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  • 101.
    Axelsson, Filippa
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Johansson, Sofia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fluorfria återimpregneringar: en studie om konsumentprodukter för återimpregnering av textil2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The textile industry uses durable water repellents (DWR) to achieve water repellency on textiles. One of these DWR chemistries, fluorocarbons, is an environmental issue and has therefore been phased-out in the industry. This has resulted in a market where both modified fluorocarbons and fluorine-free alternatives are available and there is a lack of information about these DWR regarding health and environmental aspects. Due to the changeover from the fluorinated DWR to the non-fluorinated options, the question was raised about how durable these really are. This resulted in a wide range of do-it-yourself consumer products for the water repellency revival. These consumer products have been referred to as reimpregnations in this study. The purpose of reimpregnations is to give clothing a longer life cycle. The customer remains satisfied with the garment and this in turn reduces the textile waste. The industry wants to know more about these unexplored consumer products, including how the textile material is affected by them. A customer perspective has been the basis for selecting relevant parameters in this study, which has been creatively translated into laboratory test methods. Parameters in this study have been water repellency, color change, air permeability and fabric hand. These have been used for analysis and comparison of eight fluorine-free reimpregnations. The techniques used were wash-in and spray-on and have been investigated on four different textiles representing outdoor clothing and workwear, two made of polyester and two of polyamide. All the reimpregnations showed an increased effect in water repellency. The result varied depending on which textile material and what kind of reimpregnation that was used. The other test methods also showed variation according to these factors. Over all the wash-in and spray-on techniques showed a statistical significance. Products from the same brand applied with wash-in and spray-on techniques also showed different results. The selected laboratory test methods proved to be useful tools for evaluation of reimpregnations in textile applications. Based on the literature combined with the results from this study the conclusion has been made that reimpregnation, of textile materials, has a significant difference between DWR chemistries as well as the construction and fibre type of the textile. The safest fluorine-free option, from an environmental point of view, is believed to be wax, which is classified as a hydrocarbon chemistry, however there is much left to explore before such a conclusion can be made with certainty. This study has been an initial step towards the investigation of reimpregnations, which hopefully in the future can lead to reduced textile waste with as little environmental impact as possible.

  • 102.
    Axelsson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Svernlöv, Emma
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    CSR i modeindustrins mellanhandsföretag: en studie om integration och värdeskapande2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this qualitative study the buying activity for three smaller intermediaries in the Swedish fashion industry have been identified to compare similarities and differences. Further on we studied how CSR is integrated in the activity and which type of value these efforts create for the intermediary. The study was conducted through semi-structured interviews with CSR- and buying managers as well as a CSR- consultant who assists intermediaries in issues and strategies regarding CSR, to deepen our knowledge and gain further perspective of the area. The gathered empirical evidence has later been analyzed in connection with existing theories concerning CSR integration and value creation in order to reach a conclusion that also answers our research questions.

    The study has shown tendencies that CSR can be successfully integrated in an intermediary by letting it become a part of the company’s core activities and thereby permeate the entire organization. If the intermediary is successful with this part, value can be created in terms of brand strengthening and a good reputation as well as functioning as insurance for the future. We hope that this study can convey the importance of CSR for an intermediary and how it best can be integrated in the company’s buying activity.The following essay is written in Swedish.

  • 103.
    Axengren, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Petersson, Sandra
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Att lyckas med strategisk planering och strategisk kontroll – En fallstudie på två svenska företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A competitive strategy is essential for a corporate’s success in their industry. The challenge is not only to design the strategy; it is to spread it throughout the organization. An integrated measurement system refers to support and control the activities and goals that leads to strategic success. Thus, earlier studies have shown that integrated measurement systems have contributed to improve large enterprises’ performances when applied in their businesses. However, this study refers to the gap of research on the use of integrated measurement systems and its impact on small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). This study focusses on two Swedish SMEs and research what characterize their qualities that contributes to strategic success. The study will also focus on how the SMEs apply strategic planning and strategic control in their business’s.The study was based on previous studies in the context of strategy. The interviews were conducted on two Swedish SMEs, and the respondents were people that are a part of each company’s management team that possess both knowledge and insight to the company’s strategic work.Our findings suggest that factors contributing to strategic success in SME’s are: the communication approach, the attitude of the employees and the organizational structure. The strategic planning in SME wasn’t based on a specific model to support the strategic planning. However, they use a similar methodical approach to implement the activities in the strategic planning process. Finally, the study also shows that SMEs use integrated measurement in terms of financial and non-financial measurements, where the financial measurements had a greater impact on the SME business’s.

  • 104.
    Ayllon, David
    et al.
    Universidad de Alcalá.
    Gil-Pita, Roberto
    Universidad de Alcalá.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Detection and Classification of Measurement Errors in Bioimpedance Spectroscopy2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6, article id e0156522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurement errors may be caused by parasitic stray capacitance, impedance mismatch, cross-talking or their very likely combination. An accurate detection and identification is of extreme importance for further analysis because in some cases and for some applications, certain measurement artifacts can be corrected, minimized or even avoided. In this paper we present a robust method to detect the presence of measurement artifacts and identify what kind of measurement error is present in BIS measurements. The method is based on supervised machine learning and uses a novel set of generalist features for measurement characterization in different immittance planes. Experimental validation has been carried out using a database of complex spectra BIS measurements obtained from different BIS applications and containing six different types of errors, as well as error-free measurements. The method obtained a low classification error (0.33%) and has shown good generalization. Since both the features and the classification schema are relatively simple, the implementation of this pre-processing task in the current hardware of bioimpedance spectrometers is possible.

  • 105.
    Bach, Carina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ek, Kenny
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Köpprocessen: APPlicering vid nedladdning av spelappar på smartphones2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Apps are today a big market since most people own a smartphone and thus are potential app consumers. Even though just a third of all Swedes pay for mobile games, hundreds of millions Swedish Crowns are spent buying apps each year. Games is the most popular app category in the Swedish App Store and Google Play, causing developers who are not making games struggle to be seen. An established model in marketing is the buying decision process, describing the entire process from need identification to evaluation of bought product. The understanding of areas affecting the different stages is important in order to successfully design effective marketing strategies.Since mobile games tend to be free, the buying decision process while downloading gaming apps may differ from the traditional process, since e.g. impulse buying behavior may happen in greater extent. Because the app market is still young, the research is limited. The purpose of this study is to look into the structure of the buying decision process for downloading gaming apps. To extend the understandings, areas affecting the different stages of the buying decision process are examined.Because there is no prior research addressing the studied area, a qualitative approach was performed in order to identify behavior patterns. 12 persons in the ages of 16-25 who play games on their smartphones participated on semi structured interviews, explaining their process for downloading a new mobile game. A literature study of areas related to the buying decision process is the basis for the design of the interview guide.The results show that the need for a new mobile game arises in due to boredom or recommendations. Information about the game is collected from the game’s page at the app store, images and videos being of great importance. When interested in a free game one usually download without regards of any consequences, because you can easily uninstall the game if you did not like it. The opinion of the developer is not affected whether you like the game or not due to the fact one rarely observe the developer while searching for a new game. A positive judgment of the game may lead to the player recommending the game to friends. When dissatisfied one may advise against the game to people you know, but it is rare to speak ill of a game without being asked about it.The study shows that the buying decision process for downloading free mobile games consists of four stages instead of five, while the process for priced games remains the same. Regarding free games, the evaluation of alternatives is removed due to the process being nonexistent prior to a download. The information search stage is replaced with perception, since it better fits to describe the meaning of the stage. Areas affecting the different stages of the buying decision process such as attitude, memory and affect are summarized in a table. The study is in Swedish.

  • 106.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skelte, Gabrielle
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Piezoelektriska filament: från garn till textil applikation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Piezoelectric materials are frequently used in different sensors as they can generate a measurable electrical signal during applied pressure or when subjected to extension. This project examines how a piezoelectric yarn containing Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is affected when exposed to moisture, heat and long-term mechanical deformation. Focus has been directed towards investigating the properties of the piezoelectric yarn as well as how it can be applied in textile fabrics and textile applications. The piezoelectric yarn has been subjected to a series of tests. Most of the samples have undergone cyclic deformation in an extensometer during tests. The piezoelectric yarn has been examined by experiments in laboratory environment, practical tests in textile applications as well as by statistical analysis. It can be stated that factors such as moisture and temperature have influence on the piezoelectric effect of the yarn. Long-term tests reveal how the yarn displays a change in length while undergoing deformation, which contributes to the diminished signal strength of the yarn. The piezoelectric yarn can successfully be integrated in a piece of fabric by the means of sewing when using correct stitch- length, where higher stitch-length gives a higher signal output. The same method can be applied to construct a piezoelectric sensor used in a training sock. This project can conclude that parameters such as moisture, creep-behaviour and structural variation within the PVDF-filaments have a significant effect on the signal created by the piezoelectric yarn. The potential of the yarn as a sensor can be seen by successfully applying it to a textile structure as well as in a training sock that can monitor the fore and rear foot while running. It can be stated that much remains to be studied in this particular research area regarding piezoelectric filaments and yarns. Further research in the subject will lead to new innovative applications that can be of use in different parts of society, not to say the least in the area of medicine.

  • 107.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skelte, Gabrielle
    Rundqvist, Karin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Piezoelektriska strumpor för rörelsemonitorering - En känslighetsanalys2015In: Abstracts - Medicinteknikdagarna 2015, Svensk förening för medicinsk teknik och fysik , 2015, p. 60-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 108.
    Backe, Karin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Enhancing textile electrode performance: Regulating moisture management through textile structure2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The medical field has been a part of the smart textile area for quite some time. With time come technological advancement and the two fields converge on more and more areas. One such area is that of using textile electrodes, textrodes, for measuring bioelectrical activity, such as heart rate for ECG analysis. There are many components that make for a successful textile electrode and though many studies have been made in the subject there are several aspects that still are difficult. By using textile electrodes the problem with skin irritation from electrolyte gels, commonly used for conventional electrodes, is avoided, however dry textrodes create disturbances in the output signal (heart rate) while subjected to movement and internal dimensional changes. The addition of moisture to a textrode has shown to decrease these intermittent disturbances but the knowledge about fundamental textile structural influence in the matter has not been fully investigated. This study investigates a flat, a 2-thread fleece and an open structure, and their relation to moisture both as textile structures and as textrodes. This way the possibilities of utilising moisture to increase performance in a textrode purpose can be examined and to what extent the textile structure plays a part in that exploitation. The material composition of textile structures also affects their properties The introduction of assistive materials, polyester and viscose, into the Shieldex (conductive yarn) structures is done to test core moisture management properties such as surface tension, absorption and moisture content, and correlate them to electrical properties necessary for textrode function. In the end the gap between textile structure and end product in form of a textrode is closed as the impedance and microclimate of the textrodes are studied. This is mainly to tie together the fundamental textile structures with a complex textile construction. In conclusion the complexity is also confirmed as structural, materialistic and external influences has an impact on the results. The influence of moisture on lowered resistance and impedance in the structures is confirmed but the impact of textile structure can also be seen. The 2-thread fleece and open structures often has a more positive impact on results and therefore has the possibility of enhancing performance of a textrode for bioelectrical signal monitoring. With these results a more effective way of producing long-lasting, patient-friendly, textrodes can be derived and in the future lead to better care in the medical areas.

  • 109.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of thermoplastic biocomposites based on aligned hybrid yarns for fast composite manufacturing2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in natural fibres as reinforcement for composite materials has been steadily increasing due to their attractive mechanical properties and the possibility of making more eco-friendly materials. Currently, various alternatives are being introduced for commercial applications, as fibres such as hemp, jute and flax exhibit properties, which make them appropriate for structural composite components. Biocomposites offer reductions in weight and cost and have less reliance on foreign oil resources, making them attractive. Several investigations have revealed that the full utilisation of fibre mechanical properties in the final composites can be exploited, provided an aligned fibre orientation is chosen. In fact, a major challenge for natural fibre reinforced composites is to achieve high mechanical performance at competitive prices. The use of commingled/hybrid yarns is one of the more promising methods for manufacturing structural thermoplastic composites.

    Commingled yarns of thermoplastic and reinforcing fibres offer a potential for cost-effective production of composite parts, thanks to reduced applied pressures and impregnation times during processing. Besides economic advantages, there is also direct control over fibre placements and ease of handling of fibres in yarn process. The yarn technologies provide homogenous distribution of reinforcing fibre and matrix. Variation in natural fibre properties has been a major problem facing composite manufacturers, compared to carbon and glass fibres that have well-defined production processes. This issue can be addressed by regenerated cellulose fibres. These fibres can be reproduced easily with high surface evenness and even quality, making it possible to get consistent results, which is not possible with natural fibres. Combination of natural and regenerated cellulose fibre brings together the best of both materials. The end result is a product with superior properties, which could not be obtained by the individual components.

    This thesis describes the development of aligned hybrid yarns with low fibre twist, for high performance natural (hemp) and man-made (Lyocell) cellulose fibre-reinforced biocomposites, suitable for use in structural or semi-structural applications. The properties of composites in terms of fibre orientation, off-axis angle and alkali treatment were investigated, focusing on determining void%, water absorption, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties. The results show that combining hemp and Lyocell in PLA composite leads to the reduction of moisture absorption and can improve the mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the composites were highly affected by the fibre direction. The alkali treatment on hemp fibre improved the mechanical properties of the composites.

  • 110.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Characterisation of polylactic acid biocomposites made from prepregs composed of woven polylactic acid/hemp–Lyocell hybrid yarn fabrics2016In: Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, Vol. 81, p. 139-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the mechanical properties and water absorption characteristics for biocomposites made from woven PLA/hemp/Lyocell prepregs. The aim was to improve the properties with the addition of Lyocell fibre into a hybrid yarn. Well-aligned hybrid yarns composed of hemp/PLA, hemp-Lyocell/PLA, respective, Lyocell/PLA were made by wrap spinning. Unidirectional satin fabrics were made by weaving with PLA (warp) and the hybrid yarns (weft). Uniaxial composites were fabricated with 30 fibre mass% using compression moulding. The composites were investigated for tensile, flexural and impact properties. Combining hemp with Lyocell in a PLA matrix improves the mechanical properties, compared to hemp/PLA composites. The composite made from the satin Lyocell/PLA fabric gave the best mechanical properties. The type of fibre reinforcement compositions did not significantly affect the water absorption of the biocomposites. Scanning electron microscopy showed that fibre pull-outs appear more often in hemp/PLA composites than in composites also including Lyocell fibre. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 111.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Characterization of thermoplastic natural fibre composites made from woven hybrid yarn prepregs with different weave pattern2015In: Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 81, no February 2016, p. 139-144Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 112.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Investigation of pattern style of woven fabrics produced from hybrid wrap spun yarns on fabricated composite2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 113.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Temmink, Robin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    RECYCLING OF END-OF-LIFE TEXTILE MATERIALS BY FABRICATION OF GREEN COMPOSITES2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Material recycling requires rather pure and non-contaminated waste streams, which can be converted by technical processes into new materials and products by economically and technically feasible techniques. It is also required that there is a secondary market for these recycled materials, and preferably in use areas with high economic value. End-of-life textiles cannot yet be recycled as a raw material in a feasible way. Structural composites are an excellent use area for recycled materials, as they are durable and light-weight products, with excellent mechanical properties.

    In this study, denim woven fabrics as end-of-life textiles were employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of high bio-content epoxy resin. Entropy Resin, manufacturer of commercial bio-based epoxy resin, claimed that bio-based content of system is 37 % and the resin is derived from by-products of industrial processes including wood pulp and biofuel. Bioepoxy was used as bio resins in composite manufacturing, and a conventional polyester resin served as a reference material. To create a wide scope of possibilities the composites were manufacturing using the four techniques: (1) vacuum infusion (VI), (2) resin transfer moulding (RTM), and (3) hand lay-up (HND). To determine the suitability for structural applications the biocomposites were tested for their mechanical and thermal properties. Mechanical tests for tensile, flexural strength and impact behaviour were conducted on composites. Moreover, viscoelastic properties of the composites were evaluated through dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Fabricated composites were characterised regarding porosity, water absorption and analysed through microscopic images of the composite cross section. Different manufacturing technique showed varying results. For bioepoxy both HND and VI give superior mechanical properties over RTM, as the latter gives a higher void content, and lower tensile and flexural properties.

  • 114.
    Bagheri, Masood
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Medina, Rafael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Olsson, Axel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Analys av lagerlayout för effektiviserad inleverans- och plockningsprocess2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning Inleveransprocessen och plockprocessen på ett företags centrallager har kartlagts, då problem med långa ledtider och bristfällig information upplevdes. Syftet med rapporten var att visa på hur kartläggningar kan användas vid förbättringsarbete och felsökning i processer. När processen kartlades användes SCOR-modellen där processen delades upp i dess beståndsdelar. Problem som observerades på företaget inkluderade onödigt mycket manuellt arbete, bristande lagerlayout och osorterade varor. De föreslagna lösningarna inkluderar Auto- ID, en ny lagerlayout och orderplockningsmetoder. De viktigaste slutsatserna som kunde dras i studien var följande: - Auto-ID kan minimera den manuella inmatningen av data, vilket dels är tidsbesparande, men även minskar riskerna för att den inmatade datan är felaktig. Auto-ID kan även användas för att visa på saldon på olika lagerplatser, vilket kan effektivisera plocklistorna, och därmed operatörernas plockrutter. - - En effektivisering av lagerlayouten minskar färdavstånden, och framkomligheten ökar. Med en ökad framkomlighet underlättas användandet av redskap som gaffeltruckar. Slutligen utförs sökandet efter produkter utförs snabbare, vilket i sin tur även kortar ner ledtiderna, då sökandet står för 20% av arbetarnas totala ledtid. Ett införande av standardiserade orderplockningsmetoder minskar färdavstånden, då det kan bestämmas i vilken ordning varorna skall plockas. Rutterna kan planeras så att trafiken minskar så att två eller fler operatörer inte plockar varor i samma korridor samtidigt. Slutligen medför ett införande av orderplocksmetoder att operatörerna blir mer specialiserade på ett visst område i varuhuset, och därmed förbrukar mindre tid till att leta efter varor.

  • 115.
    Bahmani, Bina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ly, Amy
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Metoder för identifiering av grundorsaker till kvalitetsfel inomproduktionsindustrin2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about how you can find the cause of quality defects in manufacturing processes and how to prevent that the same issue continue to exist. A part of the thesis illuminate the importance of identifying the root cause of a problem. The purpose of the study is to highlight some of the many methods that can be used to fins the causes for defects concerning quality in the industrial sector. The data that is collected and are the basis for the result and conclusions of the case study consisted of literature studies, observations and interviews. The quality tools that are presented in the study are “Five Whys” and the Ishikawa chart, which are two tools that, among others, makes it possible to find the root cause of a problems occurrence. The practical applications of the quality tools are presented in a case study that was conducted at Johnson Controls AB in Gothenburg, Sweden. The case study was based on observations concerning one of several production lines, where the current quality problem was critical. The conclusions drawn from this thesis is that it is important to identify the root cause of the occurrence of a problem in order to implement long-term actions and measures. The risk that comes with only reliving the symptom of a problem (and not the root of it) is that it will not be eliminated but exists and constantly requires resources to be alleviated. By identifying the root cause of a problem, one can be assure that it will not occur again, since it will be eliminated. There are various methods and tools that can be used to identify the root cause of a problem; two of them that are mentioned in the report is “Five Whys” and the Ishikawa chart. It is important to focus and resources are spent on such a long-term actions and efforts.

  • 116.
    Bahtijaragic, Elma
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Carlsson, Keith
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kunskapsöverföring: Ett verktyg för att reducera kvalitetsbristkostnader i byggbranschen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete riktar sig till byggbranschen och handlar om hur kunskapsöverföring kan användas som verktyg för att reducera kvalitetsbristkostnader. Kvalitetsbristkostnader är en följd av fel och brister som förekommer i alla verksamheter och kan enligt tidigare forskning stå för så mycket som 30 % av ett företags totala omsättning (Sörqvist 2001). För att minska kvalitetsbristkostnader är det nödvändigt att identifiera fel och brister samt förhindra att samma fel upprepas. För att få en övergripande kunskap om byggprocessen och hur kunskapen tas till vara, har en fallstudie på Peab genomförts i form av intervjuer. Arbetets teoretiska underlag har erhållits utifrån litteraturstudier. Den slutsats som har dragits av detta examensarbete är för att uppnå ett effektivt förbättringsarbete gällande kvalitetsbristkostnader i byggbranschen och öka lönsamheten är det essentiellt att företagen har väl fungerande systematisk kunskapsöverföring. Att ledningen är drivande, engagerad och delaktig för att ytterligare stärka förutsättningarna i ett lyckat förbättringsarbete.

  • 117.
    Bajrami, Linda
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nilsson, Lina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Tinder – Dejting eller Hook-up?: Hur konsumtion av Tinder ger uttryck föridentitet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to increased knowledge of individuals selfperceptionsthrough the consumption of Tinder. To fulfill the purpose, young individualsexperiences and beliefs about Tinder have been analyzed. The thesis has an inductive and aqualitative approach.The empirical material was collected through semi-structured interviews,and in addition to this, netnographic interviews were conducted. From the empirical work, athematicization was created based on the statements of the informants and three main themeswere devised. The first main theme approached Tinder's different consumption areas,Consuming Tinder, which is important in the analysis, primarily through its explanation factorfor the two following themes; Tinder - dating or hook-up as well as Tinder and self. Theempirical material was analyzed based on social psychological theories of self andconsumption. The thesis contains a number of topics that emerged during the interviews,including the tension whether Tinder is a dating or a hook-up app. This theme was studied onthe basis of several subtitles to ultimately conclude that the consumption of Tinder is havingan impact on young people's self-perception. The study found a number of different waysyoung people consume Tinder and, depending on how Tinder is consumed, differentiate selfperceptionsto expression. Furthermore, the thesis conclude that young people construct aaltered presentation of themselves on Tinder, and there is an awareness that this presentationis not true to reality. Young adults alter their presentations in the hope of achieving morematches, and with this behavior, it appeared to follow an objectification where other userswere more viewed as an object than a person.The thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 118.
    Bakare, Fatimat O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Thermomechanical properties of bio-based composites made from a lactic acid thermoset resin and flax and flax/basalt fibre reinforcements2016In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 83, p. 176-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low viscosity thermoset bio-based resin was synthesised from lactic acid, allyl alcohol and pentaerythritol. The resin was impregnated into cellulosic fibre reinforcement from flax and basalt and then compression moulded at elevated temperature to produce thermoset composites. The mechanical properties of composites were characterised by flexural, tensile and Charpy impact testing whereas the thermal properties were analysed by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed a decrease in mechanical properties with increase in fibre load after 40 wt.% for the neat flax composite due to insufficient fibre wetting and an increase in mechanical properties with increase fibre load up to 60 wt.% for the flax/basalt composite. The results of the ageing test showed that the mechanical properties of the composites deteriorate with ageing; however, the flax/basalt composite had better mechanical properties after ageing than the flax composite before ageing.

  • 119.
    Bakare, Fatimat Oluwatoyin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of biocomposites from lactic acid thermoset resins and cellulose fibre reinforcements2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesis of polymers from renewable origin has been reported by many authors and it has been found out that it has enormous potential and can serve as alternative to conventional thermoplastics and thermosets in many applications. The use of these renewable resources will provide sustainable platforms to substitute fossil fuel-based materials. To date, efforts made to produce 100% bio-based thermosetting materials have yet to be achieved. Many studies have been reported on increasing the renewability ratio of thermoset materials produced.

    A lot of reports have been made on the synthesis of thermoplastic resins from lactic acid for biomedical applications such as tissue engineering but only few reports have been made on composite applications. The issue of high melt viscosity of thermoplastic resins from lactic acid has been of paramount problem because of its difficulty in impregnation into fibre reinforcement. Bio-based thermoset resins have been produced for composite applications from plant oils and improved mechanical properties have been achieved.

    In this thesis, an alternative route for synthesis of lactic acid based thermoset resins have been explored to solve the above problem. Thermoset resins were synthesized from lactic acid with different co-reactants and were characterized using NMR, FT-IR, DSC, DMA and TGA. Their rheological properties were also investigated. The resins were reinforced with natural and regenerated cellulose fibres in non-woven and woven form, and with different fibre alignment and fibre loading. The resulting composites were characterized by mechanical testing regarding tensile, flexural and impact strength, and by SEM analysis regarding morphology.

    The results showed that these composites could possibly be used in automobile, transport, construction and furniture applications, particularly for interior purposes. The resins produced were found to be promising materials for composite production due to the good mechanical properties achieved.

  • 120.
    Balchman, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fransén, Josefin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sociala förhållanden och uppförandekoder - Hur tar textila företag sitt ansvar?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle är Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) ett omtalat och aktuellt ämne. Det främjar hållbar utveckling och innefattar det ansvar som företag förväntas ta för sin samhällspåverkan ur socialt-, miljömässigt- och ekonomiskt perspektiv. I takt med att allmänhetens intresse för CSR växer, ökar pressen att företag ska implementera och aktivt arbeta med dessa frågor. Vidare efterfrågas en tydlig redovisning av arbetet för att företagsintressenter ska kunna ta del av informationen. Denna uppsats syftar till att belysa den sociala aspekten av CSR med fokus på textila företags uppförandekoder samt uppföljning och efterlevnad av dessa. Den empiriska undersökning som ligger till grund för uppsatsens resultat baseras på en kombination av litteraturstudie, kvalitativa intervjuer med nyckelpersoner på två svenska fallföretag i textilbranschen samt interna dokument från företagen så som års- och hållbarhetsredovisningar, uppförandekoder och pressmeddelanden. Litteraturstudien gav till följd en undersökningsmodell med åtta områden som enligt forskning har inverkan på företags utformande av CSR-arbete. Genom övrigt empiriskt material undersöktes hur de utvalda företagen såg på detta. Resultatet av denna studie mynnar ut i en modell som visar hur de olika områdena inom CSR påverkar företags uppföljningar av uppförandekod samt efterlevnad av dessa.

  • 121.
    Balesic, Armin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Chau, Ronny
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    IAS 39 vs. IFRS 9 – En komparativ studie ur ett intressentperspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IASB began the process of developing a new accounting standard after the global financial crisis. The current standard IAS 39 received criticism of being too complicated and lacking in its financial accounting of financial assets following the financial crisis. IASB’s process resulted in the completion of IFRS 9 which purpose is to replace the current standard IAS 39 concerning financial instruments. The implementation of IFRS 9 may affect a company’s financial assets differently concerning classification, reclassification, recognition, measurement and impairment. Financial assets can be measured at either fair value or amortized cost. The problem regarding these methods is the subjectivity of valuation of the financial assets.This paper applies a comparative analysis with the purpose of predicting the effects a transition from IAS 39 to IFRS 9 will have on a typical company’s financial assets. The hypothetical cases purpose is to highlight the most distinct differences between standards regarding classification, reclassification, recognition, measurement and impairment. The distinct differences are then analysed from an accounting perspective and a modified stakeholder theory.The technical analysis highlights the differences regarding the accounting treatment of a company’s financial assets. The analysis continues with an analysis on how IASB’s qualitative characteristics of accounting diverge between the standards for shareholders and Finansinspektionen. Shareholders request information which may influence their economic decision and assessment. Finansinspektionen request information and effects which will have a positive impact on a company’s financial stability.The purpose of this paper is thus to highlight the most distinct differences between IAS 39 and IFRS 9 as well as examining how the transition might affect shareholders and Finansinspektionen based on IASB’s qualitative characteristics. This paper illustrates the accounting treatment of classification, reclassification, measurement and impairment separately to elucidate the impact from a transition from IAS 39 to IFRS 9. This paper describes the different options for classification with additional terms to increase readability and a modified stakeholder theory to analyse IASB’s qualitative characteristics. The results of this paper indicate that the implementation of IFRS 9 led to changes mostly of technical nature in how to present the financial information. The most substantial difference between IAS 39 and IFRS 9 regards to the impairment treatment of financial assets.The shareholders are positively affected after a transition to IFRS 9 because the change strengthens IASB’s qualitative characteristics in a greater extent. Finansinspektionen is not affected to the same degree as shareholders. Although the most significant and positive effect for the regulatory institution with a transition may lead to increased financial stability.This paper is hereinafter written in Swedish.

  • 122.
    Balorda, Milica
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lee, Cecilia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Goodwillnedskrivningar före och efter finanskrisen: en jämförande studie mellan industribranschen och IT- och telekombranschen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IFRS 3 has had a big impact on how listed companies treat the recognition of goodwill. The underlying assumptions of the impairment tests are based on management’s estimates of the future, which could lead to subjective evaluations. When IFRS was introduced in 2005 Sweden was in a boom period, up until 2008 when the global financial crisis emerged and hence subsequent recession. A financial crisis may lead to the needs to make write-downs on both financial and non-financial assets. Therefore the authors want to examine in what way the financial crisis in 2008 affected companies' goodwill impairments. Since there are differences between the industrial sector and the IT and telecommunications sector in terms of accounting for goodwill, it is interesting to compare these sectors to examine if there are any significant differences.The purpose of the study is to examine how the recent financial crisis in 2008 affected companies' impairments of goodwill and assumptions in impairment testing, as well as the extent to which businesses disclosed about the impairment losses before and after the financial crisis to see if there are any significant differences between the industrial sector and the IT and telecommunications sector. The companies that are included in the study are companies that are listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange. With a quantitative method, the authors have chosen to examine the annual reports of 15 companies in the industrial sector and 15 companies in the IT and telecommunications sector from the years 2006, 2007, 2009 and 2010. The authors have chosen as methods for the research a quantitative content analysis and performed statistical calculations. The parameters studied include disclosure on goodwill, total impairment losses, discount rates, growth rates and cash-generating units.It was only one of the study’s hypotheses that was correct. This hypothesis dealt with the discount rates before and after the financial crisis, were the study showed a significant difference between the IT and telecommunications sector and the industrial sector before the financial crisis compared to the period after the financial crisis. Another difference that was significant was the industrial sectors total impairment losses before and after the financial crisis, were the sector’s total impairment losses increased between the examined periods. The average discount rate in the IT and telecommunications sector increased between the examined periods and this difference was also considered to be significant. Furthermore, the study showed that the industrial sector had more extensive disclosure on goodwill impairments after the financial crisis compared with the previous period, unlike the IT and telecommunications sector that disclosed about goodwill impairments to a lesser extent after the financial crisis.This thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 123.
    Barghi, Hamidreza
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bulk Hydrophilic Functionalization of Polyamide 462013Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    (EN)A modified polymer as result of a bulk functionalization of polyamide 46 (PA 46) is presented, as well as methods for synthesizing the modified polymer. This functionalization of PA 46 is performed to provide a homogenous semi-permeable polyamide 46 capable of different charges and different porosities with particles of nanoscale size in order to replace or improve other polyamide fibers used in the textile industry, filtering processes, selective sorption, controlled release devices, phase transfer catalysts, chromatography media, biocompatible capsules, artificial skins, organs, bone void repair as well as in cell bioreactors and incubators, dental impliments, medical devices, clothing, detectors, perfusion devices, in regenerative medicine, and fuel cells. (FR)Un polymère modifié comme résultat d'une fonctionnalisation en masse de polyamide 46 (PA 46) est présenté, ainsi que des procédés de synthèse du polymère modifié. Cette fonctionnalisation de PA 46 est effectuée pour fournir un polyamide 46 semi-perméable homogène apte à des différentes charges et de différentes porosités avec des particules d'une dimension à l'échelle nanométrique afin de remplacer ou d'améliorer d'autres fibres de polyamide utilisées dans l'industrie textile, les procédés de filtration, la sorption sélective, les dispositifs à libération entretenue, les catalyseurs de transfert de phase, les supports de chromatographie, les capsules biocompatibles, les peaux artificielles, les organes, la réparation de cavités osseuses ainsi que les bioréacteurs et incubateurs de cellules, les implants dentaires, les dispositifs médicaux, les vêtements, les détecteurs, les dispositif de perfusion, en médecine régénérative et dans les piles à combustible.

  • 124. Barghi, Hamidreza
    et al.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Surface electroconductive modification of biopolymers2015In: Surface Modification of Biopolymers / [ed] Kumar, V., Singha, A.S., USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 125.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Söderlöv, Erik
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Cellulosic Smart Textile Fibers based on Organic Electronics2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paradigm shift of merging structural properties of materials with other functionalities prevails and cellulose based fibres are no exception. For the realisation of so called smart materials, including smart textiles, electrical conductivity is of special importance, enabling sensorics, signal transmission, energy supply, energy generation, and actuation. We here discuss taking use of the advancement within the organic electronics community of conjugated polymeric systems producing smart textile fibres for inclusion into garment as well as interior and technical textiles. Specifically, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) known as PEDOT is studied as a model system. PEDOT has relevance being a working horse within the organic electronics community. Our emerging pilot line is based on creating conductivity by vapour polymerization of EDOT monomers on an oxidant coated textile fibre where these could be taken from arrange of materials. Here we focus on cellulose based fibres. It is shown that Tencell-Lyocell is a suitable substrate offering many  anchoring sites and that multiple depositions with layers deposited directly on each other decreased the resistance from 5.1 (± 1.6) kΩ/10 cm to 1.0 (± 0.1) kΩ/10 cm, for one layer and multiple layers respectively. Furthermore, adding 15 wt. % of the copolymer PEG-PPG-PEG to the oxidant solution decreased the resistance from 6.8 (± 1.2) kΩ/10 cm to 3.9 (± 0.8) kΩ/10 cm.

  • 126.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    High-strength electrically conductive fibers: functionalization of polyamide, aramid and polyester fibers with PEDOT polymer2017In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 310-318, article id 10.1002/pat.4116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, high-performance fibers such as aramid (Twaron), polyamide (PA6), polyester (PET), and hybrid Twaron/PA6 fibers were transformed into electroactive fibers by coating them with conjugated polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) through vapor phase polymerization (VPP) method. The VPP is considered as an efficient technique for depositing CPs on different substrates regardless of their lower solubility in various solvents. In this paper, PEDOT-coated high-performance fibers were prepared under already optimized reaction conditions, and then a comparison between electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of different fibers, before and after coating, was made. The obtained coated fibers were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 2-probe electrical resistance measurement method, and tensile testing. It was revealed that at particular reaction conditions, all high performance textile substrates were successfully converted into electroactive fibers. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics showed that PEDOT-coated polyester fibers exhibited highest conductivity value among all other substrate fibers. The active PEDOT layers on high performance fibers could behave as an antistatic coating to minimize the risks associated with static charges at work places. Also, the obtained fibers have potential to be used as smart materials for various medical, sports, and military applications.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-08-01 12:00
  • 127.
    Bayramoglu, Helena
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Andersson, Linnea
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    CSR på mindre modeföretag2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har till syfte att beskriva hur mindre modeföretag arbetar med hållbarhetsfrågor och möter konsumenternas förväntningar på hållbar utveckling. Uppsatsen bygger på en kvalitativ metod där främst intervjuer med mindre modeföretag ligger som underlag för hur det ser ut på marknaden idag. Som ytterligare underlag har semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts med experter på CSR och hållbarhet. Resultatet för uppsatsen visar att det finns två huvudområden som påverkar ett företags arbete med CSR. Dels är bristen på utbildning och kunskap en bidragande faktor till att många inte har ett utvecklat arbete för dessa frågor. Ekonomi och tid är också en bristvara för mindre modeföretag, vilket gör att de måste fokusera på andra områden. Intervjuer med anställda på mindre modeföretag och experter på området, visar att företag som har arbetat med CSR och hållbarhet från start har en stor fördel för att kunna arbeta på området. Det underlättar att redan från start ha en utarbetad plan för dessa frågor istället för att införa det i efterhand. Det är dock aldrig försent att påbörja ett hållbart arbete och uppsatsens slutsats visar att det går att skapa förändring även med små medel. Det är bättre att börja med små förändringar som kan leda till något större, än att inte göra något alls. Det viktigaste är att företaget har ett intresse för frågan och viljan att utvecklas på området. Utan ett genuint engagemang blir det svårt att framgångsrikt uppnå företagets mål och skapa långsiktig förändring.

  • 128.
    Bazooyar, Faranak
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bohlén, Martin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Computational Studies of Water and Carbon Dioxide Interactions with Cellobiose2015In: Journal of Molecular Modeling, ISSN 1610-2940, E-ISSN 0948-5023, Vol. 21, p. 2553-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    B3LYP/6-311++G** with dispersion correction (DFT-D) was used to study local and global minimum energy structures of water (H2O) or carbon dioxide (CO2) bonding with a pair of cellobiose molecules. The calculations showed that neither the H2O nor the CO2 prefer to be between the cellobiose molecules, and that the minimum energy structures occur when these molecules bond to the outer surface of the cellobiose pair. The calculations also showed that the low energy structures have a larger number of inter-cellobiose hydrogen bonds than the high energy structures. These results indicate that penetration of H2O or CO2 between adjacent cellobiose pairs, which would assist steam or supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) explosion of cellulose, is not energetically favored. Comparison of the energies obtained with DFT-D and DFT (the same method but without dispersion correction) show that both hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions play an important role in cellobiose-cellobiose interactions.

  • 129.
    Bazooyar, Faranak
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Molecular-level Simulations of Cellulose Steam Explosion2015In: Quantum Matter, ISSN 2164-7615, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 115-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations are used to study steam explosion of crystalline cellulose using 100, 160, 210 and 250 °C saturated steam. The simulations are based on the COMPASS force field, which provides a valid description of the cellulose crystal structure and water-cellobiose interactions. Disruption of the crystal structure during steaming is typically larger than that during the explosion stage and the restructuring is larger at increased temperature and pressure. This is seen by an increased separation of the cellulose chains from the center of mass of the crystal during the initial stages of the steaming, especially for chains in the outer shell of the elementary fibril. There is a large change in the radius of gyration and fraction of anti torsion angle conformers for chains in the outer shell of the elementary fibril. In addition, the disruption at the reducing and non-reducing ends of the cellulose crystal is larger than in the central core, increasing susceptibility to enzymatic attack in these end regions.

  • 130.
    Bellini, Viktor
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Virtuell projekteringsteknik: En analys av BIM med avseende på VR inom konstruktion2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of BIM in the construction business is something that involves major changes for many companies. When new technologies like virtual reality begin to become more prevalent, it can be difficult for companies to keep up with developments. A better understanding of how building information modeling (BIM) focusing on virtual reality in structural engineering and projection will therefore be beneficial for the projection process and thus construction.In order to implement VR, it is first necessary that companies use three-dimensional models (3D) and modeling programs such as Revit or Tekla which is specifically designed for BIM. These types of programs plays a vital role in ensuring that the technology is used in an optimal and a user-friendly way, as constructors have a very time-consuming schedule. In addition, all participants in the project have access to a huge amount of information, where each building component has a linked data such as geometry and material. Something that makes BIM very useful is together with different plugins such as Revit structure analysis or linking timetables and cost with building components from the 3D model to create BIM 5D, where the two D-s represent time and cost. By moving one more step further and integrating VR into the model, you have the opportunity to use buildings in a context that opens up communication bridges and creates an image of projects that are close to reality.With this is mind, in this work, tests have been performed on models to find areas where VR may be useful. Based on the constructors own experiences of design tools in combination with their thoughts and ideas, applications were developed where VR might be useful to constructors. The results of the interviews showed that VR is currently less useful for constructors in smaller project, but that it has its uses in more complex cases where the constructor needs a complement to get a better overall understanding as well as for other participants in a project. For a constructor it is therefore more suited in a project as a review tool and useful in the final stages of a project. However, it may be a tool under the projection process for other parties in projects to increase mutual understanding.

  • 131.
    Bendzovski, Daniel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Trend-sandwich: Exploring new ways of joining inspiration, such as different kinds of trends, through processes of morphing and melding different trendy garments and materials, for new methods, garment types, materials and expressions.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to explore the joining of inspiration, such as different garments and materials, in relation to commonly used methods in the fashion industry when it comes to joining of different trends and references such as clashing and collaging. The work proposes a new method and framework for join- ing inspiration which generates different results depending on what kind of inspiration that is put in to it. A garment can roughly be broken down to a silhouette and shape, materials and details. The material put in to the method and framework is based on information from trend seminars for SS16, because that is how many of today’s trend-oriented fashion brands get there inspiration. Trendy garment silhouettes are mixed through processes of computational morphing in Adobe Flash by a generation of spin in the mixing process were shape hints are used in a new manner. The new generated silhouettes are further developed and materialized through procedures of interpretation and figuration. Different trendy materials are melded in a direct and concrete way through mixed media techniques such as laminating, fusing and vacuum-techniques. The final steps of the method is a garment shape and material synthesis with starting point in the generated shape with the final material. The projects intention is to let the physical experimentation, interpretation and figuration play a central role in the research process for new types of methods, garments, materials and expressive pos- sibilities.

  • 132.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Investigations into light-front interactions for massless fields (I): Non-constructibility of higher spin quartic amlplitudes2016In: Journal of High Energy Physics (JHEP), ISSN 1126-6708, E-ISSN 1029-8479, Vol. 12, p. 134-, article id 134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamical commutators of the light-front Poincar{\'e} algebra yield first order differential equations in the $p^+$ momenta for the interaction vertex operators. The homogeneous solution to the equation for the quartic vertex is studied. Consequences as regards the constructibility assumption of quartic higher spin amplitudes from cubic amplitudes are discussed. The existence of quartic contact interactions unrelated to cubic interactions by Poincar{\'e} symmetry indicates that the higher spin S-matrix is not constructible. Thus quartic amplitude based no-go results derived by BCFW recursion for Minkowski higher spin massless fields may be circumvented.

  • 133.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Notes on Cubic and Quartic Light-Front KinematicsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this short note is to collect a set of formulas pertaining to momentum kinematics for higher spin light-front vertices. At least one of the formulas seems to be previously unknown.

  • 134.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Quartic amplitudes for Minkowski higher spin2016In: Higher Spin Gauge Theories / [ed] Lars Brink, Marc Henneaux, Mikhael A Vasiliev, Singapore: World Scientific, 2016, p. 353-370Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The old problem of finding general quartic interaction terms between fields of higher helicities on the light-front is discussed from the point of view of calculating the corresponding amplitudes directly from the cubic vertices using BCFW recursion. Amplitude based no-go results that has appeared in the literature are reviewed and discussed and it is pointed out how they may perhaps be circumvented.

  • 135.
    Bengtsson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wik, Sanne Maria
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    ”I Göteborg springs det inte i rulltrapporna”: En studie om hur besökare upplever Göteborg2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s modern society people tend to travel more due to the globalization and the fact that people are spending more money. As a result of the increasing competition within the field of tourism it has become even more important for destinations to create a clear profile and a target group when marketing destinations; it is extremely essential to have a positive image, which is genuine and perceived by visitors. This essay is written to explore how tourists experience Gothenburg as a tourist destination and how marketing is creating the city image. The study is qualitative and consists of interviews with visitors of Gothenburg to see how they perceived the city. Further one interview is performed with the communication manager of Göteborg & Co to explore how they want to be perceived by tourists. The entire essay is written in Swedish. The result of the essay shows that the image does reflect how the city wants to be perceived, but Gothenburg needs to better their marketing to gain more tourists in the future.

  • 136.
    Benjaminsson, Sandra
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Johansson, Louise
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Human resources: att beräkna värdet av volontärer på idrottsevenemang2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay deals with human resources and whether or not they should be treated as an asset or not for organisations and it focuses primarily on nonprofit sport organisations. Theory and empirics show that humans are an important asset in an organisation. The essay focuses on applicating the measurement of the value of personnel as an asset to nonprofit sport organisations, where the volunteers make up for a big part of the staff. In spite of it being donated workforce there are costs to consider in the usage of volunteers, which is proved in the empirics of the essay. It is made clear both by volunteers and people responsible for volunteers that some compensation, in the form of food and clothes for example, is expected by volunteers and these are significant cost to account for. Well-being and the social environment in events are shown to be of significance regarding a continued commitment from the volunteers and also to maintain a positive and motivating environment.

  • 137.
    Bensköld, Anna
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Forsman, Jessica
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Westerberg, Linda
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Turismens påverkan: hur turism påverkar individer i ett lokalsamhälle2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Global travel has had a strong positive growth in recent years and is forecasted to increase byabout three percent per year until 2030, according to international assessments. The tourismindustry is growing at a rapid pace and has become a major source of income for manycountries, in some the largest employer. In 2013 the Swedish tourism industry had a turnoverof 284,2 billion which is an increase by 3,9 percent compared to the previous year. Due to thecentral importance of tourism worldwide, we believe that there is an interest to investigatehow the local residents at a destination are affected by its tourism. The study aims to examinehow different individuals among the local population are affected by tourism. The purpose ofthe study is to create new understanding and to develop knowledge about how individualswith different backgrounds such as occupation, age and connection to tourism experience andare affected by tourism, and thereby contribute to previous research in the field. A qualitativeresearch method was used to answer the following research question: How are individuals ata destination affected by tourism in their own community? A case study has been completedand the study used Marstrand, situated in Bohuslän Sweden, to answer the research question.Several positive and negative aspects of tourism have been identified and then analysed byusing the theories presented. The TALC model was used to determine which phase Marstrandas a destination is in. This due to the fact that the local residents’ opinion may vary dependingon the phase the destination is in and also to find out the destination´s potential fordevelopment. The study concludes that Marstrand is in the stagnation stage during highseason and the development stage during low season.The result of the study indicates that different individuals put emphasis on different aspects oftourism depending on their life situation and the connection they have to tourism.Furthermore the study shows similar results as presented in recent research made in othercountries. Although the extent of the study is not sufficient enough to draw any generalconclusions, this may indicate that individuals from a local population has a similar view ontourism, regardless of geographic location and the country's level of development.

  • 138.
    Berg, Alina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Dahlström, Sebastian
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Internt upparbetade immateriella tillgångar: En komparativ studie aveuropeiska korsnoterade företag på NYSE och NASDAQ2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade companies, nations and economies are increasingly becoming moreknowledge oriented. Meanwhile the world globalization of economies means, to multinationalcompanies, that the holding of internally generated intangible assets is increasing and is ofincreasing importance. The globalization has led to an expansive growth of the stock marketsand has increased the number of cross-listed multinational companies. Investments ininternally generated intangible assets are capital as well as resource intensive and listing onforeign markets is seen as a suitable alternative to finance these assets. The US stock marketshave long been attractive to foreign cross-listed companies in obtaining capital, and wereconsistent with heavy regulations on accounting and reporting. IASB became the leadingstandard setter in the EU and therefore SEC chose to eliminate the conversion of necessaryprerequisite in Form 20-F for the companies operating in the US stock markets. Europeancross-listed companies avoid reporting under US. GAAP as long as they establish theconsolidated financial statements according to IFRS. The removal of Form 20-F was seen asan effect of the IASB and FASB convergence project. Opinions have been raised that theremoval was premature because the difference between the standard setters are essential,particularly in the area of internally generated intangible assets.The purpose of this study is to describe how the European cross-listed companies on the USstock markets, the NYSE and NASDAQ, account and report internally generated intangibleassets relative to market capitalization, industry and nationality. The annual report should alsohave been established with the Form 20-F. Another reason with this study is to identifydifferences in the accounting and reporting, which recognize the effects on comparabilitybetween companies. Our study is based on 40 annual reports of companies based in Europe.The methodology we’ve chosen for this study is similar to a hermeneutic approach and theannual reports are considered using a multiple case study with comparative elements. The aimis to provide a deeper understanding of the accounting and reporting of internally generatedintangible assets.This study shows the use of IFRS varies based on nationality and industry affiliation, howeverthe companies view investment as value added. And, furthermore, how the stock value affectsthe enable and the propensity for an internally generated intangible asset. Companies industryaffiliation suggests to have an impact on the propensity for the application of IAS 38, p. 57,indicating that the uniformity of the company within and between sectors is a uniquephenomenon. A negative correlation exists between uncertainty and the period of time in theinvestment process, where the effect is that the expenses attributable to internal projects areexpensed in the financial statements. The probability of obtaining future economic benefitsare higher for internally generated intangible assets which are intended for internal use, the opposite applies to external use. Informal pressure from the surrounding, which variesaccording to industry affiliation, has effected the possibility to enable the propensity. Thestudy shows that the valuation and the estimate of the future economic benefits are difficult.Companies in the healthcare industry have significant problems with such a valuation, whichmeans that they are disadvantaged as IFRS cannot be fully applied. Publishing of voluntaryand mandatory information under IFRS varies between sectors. The comparability isquestionable when the accounting and reporting of internally generated intangible assets aremerged with other intangible assets.In this study a study model was made for analyzing the data. The model is to analyze thenationality impact on the financial statements and reporting. The study shows that nationalitystill have an impact, while the results also indicate that the differences constantly are beingerased.This thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 139.
    Bergenstråhle, Alicia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Svensson, Marika
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Röhr, Louise
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Relationsmarknadsföring via digitala kanaler: Fallstudie Xtended Business & Event2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is conducted in Swedish. The way companies are working with marketing is constantly changing. The digital development is affecting the whole society and has enabled new ways of marketing. That makes it important to keep it up in a constantly changing world. A lot of focus is on developing and maintaining relationships. This qualitative case study aims to examine the subject relationship marketing and its meaning for companies in the event business. The focus is to find out how the marketing of relationships can be used through digital channels. The result is based on a case study of the event agency Xtended Business & Event. The purpose of this study is to examine the meaning of relationship marketing for the chosen company and to find out how they can use it as a strategy through their digital channels.Semi-structured interviews has been made to collect information from ten respondents where four of them works at the company we are studying, one is an existing client and five are potential customers. The study is built on the collection of theory from the subjects of relationship marketing and digital marketing and has together with the empiricism been put together in an analysis. The study shows that the company needs time and knowledge on how to develop and implement a relationship marketing strategy.

  • 140.
    Berggren, Anton
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Grahn, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Undersökning av tätningsmetoder med fokus på aluminiumhus2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this work sealing methods for aluminum housing have been investigated. The work was delimited to the automotive industry and static gaskets. The thesis brings up how the flange impacts on the sealing capability and the gasket, sealing types, the surface impact on gasket materials, porosity, relative material cost and fasteners.The work is based on a literature study and interviews with concerned people at the company. Practical samples were carried out on a number of materials from suppliers and the materials where exposed to different chemicals and then tensile tested.The materials that were collected through interviews and the literature study testify that many parameters influence the possible sealing methods. It’s not just the material itself that needs to be taken into account. Factors like flange design, material cost, surface defects, fasteners and porosity have a great impact. The practical sample testifies that different chemicals have dif-ferent impact on the mechanical properties and swelling of the material.Finally, a couple of sealing materials are suggested that are suitable for the company to use in their products.

  • 141.
    Berggren, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nordin, Klara
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Online visual merchandising: På e-handelssidor riktade mot den svenska marknaden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2014, apparel and shoes was two of the product categories that resulted in most transactions online in Sweden. As a result of the growing interest in e-commerce, companies in the fashion industry needs to develop visual merchandising strategies that can function just as well online as the ones in physical stores. In a study made by the American researchers Ha, Kwon and Lennon (2007), a taxonomy was developed in order to examine visual merchandising elements of apparel retail websites in Korea and The US. The purpose of this study is to test the taxonomy created by Ha et al. (2007) on websites targeted at the Swedish market This will be done by addressing the questions at issue; to examine if the visual merchandising elements that Ha et al. (2007) identified can be found on the web sites in this study and to examine whether there are new elements to identify on the web sites targeted at the Swedish market. A content analysis was used to examine online visual merchandising-themes on 50 Swedish e-commerce sites. The themes analysed, with underlying elements, was environment, manner of presentation, path finding. In addition to these themes another one was added from a study made by Park and Stoel (2002), information. During the analysis several elements that was not included in the previous studies was discovered. These were also added to the taxonomy developed in this study. The findings of the study showed that some of the online visual merchandsing-elements differed on the Swedish market compared to previous studies. Also as mentioned, the taxonomy was further developed. This thesis will henceforth be written in Swedish.

  • 142.
    Bergholm, Albin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Islami, Fatijon
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kapitalisering av operationell leasing – en konsekvens av IFRS 162017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The International Accounting Standard for leases, IAS 17 Leases, has been criticized to enablecompanies to report off-balance sheet by reporting leases as operating leases. There has longbeen discussion about the accounting of operational leases and if they represent a fair view.These contracts cause companies to withhold assets and liabilities from the balance sheet. Fromthis issue, the IASB has created a new accounting standard, IFRS 16, which will replace the oldaccounting standard.Key features of the new standard IFRS 16 has significant changes for the lessee rather than thelessor, where regulation is more reminiscent of the previous regulatory framework. The lesseewill need to report a right of use asset and a lease liability and the current breakdown of financialand operational leasing will therefore be dissolved. In this way, the company’s strategicdecisions changes in financing the business. The lessor will not be affected by this change, hewill still need to classify leases as capital or operating in accordance with the classificationcriteria corresponding to those of IAS 17.The purpose of this study is to investigate, with constructed scenarios, how the new accountingstandard, IFRS 16 Leases, will affect corporate balance sheets together with income statementsand, in the long run, how this affects relevant financial ratios. This is examined by our tworesearch questions which seek to find the effect of the capitalization of the operating leases forcorporate balance sheet and income statement when applying IFRS 16 as well as the impact oncompany’s financial ratios.Through our scenarios we have been able to draw conclusions that answers the study’s purposeand research questions. In our study, we have shown that key ratios, such as equity and leveragewill be significantly influenced by the capitalization that IFRS 16 implies. This is based on thelease liability that companies need to report when applying IFRS 16. The examined financialratios, profit margin, return on equity and return on assets have shown in our study to be initiallylower when applying IFRS 16. However, we have drawn other conclusions about what happensover the lease period with the ratios. The key ratios will ultimately show higher returns thanIAS 17 had shown during the same period. This conclusion is based on the reallocation ofearnings impact, as depreciation, interest and amortization is made instead of expensing thelease fee.We have concluded that corporate accounting of what was previously operational leasingbecomes more complicated when IFRS 16 is applied. Transitional options to the new standardhas also opened opportunities for companies to provide a customized picture of the financialstatements to stakeholders. Based on our study, we have also drawn the conclusion that thetransition to the new standard in the long run will benefit the company’s stakeholders. In thecurrent situation, stakeholders already adjust for operational leases when calculating corporatecredit risk. The new standard means that stakeholders do not need to make these adjustmentsas the company reports a more fair picture of the financial statements.This study is hereinafter written in Swedish.

  • 143.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Norm vs Fluidity2015Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The piece illustrates how predefined design objects (girls dancing, boys playing football) maintain gender norms compared to a fluid design (a bunch of pearls) that opens up for a variety of interpretation regardless gender, ethnicities etc.

    Norm vs Fluidity has been exhibited at the exhibitions “The Great and Small” HongKong 2014, “Blue+Pink>>>Rethink” at designxport Hamburg and designtransfer Berlin 2015. iGDN – International Gender Design Network, http://genderdesign.org/ 

  • 144.
    Bergman, Linnea
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Att behålla kvinnliga ledare i en mansdominerad bransch2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Historically and traditionally, leadership has been masculine and industries have been divided into female and male. Over the years, there have been many opponents of female leadership and especially in the so-called men-dominated industries. Today in 2017 there are still preconceived opinions that certain types of work and education are linked to a certain gender. The construction industry faces a huge recruitment need. To cover the need, they need to bring in more women; it is not enough for the target group to target men only. At present, there is an interest, both from society and among construction companies, to increase the proportion of women because a workplace benefits from diversity. It is a challenge for the construction industry to get more women to search for it. An equal challenge is to make women stay in the industry. This study investigates how the female leaders in the construction industry, and in particular the construction company NCC, feel they are addressed if they are labeled by the reported glass roof that makes it difficult for women to climb within the company and how the organizational culture looks at the construction sites. For a clear picture and a comparison to the women's experiences, male professional workers have also answered questions about how they feel about having a female leader. The study suggests that the construction industry is still geared to men but is under development in a positive direction, that most people appreciate a good leader and that it does not depend on gender without personality. Within NCC, female leaders are welcomed at the construction sites of the workforce and women feel accepted and respected for the leaders they are. However, many of them witness that they once heard expressions like "little rubber" or about suppliers who are primarily concerned with their male colleagues. The construction industry is faced with a lot of criticism for its prevailing macho culture. During the course of the study, however, one gets the understanding that the job base is hard around Sweden in order to eradicate both for a more equal workplace for more people to apply for, but also for the work environment and safety as more accidents Often happens when men are to prove some form of masculinity (Byggcheferna, 2017). Even though the construction industry has taken great steps towards an equal industry, there is still much left to work on. The culture is hard-rooted and if you look back historically, we have reached such an equal society in a very short time. Women have only had voting rights for almost 100 years, from the very beginning, the trend has gone fast to women now climbing on more and more leading positions. The fact that the culture of attitudes and values, which takes a long time to change, does not really depend on is not so strange in general. The results indicate that the construction industry needs to get a working flextide system even in production to get more people looking for the industry, since today’s young share the responsibilities between work and family much more equally, not only applies to women but also to men. All the formal external obstacles that previously existed for women to enter the construction industry are gone by virtue of legislation. The obstacles that remain are created by ourselves and society (Arhén 1996).

  • 145.
    Berlin, Lena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. lena.berglin@hb.se.
    Blankout2015Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Power is unequally shared in the world, one in four people live without electricity. Art and art production is therefore not only a question of choice but a question of power. 

  • 146.
    Berner Wik, Tove
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Let’s talk about Perfection: An investigating of how decorative techniques and non-decorative text can create a dialogue in garments, with the body as a billboard2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This collection is an investigation of how decorative techniques and non-decorative text can create a dialogue in garments, with the body as a billboard. The work is based on two different aspects. The first one deals with the question of how people look at embellishments, and the second is the message aspect. The investigation wants to find out how we can communicate with the human body as a billboard and the topic of the communication is an idea about perfection. The writer’s dyslexia experiences are used as a recurs and gives the topic a new dimension. The work explores new ways to deal with embellishments, techniques and messages. It shows that the statement T-shirt is not the only perfect garment to decorate and that garments can communicate a message in more ways than with a flat print.

  • 147.
    Betrus, Meja
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Aghazadeh, Farjam
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Johansson, Ann-Charlott
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Don’t take my smart phone away2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The mobile phone as an object has a great meaning for the youth in today's society. Young people perceive their mobile phone as an extension of themselves and cannot bear the thought of being apart from it. However, in different situations such as a customer complaint handling, the young customer has no other option but to hand it in for reparation. The customer complaints is something that is unavoidable and can be seen as a failure in itself but it is the handling of the customer complaint that decide if a customer complaint has been successful or not.This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the young consumer and their mobile phone and how this relationship might affect why they perceive a customer complaint handling as failed. Trough seven conducted interviews we asked our respondents to talk about their specific customer complaint situation and how they use their mobile phone.The results showed that the main reasons why our respondents found their complaint handling as failed depended on factors such as, waiting time, additional costs, poor substitute product and unfriendly personnel. It also showed that our respondents have an attachment to their mobile phone and because of this relationship the aforementioned factors might change dependent on how attached an individual is to his or her product.

  • 148. Bhaskar, Thallada
    et al.
    Lee, Keat Teong
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sauer, Michael
    Nampoothiri, K. Madhavan
    New Horizons in Biotechnology - NHBT 20152016In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 213Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 149.
    Bianchi, Michelle
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fredriksson, Malin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Opportunities and barriers to CSR: A qualitative case study of the most important aspects of CSR in medium-sized fashion companies in the moderate price range2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis covers a qualitative case study of corporate social responsibility work in medium-sized fashion companies in the moderate price range. The aim of the study was to research the barriers and opportunities to corporate social responsibility in medium-sized fashion companies within the moderate price range in order to understand which aspects that are most important for these companies to focus on. Corporate social responsibility, shortened CSR, means taking environmental, social and financial responsibility for all actions of the company. The industry of the company as well as different company characteristics creates different contexts in which a company may work with CSR. The fashion value chain is a context for fashion companies. In order for a fashion company to be sustainable, the entire value chain should be considered, but it is within the upstream part of the fashion value chain that the most damaging processes occur and it is therefor the upstream part of the value chain that was focused on in this study. The size and price range of a company are characteristics that affects how a company may create successful CSR practices. The study also focused on the consumer perspective and the added value that CSR may bring. The study identified several perceived barriers and opportunities to CSR in medium-sized fashion companies within the moderate price range that may be important to consider in order creating successful CSR practices. Costs, quality assurance, communication and coordination where identified as important barriers. The study also identified that the added value of CSR to the brand and the increased consumer willingness to pay as important opportunities. The study found that cost-consciousness, quality assurance, communication and coordination and the added value perspective may be the most important aspects for medium-sized fashion companies in the moderate price range to focus on in the CSR work. By being aware of these barriers and opportunities, companies may create better CSR strategies, which focus on achieving the opportunities while avoiding the barriers.

  • 150.
    Bjarnevik, Therese
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Borgström, Elin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mätning och utvärdering av Eventmarknadsföring2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This business bachelor thesis deals with the subject event marketing and more focused onhow to measure and evaluate this subject within companies and organisations and whatcomplications that surround this. The study is made with a qualitative method and is based ontheories and practical examples, which are gathered through interviews at companies andorganisations.Measurement and evaluation of event marketing is sparingly researched and there is a lack ofknowledge on how to practically use this in companies and organisations. However, one cansee that the traditional marketing space is shrinking and event marketing is rising. What eventmarketing means exactly is somewhat diffuse since everyone seems to have their owndefinition of the topic - but one can briefly explain that it is about making use of events ofvarious kinds to communicate a product or a message. Even though this is a method that isoften used the result is rarely evaluated. This was not a problem a few years back but nowcompanies and organisations demand this more and more. Because of this, there is a lot ofinterest in learning more about the measurement and evaluation of event marketing.During our interviews we used an interview guide to make sure we used appropriate questionsto our respondents and to make sure we got the same information from the differentinterviews. The interview guide was created from the theory we found and was used in thefive interviews conducted at five different companies. Our respondents operate in variousindustries and thus we have gained insight from various sectors of the paper.Theory and empirical evidence indicates that there is an extremely complex topic, we haveinvestigated and therefore it has been difficult to draw any clear conclusions. What we haveobserved is that there is no coordinated truths about how measurement and evaluation is donebecause it is different depending on what industry you belong to and what your goals are withthe event. Nor are there any standardized evaluation tools, but are partly requested by bothscientists and our respondents. Moreover, we have noted that you have to set goals alreadyduring planning in order to be able to measure and evaluate afterwards. The survey alsoshows that event marketing is an appropriate method to use because you can easily get adialogue between companies and consumers where they can change attitudes and purchasingbehaviour.

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