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  • 151.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gianneschi, Marcus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Brands, consumer choice and decision-making2017In: Brand Theories: A multi-perspective approach to brands and branding / [ed] Jon Bertilsson and Veronica Tarnovskaya, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, p. 145-164Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Hagberg, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Hjelmgren, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Lind, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Fenomenet Ullared: en förstudie2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fem områden har behandlats och avrapporteras i den rapport som nu föreligger. Den inleds med hur Gekås upprätthåller och utvecklar kundrelationer. Därefter följer ett kapitel om varför så många familjer väljer att åka till Ullared. Vad är det som förklarar att många väljer att förlägga helger och semesterdagar till Ullared? Det tredje kapitlet behandlar samspelet mellan produkter, människor och faciliteter i butiken. Den fråga som besvaras är varför det förefaller ”flyta” så väl. Digitaliseringens betydelse på Gekås och den digitala teknikens relation till den logik som gäller för verksamheten är nästa frågeställning. Rapporten avslutas med en beskrivning av problematiska servicemöten och hur frontpersonalen uppfattar och hanterar dessa. De fem kapitlen är var för sig intressanta läsningar. De ger tillsammans en spännande bild av vad Ullared och Gekås är och varför. Rapporten ger insikter, väcker frågor och är en utmärkt utgångspunkt för fortsatta studier av marknadsplatsers funktionssätt och vad som skapar kvalitet och utveckling.

  • 153.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hjort, Torbjörn
    Lunds universitet.
    Sociala medier ökar trycket att konsumera2017In: Svenska DagbladetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 154.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet.
    Parment, Anders
    Stockholms universitet.
    Consumer behaviour: Classical and contemporary perspectives2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Consumer Behavior: Classical and Contemporary Perspectives provides a basic understanding of the subject of consumer behavior. A better understanding in terms of why and how people consume is particularly relevant in today’s society since consumption has become an increasingly important part of people’s lives.

    This book differs from most previous textbooks by describing the subject of consumer behavior based on two comprehensive theoretical fields: theories concerning consumer psychology and decision-making, and theories concerning consumer culture and practices. These two perspectives complement one another and contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of consumption. Furthermore, the book has a sustainability perspective. The impact of consumption on the environment is important to highlight, not least with regard to future generations. The book also has a consumer perspective in that the consumer is not seen as a passive recipient of offers, but rather as an active actor who must be given the opportunity to make his or her voice heard. A better understanding of consumers’ different living conditions and the situations they encounter will give companies and other organizations a better chance to reach out to consumers and meet their needs.

    Consumer Behavior is also available in Swedish, published byStudentlitteratur.

  • 155.
    Ekström, Karin M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet.
    Parment, Anders
    Stockholms universitet.
    Konsumentbeteende: Klassiska & samtida perspektiv2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konsumentbeteende – klassiska och samtida perspektiv ges en grundläggande förståelse för ämnet konsumentbeteende. Kunskap om varför och på vilket sätt människor konsumerar är av intresse för flertalet samhällsaktörer, i synnerhet som konsumtion kommit att bli en allt viktigare del av människors liv.

    

Boken skiljer sig från flertalet läroböcker genom att konsumentbeteendeämnet beskrivs utifrån två övergripande teoretiska fält: teorier om konsumentens psykologi och beslut samt teorier om konsumtionskultur och konsumtionspraktik. Dessa två teoretiska perspektiv kompletterar varandra och bidrar till en ökad förståelse för konsumtionens komplexitet. Boken har därutöver ett hållbarhetsperspektiv och ett konsumentperspektiv. Konsumtionens konsekvenser för miljön behöver uppmärksammas, inte minst med tanke på kommande generationer. Konsumenten ses inte som en passiv mottagare av erbjudanden, utan som en aktivt handlande aktör som måste ges möjlighet att göra sin röst hörd. En ökad förståelse för konsumenters olika livsvillkor och situationer de befinner sig i kan ge företag och andra organisationer bättre möjligheter att nå ut till konsumenter och tillgodose deras behov.

  • 156.
    Ekström, Karin M
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Reuse and Recycling of Clothing and Textiles: A Network Approach2014In: Journal of Macromarketing, ISSN 0276-1467, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 383-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accelerated pace of consumption in the Western world has led to an increase in clothing and textiles disposed of in the garbage rather than being reused or recycled. The purpose of this article is to increase understanding of how clothing and textile consumption can become more sustainable by demonstrating how members of a network view and deal with this problem. The study is based on meetings over one and a half years and on a survey. Different views on the problem as well as various solutions on how to increase reuse and recycling of clothing and textiles are presented, including means and challenges. A macromarketing perspective, involving different actors in society, is necessary in order to make consumption more sustainable and for finding long-term solutions. We argue that understanding symbolic consumption and the fashion system can contribute to the macromarketing study of societal development from a sustainable perspective.

  • 157.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Antagonistic threats against transports in EU in a supply2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper To analysis the risk for antagonistic threats against transports in EU in order to find patterns, trends and theoretical framework in order to better handle these risks from a supply chain perspective. Design/methodology/approach The research is based on a system-theoretical approach, which emphasizes a holistic view instead of the characteristics of the different parts. The research method used in this paper is deductive. The analysis is based on official statistics over antagonistic threats against transports in EU within a frame of reference consisting of theories from supply chain risk management and criminology. Findings There is no silver bullet for solving antagonistic threats as it has always been a part of the business. Within this understanding there are many changes in hot spots, modus operandi, theft endangered objects and handling methods during time, but the basic theoretical frame of reference is still more or less the same. Research limitations/implications (if applicable) The research is based on theoretical deduction together with official statistics regarding antagonistic threats. The geographically limitation to the EU is done of practical reasons whiles the frame of reference can be used globally for analysis antagonistic threats against transports. Practical implications (if applicable) This research is limited by the lack of reliable information sources about criminal activities against logistics business. Secondary sources, like official crime statistics, are at best untrustworthy but more likely filled with large parts of hidden statistics. By using several different and independent official statistical sources and analysis the results within a common frame of reference can the validity of the research be secure. What is original/value of paper This paper is a step towards bringing theories from criminology into the scientific field of logistics and supply chain risk management.

  • 158.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Complexity, antagonism and supply chains: A conceptual framework2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to develop a conceptual framework for antagonistic threats in logistics. This relates aspects of criminology (such as opportunity and crime displacement) to supply chain performance in order to capture the dynamic complexity for antagonistic threats. The research method used in this paper is desk-top reasoning. This paper uses deductive reasoning to describe how different well-known theories from criminology can support the scientific field of logistics and supply chain management with regards to the problem with antagonistic threats. Insights from complexity theory guide the search for guiding principles that describe the behaviour of the system. With the antagonistic threat framework will the lack of empirical data not be devastating due to that it is theoretical possible to foresee complex systemic changes due to the interactions between involved theoretical viewpoints. The conceptual framework can be used as a supporting factor or an analytic tool together with different types of empirical data regarding antagonistic threats against supply chains. This paper maintains that the understanding of the relationship between potential perpetrators and theft preventing measures is a key issue to reduce antagonistic threat problems within the transport network.

  • 159.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Supply Chain Security: ISPS, hamnsäkerhet2010In: Inköp & Logistik, ISSN 1400-9676, no 5, p. 28-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 160.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lantz, Björn
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Value and incident categories for cargo theft in Europe: Analysing TAPA EMEA statistics2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of this paper To analysis the relationship between value (reported stolen value) and different incident categories in order to find patterns and trends in cargo theft within Europe. Design/methodology/approach The research is explorative as this type of research is missing in logistics but also deductive as it utilizes theories from criminology. The analysis is based on TAPA EMEA’s IIS transport related crime database. The result is analyzed and discussed within a frame of reference consisting of theories from logistics and criminology. Findings There are seasonal variations of incident categories. This variation is found both between months of the year and the day of the week for many of the incident categories, but the patterns are different for different incident categories. Within this understanding there are many changes in hot spots, modus operandi, theft endangered objects and handling methods during time, but the basic theoretical frame of reference is still more or less the same. Research limitations/implications The research is based on theories deduced from criminology and logistics together with secondary data regarding cargo theft. The geographically limitation to the Europe is done of practical reasons whiles the frame of reference can be used globally for analysis antagonistic threats against transports. Practical implications This research is limited by the content and classification within the TAPA EMEA IIS database. Nevertheless, this database is the best available database and the reports comes mainly from the industry itself, represented by the different TAPA members how report their losses anonymous, nevertheless the quality of the data limits the possibility to make normative statements about cargo theft prevention. What is original/value of paper This paper is the first within supply chain risk management that utilizes actual crime statistics reported by the industry itself, in order to analyze the occurrence of cargo theft by focusing on the value of the stolen vehicle/goods in relation with incident categories.

  • 161.
    Ekwall, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Sternberg, Henrik
    Enhanced liability clauses in logistics contracts: functions, features and future2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a detailed analysis and assessment of the use of enhanced liability (EL) clauses in logistics contracts. The expression “enhanced liability” refers to clauses in a contract that obligate one of the partners to accept extended liability for future claims payments beyond normal standards of transport law, conventions or national standard terms. This paper provides explanations and an understanding of how logistics business actors are using enhanced liability clauses in supplier contacts to reallocate their own supply chain risks. The research approach is based on two pillars: firstly, a proposition on EL cause and effects is theoretically deducted from supply chain risk, freight transport and law literature; secondly, the results of 12 semi-structured interviews with managers were elaborated on. The interviews were structured in four major areas: history of EL, contractual negotiation process, effects of activated EL clauses, and future of EL clauses. Enhanced liability clauses are a risk redistribution tool within the supply chain that contributes to higher total cost for the entire supply chain. This paper introduces and discusses the enhanced liability clause in contracts as a risk allocation method and explains its limitations, providing both novel managerial insight and theory.

  • 162.
    Elfsberg, Oscar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kronbäck, Tony
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Motivationsfaktorer hos volontärarbetare på ett svenskt sportevenemang: En jämförelse mellan olika demografiska variabler2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine what motivates volunteers within a swedish sporting event to facilitate volunteer recruitment and retention for organizations. A quantitative research was done using the Volunteer Motivation Inventory (VMI) and 122 respondents out of 360 volunteers finished the questionnaire. The respondents were categorized into the demographic groups gender, age (17-49, 50-64 and 65-74) and main occupation (working, studying or other).VMI has ten dimension with different sources of motivation and by using this tool you can tell which of the dimensions are the most important for the respondents. The results indicate that the dimension Social Interaction was the most important overall, meaning that the volunteers volunteer for the social atmosphere and the desire to meet new people.There were no significant differences found between males and females in any dimensions which indicates that they are motivated by similar factors. When looking at the age segments we found that the dimension Career showed the biggest differences where young people (17-49) had the highest mean and the old (65-74) had the lowest mean with the middle-aged (50-64) in between. The dimension Career also showed the biggest differences when comparing among main occupation where students were more keen to volunteer to get new experiences that could be useful in future employment. This thesis is written in swedish.

  • 163.
    Emilsson, Annie
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Neumann, Nathalie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Betydelsen av CSR – Öst möter Väst2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the search for lower operating costs many textile companies choose to move their production abroad, with China being the biggest, most dominant player. As a result of this outsourcing, and the choices available in a global economy, society is placing more pressure on companies to establish both social and morally accepted practises across the whole supply chain. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has emerged as an increasingly expected practise within the textile industry and something that many companies strive to improve. In short, a company’s CSR activities can be described as taking responsibility within three sustainable areas; social, environmental and economical. The purpose of this study is to provide a greater understanding of the meaning and attitudes towards CSR and its implementation within a textile supply chain with manufacturing in China. Additionally, the study also aims to illustrate the perception of social and cultural sustainable development within and between different cultures. This study has been performed as a case study with a qualitative approach, where data have been conducted and collated through both semi-structured interviews as well as observations. Through contact with a Swedish company we received access to their Chinese suppliers and thereby found respondents who were appropriate for the aim of this study. By using a theoretical framework we were able to analyse and discuss our empirical findings, and could thereby make the conclusion that the awareness of CSR is low, especially amongst Chinese textile operators, where the results show that CSR is a concept which is not widely practised. The results also show a clash between Swedish and Chinese cultures, which indicates that implementing CSR guidelines along the whole supply chain is both complicated and convoluted. The attempt to replicate each other’s values in a completely different culture is also problematic. This complex equation raises questions about whose beliefs are correct and who decides what is right or morally wrong.This thesis will continue in English.

  • 164.
    Engström, Frida
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Christoffersson, Jini
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Influencer Marketing: En framgångsrik strategi beroende på målgruppensålder2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We live in a consumer society where we daily are being exposed for advertising in all its different forms. Companies are constantly striving to find new innovative marketing techniques that will break through the media noise, where Influencer marketing has been identified as one of the most successful marketing strategies of today. Previous research that points to the strategy's success has mostly been done on a younger target group. Thus, we have identified a gap in the literature and intend to investigate the effect of this marketing method on an older generation. The purpose of the study is to investigate what relationship women at the age 50-65 have to Influencer marketing, as well as get an idea of what influences their wish to buy clothes for personal use. A subsidiary aim is also to investigate what personal attributes businesses should look for in an Influencer, for women aged 50-65 to embrace their message. We have used qualitative methods with inductive approach. Mainly semi-structured interviews in the form of focus groups, complemented with the method photo elicitationinterview. The result shows that Influencer marketing on social media is not a successful marketing strategy for this target group. Mainly because the respondents do not use social media to the extent required for this to be a possible marketing method. On the other hand, traditional advertising and people in their surroundings showed to hold great influence when it comes to the choice of clothes they wear. Although, if you choose to use Influencer marketing to target these women, trustworthiness, similarity and charisma are three key personal attributes that the target audience appreciates in a potential Influencer.

  • 165.
    Eriksson, David
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Svensson, Göran
    Elements affecting social responsibility in supply chains2015In: Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, ISSN 1359-8546, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 561-566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to assess elements that affect social responsibility in supply chains and beyond. The elements are classified into drivers, facilitators and inhibitors.

    Design/methodology/approach– This paper presents an assessment of supply chain management research published over the period of 2009-2013.

    Findings– Sixteen elements are identified and presented in a framework along with their proposed constituents. The elements capture structures and management principles of supply chains that are important for social responsibility.

    Research limitations/implications– The elements provide a basis to better understand how social responsibility in supply chains is related to contextual factors. The framework of elements is still only an initial step toward enhanced understanding of how the context affects social responsibility in supply chains.

    Practical implications– The framework may guide companies to acknowledge elements that are known to improve or deteriorate social responsibility in supply chains.

    Originality/value– This paper contributes to capture the state-of-the-art knowledge based upon recent research. It is also a stepping stone toward improved insights on what drives, facilitates and inhibits individuals in social responsibility.

  • 166.
    Eriksson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wollin, Madeleine
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Born, Trained or Excluded Microentrepreneur2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The assumption that microcredit alone can contribute to worldwide povertyalleviation is debated, the opponents voicing the need of non-credit services in addition togive the poor access to capital. Social intermediation services are argued to be essential inmaking a difference in a time where the impact of microfinance itself has been reappraised inseveral studies. Simultaneously, the shift to commercialization of the industry due to pressureto accomplish self–sustainability is inescapable; concerns over its benefits for the poor ispronounced. Some are suggesting positive effects, others argue there being negative effectsdue to the change in focus. The purpose of this study is to generate knowledge about theinfluence MFIs have in enabling individuals to be microentrepreneurs in Sri Lanka.Design/methodology/approach– This will be accomplished through investigating theconditions and terminology used by MFIs in relation to entrepreneurship and theirrequirements of training. The findings may be used as guidance to other MFIs andstakeholders, both nationally and globally, who wish to engage in this field. The study relieson qualitative methodology where multiple case studies were analyzed and the findings basedon primary data conducted from nine semi-structured interviews. The cases have beenselected according to theoretical sampling.Findings– Based on the findings and theories applied, it can be stated that the ambition of theMFIs in Sri Lanka is to contribute to the microentrepreneurs development. This isaccomplished by giving them microcredit, training and motivation to start a sustainablebusiness and thus rise out of poverty. The findings suggest that the MFIs have an importantrole, but that the responsibility following as a result of their influence is compromised. Theconclusion is that the MFIs do not acknowledge everyone to be entrepreneurs, and are lackingin providing the most optimal training and supply of microfinance services for theirmicroentrepreneurs to succeed. This is limiting the microentrepreneurs progress and excludesan unknown part of potential microentrepreneurs.Originality/value– The findings of this study can help us to understand how MFIs in SriLanka enable or restrict the microentrepreneur because of their expectations and otherconsequences due to the market of microfinance and the fundamental assumptions whichmicrofinance is based on. Our contribution provides context on what conditions andlimitations MFIs create for microentrepreneurs in rising out of poverty with the assistance ofmicrofinance. The findings may be used as guidance to other MFIs and stakeholders, bothnationally and globally, who wish to engage in this field.

  • 167.
    Eriksson, Julia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Karlsson, Elin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Varför ändras hållbarhetsrapporter? En studie över Coops och ICAs förändringsbenägenhet i deras hållbarhetsrapporter.: En studie över Coops och ICAs förändringsbenägenhet i deras hållbarhetsrapporter.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Our purpose of this survey is to explain and describe the underlying factors to the changes that have taken place in Coop's and ICA's sustainability report over time, with soft laws. To do this, we have chosen to investigate companies' sustainability reports for the years 2011-2016. In the survey of sustainability reports, we have used two analysis tools. One tool is a categorization chart based on the transition between GRI Guidelines G3 and G4. This transition gives us an insight into how adaptable organizations are in their reporting and how they aligned themselves to the G4 guidelines. The other tool we have used is the system-oriented theories. These theories have had the primary purpose of explaining underlying factors about organizations' choice of voluntary sustainability accounting. One of the major changes in the G4 is an increased focus on suppliers' work on sustainability. This is a change that is of high relevance to the food industry. The food industry is an industry with many and long supply chains and they have a significant and important role in reaching a more sustainable food cycle. Research shows that in recent years there has been a higher expectation from the food industry stakeholders on organizations in the industry to more clearly account for their suppliers' sustainability efforts. For the above reason, we consider it interesting to investigate the companies Coop and ICA. The survey has a combined qualitative and quantitative approach. We have analyzed the sustainability reports by using a categorization schedule. The categories are derived from GRI's guidelines, focusing on the new guidelines regarding suppliers. The schedule has enabled an overview of how the change has looked over time, as well as what the companies have chosen to change. The summary of this study has been analyzed primarily based on system-oriented theories. The study shows that there is a strong link between system-oriented theories and the choice of voluntary sustainability reporting. On the other hand, there has been no significant change in companies reporting sustainability in connection with the transition to G4. The reason is that, in accordance with GRI's guidelines, companies may choose what they consider to be essential for their business to report. The study shows that both Coop and ICA reach an acceptable level based on GRI's guidelines. The conclusion is that organizations report to the extent that they are required to maintain and win legitimacy. This thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 168.
    Eriksson, Kajsa
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Crowdfunding: flera nyanser av engagemang2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study addresses Internet-based crowdfunding, which is a financing methodwhere a large number of people give small amounts of money to a project via a crowdfundingplatform on the Internet. The focus of the study is engagement: what creates engagement incrowdfunding and what can increase the engagement. The study also examines ifcommunication only via the Internet is enough to create great engagement. The purpose of thestudy is to contribute to the knowledge development in the research area of crowdfunding. Bydoing that, it will also increase the knowledge among creators of crowdfunding campaignsand enable them to increase the engagement among backers and potential backers in thedevelopment of their campaigns. The research questions that will help achieve the purpose ofthe study are: why do people engage in crowdfunding? How can the interaction betweenbacker and creator of campaigns improve? How can face-to-face communication, throughevents, increase engagement in crowdfunding campaigns? To address these questions andachieve the purpose seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with people who hadbacked crowdfunding campaigns. The result of the study shows that there are differentmotives to why people engage in crowdfunding campaigns. The motives that was mostrepresented by the respondents was in order to help a friend and wanting to realize a certainproject. Other motives that were represented by several respondents were to back campaignsbecause they had confidence and trust in the creators of the campaigns, to receive rewards fortheir engagement, be a part of the community and to back a campaign because they like theidea of crowdfunding. The result of the study also shows three improvement possibilities inthe interaction between creator of the campaigns and the backers: 1) more dynamic updates onthe crowdfunding platform with focus on other than the financial aspect, 2) more updates afterthe end of the campaign and 3) that creators of the campaigns could show their projects in alivestream. The result of the study also shows that face-to-face communication, throughevents, can increase the engagement in crowdfunding campaigns. This is because backers canmeet the persons behind the crowdfunding campaign and see the result of the campaign in reallife and not just via Internet. How creators of crowdfunding campaigns can use the result ofthis study is indicated in the study. The language of the study is Swedish.

  • 169.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mattsson, Ellinor
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Vretlund, Johanna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Transparens: konsumenters inblick i den textila branschen: Ett medel för att öka medvetenhet?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transparency is a business approach which has become more and more popular for fashion companies to apply in recent years. The purpose of transparency is to publish internal company information for stakeholders. Most often, the information is about how companies act socially, environmentally and economically. This study investigates consumer attitudes towards fashion companies that have chosen to apply transparency in their business practices. In order to explicate previous research, the study also examines how consumers want this information assigned along with what specific information consumers’ request. The study’s empirical data is based on nine qualitative interviews conducted with female consumers of different ages.The result of the study shows that consumers in general have no deeper knowledge or awareness of transparency or corporate social responsibility. This unconsciousness proved to have a major impact on the consumer's behavior, attitude and preferences towards transparency. Even though all respondents have a positive attitude towards the idea of transparency, there is some skepticism about the concept. The intentions of applying transparency and the content that is being conveyed are questioned. Respondents believe that the content can easily be manipulated in order to make companies appear better than they actually are. However, this skepticism can be reduced if an external party can control and review the company's transparency.This study also shows that consumers are happy to see that companies publish and convey internal information. The information should be brief, straightforward and easy to understand. It should be assigned to the consumers, instead of asking the consumers to search for it themselves. Perceptions of how the information should be conveyed differ greatly among respondents depending on age and amount of prior knowledge. Therefore it is crucial for companies to adapt the content and pick an appropriate platform for their customers. By understanding the target group's preferences, companies can more easily find a starting point in their work with corporate social responsibility and more effectively to convey it to stakeholders. However, there is a need to raise general awareness of the industry's problems. A way to do this is by discussing the subject in broader channels. This study is written in Swedish.

  • 170.
    Eriksson, Malin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mattsson, Ellinor
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Vretlund, Johanna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Transparens: konsumenters inblick i den textila branschen: Ett medel för att öka medvetenhet?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transparency is a business approach which has become more and more popular for fashion companies to apply in recent years. The purpose of transparency is to publish internal company information for stakeholders. Most often, the information is about how companies act socially, environmentally and economically. This study investigates consumer attitudes towards fashion companies that have chosen to apply transparency in their business practices. In order to explicate previous research, the study also examines how consumers want this information assigned along with what specific information consumers’ request. The study’s empirical data is based on nine qualitative interviews conducted with female consumers of different ages.

    The result of the study shows that consumers in general have no deeper knowledge or awareness of transparency or corporate social responsibility. This unconsciousness proved to have a major impact on the consumer's behavior, attitude and preferences towards transparency. Even though all respondents have a positive attitude towards the idea of transparency, there is some skepticism about the concept. The intentions of applying transparency and the content that is being conveyed are questioned. Respondents believe that the content can easily be manipulated in order to make companies appear better than they actually are. However, this skepticism can be reduced if an external party can control and review the company's transparency.

    This study also shows that consumers are happy to see that companies publish and convey internal information. The information should be brief, straightforward and easy to understand. It should be assigned to the consumers, instead of asking the consumers to search for it themselves. Perceptions of how the information should be conveyed differ greatly among respondents depending on age and amount of prior knowledge. Therefore it is crucial for companies to adapt the content and pick an appropriate platform for their customers. By understanding the target group's preferences, companies can more easily find a starting point in their work with corporate social responsibility and more effectively to convey it to stakeholders. However, there is a need to raise general awareness of the industry's problems. A way to do this is by discussing the subject in broader channels. This study is written in Swedish.

  • 171.
    Eriksson, Sören
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Högskolan i Jönköping, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Balkow, Jenny
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Jönköping, IHH, Företagsekonomi.
    Dahlkild, Jenny
    Högskolan i Jönköping, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Varför producera utomlands?: 11 fallstudier från Jönköpings län om outsourcing och offshoring2008Book (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Espes, Frida
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Tylstedt, Elsa
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Den hållbara microinfluencerns perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Microinfluencers is a relatively new and unexplored field of marketing and is a development of the more commonly used term; influencers. Businesses has recently started to raise interest for microinfluencers, as they, unlike influencers with a broader range of followers, are expected to achieve greater commitment and a greater degree of trust in their specific niche. The niche explored in this study is sustainable fashion and focus lies in the subjective opinion of microinfluencers. The function of microinfluencers, their information flows and their view on collaboration is being studied. To gain insight into this, four semi structured interviews have been conducted. We have used a qualitative content analysis to process our data. When analyzing the data it becomes clear that a microinfluencer has several multifaceted and complex functions. Features that have been identified are: To debate and critizise, to inspire, to provide information and guidance, to market, and act as a company and brand. These interact with the microinfluencer’s information flows where two communicators have been confirmed; followers and companies. This study also shines a light on a third important communicator; other influencers. In the result of this study, the microinfluencers’ functions are related to their information flows, and with this as a basis recommendations and guidelines for companies in their collaborations with microinfluencers are presented.

    This thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 173. Ewerman, Anders
    et al.
    Holm, Olof
    Nordlinder, Tore
    Reflektioner Människa Marknad1991Book (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Fadum, Linn
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lindström, Lina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mellanchefen skapar förståelse: – att utgöra en länk mellan det strategiska ochdet operativa2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The middle manager acts as a link between the strategic management and the operational activities. The middle manager get commissioned to convey the objectives and intentions that the strategic management wish to fulfill, down to the operational activities. Through communication and social interactions, the middle manager translates the financial objectives and strategies to concrete work procedures. Previous research state that the middle manager is wringing between the strategic directors and the operational executives, but from our point of view there is a lack of research that clarify how the middle managers works within this wringing role. Through our study we wished to get a closer look to in which way the middle managers copes with their communicative role as intermediary of objectives and strategy. The research’s intention is also to examine how the middle managers works with creating an understanding among the operational activities to reach the target set by the strategic management. The research has been conducted at SKF, a Swedish manufacturing and service company, whereof 13 interviews where performed. Using sensemaking theory to analyze the interviews. Identified is that the middle manager's position constitutes an important link within the organization, where communications is a foundation to create understanding. However, the results shows that the middle managers receive prerequisites and communication tools to work with strategy, objectives and alteration. With this in mind, we suggest that the practice active works with creating an understanding to grasp the objectives. SKF should perceive communication equally as important, no matter if it regards strategy, alteration and objectives. Which we consider would result in an ease on the middle manager and their communicative role. This thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 175.
    Falck, Ewelina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nordström, Klara
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Konsumentens möte med teknologi i butik: Den digitaliserade köpprocessen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Konsumenter födda i generation Y är mer digitalt kompetenta i jämförelse med tidigare generationer. De har växt upp i takt med teknologins utveckling och ser inga hinder med att använda den. Denna studie behandlar därför hur olika teknologiska lösningar kan användas i fysiska modebutiker för att undersöka hur detta påverkar konsumenternas köpprocess. Personlig service utgörs vanligtvis av att personalen tar kontakt med en konsument och riktar sin uppmärksamhet gentemot denne och försöker få personen i fråga att fullfölja köpprocessen. Med olika teknologiska lösningar tillåts konsumenter däremot att genomföra denna köpprocess mer självständigt och därför har denna studie även ett serviceperspektiv där vi undersöker hur den personliga servicen förändras av teknologins inverkan. Den teknologi som specifikt har undersökts har bestått av RFID- och NFC- tekniker via pekskärmar i provrum och betalstationer. Vidare har studien innefattat dels hur konsumenter upplever dessa typer av teknologier i en fysisk modebutik och dels hur konsumenter vill erhålla personlig service. Detta har gjorts genom en enkätundersökning via Internet och en kundundersökning med intervjuer i en labbmiljö. Vårt resultat visar att konsumenterna upplever teknologin som ett uppskattat och underlättande verktyg i köpprocessen då de föredrar att genomföra köp på ett effektivt sätt och på egen hand. Fortsättningsvis ser vi att konsumenterna efterfrågar en personlig service men däremot önskas överhuvudtaget ingen mänsklig kontakt med personalen i butik.Engelsk titel (kopiera från uppsats) *: Consumer´s meeting with technology in storesEngelska nyckelord *: Technology, RFID, NFC, Omni, In-store, Buying Process, Personalized ServiceSustainable development anges som nyckelord på engelska?: NEJEngelsk sammanfattning *: Consumers born in generation Y are more digitally literate than people born in previous generations. They have grown up in pace with the development of technology and sees no obstacles with using it. This study therefore addresses how technological solutions can be used in physical fashion stores to investigate how this affects the consumer´s buying process. Personalized service usually consists of that the staff will contact a consumer and direct her attention towards the costumer in attempt to complete their buying process. With different technological solutions the consumer is allowed to perform this process more independently and therefore this study also holds a service perspective, where we examine how the personalized service is affected by the technology´s impact. The technologies that have been studied specifically consisted of RFID and NFC technologies via touch screens in fitting rooms and pay stations. Furthermore, this study includes both how consumers experience these types of technologies in a physical fashion store and also how consumers want to receive personalized service. This has been done through a survey via the Internet and through a customer survey with interviews in a lab environment. Our results show that consumers perceive the technology as a valued and facilitative tool in the buying process since they prefer to make purchases in an efficient way and by their selves. Henceforth, we can see that consumers want a personalized service but no human contact at all is desired with the staff in the fashion store.

  • 176.
    Fellesson, Markus
    et al.
    Centrum för tjänsteforskning, Karlstads universitet.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bråkiga och besvärliga resenärer - kundorienteringens roll i kollektivtrafiken2015In: Bråkiga och besvärliga resenärer - kundorienteringens roll i kollektivtrafiken, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 177.
    Fellesson, Markus
    et al.
    Centrum för tjänsteforskning, Karlstads universitet.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Dealing with difficult customers: A tension between service orientation ideals and daily front line work2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Fellesson, Markus
    et al.
    Centrum för tjänsteforskning, Karlstads universitet.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Frontline employees’ expectations about customers: disturbance or co-creators of value?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following their recognition as value co-creating partners, customers have been ascribed an increasingly active role in service production. However, what is expected of customers in service situations is a surprisingly uninvestigated area. The purpose of the paper is to explore expectations about customers among frontline employees in retail. The paper draws on 35 in-depth interviews with frontline employees in three retail industries. The identified expectations reveal a service practice that is heavily structured by ideals of rational efficiency. These ideals make the customers’ value co-creating capacity conditional: just as the employees themselves, the customers have to conform to the logic of the service system if value is to be created. Arguably, co-creation needs to be discussed both on a strategic level, in terms of what the “customer”/the market wants, and on an operative level, to bring forward how frontline employees and customers together are trying to accomplish co-creation in practice.

  • 179.
    Fellesson, Markus
    et al.
    Centrum för tjänsteforskning, Karlstads universitet.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Good service work and bad customer behaviour2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The paper explores negative customer interactions in retail from a front line employee perspective. It particularly focuses on how such incidents are defined and perceived against a backdrop of service work. Methodology: The paper draws on 35 in-depth interviews with front line staff in three retail industries (groceries, consumer electronics and women’s fashion) where the respondents report on their experiences with customers who they perceive as troublesome in one way or another. Episodes of customer misbehaviour were identified and analysed using the critical incident technique and the NVivo software for qualitative data analysis. Findings: Several generic forms of customer misbehaviour were identified both within and across the industries, and are illustrated in the paper. While congruent with previous research on customer misbehaviour on an overall level, a closer analysis of what the respondents perceived as “deviant” reveals an interesting aspect of service work in modern retailing. Whereas customers’ interactional shortcomings (e.g. rudeness and unsociability) were partly seen as natural (albeit not fully accepted) aspects of service work, the tolerance for behaviour that infringed on operational efficiency were much more limited. Arguably, this indicates that efficiency is more profound to retail services than is generally acknowledged. Originality: Traditionally, service management has been firmly rooted in a win-win paradigm, where company interactions with customers are supposed to be constructive, harmonic and mutually value creating. However, this ideal is not always lived up to in service practice. While much has been said about interactional failures as perceived from the customers’ side, research taking an employee perspective is still spares. As the present paper show, such a perspective adds valuable knowledge not only about service work but also about the service itself.

  • 180.
    Fellesson, Markus
    et al.
    Centrum för tjänsteforskning, Karlstads universitet.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Service orientation and difficult customers: A front line dilemma2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 181.
    Fellesson, Markus
    et al.
    Centrum för tjänsteforskning, Karlstads universitet.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The expected retail customer: Value co-creator, co-producer or disturbance?2016In: Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, ISSN 0969-6989, E-ISSN 1873-1384, Vol. 30, p. 204-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to explore expectations among front-line employees regarding their customers and how these expectations can be understood in relation to strategies of customer participation and value co-creation. Two categories of expectations are identified; operative and interactive. In particular, the operative expectations reveal a service practice that is heavily structured by large-scale systems and ideals of rational efficiency. It is argued that co-creation needs to be discussed on both the strategic level, i.e. in terms of what the “customer”/market wants, and on the operative level, where the customer’s direct contribution to the value-creating process has its focus.

  • 182. Fellesson, Markus
    et al.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Åberg, Annika
    Preventing or promoting customer misbehavior through service design2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The phenomenon of customer misbehavior, i.e. deviant, threatening or even violent customers, is not unusual and it causes problems for the firm, its employees, and other customers. Hitherto much research has focused on the hospitality industry (e.g. restaurants, hotels and bars) where misbehavior often is explained by service failures or customers’ characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to provide an enriched understanding of antecedents of misbehavior, by considering how the incidents are related to the structural design of the service. An interview study inspired by the critical incident technique, conducted with frontline employees that work onboard busses and trains, resulted in a rich empirical material. The employees reported a number of different types of incidents, ranging from offensive and insulting comments and fare dodging, to threats and even physical violence. The result showed, as could be expected, that some incidents were related to service failures. However, on several occasions, customer misbehavior was triggered by both features of service work and the service design, rather than by service failures. In fact, even managerial interventions to prevent misbehavior sometimes had the opposite effect. For example, procedures intended to create a safe environment generated minor as well as considerable customer misbehavior incidents.

  • 183. Fellesson, Markus
    et al.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Åberg, Annika
    Troublesome Travelers: The Service System as a Trigger of Customer Misbehavior2013In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 256-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Customer misbehaviour, i.e. behaviour within the exchange setting that deliberately violates the generally accepted norms of conduct in such settings pose a problem for service organizations in several ways. Hitherto much research on customer misbehaviour has focused on psychological explanations and individual characteristics. This study broadens the perspective by taking structural factors of the service system into account. The purpose is to complement the existing literature on customer misbehaviour by investigating how the design and functioning of the service system influences the prevalence of customer misbehaviour. Design/methodology/approach – A critical incident technique was adopted to collect and analyse qualitative data from frontline employees who work on board buses, trains, trams and in metro in the Swedish public transport system. Findings – The study shows that many incidents are triggered by features of the service system. Specifically, three dimensions (service regulations, service resources, and service practice) of the service system are brought forward. The study suggests that customer misbehaviour is caused by an inherent paradox between pre-planned, standardised, mass service solutions and ambitions to adopt a customer orientation. Originality/value – By bringing forward the interactive role of the service system and its functionality the study complements previous research and contributes to a more complete understanding of customer misbehaviour, in particular within the context of system dependent services.

  • 184.
    Fors, Emma
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Tälth, Natalie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Normernas karaktär i K2 och K3: Är principbaserade normer förenliga medlegalitetsprincipen?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Principal-based standards give few guidelines of how the standards should be followed andthey give room for interpretations. The income tax act expresses that the income statementshould be calculated through accrual basis and the taxation time should be determined bygenerally accepted accounting principles. On the other hand, the tax law expresses a principleof legality in the governmental law that states that there has to exist a legal support for a crimeto be committed and no penalty can otherwise be addressed. When generally acceptedaccounting principles should determine the time of taxation it generates accountingdifferences. The term of generally accepted accounting principles is difficult to interpret andrequires additional standards to create its meaning.The problem that exists when principle-based standards affect a company’s taxation, clarifieswhen there is a material relationship between accounting and taxation. A material relationshipmeans that the accounting rules are applicable even for the taxable income. The material linkexists when the income tax act refers to generally accepted accounting principles, when thetaxation time should be determined. The Swedish Accounting Standards Board has thereforeestablished comprehensive framework’s that aims to guide companies when accountaccording to generally accepted accounting principles. The K-regulations shall apply forcompanies in different categories depending on their sizes. The study examines the two mostcommon frameworks, K2 and K3.The purpose of this study is to examine if principle-based standards are consistent with theprinciple of legality. To achieve the purpose of this study, a comparative content analysis ofthe The Swedish Accounting Standards Boards K-regulations, K2 and K3, is conducted. Wewish to evaluate to what extent the standards characteristics are rule- or principle-based and toevaluate the extent of the standards consistency with the principle of legality and thegovernmental law. In the beginning of this study we did not find enough relevant literature inthe field of study and we therefore want to contribute with knowledge. We also want toobserve the problems that the tax law contributes when it refers to the term of generallyaccepted accounting principles.We have clarified our analysis of the standards in K2 and K3 in a model. The modelincorporates two dimensions, partly to what extent the standards should be considered as ruleorprinciple-based and partly to what extent the standards should be considered consistentwith the principle of legality. To achieve the purpose of this study we examined standards thatoccur in both frameworks: fundamental principles, definition of assets, liabilities, incomesand costs, tangible fixed assets, intangible fixed assets, inventories, provisions and accruals. The conclusion of the study is that principle-based standards in a large extent should beconsider non consistent with the principle of legality due to that an analogy is permitted inaccounting. Principle-based standards create room for interpretation, which leads todifferences between similar companies both in accounting and in taxation. The standards inK3 should accordingly not be considered consistent with the principle of legality.This study is further on written in Swedish.

  • 185.
    Foss, Emma
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mikkelä, Johanna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Marknadsföring och reklam på Facebook: påtvingad marknadsföring vs tillståndsmarknadsföring2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the use of social networks increases so does the use of marketing and advertising on these networks. The largest social network today is Facebook, which has about 1.5 billion users. Companies have begun to understand the importance of using Facebook, but they must learn how they should use Facebook as a marketing channel and which form of marketing that is most suitable to use on the platform.The purpose of this study is to try to clarify how Facebook users are affected by the different forms of marketing, forced marketing and permission marketing, and how they react to advertising on Facebook and if there is a difference between men and women. The purpose has been answered by putting together two focus groups consisting of both men and women. The results from these groups shows that permission marketing is the most suitable method for companies to use, but it also shows that there is an understanding that both forms of marketing exists. Based on this study, we have found 3 important things that companies should keep in mind when they use Facebook for marketing. 1) Companies must consider which form of marketing they should use and why, 2) segmentation of users to reach out to the right audience, to make the effect of advertising as high as possible, and 3) to capture users’ attention, it is important that the advertisement contains interesting text with suitable images. It’s not possible to generalize the results of the study and therefore further studies on the phenomenon are needed to provide a more accurate picture. This essay is written in Swedish.

  • 186.
    Fransson, Nea
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kahlin, Hedvig
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Inte så cool längre coolaste apan i djungeln: Varumärkesbild och attityder2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the beginning of 2018, the fashion company H&M published a campaign with a dark-skinned boy wearing a sweater with the print “Coolest monkey in the jungle”. The picture was spread globally, H&M was criticised by the media and commentaries in both positive and negative terms was posted on the company’s own social channels. There after, H&M published three posts where they took responsibility for the incident and apologised to the public. Social media is characterised by an opened atmosphere where users and visitors freely can express their opinions, as well as it implicates a mined field for companies out of control for the information being spread. This study also discusses subjects as crisis management, unethical firm behaviour, consumers attitudes, and ethics from a consumer perspective. By conducting a content analysis of all commentaries directly related to H&M’s apology-posts, this study aims to map the clienteles perceptions of H&M as a brand after the incident and find signs of risks that might imply for the company. The results indicate a bisectional clientele where a considerate part expresses revolt and shows an establishment of negative attitudes towards H&M, where of an equivalent part expresses positive words of both the campaign and H&M as a company. The results can be explained by examining the clienteles ethical frame of reference and the theory of the buffering effect. The attitude changes identified within a substantial part of the clientele, in turn constitutes a risk for H&M by a weakened brand image, negative buying intentions and a viral spreading of information that could be unfavourable for the company.

  • 187.
    Fransson, Olivia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lindstrand, Josefine
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kautto, Josefin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Vill du ha en påse?: Hur en påse skapar ökad kundlojalitet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The textile market is more exposed to competition than ever. The companies need to communicate a comparative advantage in order to survive. There are several ways a company can compete and the intended purpose of this report is to examine which characteristics a bag should have in order to increase customer value and strengthen the customer loyalty.

    The report highlights the design of the bag, its attributes and elements making bags from certain companies of greater importance than others in reinforcing the customer loyalty. Four different bags from different companies have been used in our report. The selected companies were, Acne, Best of Brands, Kappahl & H&M. Interviews have been held with women in the ages20-30 years and are part of the result.

    The result of our report shows the great impact a bag has regarding consumer attitudes. The bag contributes to the customer’s overall impression of the brand and respondents consider themselves as a customer of greater importance when receiving an elegant bag. The bag is considered as a status symbol as well as a markting tool for the brand.

    The ABC-model of Solomon has been used to create an understanding of how different attributes of the bag affects the purchasing behaviour of the consumer. We created anillustration with the chosen attributes of the bag that were examined. Finally, we created ourown model with guidance of the ABC-model and the attributes of the bag. This were made to clarify what kind of attributes affecting the customer behaviour, which in turn drives thecustomer loyalty.

  • 188.
    Fransson, Sara
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ohlsson, Caroline
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kollaborativ konsumtion - framtidens affärsstrategi?: En studie om uthyrningsföretags möjligheter och hinder2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to investigate the relatively new phenomenon collaborative and access based consumption through an corporate business perspective to see how fashion companies works with it in their business models. Collaborative consumption include leasing and rental of products. Organizations that offers these type of services are enabled to reach new markets and competitive advantages but are also exposed to great risks since the strategy requires financial power and customer loyalty. These enablers and barriers must be taken into consideration when innovative business models are developed and implemented. Alternative ways of consumption and enablers to use the full potential of products lifecycles has been developed and partially implemented in the textile industry. Extended product lifecycles favors both the environment and companies that choose to rent them. These companies also have the opportunity to earn more revenue from each product.

    Semi structured interviews were conducted on three Swedish fashion companies that are active in the line of rental of clothing and accessories. Fashion companies in the same field has been forced to go bankrupt. The study there fore aims to investigate the respondent fashion companies’ business models through the theoretical framework Business Model Canvas to analyse their enablers and barriers. Results pinpoint change of characteristics in their business models when it comes to cost- or value driven strategies and discuss the ulterior causes. The final conclusions shows that it is ambitious individuals, innovative business models, user loyalty and good service that are the fore most factors that creates value in collaborative consumption. These factors are the ones in need of development for a continued life seen through a corporate business view or even growth and expansion.

    Note that this thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 189. Friberg, Stefan
    Att mäta framtid2014Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare har de upptrampade stigarna oftast varit lönsammast. Att följa med i utvecklingen kräver heller inte lika mycket energi och ansträngning. Förvaltningen har en fortsatt stor betydelse i de flesta företagen. Styrningen sker många gånger genom dokumenterade normer och rutiner. Styrtal hämtas till största delen från företagets bokföring, vilket är historia. Fokus är satt på att inte tappa fotfästet längs den upptrampade stigen och att försöka att få mer av samma kaka som man delar med många andra. Konkurrenter förefaller ofta mer intressanta att förhålla sig till, än företagets kunder.I det här klimatet blir förändringar ofta påtvingade och smärtsamma. Det dränerar i sin tur företag på mycket kraft och energi. Det ligger också i vår natur att kopiera. Vi eftersträvar att kunna sätta på autopiloten i syfte att spara vår energi. De företag som verkligen lyssnar och tydligt vänder sig till sina kunder och sina kunders behov, lever ett enklare och ofta mer lönsamt liv. Eventuella konkurrenter kan inte kopiera lika enkelt och tvingas istället köpa sig in i de fall man önskar att ta nya marknadsandelar. Att förhålla sig till kunder och kundinsikter är att mäta framtid. Att mäta framtid är att hushålla med resurser. Snabba och tydliga svar från kunder, ger direkt kraft att påverka framtida resultat och öppnar för möjligheter. Att leva med ständiga förbättringar. Små nyanser av korrigeringar i vardagen i förhållande till samtiden, är oftast bättre än oregelbundna och stora avbrott för omgrupperingar. Att jobba med kundundersökningar vilket de allra flesta företagen gör, är tyvärr många gånger långt ifrån att mäta framtid. I sina värsta former handlar det om ren stöld av kundernas tid. Det måste alltid finnas en tanke i hur kunden skall vinna på informationsutbytet och bli premierade av resultatet. Helt enkelt - att med hjälp av kunden utveckla bättre service. Kunder är attraherade av företag som sparar deras tid och pengar under sin livsresa. Bland medarbetare i företag är ofta bristen på förståelse för kundmål (utifrån och in perspektiv) extremt stor. Göteborgs-Posten genomförde för ett par år sedan en undersökning bland företag och deras medarbetare om hur de prioriterade kundernas behov. I den undersökningen kunde man konstatera att området som handlade om förbättringar där kundernas behov blir bättre tillgodosedda, hamnade på 46:e plats i undersökningen. Vad säger det om företagens fokus? Just nu pågår det en revolution när det gäller shoppingbeteenden. Förändringar sker snabbt och utvecklas till än mer komplexa strukturer. Våra ”ISO certifieringar” upplevs sällan som konkreta tillgångar för personalen om de vill förstå, hantera och uppnå kundförväntningar. Åtminstone avspeglas detta sig sällan i kundgränssnittet. Jag tror vi måste sluta utbilda oss till att försöka nå företagens kvalitetsmål och istället försöka hitta naturliga sätt att förhålla oss till våra kunder. Vi behöver övergå till att leva i ett tillstånd av ständiga förbättringar där det egna varumärket är den framtida autopiloten. Företagets DNA som leder medarbetare rätt i varje situationen med varje kund. Alla inom ett företag måste kunna se och förstå sin egen betydelse sett genom kundernas ögon. Bli en tillgång som spar kundens tid och ökar värdet av kundens pengar. Ett varumärke som tillgodoser funktionella, sociala och känslomässiga behov, genererar alltid lojala kunder. Framgångsrika företag vågar säga ja till sina kunder och bli en tydlig representant för emotionella kundbehov. Företaget sitter på historia. Kunderna sitter på framtiden. Stefan Friberg, TNS Sifo

  • 190. Friberg, Stefan
    Individuell shopping: en mänsklig rättighet?2014Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Individuell shopping - en mänsklig rättighet? Stefan Friberg gästbloggar Jag har i en tidigare blogg nämnt vår förmåga att kopiera varandra ”same-same but different”. Denna betraktelse som nu följer, är i samma fotspår. Jag vill ta upp kundens rätt till personlig service. Innebörden av personlig service kan oftast missuppfattas, som det verkar? När kundens mål beskrivs bland företag, styrs dessa ofta av allmänna uppfattningar om vad god service är. Ofta leder detta till diskussioner internt. Sedan tar företagens egna mål gärna över. Sälj mer! Många företag gör stora investeringar i kundundersökningar, varumärkesundersökningar och strategiplaner. Ändå verkar alla dessa nyanser ofta landa i ”allmänna” rutiner och tillämpningar i kundgränssnittet. Det är heller inte ovanligt att man internt tolkar det egna varumärket på olika sätt, mellan avdelningar och mellan uppgifter. I butiksgränssnittet handlar den ”personliga” servicen ofta om att ge kunden ”LÖN” (leende, ögonkontakt, nickning), följa med till ”hyllan”, erbjuda ”merförsäljning”,” tacka”, ”kvitto i handen ”och ett ”ord med i påsen”. När jag är ute och shoppar är detta också ett generellt beteende jag möts av, oavsett butik eller koncept. Ibland fungerar det bättre, ibland fungerar det sämre. Nästan aldrig fungerar det på mina egna villkor, d.v.s. att jag får löst mitt uppdrag utan friktion, tidsspill eller med en känsla av att jag är missförstådd. Det förekommer också syndikerade ”mysteryshopping” undersökningar i sammanhanget, där man utgår ifrån att alla företag är beroende av att ge samma service. Detta fenomen baseras på samma generella uppfattningar, vad som i allmänhet anses vara god service. Detta kräver att man samtidigt ignorerar kundernas aktuella emotiva behov, aktuella funktionella behov eller Sociala ID. Tre komponenter som tillsammans bildar personlig service och” levande” varumärken. Något som konkret ökar lojaliteten hos de egna kunderna. Jag testade för en tid sedan en säljare som kom fram och ”stoppade” mig i en butik. Syftet att avbryta mig var att säljaren ville sätta i gång sin rituella ”säljrepertoar” för ”personlig service”. Efter den inledande hälsningsfrasen, testa jag säljarens egen förståelse genom att fråga hur vi känner varandra? Säljaren svarade att det gör vi nog inte. Jag fortsatte att fråga säljaren hur det då kommer sig att säljaren stannar mig för att hälsa? Svaret jag fick var: Det har min chef bestämt. Vi skall hälsa på alla kunder. Vi har rutiner för hur vi skall uppträda i butiken mot kunder. Personligen upplevde jag inte säljaren hälsningen som direkt besvärande. Men den var heller inte utförd med timing eller en äkthet. Det fångar mig på ett naturligt och personligt sätt, som när jag möter någon bekant på gatan. Personliga relationer kan inte byggas på rutiner, det måste byggas på känsla och samsyn. Ett levande varumärke bygger på företagets kultur och relationsbyggande med sina kunder. En hälsning är en invit till konversation och bekantskap. Ett innehåll som speglar en känsla och form för gemenskap. Redan i en sådan enkel sak som en hälsning, krävs djupare kundförståelse och individuell timing. I annat fall är risken att insatsen leder till försämring. Operationen lyckades men patienten dog. Det borde vara alla kunders rätt att bli behandlade med omsorg, som individer. Tror att många som tycker som jag, så fundera över vad det kan ha för konsekvenser på hur butiker ska utveckla äkta kundvärde - och njut av helgens underbara väder. Stefan Friberg, TNS Sifo

  • 191. Friberg, Stefan
    Kultur besegrar alltid system2014Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kultur besegrar alltid system Stefan Friberg på TNS SIFO gästbloggar Det finns en risk för att den ständiga rapporteringen av växande e-handel leder till att aktörerna inom den fysiska handeln förlorar självförtroendet. Att de rent av får för sig att e-handeln kommer att tränga undan fysiska butiker och köpcentra under kommande år. Men det är med e-handelsspöket som med mycket annat inom handeln. Kunskapen om kundernas behov och beteenden är för dålig. Ett viktigt skäl till att vi gärna handlar i fysiska butiker är att vi har helt andra möjligheter än i e-handeln att prova och med våra sinnen uppleva de produkter vi är intresserade av att köpa. Exponeringarna i butikerna ger oss samtidigt inspiration, tips och idéer. Ett annat mervärde är servicen. I fysiska butiker finns personal som, om den gör sitt jobb, hjälper till att tillgodose våra behov. Detta genom att ta reda på vilka behov vi har, ge konkreta förslag, förklara fördelarna med olika produkter – och kanske ge ytterligare förslag på produkter som vi själva inte tänkt på att vi skulle ha glädje av. Ytterligare en konkurrensfördel är tillgängligheten. I en fysisk butik får vi direkt tillgång till de varor vi köper. Vi slipper vänta på hemleveransen, som kanske tvingar oss att hålla oss hemma några timmar en bestämd dag, eller avin från postombudet, som vi sedan själva måste ta oss till för att hämta hem varorna. Handeln bör istället oroa sig mer för sin egen kundsamverkan och fortsätta att utveckla det som gör att kunderna värdesätter relationen högre än alternativen. Därför väljer de allra flesta kunderna även fortsättningsvis att handla i fysiska butiker i stället för i e-handeln, trots att e-handeln erbjuder lägre priser, bredare sortiment och bekvämligheten att handla på distans. I många fall är jag också övertygad om att rätt samverkan mellan digital och fysisk handel snarare kommer att öka konverteringen i fysiska butiker, inte tvärt om. Elektronikbranschen har exempelvis stora möjligheter till detta. Ny teknik i dag erbjuder exempelvis chipmärkning via RFID. Rätt använd skulle tekniken exempelvis omöjliggöra stölder. Den skulle kunna bära med sig information om ägare, garantier, försäkringar etc. Med ett RFID chip i mobilen, skulle du samtidigt kunna sköta betalningen helt på egen hand i samband med att du lämnar området där försäljningen sker. Via chippet kan du även söka upp tillämpningar, tillbehör, uppdateringar etc. Dessa kan skickas hem till dig eller tankas ner online. Bättre för kunden. Enklare för kunden. Snabbare för kunden. Direkt anpassning med kund. Nätet är viktigare som marknadsföringskanal än som handelskanal. I dag förbereder vi allt mer av våra köp, framför allt av sällanköpsvaror, genom att koppla upp oss på nätet och skaffa oss information om produkter, priser, öppettider och annat. De produkter, tjänster och koncept som inte finns på nätet, kommer allt mer sällan att finnas med i konsumenternas beslutsprocesser. Självförtroendet och förmågan att investera i rätt utveckling går genom samverkan med företegets kunder och egna insikter i relation till konsumtion, samverkan och framtid. En stark relation bygger i första hand på känslor. Något unikt som attraherar kunden och som gör det svårare för kunden att byta relation, även där det finns likheter med andra. Emotionella drivkrafter har den avgjort största inverkan på konverteringen inom handeln. Kultur besegrar alltid system// Stefan Friberg TNS Sifo

  • 192. Friberg, Stefan
    Kunder är också människor2014Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kunder är också människor Stefan Friberg på TNS SIFO gästbloggar I tisdags besökte jag Scandinavian Retail Forum som arrangeras av Dagens Handel och PostNord på Svenska Mässan i Göteborg. Ett gediget program med flotta föredragshållare och flotta besökare. En viktig arbetsdag för oss som var där får man utgå ifrån. Digitaliseringen av handeln löpte som en röd tråd genom föredrag och mingel. Det digitala hotet mot fysiska butiker verkar nu ha övergått till att ses som möjligheter via omichannel erbjudanden. Ny teknik och mer traditionell handel har börjat flyta in i varandra. Intressant att notera var också baksidan av medaljen. Att kombinera fysisk butiksdrift och e-handelsdrift i princip kräver dubbla organisationer. Det driver upp kostnaderna och kräver motsvarande ökningar i ökad försäljning. I en paneldebatt under dagen debatterades också kundmötet och konsumtion i förhållande till fysisk butik och e-handelsbutik. Besökarna upplystes bl.a om att kunder och konsumenter faktiskt är människor. Att vi som människor har ett flockbeteende och söker tillhörighet, mening eller identitet. Någon anser samtidigt att vi borde fokusera på människans beteenden istället för relationer till kunder och kundundersökningar. Ytterligare någon ansåg att ett trevligt personligt bemötande alltid kommer att vara viktigast, oavsett. Sammantaget utgör detta branschens aktuella tillskott vad det gäller kundmötet, för fortsatta satsningar och utveckling under 2015. Men hallå?! Den viktigaste frågan lämnades fortsatt obesvarad trots denna dags ansträngningar. Uppgiften!? Vilka uppgifter (eller problem) går vi människor och bär på och på vilket sätt skall företag utvecklas för att på bästa sätt bidra till att lösa dessa uppgifter? Företag rustar för att ta hand om så många sorters kunduppgifter som möjligt. Detta utan att verka ta reda på var uppgifterna uppstår, hur de uppstår, vilka emotionella drivkrafter som styr kundernas beslut och hur uppgifterna bäst kan konverteras till lösningar i den egna butiken. Varje butik kan ha som utgångpunkt att varje besökare som ”surfar” in, bär på en uppgift och att aneldningen till besöket bygger på en förväntan hos kunden om att träffa en lösning. Annars hade kunden lagt sin tid någon annanstans. Är man klar över det resonemanget kan man börja fundera på verkningsgraden av marknadsföringen i förhållande till konverteringen. Är exempelvis 4 % konvertering (verkningsgrad) i en e-handelslösning okey eller 40 % konvertering i en fysisk butik? Hur skulle det resoneras om motsvarande effektivitet hade gällt företagets uppgifter i förhållande till de egna medarbetarna? Här ligger det stora dolda reserver för många företag att ta tag i. Att effektivisera för kunden och bygga starkare relationer. Samverkan och samsyn med unika kunder som söker mening, identitet och tillhörighet med ditt företag. Kunder precis som medarbetare och ägare, skall naturligtvis ses som människor. Men vad som är än viktigare är att veta vad ordet kund verkligen betyder: det betyder "bekant". Så snart alla i ett företag är "bekanta" med kundens uppgift, kommer verkningsgraden, trivseln och lönsamheten att öka i alla led! Stefan Friberg/TNS SIFO

  • 193. Friberg, Stefan
    Multikanaler och destinationer2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Multikanaler och destinationer Stefan Friberg bloggar Multikanaler är hett att debattera just nu. Handeln är under förändring. Hoten hopar sig. Det börjar också pratas om butiker och handelsplatser som destinationer. Men vad bör man egentligen oroa sig över? Affärsvärlden och idrotten har många saker gemensamt. Det är därför ofta tacksamt att dra paralleller till idrotten. Inom exempelvis fotboll, pratar man ofta om spelidé och spelsystem. Spelidén är själva ”varumärket” för hur laget skall se ut och uppträda i spelet. Spelsystemet är organisationen som skall bära upp själva spelidén. Detta brukar man ibland bara kalla en” lek med siffror”. Så snart bollen är i rullning, krävs det ändå en anpassning från spelarna för att spelidén skall fungera. Jag själv fuskar lite som tränare på fritiden. När jag står på fotbollsplanen och leder ett lag, brukar jag dra parallellen vidare till musikens värld. Spelidén är melodin orkestern skall spela. Det spelar ingen roll hur bra instrumenten är eller hur bra musiker man har i en orkester, om inte alla spelar på samma melodi samstämmigt och gör det med stämda instrument. Alltså att alla kan spelidén och tar eget ansvar för sitt instrument och samspelet med omgivningen. Melodin kan liknas vid destinationen och instrumenten är kanaler som leder fram till målet. Jag har nyss landat på kontoret igen efter en fantastisk sommar och semester. Vid ett tillfälle lämnade jag den svenska idyllen för en liten weekend till vårt grannland Danmark. Att resa eller befinna sig på resa sätter perspektiv på multikanaler och destinationer. Både konkret och påtagligt. Så snart resebeslutet är fattat börjar sökandet av att ta del av lösningar. Ett välkänt reseföretag marknadsför rätt landskap av lösningar, för vår tänkta destination och våra upplevelse mål. Företag erbjuder olika alternativ (multikanaler) till kontakt och handel, i syfte att marknadsföra erbjudanden och genomföra köp. Företaget gör så här långt ett klockrent marknadsföringsarbete för vår del och vi finner det helt naturligt att kontakta företaget för affär. Efter en stunds surfande på företagets hemsida, ringer vi ändå upp företagets bokningstjänst och säljare för att ta del av företagets expertis och personliga service. I det här läget vill vi alltså dela vårt engagemang med företaget personal och addera deras erfarenheter och kunskaper vår resa. Tyvärr visar det sig att det saknas engagemang i andra änden av telefonen hos företaget säljare. Vi möts snarare av ett ostämt ”instrument”. Personen i fråga följer ”noter” som det verkar finnas allvarliga ”buggfel” i. Personen i fråga förstår inte sammanhang, möjligheter eller förutsättningar. Det gäller både för det egna företagets del och för vår/ kundens del. Det är tydligt att det saknas en ”spelidé” och melodin låter som ett barn som bankar på ett piano. Inte alls som den ”symfoni” som framställs på företagets hemsida. Om vi i denna stund hade varit mindre beslutsamma i att nå vår tänkta destination, hade resan ”gått på grund” innan vi ens hunnit ”lämna hamnen”. Med hjälp av egen tidigare erfarenhet tar vi oss trots detta bakslag, vidare i köpprocessen. Efter lite mer ”googlande” vänder vi oss istället till en partner till det aktuella reseföretag, vi nyss försökt göra en bokning hos. Denna gång via en mobilanpassad bokningssida. På detta bokningsföretag hemsida visade sig lösningen finnas och köpet genomfördes online. Resan, boende och tänkta aktiviteter bokas till ett acceptabelt pris och för oss fungerande villkor, men i avsaknad av en erfaren säljares omsorg och handledning. Mellan oss och slutmålet ligger nu en rad erbjudande och aktiviteter uppdukade, färdiga att ta del av och upplevas. Allt från resa, mat, shopping och underhållning. Till boende och bekvämligheter. Många pusselbitar som skall falla på plats och där vår förväntan nu baseras på egen uppfattning från hemsidor och bokningssystem.Största delen av leveransen ligger under samma reseföretags (företaget vi först tog kontakt med) omsorg. Både som destination, upplevelse och handelsplats. Men även fortsättningsvis visar det sig att alla ”kanaler” inte leder till samma mål. Både vi och andra kunder upplever sig då och då, strandsatta under resan. Den ”spelidé” och det landskap som företaget marknadsför och lever av, upplevs annorlunda eller otillräckligt i kundgränssnittet. Det behöver nödvändigtvis inte betyda att det saknas kompetens eller instrument bland personalen. Men de spelar helt enkelt efter fel noter eller har dåligt stämda instrument. Ullared är bevisligen en fungerande handelsplats och destination. Då syftar jag egentligen inte på ortsnamnet utan på företaget Gekås i Ullared AB. Framgångsrika destinationer har aldrig haft bekymmer att öppna nya vägar mellan sig och kundernas resor, tvärt om. De ser möjligheter i allt som kan leda mot målet och som löser kundernas uppgifter på ett ändamålet sätt. Allt flyter samman på ett naturligt sätt. Tydliga destinationer har heller inga problem med att inse vilka kanaler som inte är aktuella att öppna, för att de förstör företaget och förvirrar bort kunden. För att inse detta krävs det insikter och stor tydlighet. Det ger i sin tur nödvändigt mod och egen förståelse, att samverka med kunden på rätt sätt. Det vill säga att lösa unika kundresor och kundernas uppgifter på ett sätt som fångar köpet hos just Gekås. Själv kallar jag det för omsorgsförsäljning.

  • 194.
    Frykmer, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Thai, Jessica
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Internprissättning: En komparativ studie om Sverige, Kina och Singapore utifrån medlemskap respektive icke-medlemskap i OECD2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Transfer pricing is considered one of the most critical issues regarding national and international taxation. The growing globalization has resulted in the creation of a multiplicity of new multinational corporations, which in turn has led to an increase in financial transactions between companies with business in different countries. To maximize global profit, multinational corporations move profit from high tax countries to low tax countries by using other countries tax systems. As a consequence, focus on this issue has increased from tax departments all over the world, with the intent to protect their nations’ tax base. Regulation with the purpose of minimizing international tax avoidance have become increasingly important and thus a need for a globally accepted standard considering transfer pricing, has ascended. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has developed a number of guidelines regarding transfer pricing. The purpose of the study is to present differences and similarities in the implementation of OECDs guidelines regarding transfer pricing between Sweden, a member in OECD, as well as China and Singapore who are not members in the OECD. Further the study aims to verify or falsify the hypothesis: that differences in the implementation and design of transfer pricing in the respective countries’ national regulation and guidelines can be explained by cultural dimensions within the countries. Hence a comparative study was executed between Sweden, China and Singapore’s legal texts and guidelines, along with the OECD guidelines. The study contains an examination of transfer pricing in the OECD Transfer Pricing Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises and Tax Administration 2017 of Chapter I. Arm's Length Principle, Chapter II. Price Methods and Chapter IV. Documentation. The study concludes that both member states as well as non-member states follow the OECD guidelines for transfer pricing but that variations between the nations exist. We find similarities in the nations’ regulation and guidelines regarding purpose and content within the examined areas. The study also identifies differences in the transfer pricing regulation between the nations, largely regarding the extent to which the nations has adapted the legal texts and guidelines to the OECD guidelines. Our conclusion is that visible harmonization exist, but in a varying extent, even outside the OECD as an institution, and that membership in the organisation is not a necessity for similarities in transfer pricing guidelines to occur. The study also indicates that the structure of transfer pricing regulation is influenced by cultural dimensions to a larger extent than institutional influences, hence our hypothesis verify that differences in transfer pricing in the respective countries’ national regulation and guidelines can be explained by cultural dimensions within the countries, is supported. The contribution of the study is increased understanding of the examined nations’ regulation and guidelines regarding transfer pricing and their similarities with OECD guidelines for transfer pricing. Further the study contribute to knowledge of how the cultural dimensions within the nations, in combination with OECD, influence the implementation and structuring of regulation and guidelines regarding transfer pricing in both member states and non-member states of the OECD.

  • 195.
    Fu, Tommy
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nilsson, Dennis
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Holmqvist, Johan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Introducera modern teknologi i utbildningen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a constant development of new technologies happening in the world. A handful of these are deemed to have the potential of truly revolutionizing the way we do things. The field of education is one of the oldest fields that continue to be present even today and has time and time again come to make use of new technologies that streamlines and improves upon its core concept.The research we put forward covers the case of virtual reality as an improvement into the field of education. We research how students at the University of Borås perceive the introduction of this novel technology as an aid in their studies. We utilize questionnaires in order to receive this information and received a total of 143 respondents’ answers. We conclude that the general attitude of the students is positive, while maintaining skepticism in terms of this result as a piece of document for proving the results as facts.

  • 196.
    Fägerhag, Sara
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kronqvist, Johanna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rödholm, Malin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    SVENSKA MODEFÖRETAGS RESONEMANG GÄLLANDE FÖRSÄLJNINGSKANALER I ETT MULTIKANALSAMHÄLLE2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många företag på Sveriges modemarknad idag erbjuder en variation av försäljningskanaler. Detta har inneburit att kunder blivit bortskämda med att kunna shoppa var, när och hur de vill, vilket i sin tur lett till att förväntningar på företag blivit högre. Företag söker därför nya sätt att nå ut till och tillfredsställa sina kunder på i den hårdnande konkurrensen företag emellan. Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka svenska modeföretags resonemang gällande användningen av försäljningskanaler. Vidare är syftet att titta på hur företagen ser på utvecklingen och kombinationsmöjligheterna av kanalerna. De försäljningskanaler som studien kommer beröra är fysiska butiker, showrooms, pop-up stores, webbutiker och mobilapplikationer. Studien har genomförts med hjälp av en kvalitativ metod i form av semi-strukturerade intervjuer. Intervjuerna genomfördes med respondenter från fem utvalda svenska modeföretag. Företagen som kontaktades för studien var små till medelstora företag som alla verkar på den svenska modemarknaden. I uppsatsen är alla företag och respondenter anonyma. Den insamlade empirin och slutsatser i studien visar att alla de medverkande företagen arbetar medvetet med sina försäljningskanaler vid implementering och användning av dessa. Likheter mellan företagen har hittats när det gäller vilka motiv som driver företagens arbete med kanalerna. Dessa motiv innefattar bland annat varumärkeskännedom, relationsbyggande och arbete med konsumenternas köpupplevelse. Dock hittades även skillnader gällande vilka försäljningskanaler och vilken kombination av dessa som företagen använde för att uppnå sin helhetsvision. Oavsett om företagen använde sig av en eller flera försäljningskanaler såg de att flera kanaler kunde komplettera och dra nytta av varandra.

  • 197.
    Fält, Emma
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Yang Oii, Huan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Indigobarn: En studie av jeansnördarnas köpprocess2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Samtidigt som jeansen har gått ifrån att vara ett arbetarplagg till en basvara i de flesta människors garderober har det även utvecklats en subkultur kring denim. Denna subkultur består av personer som ser jeans som något mer än bara ett plagg, för vilka jeansen blivit som en livsstil. Dessa konsumenter skiljer sig avsevärt ifrån den stora massan i den aspekten att de besitter en stor kunskap om jeanshistoria och konstruktion, samt konsumerar en annan typ av jeans, med fokus på kvalitet och material snarare än en trendig look. Denna studie utgår ifrån Kotler, Armstrong, Harris och Piercys (2013) modell av köpprocessen bestående av fem steg; behovsidentifiering, informationssökning, utvärdering av alternativ, köpbeslut och utvärdering efter köp. Semistrukturerade intervjuer används för att samla in data, som sedan analyseras och diskuteras utifrån teoribasen. Studien har visat att jeansnördarna allt som oftast planerar sina köp i god tid innan och lägger stor vikt vid informationssökningsfasen. De ställer höga krav på kvalitet och materialval, och passformen blir närmast sekundär i deras ögon. Teorier om dynamiken inom subkulturer används för att förstå hur subkulturen påverkar individen under köpprocessen. Studien har påträffat starka värderingar som formas och delas av subkulturen, och på så vis påverkar medlemmarnas köpprocess. Dessa värderingar handlar om ett fokus på hög kvalitet och rätt. Dessa värderingar utgör grunden för de krav medlemmarna ställer på sina produkter och påverkar dem därigenom i deras utvärdering av produktalternativ och inköpta produkter. Det har även påträffats en bild av vad som anses vara autentiskt inom subkulturen, vilket är viktigt för att stärka medlemmarnas band till densamma. Denna autenticitet bygger även den på kvalitet och rätt varumärken. Strävan efter autenticitet påverkar individen i såväl behovsidentifiering, genom viljan att uppnå status inom gruppen, samt attitydsbildande gentemot produktalternativ, då produkter som ej anses autentiska ratas. Bland jeansnördarna finns ett stort behov av att uppnå sitt bästa jag, samt nå social status inom subkulturen. De lägger stor vikt vid att köpa rätt produkter, och ägnar därför mycket tid åt informationssökning och utvärdering av sina alternativ. Själva köpet genomförs allt som oftast i speciella jeansbutiker med rätt utbud, efter utförlig planering och logiskt resonerande beslutsfattande. Gruppen visar även på en hög nöjdhet vid de flesta köp och relativt stor varumärkeslojalitet, baserad på såväl tidigare positiva upplevelser samt att gruppen godkänner eller ratar somliga varumärken. De subkulturella influenserna påverkar jeansnördens köpprocess främst under behovsidentifieringen och utvärderingen av alternativa produkter.

  • 198.
    Gabre, Jennifer
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Johansson, Fanny
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    “Varför följer du influencers?”: En kvalitativ studie om generation X och Ys inställning till influencers på Instagram.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet and social media are today taking a large part of many people’s lives. This way of communicating with others is, from a historical point of view, new which has brought differences in the number of social media users in each generation. However, today considerably more people are using social media compared to a few years ago and companies have due to this started to use this platform in there marketing. Due to the fact that celebrities and other public people make business collaborations influencer marketing has had a great success. Since generation X can be considered as digital immigrants and generation Y on the other hand is born and raised with the social media, there are reasons to believe in differences regarding the generations’ attitudes towards the phenomenon influencers. The purpose of the study is to investigate the differences in generation X and Y’s approach to influencers. The data which has been collected is from semi structured personal interviews with five individuals from each generation. Through analyzing the data with the help of text templates, some patterns were identified. The two largest differences shown in the study are the overall attitudes towards influencers and the fundamental motive to why people follow influencers. Generally generation X is much more skeptical towards the concept and values a personal connection to the influencer they are following. Instead generation Y has a positive attitude towards the concept with the largest motive to be inspired by the influencer. The discussion of the reasons behind the results is based on some characteristic capacities for each generation. Such as generation X’s negative approach to commercials in general and that generation Y turns commercial into something that benefits themselves. The study does not take in to consideration the fact that the numbers of social media users in the generations differ, instead this study is focused on the people having Instagram today and are following at least one influencer.

  • 199.
    Goodman, Andrew
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Evaluating sustainable supply chain management: Using the Triple Top Line to evaluate sustainability in the textile industry.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore how CSR reporting of supply chain management indicators and metrics in the textile and apparel industry relate to the Triple Top Line framework.

    Design/methodology/approach: This thesis is conducted by doing a content analysis of sustainable supply chain management performance metrics and indicators in a first step which is then matched within the conceptual framework of the Triple Top Line. Finally, a content analysis of branded marketers’ and retailers’ corporate social responsibility reports is conducted using the conceptual framework as a guideline.

    Findings: The results showed that certain segments of the conceptual framework were under represented in the terms of sustainable supply chain management performance indicators and metrics, and that the reporting of the metrics and indicators is still lacking as a whole within the textile and apparel industry.

    Research limitations/implications: The limitations of the thesis are that the analysis of the CSR reports was conducted through a manifest content analysis and could be improved by using a latent approach and whilst the CSR reports of branded manufacturers and retailers were analysed, the researcher could have included the analysis of fabric and fibre producers to have an even more complete vision of the industry.

    Originality/value: The value of this thesis is that it offers academics and practitioners a new conceptual framework to evaluate their CSR reporting and measuring of sustainable supply chain management indicators and performance metrics.

  • 200.
    Granstedt, Susanne
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Holmström, Ellen
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Källström, Vendela
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Varför volontärarbeta?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a society where the event industry is growing, it is of importance to understand what motivates individuals to work voluntarily. Many events would not be possible to accomplish without the work of volunteers. The purpose of this study is to gain knowledge of how the instrumental (external) and intrinsic (internal) motivational factors influence individuals to work voluntarily. The study was conducted with a qualitative method and data was collected through seven semi- structured interviews. The study's respondents consisted of individuals who previously have worked as volunteers. Furthermore, all of them will volunteer at EuroPride 2018. The result demonstrated different experiences regarding the instrumental motivation factors and more unanimous answers regarding the intrinsic factors. However, belonging to a community was a recurring theme highlighted by all respondents. It was clear in the study how the intrinsic motivation factors were well-rooted within the respondents, while the instrumental motivational factors were more viewed as a bonus that embellished life. This study will be presented in Swedish.

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