFRS varies based on nationality and industry affiliation, howeverthe companies view investment as value added. And, furthermore, how the stock value affectsthe enable and the propensity for an internally generated intangible asset. Companies industryaffiliation suggests to have an impact on the propensity for the application of IAS 38, p. 57,indicating that the uniformity of the company within and between sectors is a uniquephenomenon. A negative correlation exists between uncertainty and the period of time in theinvestment process, where the effect is that the expenses attributable to internal projects areexpensed in the financial statements. The probability of obtaining future economic benefitsare higher for internally generated intangible assets which are intended for internal use, the opposite applies to external use. Informal pressure from the surrounding, which variesaccording to industry affiliation, has effected the possibility to enable the propensity. Thestudy shows that the valuation and the estimate of the future economic benefits are difficult.Companies in the healthcare industry have significant problems with such a valuation, whichmeans that they are disadvantaged as IFRS cannot be fully applied. Publishing of voluntaryand mandatory information under IFRS varies between sectors. The comparability isquestionable when the accounting and reporting of internally generated intangible assets aremerged with other intangible assets.In this study a study model was made for analyzing the data. The model is to analyze thenationality impact on the financial statements and reporting. The study shows that nationalitystill have an impact, while the results also indicate that the differences constantly are beingerased.This thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 162.
    Bergenstråhle, Alicia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Svensson, Marika
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Röhr, Louise
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Relationsmarknadsföring via digitala kanaler: Fallstudie Xtended Business & Event2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is conducted in Swedish. The way companies are working with marketing is constantly changing. The digital development is affecting the whole society and has enabled new ways of marketing. That makes it important to keep it up in a constantly changing world. A lot of focus is on developing and maintaining relationships. This qualitative case study aims to examine the subject relationship marketing and its meaning for companies in the event business. The focus is to find out how the marketing of relationships can be used through digital channels. The result is based on a case study of the event agency Xtended Business & Event. The purpose of this study is to examine the meaning of relationship marketing for the chosen company and to find out how they can use it as a strategy through their digital channels.Semi-structured interviews has been made to collect information from ten respondents where four of them works at the company we are studying, one is an existing client and five are potential customers. The study is built on the collection of theory from the subjects of relationship marketing and digital marketing and has together with the empiricism been put together in an analysis. The study shows that the company needs time and knowledge on how to develop and implement a relationship marketing strategy.

  • 163.
    Berggren, Anton
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Grahn, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Undersökning av tätningsmetoder med fokus på aluminiumhus2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this work sealing methods for aluminum housing have been investigated. The work was delimited to the automotive industry and static gaskets. The thesis brings up how the flange impacts on the sealing capability and the gasket, sealing types, the surface impact on gasket materials, porosity, relative material cost and fasteners.The work is based on a literature study and interviews with concerned people at the company. Practical samples were carried out on a number of materials from suppliers and the materials where exposed to different chemicals and then tensile tested.The materials that were collected through interviews and the literature study testify that many parameters influence the possible sealing methods. It’s not just the material itself that needs to be taken into account. Factors like flange design, material cost, surface defects, fasteners and porosity have a great impact. The practical sample testifies that different chemicals have dif-ferent impact on the mechanical properties and swelling of the material.Finally, a couple of sealing materials are suggested that are suitable for the company to use in their products.

  • 164.
    Berggren, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nordin, Klara
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Online visual merchandising: På e-handelssidor riktade mot den svenska marknaden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, apparel and shoes was two of the product categories that resulted in most transactions online in Sweden. As a result of the growing interest in e-commerce, companies in the fashion industry needs to develop visual merchandising strategies that can function just as well online as the ones in physical stores. In a study made by the American researchers Ha, Kwon and Lennon (2007), a taxonomy was developed in order to examine visual merchandising elements of apparel retail websites in Korea and The US. The purpose of this study is to test the taxonomy created by Ha et al. (2007) on websites targeted at the Swedish market This will be done by addressing the questions at issue; to examine if the visual merchandising elements that Ha et al. (2007) identified can be found on the web sites in this study and to examine whether there are new elements to identify on the web sites targeted at the Swedish market. A content analysis was used to examine online visual merchandising-themes on 50 Swedish e-commerce sites. The themes analysed, with underlying elements, was environment, manner of presentation, path finding. In addition to these themes another one was added from a study made by Park and Stoel (2002), information. During the analysis several elements that was not included in the previous studies was discovered. These were also added to the taxonomy developed in this study. The findings of the study showed that some of the online visual merchandsing-elements differed on the Swedish market compared to previous studies. Also as mentioned, the taxonomy was further developed. This thesis will henceforth be written in Swedish.

  • 165.
    Bergholm, Albin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Islami, Fatijon
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kapitalisering av operationell leasing – en konsekvens av IFRS 162017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The International Accounting Standard for leases, IAS 17 Leases, has been criticized to enablecompanies to report off-balance sheet by reporting leases as operating leases. There has longbeen discussion about the accounting of operational leases and if they represent a fair view.These contracts cause companies to withhold assets and liabilities from the balance sheet. Fromthis issue, the IASB has created a new accounting standard, IFRS 16, which will replace the oldaccounting standard.Key features of the new standard IFRS 16 has significant changes for the lessee rather than thelessor, where regulation is more reminiscent of the previous regulatory framework. The lesseewill need to report a right of use asset and a lease liability and the current breakdown of financialand operational leasing will therefore be dissolved. In this way, the company’s strategicdecisions changes in financing the business. The lessor will not be affected by this change, hewill still need to classify leases as capital or operating in accordance with the classificationcriteria corresponding to those of IAS 17.The purpose of this study is to investigate, with constructed scenarios, how the new accountingstandard, IFRS 16 Leases, will affect corporate balance sheets together with income statementsand, in the long run, how this affects relevant financial ratios. This is examined by our tworesearch questions which seek to find the effect of the capitalization of the operating leases forcorporate balance sheet and income statement when applying IFRS 16 as well as the impact oncompany’s financial ratios.Through our scenarios we have been able to draw conclusions that answers the study’s purposeand research questions. In our study, we have shown that key ratios, such as equity and leveragewill be significantly influenced by the capitalization that IFRS 16 implies. This is based on thelease liability that companies need to report when applying IFRS 16. The examined financialratios, profit margin, return on equity and return on assets have shown in our study to be initiallylower when applying IFRS 16. However, we have drawn other conclusions about what happensover the lease period with the ratios. The key ratios will ultimately show higher returns thanIAS 17 had shown during the same period. This conclusion is based on the reallocation ofearnings impact, as depreciation, interest and amortization is made instead of expensing thelease fee.We have concluded that corporate accounting of what was previously operational leasingbecomes more complicated when IFRS 16 is applied. Transitional options to the new standardhas also opened opportunities for companies to provide a customized picture of the financialstatements to stakeholders. Based on our study, we have also drawn the conclusion that thetransition to the new standard in the long run will benefit the company’s stakeholders. In thecurrent situation, stakeholders already adjust for operational leases when calculating corporatecredit risk. The new standard means that stakeholders do not need to make these adjustmentsas the company reports a more fair picture of the financial statements.This study is hereinafter written in Swedish.

  • 166.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Norm vs Fluidity2015Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The piece illustrates how predefined design objects (girls dancing, boys playing football) maintain gender norms compared to a fluid design (a bunch of pearls) that opens up for a variety of interpretation regardless gender, ethnicities etc.

    Norm vs Fluidity has been exhibited at the exhibitions “The Great and Small” HongKong 2014, “Blue+Pink>>>Rethink” at designxport Hamburg and designtransfer Berlin 2015. iGDN – International Gender Design Network, http://genderdesign.org/ 

  • 167.
    Berglind Stefánsdóttir, Jóna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Object Poetry: Shaping Through Knit2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Textile design has long been known for its craft related and traditional ways of working. Different designers and artist have found a way of approaching the field from an unconventional perspective. The aim of this project is to demonstrate an alternative way of approaching the field by applying traditional methods to unconventional materials. By doing so the hope is to bring joy and playfulness to the field.

    As a final result the three groups consisting of nine objects present ways that knit can be used to sculpt and to lend flexibility when combined with stiffer structures, therefore giving way for movement and transformability. Object Poetry engages the viewer to interact and experience fun.

  • 168.
    Bergman, Johan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lorén, Fredrik
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    FEM-Analys av Cykelram Tillverkad i Träkomposit2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contains an analysis of a bicycle frame made of wood composite using finite element analysis. A group of students, educated in carpentry, have developed and created a bike but needs help from third part to continue the development of it. The intention of this project is to create a basis as a foundation for future improvements on the bicycle geometry, by evaluating current construction. This basis shall also to be used when material is picked to ease the process. The material data which has been received includes information about three different materials with two variants of thickness, 3 and 4 mm. As the material data does not take fiber direction into consideration, no regard has been made to the fact that the materials actually are orthotropic, which mean further studies are required to determine more accurate values. Since the employer did not have a properly working Computer Aided Design-model (CAD), a reconstructed and adapted model to function in the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) environment was created. The CAD-model was constructed using Creo Parametric 3.0 and the FEA software used was Creo Simulate. Since it’s not possible to simulate all situations that a bicycle is exposed to, four load cases have been chosen. The load cases are intended to be situations that occur relatively often but also put the bike structure under a lot of stress, namely a bump in the front and back wheel and also climbing in and out of the saddle. The results presented in this thesis report show that the current construction with 3 mm thickness can endure the load cases without exceeding any limits. This concludes that that 4 mm thickness, which is an option, is unnecessary thick. Further development should instead be focused on choosing the proper material structure based on desired properties.

  • 169.
    Bergman, Linnea
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Att behålla kvinnliga ledare i en mansdominerad bransch2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historically and traditionally, leadership has been masculine and industries have been divided into female and male. Over the years, there have been many opponents of female leadership and especially in the so-called men-dominated industries. Today in 2017 there are still preconceived opinions that certain types of work and education are linked to a certain gender. The construction industry faces a huge recruitment need. To cover the need, they need to bring in more women; it is not enough for the target group to target men only. At present, there is an interest, both from society and among construction companies, to increase the proportion of women because a workplace benefits from diversity. It is a challenge for the construction industry to get more women to search for it. An equal challenge is to make women stay in the industry. This study investigates how the female leaders in the construction industry, and in particular the construction company NCC, feel they are addressed if they are labeled by the reported glass roof that makes it difficult for women to climb within the company and how the organizational culture looks at the construction sites. For a clear picture and a comparison to the women's experiences, male professional workers have also answered questions about how they feel about having a female leader. The study suggests that the construction industry is still geared to men but is under development in a positive direction, that most people appreciate a good leader and that it does not depend on gender without personality. Within NCC, female leaders are welcomed at the construction sites of the workforce and women feel accepted and respected for the leaders they are. However, many of them witness that they once heard expressions like "little rubber" or about suppliers who are primarily concerned with their male colleagues. The construction industry is faced with a lot of criticism for its prevailing macho culture. During the course of the study, however, one gets the understanding that the job base is hard around Sweden in order to eradicate both for a more equal workplace for more people to apply for, but also for the work environment and safety as more accidents Often happens when men are to prove some form of masculinity (Byggcheferna, 2017). Even though the construction industry has taken great steps towards an equal industry, there is still much left to work on. The culture is hard-rooted and if you look back historically, we have reached such an equal society in a very short time. Women have only had voting rights for almost 100 years, from the very beginning, the trend has gone fast to women now climbing on more and more leading positions. The fact that the culture of attitudes and values, which takes a long time to change, does not really depend on is not so strange in general. The results indicate that the construction industry needs to get a working flextide system even in production to get more people looking for the industry, since today’s young share the responsibilities between work and family much more equally, not only applies to women but also to men. All the formal external obstacles that previously existed for women to enter the construction industry are gone by virtue of legislation. The obstacles that remain are created by ourselves and society (Arhén 1996).

  • 170.
    Bergqvist, Jill
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Carlsson, Malva
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kvalitetssäkring av vävda textilier: för klädföretag med utkontrakterad produktion2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's customer oriented and time driven environment has contributed to quality becoming an important parameter for business success. A global value chain with outsourced production in the clothing industry requires well executed quality assurance. Small and medium enterprises cannot implement existing methods and quality assurance strategies in the same way as larger companies.

     

    The purpose of the study is to describe how small and medium clothing enterprises work with quality assurance of textiles in an outsourced production. With regard to explain what opportunities and eventual potential introduction of quality assurance has for these companies. The essay is based on a qualitative method in which semi structured interviews with the case company and small and medium enterprises are the basis for describing the market today. Additional data has been collected through interviews with bigger companies and several fabric manufacturers. Previous research on the subject has been compiled in a theoretical frame of reference and then set against the collected empirical data in an analysis.

     

    The result of the paper shows that small and medium enterprises currently work with quality assurance to varying degrees and the approach varies. The introduction of quality assurance can contribute to saving time and resources as well as providing economic benefits. Total quality and success in the technical field is potential further developments of quality assurance. To step by step work with quality can for these companies gradually lead to potential and possible solutions for success. The model designed in this study to best introduce quality assurance breaks down the complexity of quality that the industry possesses.

  • 171.
    Bergroth, Michaela
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gradering av trosor: En studie om hur två graderingssätt påverkar olika trosmodellers passform.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how three different pantie models Slip, Hipster and Hotpant affects of two types of grading. The first option is based on a grading that a Swedish company uses on these three models. The second option is based on a suggestion from the supplier. The differences is that side height is increased/decreased with 1.5 centimeters instead of 1 and a measure for back width is added and graded with -/+ 1.5 centimeters.

     

    The method that is used is construction of all models where made in Lectras Modaris. The construction is based on the garment measurement list from the company. All the models where graded in sizes Extra Small to Extra Large. The grading’s where analyzed in Lectras Kaledo Style. Then the panties where sewn in size Extra Large and tested on dummy and model The conclusion is that the slip could not be produced in the second option. While the best grading of the two other models would be best to combine the first and second option to reach the ultimate fit.

  • 172.
    Berlin, Lena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. lena.berglin@hb.se.
    Blankout2015Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Power is unequally shared in the world, one in four people live without electricity. Art and art production is therefore not only a question of choice but a question of power. 

  • 173.
    Berner Wik, Tove
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Let’s talk about Perfection: An investigating of how decorative techniques and non-decorative text can create a dialogue in garments, with the body as a billboard2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This collection is an investigation of how decorative techniques and non-decorative text can create a dialogue in garments, with the body as a billboard. The work is based on two different aspects. The first one deals with the question of how people look at embellishments, and the second is the message aspect. The investigation wants to find out how we can communicate with the human body as a billboard and the topic of the communication is an idea about perfection. The writer’s dyslexia experiences are used as a recurs and gives the topic a new dimension. The work explores new ways to deal with embellishments, techniques and messages. It shows that the statement T-shirt is not the only perfect garment to decorate and that garments can communicate a message in more ways than with a flat print.

  • 174.
    Berntsson, Jennie
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Widén, Nathalie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Produktplacering på Instagram: attityder hos ungdomar inom Generation Z2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's society, the internet is something that most people have access to. Social media is a popular activity on the internet and is mostly used by young people, including Generation Z. Through social media's high availability and communication capabilities, it creates new opportunities for companies that want to spread information to their target groups. Product placement is one of the marketing tools on social media that has proven to be effective in a society where people filter out advertising on a daily basis. Opinion leaders are another tool that companies use to speed up the proliferation of their communicative messages. As young people within Generation Z are comfortable and innovative, they also have a more critical and demanding approach to what is published on the internet. Therefore this essay aims to gain a deeper understanding of what kind of attitudes young people have to product-placed pictures on Instagram and also if opinion leaders on the platform have an impact on these attitudes. Issues have been formulated as the following: “What attitudes does young people in Generation Z have towards product placement on Instagram?” and, ‘’How does opinion leaders have an impact on young people in Generation Z’s attitudes on Instagram?’’. Examining product placement on Instagram was of great interest because of the fact that the application is the one that young people use the most. However, there is limited research on what kind of attitudes this age group has towards product placement on Instagram and how opinion leaders as a contributing power on this platform can affect them. In order to fill the gap of lacking data, we have presented theories in communication, impact and attitudes which will be analyzed with the results that were obtained during the implementation of two qualitative focus group interviews. It was shown that the attitudes of the young adults are mostly linked to a “value-expression function” based on the reason that they want to be able to link what has been product placed to their own social identity and values. The opinion leader has also been shown to have a major influence on the attitudes of the age group as long as they express themselves in a trustworthy way. In order for the communicative message of the product placement to approach them properly, the age group needs to feel that they can identify or relate to the opinions of the opinion leader. They also require that the product placement needs to be tailored to their needs and interests, this indicates that a so-called “utilitarian function” characterizes their attitudes.

  • 175.
    Berntsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Forsgren, Stefanie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The Millennial Mind: A qualitative study on how to communicate sustainability to reduce consumption2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The discourse of sustainable development has over the recent years become increasingly vital, due to the fashion industry´s over lyexcessive use of natural resources and contribution to hyperconsumption. Hyper-consumption is part of the consequences of marketing, and consumers regard marketing of sustainability to be unreliable. Previous research has highlighted how communicating sustainability can increase sustainable consumption, however the realissue lies within reducing consumption overall. Using marketing to reduce consumption within the consumer is intricate, but in the light of this the generational segment female Millennials have shown to be prone towards reducing consumption.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explore female millennials mind and values, mainly to be able to identify and form a way of communicating sustainability with the intent of reducing consumption, that is applicable for this segment. The aim is further to propose how this then can be applied and in what way it best should be implemented to finally reduce overall fashion consumption.

    Design/methodology/approach: This thesis uses an abductive research approach and a qualitative method. The research question is answered by conducting focus groups and illuminates the core determinants which are to be used as part of the development of the communication.

    Findings: The findings suggest that female millennials need to be motivated into realizing how reduced consumption can be a core value of them. A form of social marketing program is what has been determined to be a viable form of communication since it aligned with the social communicative ways that female millennials are receptive to.

    Originality/value: This thesis contributes by highlighting and identifying the underlying values and motivations which female millennials have towards sustainability marketing. Moreover, the results imply that female millennials are of valuable consideration for future research of how to communicate sustainability with the intention to reduce fashion consumption. Marketer can specifically learn what the determinants to include in a social benefit program and thereby create valuable concrete results in terms.

  • 176.
    Beronius, Gabriella
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Andrén, Sara
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fastighetsmäklarbranschens digitalisering: En kvalitativ studie om Instagram som verktyg för relationsmarknadsföring2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The digitalization of the society is a fact and organizations must now be adaptable to where their customers are located. Along with this the ways in which we communicate have changed as well as the way you target your marketing. Already in the sixties customers begun to require products adapted to them and their requests, which revealed the need of a shift of focus in the marketing of organizations. Instead of putting the needs of the company first, organizations started to direct their attention to the needs of the customers. It all comes down to the customer and the user, who is now in charge of the evolution of the brand as well as for the underlying conditions of the interactive dialogue between them and the organization. Social media allows companies to be present and available to a larger extent than before which facilitates the opportunity to get a deeper understanding of the customers and their presence on social media. The real estate business is a complex market to operate within as the competition is very tough. This entails high demands on companies in order to stick out from the crowd and achieve visibility. Especially in a society where consumers are daily exposed to advertising and exhortation to commerce. The real estate agents most powerful communication tool is the ones who are generated from recommendation and word of mouth, which in turn is accomplished from maintaining a good relationship with customers. But what opportunities do real estate agencies have on social medias? And how can they achieve and exhort relationships through Instagram? By performing a qualitative study containing interviews with real estate agencies along with observations of their Instagram accounts, the authors of this study could deny that there was any common mode of operation between the organizations usage of the platform for building relationships. Instead the authors identified several strategies in accordance with the theory of how to engage users, which they believed the companies to be unaware of. The analysis of the Instagram accounts urged the thought of a correlation between the number of followers and the perceived reliability of the accounts as the user gives the account their faith by following - which in turn can be recognized by the follower’s followers and acquaintance. However, does the number of followers not necessary imply to more users interacting with the published content, which rather could have connection to the kind of content the account provides with.

  • 177.
    Betrus, Meja
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Aghazadeh, Farjam
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Johansson, Ann-Charlott
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Don’t take my smart phone away2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The mobile phone as an object has a great meaning for the youth in today's society. Young people perceive their mobile phone as an extension of themselves and cannot bear the thought of being apart from it. However, in different situations such as a customer complaint handling, the young customer has no other option but to hand it in for reparation. The customer complaints is something that is unavoidable and can be seen as a failure in itself but it is the handling of the customer complaint that decide if a customer complaint has been successful or not.This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the young consumer and their mobile phone and how this relationship might affect why they perceive a customer complaint handling as failed. Trough seven conducted interviews we asked our respondents to talk about their specific customer complaint situation and how they use their mobile phone.The results showed that the main reasons why our respondents found their complaint handling as failed depended on factors such as, waiting time, additional costs, poor substitute product and unfriendly personnel. It also showed that our respondents have an attachment to their mobile phone and because of this relationship the aforementioned factors might change dependent on how attached an individual is to his or her product.

  • 178. Bhaskar, Thallada
    et al.
    Lee, Keat Teong
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sauer, Michael
    Nampoothiri, K. Madhavan
    New Horizons in Biotechnology - NHBT 20152016In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 213Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Bianchi, Michelle
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fredriksson, Malin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Opportunities and barriers to CSR: A qualitative case study of the most important aspects of CSR in medium-sized fashion companies in the moderate price range2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis covers a qualitative case study of corporate social responsibility work in medium-sized fashion companies in the moderate price range. The aim of the study was to research the barriers and opportunities to corporate social responsibility in medium-sized fashion companies within the moderate price range in order to understand which aspects that are most important for these companies to focus on. Corporate social responsibility, shortened CSR, means taking environmental, social and financial responsibility for all actions of the company. The industry of the company as well as different company characteristics creates different contexts in which a company may work with CSR. The fashion value chain is a context for fashion companies. In order for a fashion company to be sustainable, the entire value chain should be considered, but it is within the upstream part of the fashion value chain that the most damaging processes occur and it is therefor the upstream part of the value chain that was focused on in this study. The size and price range of a company are characteristics that affects how a company may create successful CSR practices. The study also focused on the consumer perspective and the added value that CSR may bring. The study identified several perceived barriers and opportunities to CSR in medium-sized fashion companies within the moderate price range that may be important to consider in order creating successful CSR practices. Costs, quality assurance, communication and coordination where identified as important barriers. The study also identified that the added value of CSR to the brand and the increased consumer willingness to pay as important opportunities. The study found that cost-consciousness, quality assurance, communication and coordination and the added value perspective may be the most important aspects for medium-sized fashion companies in the moderate price range to focus on in the CSR work. By being aware of these barriers and opportunities, companies may create better CSR strategies, which focus on achieving the opportunities while avoiding the barriers.

  • 180.
    Birgersson, Fanny
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ragnvaldsson, Jonas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Randau, Emma
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Konsumentens uppfattning av Influencer Marketing på Instagram: En experimentell studie på Source Credibility, Köpintention och Varumärkesattityd2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Social media has in recent years grown and become an integrated part of people's everyday lives. The growth in popularity of social media has resulted in many companies moving parts of their marketing efforts to these platforms in the hope of getting a wider and more committed audience. An effect of the increased interest in social media marketing has been to sponsor people who have large numbers of followers, also called influencers, on social media platforms such as Instagram, Twitter and Youtube. While sponsoring influencers is becoming more common, we also see that the influencer audience has begun to grow tired of the sponsored material. Earlier research on celebrity marketing has shown that there is a negative relationship between the amount of products that a celebrity endorses and the endorser's source credibility. Researchers also found that the consumer's purchase intention and brand attitude were negatively affected. Our study therefore aimed to investigate whether the same conclusions can be drawn for influencers. On the other hand, research shows that the consumer's relationship with celebrity may differ from the relationship to an influencer. Because consumers often experience that they have a relationship to the influencers that they follow on social media, this can affect the reduced source credibility that would otherwise occur when an influencer publishes a larger amount of sponsored content. Therefore, this study also aimed to investigate whether the consumer's purchase intention and attitude is influenced by the consumer following an influencer or not.In order to answer the purpose of the study, an online experiment was conducted. Participants in the study were randomized into one of two groups where they were exposed to different amounts of sponsored material. The experiment was completed with a survey and the groups were compared to see if the attitude towards the influencer, purchase intentions and brand attitude changed when the participant was exposed to a larger amount of sponsored material. The survey also enabled further analysis of how attitudes and intentions are affected by the consumer being a follower or not. The result showed that the number of sponsored posts published by an influencer does not affect the consumer's purchase intention, brand attitude or the source credibility of the influencer. However, the study found that an influencer's source credibility was affected by whether the consumer is a follower or non-follower, which in turn also affects the consumer's purchase intention and brand attitude. We also found that source credibility affects purchase intention and brand attitude in both cases. We can therefore conclude that it is less important for the consumer how many sponsored posts an influencer publishes. It is more about whether the consumer follows the influencer or not, than about how the consumer receives the sponsored material. The following thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 181.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Infirri, Rosalinda Sardo
    Hagman, Susanna
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    An assistive sleeping bag for children with autism spectrum disorder2018In: Fashion and Textiles, ISSN 2198-0802, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children suffering from autism spectrum disorder are often reported to encounter sleeping disorder several causes such as hypersensitivity as a result of irregular brain and muscle functions. Disturbance in sleep affects not only their health but also daytime activities including the risk of other cognitive and behavioral impairments. Such hindrance in sleep has been demonstrated to treat therapeutically by measures like the application of deep pressure touch and full body vibration which can be beneficially integrated into the sleeping environment such as on the textile-based platform around the bed. With such a vision, this pilot design project aimed to develop a smart textile based sleeping bag incorporated with sensors to detect awakening stage of the child and thereby actuating stimuli for assuaging the child to fall asleep. To serve the purpose, a micro-controllable body movement detection sensor, based on conductive yarns connected to a vibrating motor was prosperously embedded at the interior of the sleeping bag along with weighted slots to exert deep touch and soothing sensation in the form of wearable technology.

  • 182.
    Biswas, Tuser
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yu, Junchun
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Functionalization of textiles with enzymes by inkjet printing2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The catalytic activity of the enzymes can be introduced to textile surfaces for bio-sensing applications by immobilizing them through a resource-efficient deposition method such as inkjet printing [1]. Contrary to conventional dispensing methods, drop-on-demand inkjet printing can provide with high precision deposition of these enzymes along with flexibility for small-scale production [2]. To the best of our knowledge, studies on the inkjetting of enzymes are limited and often uses a modified/adapted commercial paper printer for jetting [3]. Additionally, the effect of ink formulation and printing condition variables on the activity of enzyme are not well explored. Many of such variables suggested for jetting of proteins [4] includes e.g. ink rheology, operating temperature, drop size retention, and the shear force acting on the ink. In our research effect of these variables are studied using a digital inkjet printer (Xennia Carnelian) with a Sapphire QS10 piezo-electric print head (Fujifilm Dimatix, USA). Lysozyme is used as a model enzyme for printing due to its well-known structure and catalytic mechanism. Effect of temperature and shear force development within the print head on lysozyme activity is investigated. Additionally, pre-treatment of the fabric to improve ink adhesion through various surface activation processes are studied. Finally, remaining activity of the printed enzymes over washing is evaluated to ensure the fastness property.

    Acknowledgment

    This research project is funded by University of Borås, Sweden.

    References

    [1]     Li J, Rossignol F, Macdonald J. Inkjet printing for biosensor fabrication: combining chemistry and technology for advanced manufacturing. Lab on a Chip 2015;15(12):2538-2558.

    [2]     Nierstrasz V, Yu J, Seipel S. Towards more flexible, sustainable and energy-efficient textile functionalization processes: Digital inkjet in functional and smart textile production. In: 9th Aachen-Dresden International Textile Conference 2015; 2015.

    [3]     Yamazoe H. Fabrication of protein micropatterns using a functional substrate with convertible protein-adsorption surface properties. J Biomed Mater Res A 2012;100(2):362-9.

    [4]     Delaney JT, Smith PJ, Schubert US. Inkjet printing of proteins. Soft Matter 2009;5(24):4866-4877.

  • 183.
    Bjarnevik, Therese
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Borgström, Elin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mätning och utvärdering av Eventmarknadsföring2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This business bachelor thesis deals with the subject event marketing and more focused onhow to measure and evaluate this subject within companies and organisations and whatcomplications that surround this. The study is made with a qualitative method and is based ontheories and practical examples, which are gathered through interviews at companies andorganisations.Measurement and evaluation of event marketing is sparingly researched and there is a lack ofknowledge on how to practically use this in companies and organisations. However, one cansee that the traditional marketing space is shrinking and event marketing is rising. What eventmarketing means exactly is somewhat diffuse since everyone seems to have their owndefinition of the topic - but one can briefly explain that it is about making use of events ofvarious kinds to communicate a product or a message. Even though this is a method that isoften used the result is rarely evaluated. This was not a problem a few years back but nowcompanies and organisations demand this more and more. Because of this, there is a lot ofinterest in learning more about the measurement and evaluation of event marketing.During our interviews we used an interview guide to make sure we used appropriate questionsto our respondents and to make sure we got the same information from the differentinterviews. The interview guide was created from the theory we found and was used in thefive interviews conducted at five different companies. Our respondents operate in variousindustries and thus we have gained insight from various sectors of the paper.Theory and empirical evidence indicates that there is an extremely complex topic, we haveinvestigated and therefore it has been difficult to draw any clear conclusions. What we haveobserved is that there is no coordinated truths about how measurement and evaluation is donebecause it is different depending on what industry you belong to and what your goals are withthe event. Nor are there any standardized evaluation tools, but are partly requested by bothscientists and our respondents. Moreover, we have noted that you have to set goals alreadyduring planning in order to be able to measure and evaluate afterwards. The survey alsoshows that event marketing is an appropriate method to use because you can easily get adialogue between companies and consumers where they can change attitudes and purchasingbehaviour.

  • 184.
    Bjelkenfors, Isabelle
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rening av spolvatten i dynasandfilter2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The water treatment plant in Mölndal has a maximum capacity of 200 liters/second (720 m3/h). The main step in the process consists of 20 DynaSand filters, which are continuous sand filters with an area of 5 m2. Just before the DynaSand filters a dose of coagulant, PAX-XL-100 (polyaluminium chloride), is added, to create flocks that are then collected in the filter. At the water treatment plant in Mölndal they want to take care of the flushing water that runs through the DynaSand filters and wash the contaminated sand. This flushing water represents about 13% of the stream in the process. To prevent sending the flushing water down the drain, it is cleaned by adding another flocculant, Magnafloc (see attachment). The flocks created are then settled in lamella. From lamella, about 1% of the water goes down the drain and the cleaned flushing water is then returned to the raw water intake. Soon, the water capacity of the water treatment plant in Mölndal must be increased to provide water to the increasing population of the city of Mölndal. A reconstruction of the plant is planned and hopefully an alternative way of purification of the flush water through the lamella-sedimentation will be found, since the addition of Magnaflock is not preferable. In this pilot study the feasibility to clean the flush water by adding an extra cushion sand filter is tested. The idea is that dirty water will make flocks again with PAX, the same coagulant which is already added before the main filters. This pilot study will be the basis for the decision, whether or not, DynaSand filters will be used in the future for the best purification of the flushing water. To get an idea of how the flocculation of the flush water works purely chemically, the flocculation experiments were first conducted in a laboratory, and then in pilot scale. However, it turned out that there are many operation problems can occur at the pilot scale, which made the evaluation of the results difficult.

  • 185.
    Bjerker, Melina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hägg, Mathilda
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Designverktyg: Vad krävs i designprocessen för omfärgning av bomullsplagg2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over 60% of the textiles thrown away in Sweden are still usable and the average Swedish person throws away approximately 8 kg of textiles per year. The demand for textiles is increasing despite the abundance and it is calculated to be a deficit in cellulosic fibers in 2020 with 5 million tons. To lead consumers to act more sustainable, designers can use different design strategies. The use of sustainable design strategies can prolong the life cycle of a garment and one way to do it is by redesigning existing garments to fit the need of the consumer. Existing design tools are lacking content about redyeing, even though research has shown this is something the consumers would like to be able to change in their garments. The purpose of this thesis is to develop av design tool that creates the right conditions for redying cotton garments in the consumer phase. The study is delimited to only examine the conditions for cotton garments and does not take economic perspectives into account.

     

    This study consists of a literature study and an empirical study. The literature study treats the subjects cotton, design tools, colour and finishing. The main empirical material is collected through interviews with people in the field of colour and finishing and with an environmental chemist. Safety data sheets from the biggest textile colour manufacturers on the market in Sweden has been studied. The results of the study show several factors that can affect the result of the redyeing process and takes these factors in consideration in the development of a design tool. Factors that can affect the result of a redyeing process are the choice of materials and sewing thread and choice of treatments and finishes on the fabric. The result also found that the outcome of the new colour is dependant on the original color of the garment.

  • 186.
    Bjerlemo, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lindevall, Rebecca
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Humankapital i års-och hållbarhetsredovisningar: Hur presenterar företag information om sin viktigaste tillgång2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Employees generate economic benefits and are a competitive advantage on the market and therefore they are considered as one of the company's most important asset. An increased interest in human capital over the past years has contributed to the fact that many companies today choose to integrate human capital disclosures in their voluntary reports. However, there is an absence of standards and guidelines of presenting human resources. The research on how companies can present voluntary information about human capital is also unexplored. The purpose of our study is to generate knowledge about how five Swedish companies with many employees present information about their human capital. We also want to acquire knowledge how the information varies between companies. We have conducted a qualitative content analysis on companies' annual and sustainability reports, where we created core categories based on previous literature, but we could also add subcategories using an abductive approach. The survey points out that there is an external interest in human resources where all companies choose to integrate human capital into their annual and sustainability reports. Although the information differs between the companies, there are also similarities and patterns can be found among the companies in their reporting.

  • 187.
    Björk, Annika
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Inse mitt värde och behåll mig en stund till: Ett undersökande projekt i hållbar textildesign2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recognise my value and keep me a while longer is an exploratory project in sustainable textile design. The focus is to explore possible design solutions that can give products a property transformation over time and prolong the products life cycle. This through practical investigations with different materials based on a chosen approach to sustainable design and changeable pattern images. Also with aim to give the consumer an active role in the changing of a products appearance and function. The end result is three product prototypes that all in different ways exemplify the chosen approach to sustainable design. 1. Moss is a jumper made of circular knitted jacquard fabric with the material combination Sally Fox cotton and unbleached cotton. The fabric is conformable and soft with a pattern that changes hue strength for each time the consumer washes it. The changing pattern makes the jumper interesting because it´s expression changes slowly while it´s being used. 2. Cone is a duvet and pillow cover that is made of a five shed satin jacquard weave. The textile pattern and colour is inverted on the back and front side of the textile. The aesthetic expression of the bed clothing can be renewed by the consumer through vegetable dyes. 3. Bark is a flat knitted, dubble relief, jacquard wool blanket. The blanket can be transformed by the consumer, through washing, and then get a new function as a rug. The textile goes from a soft, two-dimensional, flexible and somewhat fragile textile into a compact, three-dimensional durable textile.

  • 188.
    Björk, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nilsson, Malin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    K3 versus frivilligt antagande av IFRS: Konsekvenserna på de finansiella rapporterna utifrån ett intressentperspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to expanding globalization of accounting, the international accounting principles and regulations are currently in a process of harmonization. The K-project of the Swedish accounting authority Bokföringsnämnden, indicates that Sweden is a part of this process. According to EU-regulation listed companies are obligated to prepare financial statements in accordance with IFRS since 2005, but for unlisted Swedish companies there is an option of applying local Swedish regulations. The arguments in favor of a voluntary adoption of IFRS rest on promises of improved quality, transparency and comparability of financial statements, which further will increase its usefulness to stakeholders. In 2012, the IASB initiated a project regarding a revised Conceptual Framework, which is expected to be completed during 2017. The revised Conceptual Framework highlights the importance of three primary stakeholders, consisting of investors, lenders and other creditors.The objective of this study is to examine how unlisted Swedish parent companies’ choice of adopting IFRS voluntarily, instead of applying K3, affects the financial reports and primary stakeholders based on an information need perspective. This is illustrated by four hypothetical scenarios. In order to achieve the objective of this study, the existing differences of reporting under IFRS and K3 regarding financial instruments, goodwill in business combinations, R&D expenses and investment properties focusing on disclosures, are examined. The method used in the study is a descriptive analysis with an abductive approach within the frames of qualitative research.The findings indicate that there are major differences between IFRS and K3, which results in companies reporting according to IFRS appear to be more profitable and less of a risk. A voluntary adoption of IFRS contributes to more useful information in the financial statements and a better reflection of the company's financial reality. Overall, financial reporting according to IFRS appears more favorable than reporting under K3, based on the information need of the primary stakeholder.This paper is written in Swedish.

  • 189.
    Björkgren, Anton
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Eriksson Sjöqvist, Edvin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sänkt temperatur i kylkedjan: Konsekvenser för transportbranschen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chilled foodstuffs are today transported within a temperature interval of +2 °C - +8 °C in Sweden. The correct temperatures in which foodstuffs with animal origin should be handled in are regulated by law and diverges between +2 °C - +7 °C. Many refrigeration systems in grocery stores and consumer’s homes are set at +8 °C. The great majority of foodstuffs are, as a result of this, on the packaging marked with a storage temperature of +8 °C. To be well prepared, the transport industry ask themselves which consequences might occur in case of a reduced temperature in the cold chain. The main reason for this is to overcome food waste. Research shows that foodstuffs durability is highly dependent on its storage temperature. The rate in which microbial growth occur drops with falling temperatures. In2020 a new EU regulation enters in to force which regulates the use of refrigerants with higher Global Warming Potential factor than 2500. The grocery stores have to, as a result of this, replace many of their older refrigeration systems. Regulating lower temperatures won’t be an issue with new modern equipment. As a result of this they can guarantee lower temperatures on foodstuff. To be prepared for what might come, the transport industry wants to know what consequences a lower temperature might bring along in their part of the cold chain. The main issue is that some foodstuff might be harmed in temperatures close to the freezing point. The use of protective coatings could offer shelter for cold sensitive products. One other proven method is to allocate foodstuff in different temperature zones. This thesis theoretical contribution compiles earlier research in areas such as foodstuffs characteristics when refrigerated, multi temperature systems, protective coatings and semi structured interviews with experts within their fields. It further examines the cold chain and the stakeholders within it. The focus of the thesis is thru the perspective of one of the major transport companies within cold chain logistics in Sweden. The practical contribution is based on a case-study together with the theoretical contribution which states consequences that possibly can occur along the transport company’s part of the cold chain. The analysis shows that, to minimize the risk of cassation, some foodstuffs need protection. Either thru multiple temperature zones or with protective covers. Both alternatives comes with advantages and disadvantages. To add temperature zones are associated with investments in the form of separable walls and cooling systems together with an increase in logistic complexity. Multi temperature systems can however secure the quality in a foodstuffs quality. The issue with protective covers is that there’s no return logistics system in place and such a system can be very expensive to uphold. The covers do however offer protection from outer temperature influence. The conclusions states that a combination of both solutions might be suitable. To accomplish this however requires collaboration over company and industry borders if all stakeholders are to be beneficial.

  • 190.
    Björquist, Stina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Separation for regeneration: Chemical recycling of cotton and polyester textiles2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015, 96.7 million tonnes of textile fibres were produced world-wide. Our high consumption of textiles leads to an increased amount of textile waste. In Sweden, the majority of used clothing and textiles are incinerated due to the lack of recycling techniques. A large amount of post-consumer textile waste is made from blended materials. One of the most common blends, used in as near as all workwear and service textiles, is cotton/polyester. To enable chemical recycling of such textiles, cotton and polyester must first be separated. The aim of this thesis was to separate the materials by depolymerizing the polyester using alkaline hydrolysis. The focus of the work was on how such a process should be performed without a catalyst, in order to result in both a high yield and a high purity of the cotton residue. In order to recycle the residue as a raw material for manufacturing of man-made cellulosic fibres, the cellulose chains in the cotton must also be maintained as unaffected as possible. The polyester in new sheets was completely depolymerized after 390 min at a temperature of 90ºC using a 10% sodium hydroxide concentration and a 1% material-to-liquor concentration. The separation using these conditions gave high yields (above 96%) of the cotton residue regardless of the material fineness used in the process. Furthermore, the separation performed on old sheets show that a pure cotton residue could be produced using higher material concentrations. It was shown that the cotton residue from old sheets, laundered around 50 times, had an intrinsic viscosity comparable to dissolving pulps used for viscose fibre spinning. This study concludes that alkaline hydrolysis without the use of a catalyst could be used to separate cotton and polyester in blended textiles. Furthermore, the findings show that cotton percentage in old sheets only decreased slightly after 50 launderings. Characterization of the materials using ATR FTIR spectroscopy indicate that an integrated textile recycling of hospital bed sheets could be performed since the sheets only contain cotton and polyester in all parts of the sheets.

  • 191.
    Bliander, Malin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nyström, Viktor
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    En studie för en förbättrad besiktningsprocess inom bostadsproduktion2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the construction industry, inspections of the construction are made to secure that thequality and its functions are accurate according to the demands from the purchaser of theproject. This study examines different tools that can be helpful to use in order to secure a lowrange of inspection remarks to achieve an improved inspection process within the constructionindustry. To investigate how and where an improvement can be made, a survey of inspectionremarks were performed. The survey was supplemented by an interview to gain employersaspect on how Skanska could achieve an improved inspection process. Skanska has recentlyintroduced a new routine of the inspections, with the purpose of reducing the number of remarksand getting satisfied customer.The effect of the new routine has been studied and the result shows that Skanska is not far fromreaching the goal, however improvements can still be made. The new routine provides a betteropportunity to locate the remarks earlier in the construction process and there for more time torepair the remarks is gained. Thus there will be fewer remarks on the final inspection eventhough the overall numbers of remarks during the whole inspection process will remain thesame.Both the survey and interview manifested the areas where focus should be directed in order toimprove the inspection process. The contributing factors to the results are discussed andproposals for improvements are presented.This study will hopefully contribute to an understanding for the inspection process within theconstruction industry. Also bring understanding for the reasons why construction often gets alarge number of inspection remarks and how they could be avoided.

  • 192.
    Blixt, Erik
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kirlappos, Andreas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Optimering av lagerhantering i sjukhusmiljö2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Effective material handling in a healthcare organization can both reduce operational costs andat the same time result in higher quality of care. Traditionally, materials management issueshave not been a priority for explanatory reasons. A hospital is primarily a healthcare facilityand not a company that actively needs to seek profitability to ensure its survival. However,this has resulted in insufficient management and procedures with high costs and lack ofresource efficiency as a result. Deficient work routines and methods for materialsmanagement along with improper utilization of storage facilities have been the main focus ofthis study. The study provides suggestions for how operation ward 1 at Södra Älvsborgshospital can work to improve stock management of its consumables. Semi-structuredinterviews along with quantitative data form the basis of this study, which is divided intothree main areas, processes, material management and warehouse design. After analysing theempirical data together with the theoretical frame of reference, some recommendations maybe presented to the operations department. The consumables should be moved to anappropriate storage space on the lower floor that has appropriate ventilation for medicalmaterials and a specific unpacking area. The new storage area should be dimensioned andoptimized based on product family, pick rate and physical characteristics of the articles tominimize overwork, unnecessary movements and promote ergonomics. In order to ensure thatthe right skills are utilized for the correct task, a warehouse manager should be employed withmain responsibility for materials handling. Valuable time can thus be saved for the nurses sothat they can focus more on their primary tasks. In order to simplify materials management,implementation of a two-bin system should be carried out, where safety stocks, re-orderpoints and order quantities are built-in and visualized.

  • 193.
    Blomqvist, Henrik
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Björnalm, Linus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Studie för energieffektivisering av belysningsarmaturer: En energieffektivitetsanalys mellan två armaturtyper2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka de ekonomiska vinster som kan erhållas vid byte av belysningsarmaturer i en byggnad. Studien omfattar de energi- och ekonomiska besparingar som möjliggörs via ett byte från gamla T8-armaturer till LED-armaturer. Dessutom skulle kunskap kring armaturernas påverkan på elnätet i form av övertoner tas fram. Målet var därmed att ta fram en tydlig redogörande jämförelse mellan de två armaturtyperna. Studien ”Energieffektivisering av belysningsarmaturer” utfördes på uppdrag av Caverion Sverige AB men i B&B-Tools vägnar och dess lokal belägen i Ulricehamn. För att uppfylla syftet krävdes information om armaturtyperna och hur de fungerar och därmed också god kunskap kring det berörda ämnet. Armaturerna som jämförs i denna studie är en lysrörsarmatur med T8-lysrör som installerades för ca 25 år sedan samt en modern LED-armatur från leverantören Waldmann med produktnamnet Taureo. Med hjälp av ett elkvaltitetsinstrument från företaget Metrum, som är anpassat för att utföra tillförlitliga kontroller av olika elkvalitetsparametrar, bestämdes armaturernas effekt. Dessutom uppmättes armaturernas övertonshalter som visade betydligt högre övertonshalter hos lysrörsarmaturen än för LED-armaturen. Eftersom övertoner kan medföra negativa konsekvenser på såväl enskilda komponenter som på självaste elnätet, eftersträvas så låga övertonshalter som möjligt. Genom de mätningar av effekt som gjordes under studien påvisas att ett armaturbyte skulle innebära en kraftig effektminskning motsvarande en tredjedel av det nuvarande effektuttaget. Därigenom kan större energimängd sparas, cirka 52 000 kWh/år, vilket innebär en årlig kostnadsbesparing på cirka 43 000 kr. Enligt de gjorda beräkningarna erhålls en återbetalningstid på cirka 8,5 år vilket kan bedömas som god lönsamhet i och med LED-armaturernas långa livslängd.

  • 194.
    Blomqvist, Mattias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Energianalys av flerbostadsfastighet: Lämpliga åtgärder för att minska byggnadens energianvändning2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet är ett samprojekt mellan ÅF, Fastighetsägaren AB Bostäder samt undertecknad, och tillkom efter att AB Bostäder ville ha hjälp med att göra en analys på varför en av deras fastigheter, trots efter en rad av åtgärder fortsätter ha en väldigt hög energianvändning. Trots den höga energianvändningen, har resultatet blivit bättre de senaste åren, bara för att de senaste två åren ha stigit igen. Även det ville fastighetsägaren försöka få ett svar på, varför det blivit så. För att kunna reda ut frågeställningen, hjälpte AB Bostäder till med att delge en mängd information, såsom ritningar, driftstatistik och personlig guidning av deras drifttekniker. För beräkningshjälp har energianalysprogrammet BV2 använts. Även en mängd böcker och rapporter inom området användes. Resultatet av arbetet visar att det främst är byggnadens klimatskal som är för dåligt och släpper igenom för mycket värme. Att även införa återvinning av frånluften med hjälp av en värmepump, skulle göra mycket med avseende på energianvändningen.

  • 195.
    Blomstedt, Bettina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    LUX: Exploring interactive knitted textiles through light and touch2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    LUX studies the combination of electronics and knitted textiles from a textile design perspective. The thought of experiencing textiles without touching them sparked the idea of designing textiles where touch is essential for the visual appearance. The aim is to design knitted textiles that light up when touched, in order to create an interactive experience for the viewer. Optical fibres were chosen because of their ability to transmit light and copper yarn works as an electrical conductor that triggers the reaction of light. The shapes of the knitted textiles have been created by utilising the characteristics of the optical fibre. LUX introduces a working method in which the optical fibre is given an important role not only as a light source but also as a tool for shaping the textiles. The result of the work is three textiles that display how electronics, consisting of sensors and light, can be merged with textiles and contribute to interactive behaviour.

  • 196.
    Bobeck, Malin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Binary surfaces - ljusemitterande textiler för inredningssammanhang2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis Binary surfaces - light-emitting textiles for an interior design context is an investigative work on how optical fibres can be used in woven structures. The work explores the different parameters that affect the interaction between optical fibres and weaving, and the possibilities they create together. The result is two examples of fabrics woven with optical fibres in combination with more traditional textile materials. The examples are designed for an interior context and are shown as a room divider and as outer fabric on seating furnishing.

  • 197.
    Boberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Alfredsson, Joakim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rapportering av kortsiktig rörlig ersättning till VD: En balans mellan strategi och transparens.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe and explain the transparency of Swedish public companies when it comes to the reporting of short term bonus payment to the chief executive officer. Furthermore we intend to identify possible explanations and underlying causes regarding the transparency. We have selected the 29 companies that represent the 30 most traded stocks on the Stockholm Stock Exchange (OMXS30). Methodology, the study can be divided into two primary parts. In the first part of the study we use a quantitative approach and apply a positivistic view. In the second part of the study we use a qualitative approach and apply a hermeneutic view. When it comes to collecting data we have been inspired by a cross section design and the primary focus has been to collect relevant information to allow an assessment of the transparency with a model we have developed. This model consists of five criteria inspired by the Ersättningsakademiens (Compensation Academy) guidelines regarding the reporting of compensation and is designed to provide an overall assessment of the studied company’s transparency. We have also identified a number of possible explanatory variables from which we have studied underlying causes to the transparency. Furthermore we have analyzed the communication from a perspective of legitimacy with the intent to obtain an understanding regarding the company’s choice of reporting. From the result of the study we find support to previous criticism regarding lacking transparency on the matter of the reporting of short term bonus payments to the CEO. We can also see tendencies to the fact that the causation that previous studies pointed out between transparency and the independence of the board, may exist in Swedish publicly traded companies as well.

  • 198.
    Bolton, Kim
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    De Mena, Barbara
    ttz Bremerhaven.
    Schories, Gerhard
    ttz Bremerhaven.
    Sustainable Management of Solid Waste2016In: Resource Recovery to approach zero municipal wastes / [ed] M. J. Taherzadeh and T. Richards, CRC Press, 2016, p. 23-41Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 199.
    Bolvede, Michelle
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Stellan, Veronika
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Följs kravspecifikationerna?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Do the producers follow the specifications? This study analyses and reviews if producers follow the requirements of the fashion company’s specification. The purpose was to, through a qualitative and experimental research, decide if all the requirements that involve dark coloured thin knitted t-shirts, of the company's specifications are applied during the production. Through interviews with people with great knowledge within the subjects; quality controls, knitted materials, production abroad and specifications, the authors’ got answers to whether producers ignore the requirements in the specification, as well as why. Through an experimental study, following the standards in the specifications, two shirts from season 2014 and two shirts from season 2015 were examined and compared, to see if they differed. All shirts were supposed to be produced by the same specifications. In the result, the experimental study presents; how the authors proceeded to truthful results. Quotes from the qualitative interviews are also presented. The quotations prove the authors' speculations and theories, regarding the issue of some manufacturers ignoring requirements in the specifications. Furthermore, in the discussion- and analysis chapter, results are analysed together with theories and quotes. The conclusions that can be drawn from the qualitative interviews and the experimental study, is that it is a common problem. Producers deliberately choose to overlook certain requirements in the specifications. However, it is not only in order to make more money, but it is also about managing deadlines and keeping customers satisfied, in order to maintain relationships. The problem is also based on cultural differences and language difficulties in communication, where the specifications are not sufficiently clear enough, resulting in the producer must take action and appreciate what the customer wants.

  • 200.
    Boman, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Huss, Clara
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Vidhäftning på läder: En analys av vidhäftningsförmågan hos kromgarvat läder2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagsläget läggs allt större vikt på att producera produkter med lång hållbarhet ur både miljö- och användningssynpunkt. I industrin för arbetskläder är det viktigt att främja produkter med lång livslängd då man ser produkter som förbrukade vid mindre slitage. Efterfrågan av arbetskläder med längre livslängd ligger till grund för detta arbete. Fokus ligger i att undersöka om man kan ta fram en arbetshandske som håller längre än de som finns på marknaden idag. I detta examensarbete har man undersökt om nagellack innehållande polyvinylbutyral kan användas som primer på kromgarvat läder för att skapa en yta med bättre vidhäftningsförmåga till en polyuretanfilm som agerar adhesiv. Man vill kunna fästa friktionsmaterial på läderprodukter, vilket är komplicerat. Genom litteraturstudier, modifieringar av ISO-standarder samt framtagningar av egna testmetoder och referensmaterial, har lämpliga metoder tagits fram för att undersöka huruvida nagellack kan ha en effekt på vidhäftningen mellan läder och polyuretanfilm. Arbetet är ett uppdrag från Ejendals som upptäckt problematiken kring svårigheterna att fästa friktionsmaterial till deras skinnhandskar. I dagsläget finns det handskar tillverkade i PU-läder där möjligheten till vidhäftning av friktionsmaterial är möjligt. Skulle en metod för bättre vidhäftning till läder kunna tas fram skulle arbetshandskar för arbeten inom snickeri, butik och lager kunna tillverkas på ett mer hållbart och långsiktigt vis. Genom att utföra tester har man kunnat undersöka om en kemisk bearbetning, i form av primer, kan öka vidhäftningen mellan läder och PU-film. Studien visar att en förbättring av vidhäftningsförmågan mellan lädret och PU-filmerna kan uppnås med hjälp av nagellacket som använts. Observationerna visar också att tjockleken på PU-filmen är av betydelse för hur väl vidhäftningen binder till lädret. Man valde även att genomföra testerna i vått tillstånd varifrån man kunde konstatera att effekten av vidhäftningen inte påverkades negativt under väta. Efter avslutade tester kunde man konstatera att när en flikning väl uppstått mellan lädret och friktionsmaterialet, krävdes små krafter för att dra isär materialen från varandra. Därför är det av stor vikt att sammanfogningen mellan samtliga material består av starka bindningar. Genom den ökade vidhäftningsförmågan man skapat på lädret, kommer man i framtiden kunna producera produkter med längre hållbarhet än de som används idag. Integrationen av säkerhet i arbetskläder skapar en produkt som har ökat värde ur arbetsmiljösynpunkt, samt hållbarhet.

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