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  • 101.
    Arnell, Emelie
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rengöringseffekt på klimatvävar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate control inside a greenhouse using climate screens is a widespread method for optimizing growth and production within the greenhouse. With the help of climate screens,the climate is adapted to the needs of plants to maximize yield in terms of the harvest. When being used, the screens become dirty from soil and other particles and in many cases attacked by algae that discolor the screen. This leads to a deterioration in function as the fabric no longer works as it was designed in its original state. There is no information about the type of algae cleaning the different climate screens can withstand to maintain its function.

     

    This study aims at contributing to a broader knowledge of what kind of cleaning, from algae, of the climate screen that is possible for maintaining the function of the screen. By applying hydrogen peroxide and Virkon to used screens with algae and evaluating the result of concentration, color change and light transmission, better understanding will be obtained about successful cleaning of the screen.

     

    At higher concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, a higher percentage improvement is achieved with respect to light transmission and color change of the screen. At higher concentrations of Virkon, a higher percentage improvement is achieved with respect to light transmission of the screen, on the other hand, the fabric exhibits a darker result at concentrations exceeding 3%. Mechanical process showed a visually more appealing result, the fabric appear cleaner visually. However, the light transmission showed a slight deterioration from the untreated web after completion of treatment with water and mechanical processing.

  • 102.
    Aronsson, Elin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gyllencreutz Wendeberg, Helena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Är reshoring ett alternativ för modeföretagen?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problematisation

    In a constantly changing industry like the fashion industry, it is more important than ever to have a well-functioning value chain and efficient sourcing. Companies have outsourced their production during a long period of time, which has proven to be very effective in many cases. But some researchers now mean that it starts to appear a reverse trend, as companies instead start moving back production to generate benefits. This is a term called reshoring. The research mentions benefits with reshoring as a more efficient value chain, reduced risks and value creating for both consumers and the firm. A recurrent question is then if there only are benefits with reshoring or if there are negative aspects of the decision as well. Research suggests that reshoring will be the next big thing within sourcing but this is not something we have noticed has happened, yet.

    Purpose and method

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how Swedish fashion companies through sourcing can improve and make their value chain more efficient. We will also investigate if companies are open for the option to bring back production to Europe, known as reshoring. Since several researchers now believe that there will be a balance on how much of the production that moves away and moves home, we want to find out if this is something that lays within the interest of Swedish fashion companies. To find out, we conducted semi structured interviews with a number of companies that fit the purpose. The empiricism that was collected was then linked with the theoretical framework to be able to be analysed and answer our research question.

    Result and conclusion

    After an analysis was compiled we found that the interviewed companies did not share the researcher's positive image about reshoring. While the researchers talked about risks and increased wages in the Asian countries, the companies instead meant that they had secured the production in Asia for several years, using production offices and long-term relationships with their suppliers. To leave this for a move to Europe then felt unnecessary for the companies. In addition, companies claimed that Europe did not need to be safer than Asia. Our conclusion is therefore that the research on reshoring is very interesting and could be something in a possible future, but the fashion companies is not there yet and may not ever be there.The thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 103.
    Aronsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nilsson, Sophia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hur kan ett medelstort tekniskt företag utveckla sitt informationsflöde internt vid framtagning av en ny produkt?: En kvalitativ studie på Silvent AB2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the report was to investigate how a medium-sized technical company candevelop its information flow internally when developing a new product. The choice of thepurpose of the study is that organizations in companies are usually not prioritized without itbeing production that performs efficiency improvements and improvements while theorganization easily forget. Examining this flow of information between the technicaldepartment and the other parties gave the study both an element of engineering and personnelscience. The literature study formed the basis for the report and the communicative factorsthat affect the organization in the production of a new product were organizational theories,standardized methods of preventing the dissemination of information, different types ofcommunication and improvement work. By interviewing the relevant departments at SilventAB, a basic picture of the present and the organization could be created, which later becamethe basis for the analysis. Conclusion could be drawn by comparing theory, interviews andcurrent position description. The conclusion was also based on the question and purpose ofhow a medium-sized technical company could develop its information flow internally whendeveloping a new product in the future. Conclusions found in the study to meet this were tocreate a technical bridge that clarifies and communicates communication within theorganization effectively.

  • 104.
    Aronsson, Julia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Torn to be worn?: Cotton fibre length of shredded post-consumer garments2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015 the global fibre consumption was 96.7 million tonnes, which is an increase of 3.1% from the year before. Our high textile consumption has led to an increasing demand of raw materials and generation of textile waste. Only in Europe, a total amount of 4.3 million tonnes of apparel waste each year is sent to either incineration or landfills. Approximately 50% of the clothes we discard and donate are composed of cotton. In the future, the cotton production is predicted to stagnate since the world population is increasing and arable land to greater extent will be needed for food production. Thereby, it is important that we utilize the cotton waste generated. One of the most commonly used processes for recycling textile waste is the shredding process. In this method, textile waste is shredded back into their constituent fibres. The drawback with the shredding process is that the fibre length is reduced. The fibre length is an important property since it has a high influence on textile processing such as yarn production and final product quality. The aim of this thesis was to investigate how post-consumer cotton garments with different degree of wear affects the fibre length obtained in the shredding process. This was performed by analysing the input fibre length as well as the output fibre length. Additionally, several parameters were investigated: fabric construction and yarn structure. Degree of wear was categorized into two levels: low and high degree of wear. The fabric constructions used in this study were single-jersey and denim. The yarn structure were analysed in terms of yarn count, yarn twist and manufacturing process.  The result showed that the fibre length before shredding was statistically significant longer for the materials with low degree of wear compared to high degree of wear. After shredding, it was shown that the fibre length reduction was lower for the materials with high degree of wear. This indicates that longer fibres give higher fibre length reduction. In addition, it was found that finer yarn gives higher fibre length reduction. The result also showed that the yarn manufacturing process has a great influence on the ease of shredding and the fibre length obtained in the end.  Based on the result in this thesis it can be concluded that the shredding process needs to be improved in order to preserve the fibre length. The area of post-consumer textile waste is complex and the result showed that there is many underlying parameters that need to be taken into account to further develop the shredding process. 

  • 105.
    Aronsson, Julia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Björquist, Stina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nya t-shirts av gamla jeans: Textila egenskaper hos en cellulosabaserad konstfiber tillverkadav dissolvingmassa framställd från bomull av textilt avfall2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the earth, as well as the average income, are both on the increase. Therefore the already high consumption of textiles in the world is expected to be even greater in the future. At present, 70 million tonnes of textile fibres are being produced yearly. This figure could rise to as much as 240 million within the next 35 years. In Sweden alone, the people were consuming around 12.5 kilos of textiles per person in 2010. About 8 of these kilos were discarded as garbage. The textile industry is facing big challenges, both in finding new resources for production of fibres as well as dealing with the issue of large amounts of textile waste from consumers and companies. Re:newcell is a Swedish company financing research at Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, in Stockholm. Their researchers are investigating the possibility to recycle cotton and other cellulosic textile materials in order to produce dissolved pulp. Thereafter cellulosic man-made fibres are being produced from the pulp. The properties of lyocell fibres produced from the dissolved pulp from Re:newcell is being investigated in this Bachelor thesis. The dissolved pulp has been produced from jeans bought in second-hand shops. These fibres are being compared to the conventionally produced lyocell fibres, Tencel®. A ring spun yarn of each fibre type has been produced at the Swedish School of Textiles. The linear density of the yarns have been determined in order to achieve the same thickness of the yarn as a commercially spun yarn also made from Tencel® fibres. A test of tensile strength and elongation has been carried out on each of the three yarns. Thereafter the yarns have been used to manufacture a knitted fabric on a circular knitting machine. Each of the knitted fabrics have gone through a series of tests regarding weight of fabric per square meter, dimensional change after washing, wicking and absorbency properties, dye exhaustion, colour staining to other materials during laundering and colour change after laundering, abrasion resistance and tendency to create fuzzing and pills. The purpose of the study is to make conclusions about whether this fibre has the potential to complement other cellulosic man-made fibres. The conclusion is that Re:newcell fibres can be used to spin a yarn with the linear density of 25 tex. This yarn can be utilized to produce a circular knitted fabric light enough to make T-shirts. After the testing it is concluded that the shrinking percentage after consumer’s washing is acceptable. In addition, the material could be worn close to the body because of the good absorbency and wicking properties. The exhaustion of dyestuff of antrakinon type from the dyeing liquor is equally very good. Although some of the dyestuff is being washed in laundering, the Re:newcell tricot is not staining other materials noticeably. The Re:newcell material can also withstand high abrasion against a woven wool material. The tendency to form fuzzing and pills is great but the pills are being torn of eventually. It may be concluded that the fibres, made by the dissolved pulp of Re:newcell in the lyocell process, can be used to manufacture a yarn with better strength than two investigated yarns of Tencel®. The tests carried out on the fabrics produced in the project show that the Re:newcell fibre has excellent properties in order to function as a material in a garment, for example a T-shirt. Therefore the dissolved pulp of Re:newcell has the possibility to be a new raw material in the production of man-made cellulosic fibres. This enables the textile industry to deal with their excess waste, and to meet the increasing demand for fibres in the world.

  • 106.
    Artikelsson, Artikeltest
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Testartikelorganisation.
    Testartikel: för e-arkivering2017In: Testtidskriften nummer två, ISSN 4543535, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 55-60, article id 90Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [hi]

    Testartikelns abstract

  • 107.
    Asadi, Milad
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of eco-friendly flame retardant polypropylene fibers2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 108.
    Asadollahzadeh, Mohammadtaghi
    et al.
    Department of Pulp and Paper Technology, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
    Ghasemian, Ali
    Department of Pulp and Paper Technology, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
    Saraeian, Ahmadreza
    Department of Pulp and Paper Technology, Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Gorgan, Iran.
    Resalati, Hossein
    Department of Wood and Paper Sciences, Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Sari, Iran.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Using spent sulfite liquor for valuable fungal biomass production by Aspergilus oryzae2017In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 630-638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent and increasing interest in bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes into value-added products has led to extensive research on various microorganisms and substrates. In this study, filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae was cultivated on spent sulfite liquor (SSL) from a pulp mill. The process using an airlift bioreactor (3.5 L working volume) was successfully carried out in 48 h with an airflow of 0.85 vvm (volume air per volume culture per minute) at 35°C and pH 5.5. The cultivation results showed that the fungal biomass concentration was higher in more diluted SSL. The highest and lowest fungal biomass concentrations when spore inoculation was used were 10.2 and 6.5 g/l SSL, in diluted SSL to 60 and 80%, respectively. The range of crude protein and total fat of the fungal biomass was 0.44 – 0.48 and 0.04 – 0.11 g/g biomass dry weight, respectively. All essential amino acids were present in acceptable quantities in the fungal biomass. The results obtained in this study have practical implications in that the fungus A. oryzae could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using spent sulfite liquor for animal feed.

  • 109. Aslanzadeh, Solmaz
    et al.
    Ishola, Mofoluwake M.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    An Overview of Existing Individual Unit Operations2014In: Biorefineries: Integrated Biochemical Processes for Liquid Biofuels, Elsevier Inc. , 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Because of its extreme toxicity for microorganisms, the limonene content of citrus wastes (CWs) has been a major obstacle to the conversion of CWs to biofuels. The main objective of this study was to develop a new process for the utilization of CWs that can be economically feasible when the supply of CW is low.

    RESULTS: Steam explosion pre-treatment was applied to improve the anaerobic digestibility of CWs, resulting in a decrease of initial limonene concentration by 94.3%. A methane potential of 0.537 ± 0.001 m 3 kg -1 VS (volatile solids) was obtained during the following batch digestion of treated CWs, corresponding to an increase of 426% compared with that of the untreated samples. Long-term effects of the treatment were further investigated by a semi-continuous co-digestion process. A methane production of 0.555 ± 0.0159 m 3 CH 4 kg -1 VS day -1 was achieved when treated CWs (corresponding to 30% of the VS load) were co-digested with municipal solid waste.

    CONCLUSION: The process developed can easily be applied to an existing biogas plant. The equipment cost for this process is estimated to be one million USD when utilizing 10 000 tons CWs year -1. 8.4 L limonene and 107.4 m 3 methane can be produced per ton of fresh citrus wastes in this manner. 

  • 110.
    Aslanzadeh, Solmaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pretreatment of straw fraction of manure for improved biogas production2011In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 5193-5205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pretreatment of straw separated from cattle and horse manure using N-methylmorpholine oxide (NMMO) was investigated. The pretreatment conditions were for 5 h and 15 h at 120 °C, and the effects were evaluated by batch digestion assays. Untreated cattle and horse manure, both mixed with straw, resulted in 0.250 and 0.279 Nm3 CH4/kgVS (volatile solids), respectively. Pretreatment with NMMO improved both the methane yield and the degradation rate of these substrates, and the effects were further amplified with more pretreatment time. Pretreatment for 15 h resulted in an increase of methane yield by 53% and 51% for cattle and horse manure, respectively. The specific rate constant, k0, was increased from 0.041 to 0.072 (d-1) for the cattle and from 0.071 to 0.086 (d-1) for the horse manure. Analysis of the pretreated straw shows that the structural lignin content decreased by approximately 10% for both samples and the carbohydrate content increased by 13% for the straw separated from the cattle and by 9% for that separated from the horse manure. The crystallinity of straw samples analyzed by FTIR show a decrease with increased time of NMMO pretreatment.

  • 111.
    Asphede, Gabriella
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Amanda
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Digitalakundrelationer: Enfallstudieinomdensvenskabanksektorn2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Digitalization is a current topic that is often observed in Swedish media.Through a focus on digital development, banks' customer relations nowadays have shiftedfrom physical interactions to be more of a digital relationship.Purpose: The study aims to deepen the discussion on digital customer relationships within theSwedish banking sector.Design/methodology/approach: The study has used an abductive approach to be able tocustomize theory after empiricism and vice versa. Using a qualitative method, empiricism wasgathered through semi-structured interviews. As a result of the purpose, a case study weredesigned. The intention was to deepen the understanding as to how the banks' customerrelationships have changed through the digital development. Ten interviews were carried out,in which all respondents were employees of one of Sweden's major banks.Findings: The study indicates that customer relationships have changed a lot during a shortperiod of time. Customers tend to more often interact in digital channels than visiting aphysical bank branch. Implementation of digital services has created several challenges forthe banks, mainly regarding security, availability, ease of use, and people in digital exclusion.However, digital channels have enabled the Bank to meet customers on a more regular basis,which according to the Bank itself creates a stronger and more stable relationship. However,turned up differeces between the study strategists and office workers, as they encounterdifferent types of customers in their everyday work.Originality/value: There is a lack of Swedish studies that discuss the topic of digitalizationwithin the Swedish banking sector. The essay therefore presents knowledge within thesubject, which can be used in further research.

  • 112.
    Assgård, Vicky
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rana, Rabia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hållbarhetsredovisningens användbarhet: – En studie av motiv och mål hosföretag i miljökänsliga branscher2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    By the end of the 1990’s, the integration of environmental and social issues commenced within the field of accountancy. It became increasingly important balance the social, environmental and economic issues. Today, it is not enough for organizations to report its financial aspects, because more companies are expected to draw up sustainability reports where they present their social and environmental impact. The purpose of this study is to generate knowledge about the goals and motives with which companies currently prepare voluntary sustainability reporting, along with researching the purpose it serves. An abductive approach has been applied in the study and a qualitative research method suited it best. The reason this method was best suited was because it was conducted based on specific theory that characterized the collection of raw data through interviews. Sustainability reports for 2015 was used as a tool for making an interview guide. In order to gain deeper understanding of the company's motives and goals as well as the usefulness of sustainability reporting today, semi-structured interviews were conducted with respondents from six companies in the textile and energy industry in Borås and Gothenburg. It was concluded that the motives and goals of companies use of sustainability reporting is that the reports are useful both internally and externally. The main motivation for establishing a sustainability report is to compile sustainability efforts. The companies are aware that their stakeholders have expectations of them, and a large part of the motivation for establishing a voluntary sustainability report is to meet their expectations. The report currently affects most of the internal processes that sustainability work is built around, as well as supporting companies when they follow-up the progress they make. Since the sustainability report is not considered comparable externally between companies, it was also concluded that it becomes difficult for consumers, for example, to compare companies 'reports with each other. This means that the sustainability report's usefulness from the companies' perspectives is not externally optimal, as the information is not considered to reach out, when respondents describe that the companies wish it would. This thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 113.
    Atanasiu, Dragu
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Modern differential- och integralkalkyl2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 114.
    Atanasiu, Dragu
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mikusinski, Piotr
    Department of Mathematics,University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL, USA.
    An elementary operational calculus2015In: Mathematical Gazette, ISSN 0025-5572, Vol. 99, no 544Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 115.
    Atterfors, Anna
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gustafsso, Julia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hemma bra men borta bäst?: En jämförelse mellan inshoring och nearshoringför hållbara företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and problematisation

    During the 1990’s many companies moved their production to remote low cost countries to reduce their production costs and create an increased competitive advantage. Research has now shown that this trend is reversing and companies are now starting to move their production to their home country or a close by low cost country due to the revelation that the total cost did not increase. Placing the production in or near the home country can result in a lower total cost, reduced risks and an increase of value to the consumer. The production location choice can also strongly be influenced by the companies’ sustainability work. The majority of research is focused around the comparison of Sweden and a low cost country in Asia but very little research has been done comparing Sweden and Europe.

    Purpose and method

    The purpose of the study is to compare the strategies inshoring and nearshoring by investigating Swedish sustainable micro companies’ choice of production location. To compare the strategies we will evaluate these through the factors cost, risk and value. The empirical material will be collected through semi-structured interviews with companies producing in either Sweden or Portugal. The result will then be analysed and connected to the theoretical framework around Supply Chain Management, sustainability and the three factors above to answer our research questions.

    Result and conclusion

    After the empirical data had been analysed we saw that the companies more or less shared there searchers’ views on that a production in Sweden in many ways was more cost effective, less prone to risks and increased the value to the consumers due to the brand being perceived as more sustainable. Also the design of the product played a big part in the choice of production location, something the literature did not bring up. Our conclusion was that none of the sourcing strategies were considered the best, but the size of the company, product design and the choice of material affected which production country that was deemed the most suitable.

    This thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 116.
    Augustsson, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Adolfsson, Kristian
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fukttillstånd i olika ytterväggar med tre olika fasadsystem: En parameterstudie med Wufi2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of buildings built under “miljonprogrammet” is today in need of renovation. With their high energy consumption it is also considered profitable to improve the buildings energy efficiency e.g. by additional insulation. It is however important to thoroughly evaluate potential damp issues that might arise as a result of these improvements before starting to implement a new building exterior.The aim of this study was to investigate three different façade systems based on how their moisture content and risk for mould growth are affected by different moisture loads, orientation, and additional insulation. Included is also a performance evaluation for each building exterior solution mounted on existing structure of wood, lightweight concrete and concrete structure. Damp simulations were done with the program Wufi and the results were then analysed by comparison to RF-curves in combination with risk assessments of the growth of mould with “Wufi Bio”.The overall conclusion shows that leakage due to torrential rain poses a great strain on building exterior systems. A solutions damp proof quality is largely dependent on its ability to withstand leakage from outer sources.The study also shows that a well ventilated cavity wall, sufficient drainage or a construction of exclusively vapour open materials has a positive impact on the amount of leakage.

  • 117.
    Au-Yeung, Chingying
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Andreasson, Emma
    Användningen av 5S och TPM på en företagskritisk maskinstation inom produktionen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project was performed at Parker Hannifin Cylinder Division at Falköping, where a station in the most critical flow at the production has been studied, which is the hand welding station. Within this report, the purpose is to identify disturbances, in order to eliminate and reduce these by coming up with improvement proposals. Furthermore, the aim is to help improve the company's work with 5S and TPM (Total Productive Maintenance). A combination of tools and concepts are being used in this project when generating improvement proposals to avoid the risk of falling back into old habits and facilitate the work. The combination of concepts, intends to be continued to work with, in order to facilitate for the company to reach even higher results.The methodology of TPM is the basis of the project, although it is not about a complete implementation of TPM, but is limited to chosen parts since it is a time consuming process that can go on for years. The main focus of TPM is about the first pillar, 5S. Action plans for how to solve these problems and how to achieve the desired state has been established.Thereafter, the researchers in cooperation with the company´s staff have implemented a couple of small improvement proposals. Further improvement proposals have also been presented in this report, but due to the limited time no implementations was made.Moreover, this project is divided into a couple of phases. Situational analysis has been made through both interviews with staff and observation studies. Analysis has also been made by some numeric data taken out by researchers and partly through mapping the equipment. The intention of this is to create a status image of the current situation over the hand welding station. The current state has shown the appearance of problems and challenges that exist. Additional wastages and disturbances in the station can come up to the surface and can thus easily be identified. In turn, occurring wastages and disturbances can be eliminated and the amount of wasted time reduced with help of the action plans to reach a future state.Another method that occurs is spaghetti charts. It has been used for mapping up the existing procedures during the process of the orders in the station, and by that identified different types of disturbances. In addition, the creation of a Value Stream Mapping (VSM) has been made. The map is used as a measurement to identify how much time on a working day that is spent as value adding time and non-value adding time of work.

  • 118.
    Axelberg, Peter
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Carlsson, Jonny
    Unipower AB.
    Measuring method for deciding direction to a flickering source.2013Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The present invention relates to a method for deciding the direction to a flickering source in relation to a measurement point in an electrical network with alternating current with a network frequency (fc) with low-frequency amplitude variation from the flickering source. The invention is characterized in that the method comprises the steps: - recording of an amplitude-modulated current signal (i(n)) comprising signals that originate from the network frequency (fc) and the low-frequency amplitude variations in the current signal (i(n)); - recording of an amplitude-modulated voltage signal ((u(n)) comprising signals that originate from the network frequency (fc) and the low-frequency amplitude variations in the voltage signal (u(n)); - creation of a flicker power with a sign value by multiplication of the low-frequency amplitude variations in the current signal and the low-frequency amplitude variations in the voltage signal, and - analysis of the sign value, with the sign value indicating in which direction the flickering source is to be found in relation to the measurement point. The method also comprises an arrangement designed to be used when carrying out the method.

  • 119.
    Axelson, Sara
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Textilt avfall och textil återvinning  i Borås Stad2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of textiles is increasing more and more, meanwhile there are vigorous efforts both from the textile industry and controlling companies to promote sustainable consumption. A significant amount of textiles discarded in household waste, which is an untapped resource that should be taken advantage of. Two methods to use textile waste is to reuse and recycling it. The reuses of textile materials are today well developed in Sweden, however, there are currently no existing system for recycling textiles.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate Borås Stad’s textile waste and the textile recycling. The reason I chose Borås is because the city has an old history in the Swedish textile industry and today strives to be in top of the textile innovations. The methods being used in this study are a literature studies and a interview.

    Borås Stad actively works to encourage the citizens to reuse and recycle their textile waste. The opportunity to recycle textiles is today only in the special collecting boxes. Borås Stad has nowadays, because of size- and economical aspects, not an own developed recycle system for textile waste.

  • 120.
    Axelsson, Filippa
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Johansson, Sofia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fluorfria återimpregneringar: en studie om konsumentprodukter för återimpregnering av textil2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The textile industry uses durable water repellents (DWR) to achieve water repellency on textiles. One of these DWR chemistries, fluorocarbons, is an environmental issue and has therefore been phased-out in the industry. This has resulted in a market where both modified fluorocarbons and fluorine-free alternatives are available and there is a lack of information about these DWR regarding health and environmental aspects. Due to the changeover from the fluorinated DWR to the non-fluorinated options, the question was raised about how durable these really are. This resulted in a wide range of do-it-yourself consumer products for the water repellency revival. These consumer products have been referred to as reimpregnations in this study. The purpose of reimpregnations is to give clothing a longer life cycle. The customer remains satisfied with the garment and this in turn reduces the textile waste. The industry wants to know more about these unexplored consumer products, including how the textile material is affected by them. A customer perspective has been the basis for selecting relevant parameters in this study, which has been creatively translated into laboratory test methods. Parameters in this study have been water repellency, color change, air permeability and fabric hand. These have been used for analysis and comparison of eight fluorine-free reimpregnations. The techniques used were wash-in and spray-on and have been investigated on four different textiles representing outdoor clothing and workwear, two made of polyester and two of polyamide. All the reimpregnations showed an increased effect in water repellency. The result varied depending on which textile material and what kind of reimpregnation that was used. The other test methods also showed variation according to these factors. Over all the wash-in and spray-on techniques showed a statistical significance. Products from the same brand applied with wash-in and spray-on techniques also showed different results. The selected laboratory test methods proved to be useful tools for evaluation of reimpregnations in textile applications. Based on the literature combined with the results from this study the conclusion has been made that reimpregnation, of textile materials, has a significant difference between DWR chemistries as well as the construction and fibre type of the textile. The safest fluorine-free option, from an environmental point of view, is believed to be wax, which is classified as a hydrocarbon chemistry, however there is much left to explore before such a conclusion can be made with certainty. This study has been an initial step towards the investigation of reimpregnations, which hopefully in the future can lead to reduced textile waste with as little environmental impact as possible.

  • 121.
    Axelsson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Svernlöv, Emma
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    CSR i modeindustrins mellanhandsföretag: en studie om integration och värdeskapande2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this qualitative study the buying activity for three smaller intermediaries in the Swedish fashion industry have been identified to compare similarities and differences. Further on we studied how CSR is integrated in the activity and which type of value these efforts create for the intermediary. The study was conducted through semi-structured interviews with CSR- and buying managers as well as a CSR- consultant who assists intermediaries in issues and strategies regarding CSR, to deepen our knowledge and gain further perspective of the area. The gathered empirical evidence has later been analyzed in connection with existing theories concerning CSR integration and value creation in order to reach a conclusion that also answers our research questions.

    The study has shown tendencies that CSR can be successfully integrated in an intermediary by letting it become a part of the company’s core activities and thereby permeate the entire organization. If the intermediary is successful with this part, value can be created in terms of brand strengthening and a good reputation as well as functioning as insurance for the future. We hope that this study can convey the importance of CSR for an intermediary and how it best can be integrated in the company’s buying activity.The following essay is written in Swedish.

  • 122.
    Axengren, Josefine
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Petersson, Sandra
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Att lyckas med strategisk planering och strategisk kontroll – En fallstudie på två svenska företag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A competitive strategy is essential for a corporate’s success in their industry. The challenge is not only to design the strategy; it is to spread it throughout the organization. An integrated measurement system refers to support and control the activities and goals that leads to strategic success. Thus, earlier studies have shown that integrated measurement systems have contributed to improve large enterprises’ performances when applied in their businesses. However, this study refers to the gap of research on the use of integrated measurement systems and its impact on small and medium-sized enterprises (SME). This study focusses on two Swedish SMEs and research what characterize their qualities that contributes to strategic success. The study will also focus on how the SMEs apply strategic planning and strategic control in their business’s.The study was based on previous studies in the context of strategy. The interviews were conducted on two Swedish SMEs, and the respondents were people that are a part of each company’s management team that possess both knowledge and insight to the company’s strategic work.Our findings suggest that factors contributing to strategic success in SME’s are: the communication approach, the attitude of the employees and the organizational structure. The strategic planning in SME wasn’t based on a specific model to support the strategic planning. However, they use a similar methodical approach to implement the activities in the strategic planning process. Finally, the study also shows that SMEs use integrated measurement in terms of financial and non-financial measurements, where the financial measurements had a greater impact on the SME business’s.

  • 123.
    Ayllon, David
    et al.
    Universidad de Alcalá.
    Gil-Pita, Roberto
    Universidad de Alcalá.
    Seoane, Fernando
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Detection and Classification of Measurement Errors in Bioimpedance Spectroscopy2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6, article id e0156522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurement errors may be caused by parasitic stray capacitance, impedance mismatch, cross-talking or their very likely combination. An accurate detection and identification is of extreme importance for further analysis because in some cases and for some applications, certain measurement artifacts can be corrected, minimized or even avoided. In this paper we present a robust method to detect the presence of measurement artifacts and identify what kind of measurement error is present in BIS measurements. The method is based on supervised machine learning and uses a novel set of generalist features for measurement characterization in different immittance planes. Experimental validation has been carried out using a database of complex spectra BIS measurements obtained from different BIS applications and containing six different types of errors, as well as error-free measurements. The method obtained a low classification error (0.33%) and has shown good generalization. Since both the features and the classification schema are relatively simple, the implementation of this pre-processing task in the current hardware of bioimpedance spectrometers is possible.

  • 124.
    Bach, Carina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ek, Kenny
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Köpprocessen: APPlicering vid nedladdning av spelappar på smartphones2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Apps are today a big market since most people own a smartphone and thus are potential app consumers. Even though just a third of all Swedes pay for mobile games, hundreds of millions Swedish Crowns are spent buying apps each year. Games is the most popular app category in the Swedish App Store and Google Play, causing developers who are not making games struggle to be seen. An established model in marketing is the buying decision process, describing the entire process from need identification to evaluation of bought product. The understanding of areas affecting the different stages is important in order to successfully design effective marketing strategies.Since mobile games tend to be free, the buying decision process while downloading gaming apps may differ from the traditional process, since e.g. impulse buying behavior may happen in greater extent. Because the app market is still young, the research is limited. The purpose of this study is to look into the structure of the buying decision process for downloading gaming apps. To extend the understandings, areas affecting the different stages of the buying decision process are examined.Because there is no prior research addressing the studied area, a qualitative approach was performed in order to identify behavior patterns. 12 persons in the ages of 16-25 who play games on their smartphones participated on semi structured interviews, explaining their process for downloading a new mobile game. A literature study of areas related to the buying decision process is the basis for the design of the interview guide.The results show that the need for a new mobile game arises in due to boredom or recommendations. Information about the game is collected from the game’s page at the app store, images and videos being of great importance. When interested in a free game one usually download without regards of any consequences, because you can easily uninstall the game if you did not like it. The opinion of the developer is not affected whether you like the game or not due to the fact one rarely observe the developer while searching for a new game. A positive judgment of the game may lead to the player recommending the game to friends. When dissatisfied one may advise against the game to people you know, but it is rare to speak ill of a game without being asked about it.The study shows that the buying decision process for downloading free mobile games consists of four stages instead of five, while the process for priced games remains the same. Regarding free games, the evaluation of alternatives is removed due to the process being nonexistent prior to a download. The information search stage is replaced with perception, since it better fits to describe the meaning of the stage. Areas affecting the different stages of the buying decision process such as attitude, memory and affect are summarized in a table. The study is in Swedish.

  • 125.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skelte, Gabrielle
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Piezoelektriska filament: från garn till textil applikation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Piezoelectric materials are frequently used in different sensors as they can generate a measurable electrical signal during applied pressure or when subjected to extension. This project examines how a piezoelectric yarn containing Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is affected when exposed to moisture, heat and long-term mechanical deformation. Focus has been directed towards investigating the properties of the piezoelectric yarn as well as how it can be applied in textile fabrics and textile applications. The piezoelectric yarn has been subjected to a series of tests. Most of the samples have undergone cyclic deformation in an extensometer during tests. The piezoelectric yarn has been examined by experiments in laboratory environment, practical tests in textile applications as well as by statistical analysis. It can be stated that factors such as moisture and temperature have influence on the piezoelectric effect of the yarn. Long-term tests reveal how the yarn displays a change in length while undergoing deformation, which contributes to the diminished signal strength of the yarn. The piezoelectric yarn can successfully be integrated in a piece of fabric by the means of sewing when using correct stitch- length, where higher stitch-length gives a higher signal output. The same method can be applied to construct a piezoelectric sensor used in a training sock. This project can conclude that parameters such as moisture, creep-behaviour and structural variation within the PVDF-filaments have a significant effect on the signal created by the piezoelectric yarn. The potential of the yarn as a sensor can be seen by successfully applying it to a textile structure as well as in a training sock that can monitor the fore and rear foot while running. It can be stated that much remains to be studied in this particular research area regarding piezoelectric filaments and yarns. Further research in the subject will lead to new innovative applications that can be of use in different parts of society, not to say the least in the area of medicine.

  • 126.
    Backe, Carin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skelte, Gabrielle
    Rundqvist, Karin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sandsjö, Leif
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Piezoelektriska strumpor för rörelsemonitorering - En känslighetsanalys2015In: Abstracts - Medicinteknikdagarna 2015, Svensk förening för medicinsk teknik och fysik , 2015, p. 60-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Backe, Karin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Enhancing textile electrode performance: Regulating moisture management through textile structure2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The medical field has been a part of the smart textile area for quite some time. With time come technological advancement and the two fields converge on more and more areas. One such area is that of using textile electrodes, textrodes, for measuring bioelectrical activity, such as heart rate for ECG analysis. There are many components that make for a successful textile electrode and though many studies have been made in the subject there are several aspects that still are difficult. By using textile electrodes the problem with skin irritation from electrolyte gels, commonly used for conventional electrodes, is avoided, however dry textrodes create disturbances in the output signal (heart rate) while subjected to movement and internal dimensional changes. The addition of moisture to a textrode has shown to decrease these intermittent disturbances but the knowledge about fundamental textile structural influence in the matter has not been fully investigated. This study investigates a flat, a 2-thread fleece and an open structure, and their relation to moisture both as textile structures and as textrodes. This way the possibilities of utilising moisture to increase performance in a textrode purpose can be examined and to what extent the textile structure plays a part in that exploitation. The material composition of textile structures also affects their properties The introduction of assistive materials, polyester and viscose, into the Shieldex (conductive yarn) structures is done to test core moisture management properties such as surface tension, absorption and moisture content, and correlate them to electrical properties necessary for textrode function. In the end the gap between textile structure and end product in form of a textrode is closed as the impedance and microclimate of the textrodes are studied. This is mainly to tie together the fundamental textile structures with a complex textile construction. In conclusion the complexity is also confirmed as structural, materialistic and external influences has an impact on the results. The influence of moisture on lowered resistance and impedance in the structures is confirmed but the impact of textile structure can also be seen. The 2-thread fleece and open structures often has a more positive impact on results and therefore has the possibility of enhancing performance of a textrode for bioelectrical signal monitoring. With these results a more effective way of producing long-lasting, patient-friendly, textrodes can be derived and in the future lead to better care in the medical areas.

  • 128.
    Backlund, Axel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A Bunch of Motherfuckers2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this project a collection of clothes, based on the raggar culture has been developed. e work is intended to be a modernization of the clothing, exploring the subculture and developing it, however without loosing its attitude. In uences from other related subcultures have also taken part in the work.

    The aim is to investigate the technique of spray painting directly on garments, as a method for developing prints, taking visual inspiration from the culture of raggare. Sources for inspiration to the painting have been gra ti, airbrush and action painters. In order to keep the attitude of the raggar culture, the collection is largely based on vintage clothing, linked to the culture in question. e result in this project is a collection containing eight out ts, dedicated mainly to raggare but also to others.

  • 129.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of thermoplastic biocomposites based on aligned hybrid yarns for fast composite manufacturing2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in natural fibres as reinforcement for composite materials has been steadily increasing due to their attractive mechanical properties and the possibility of making more eco-friendly materials. Currently, various alternatives are being introduced for commercial applications, as fibres such as hemp, jute and flax exhibit properties, which make them appropriate for structural composite components. Biocomposites offer reductions in weight and cost and have less reliance on foreign oil resources, making them attractive. Several investigations have revealed that the full utilisation of fibre mechanical properties in the final composites can be exploited, provided an aligned fibre orientation is chosen. In fact, a major challenge for natural fibre reinforced composites is to achieve high mechanical performance at competitive prices. The use of commingled/hybrid yarns is one of the more promising methods for manufacturing structural thermoplastic composites.

    Commingled yarns of thermoplastic and reinforcing fibres offer a potential for cost-effective production of composite parts, thanks to reduced applied pressures and impregnation times during processing. Besides economic advantages, there is also direct control over fibre placements and ease of handling of fibres in yarn process. The yarn technologies provide homogenous distribution of reinforcing fibre and matrix. Variation in natural fibre properties has been a major problem facing composite manufacturers, compared to carbon and glass fibres that have well-defined production processes. This issue can be addressed by regenerated cellulose fibres. These fibres can be reproduced easily with high surface evenness and even quality, making it possible to get consistent results, which is not possible with natural fibres. Combination of natural and regenerated cellulose fibre brings together the best of both materials. The end result is a product with superior properties, which could not be obtained by the individual components.

    This thesis describes the development of aligned hybrid yarns with low fibre twist, for high performance natural (hemp) and man-made (Lyocell) cellulose fibre-reinforced biocomposites, suitable for use in structural or semi-structural applications. The properties of composites in terms of fibre orientation, off-axis angle and alkali treatment were investigated, focusing on determining void%, water absorption, mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties. The results show that combining hemp and Lyocell in PLA composite leads to the reduction of moisture absorption and can improve the mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the composites were highly affected by the fibre direction. The alkali treatment on hemp fibre improved the mechanical properties of the composites.

  • 130.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Characterisation of polylactic acid biocomposites made from prepregs composed of woven polylactic acid/hemp–Lyocell hybrid yarn fabrics2016In: Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, Vol. 81, p. 139-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the mechanical properties and water absorption characteristics for biocomposites made from woven PLA/hemp/Lyocell prepregs. The aim was to improve the properties with the addition of Lyocell fibre into a hybrid yarn. Well-aligned hybrid yarns composed of hemp/PLA, hemp-Lyocell/PLA, respective, Lyocell/PLA were made by wrap spinning. Unidirectional satin fabrics were made by weaving with PLA (warp) and the hybrid yarns (weft). Uniaxial composites were fabricated with 30 fibre mass% using compression moulding. The composites were investigated for tensile, flexural and impact properties. Combining hemp with Lyocell in a PLA matrix improves the mechanical properties, compared to hemp/PLA composites. The composite made from the satin Lyocell/PLA fabric gave the best mechanical properties. The type of fibre reinforcement compositions did not significantly affect the water absorption of the biocomposites. Scanning electron microscopy showed that fibre pull-outs appear more often in hemp/PLA composites than in composites also including Lyocell fibre. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 131.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Characterization of thermoplastic natural fibre composites made from woven hybrid yarn prepregs with different weave pattern2015In: Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 81, no February 2016, p. 139-144Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 132.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Investigation of pattern style of woven fabrics produced from hybrid wrap spun yarns on fabricated composite2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 133.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Temmink, Robin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    RECYCLING OF END-OF-LIFE TEXTILE MATERIALS BY FABRICATION OF GREEN COMPOSITES2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Material recycling requires rather pure and non-contaminated waste streams, which can be converted by technical processes into new materials and products by economically and technically feasible techniques. It is also required that there is a secondary market for these recycled materials, and preferably in use areas with high economic value. End-of-life textiles cannot yet be recycled as a raw material in a feasible way. Structural composites are an excellent use area for recycled materials, as they are durable and light-weight products, with excellent mechanical properties.

    In this study, denim woven fabrics as end-of-life textiles were employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of high bio-content epoxy resin. Entropy Resin, manufacturer of commercial bio-based epoxy resin, claimed that bio-based content of system is 37 % and the resin is derived from by-products of industrial processes including wood pulp and biofuel. Bioepoxy was used as bio resins in composite manufacturing, and a conventional polyester resin served as a reference material. To create a wide scope of possibilities the composites were manufacturing using the four techniques: (1) vacuum infusion (VI), (2) resin transfer moulding (RTM), and (3) hand lay-up (HND). To determine the suitability for structural applications the biocomposites were tested for their mechanical and thermal properties. Mechanical tests for tensile, flexural strength and impact behaviour were conducted on composites. Moreover, viscoelastic properties of the composites were evaluated through dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Fabricated composites were characterised regarding porosity, water absorption and analysed through microscopic images of the composite cross section. Different manufacturing technique showed varying results. For bioepoxy both HND and VI give superior mechanical properties over RTM, as the latter gives a higher void content, and lower tensile and flexural properties.

  • 134.
    Bagheri, Masood
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Medina, Rafael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Olsson, Axel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Analys av lagerlayout för effektiviserad inleverans- och plockningsprocess2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning Inleveransprocessen och plockprocessen på ett företags centrallager har kartlagts, då problem med långa ledtider och bristfällig information upplevdes. Syftet med rapporten var att visa på hur kartläggningar kan användas vid förbättringsarbete och felsökning i processer. När processen kartlades användes SCOR-modellen där processen delades upp i dess beståndsdelar. Problem som observerades på företaget inkluderade onödigt mycket manuellt arbete, bristande lagerlayout och osorterade varor. De föreslagna lösningarna inkluderar Auto- ID, en ny lagerlayout och orderplockningsmetoder. De viktigaste slutsatserna som kunde dras i studien var följande: - Auto-ID kan minimera den manuella inmatningen av data, vilket dels är tidsbesparande, men även minskar riskerna för att den inmatade datan är felaktig. Auto-ID kan även användas för att visa på saldon på olika lagerplatser, vilket kan effektivisera plocklistorna, och därmed operatörernas plockrutter. - - En effektivisering av lagerlayouten minskar färdavstånden, och framkomligheten ökar. Med en ökad framkomlighet underlättas användandet av redskap som gaffeltruckar. Slutligen utförs sökandet efter produkter utförs snabbare, vilket i sin tur även kortar ner ledtiderna, då sökandet står för 20% av arbetarnas totala ledtid. Ett införande av standardiserade orderplockningsmetoder minskar färdavstånden, då det kan bestämmas i vilken ordning varorna skall plockas. Rutterna kan planeras så att trafiken minskar så att två eller fler operatörer inte plockar varor i samma korridor samtidigt. Slutligen medför ett införande av orderplocksmetoder att operatörerna blir mer specialiserade på ett visst område i varuhuset, och därmed förbrukar mindre tid till att leta efter varor.

  • 135.
    Bahmani, Bina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ly, Amy
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Metoder för identifiering av grundorsaker till kvalitetsfel inomproduktionsindustrin2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about how you can find the cause of quality defects in manufacturing processes and how to prevent that the same issue continue to exist. A part of the thesis illuminate the importance of identifying the root cause of a problem. The purpose of the study is to highlight some of the many methods that can be used to fins the causes for defects concerning quality in the industrial sector. The data that is collected and are the basis for the result and conclusions of the case study consisted of literature studies, observations and interviews. The quality tools that are presented in the study are “Five Whys” and the Ishikawa chart, which are two tools that, among others, makes it possible to find the root cause of a problems occurrence. The practical applications of the quality tools are presented in a case study that was conducted at Johnson Controls AB in Gothenburg, Sweden. The case study was based on observations concerning one of several production lines, where the current quality problem was critical. The conclusions drawn from this thesis is that it is important to identify the root cause of the occurrence of a problem in order to implement long-term actions and measures. The risk that comes with only reliving the symptom of a problem (and not the root of it) is that it will not be eliminated but exists and constantly requires resources to be alleviated. By identifying the root cause of a problem, one can be assure that it will not occur again, since it will be eliminated. There are various methods and tools that can be used to identify the root cause of a problem; two of them that are mentioned in the report is “Five Whys” and the Ishikawa chart. It is important to focus and resources are spent on such a long-term actions and efforts.

  • 136.
    Bahtijaragic, Elma
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Carlsson, Keith
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kunskapsöverföring: Ett verktyg för att reducera kvalitetsbristkostnader i byggbranschen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete riktar sig till byggbranschen och handlar om hur kunskapsöverföring kan användas som verktyg för att reducera kvalitetsbristkostnader. Kvalitetsbristkostnader är en följd av fel och brister som förekommer i alla verksamheter och kan enligt tidigare forskning stå för så mycket som 30 % av ett företags totala omsättning (Sörqvist 2001). För att minska kvalitetsbristkostnader är det nödvändigt att identifiera fel och brister samt förhindra att samma fel upprepas. För att få en övergripande kunskap om byggprocessen och hur kunskapen tas till vara, har en fallstudie på Peab genomförts i form av intervjuer. Arbetets teoretiska underlag har erhållits utifrån litteraturstudier. Den slutsats som har dragits av detta examensarbete är för att uppnå ett effektivt förbättringsarbete gällande kvalitetsbristkostnader i byggbranschen och öka lönsamheten är det essentiellt att företagen har väl fungerande systematisk kunskapsöverföring. Att ledningen är drivande, engagerad och delaktig för att ytterligare stärka förutsättningarna i ett lyckat förbättringsarbete.

  • 137.
    Bajrami, Linda
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nilsson, Lina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Tinder – Dejting eller Hook-up?: Hur konsumtion av Tinder ger uttryck föridentitet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to contribute to increased knowledge of individuals selfperceptionsthrough the consumption of Tinder. To fulfill the purpose, young individualsexperiences and beliefs about Tinder have been analyzed. The thesis has an inductive and aqualitative approach.The empirical material was collected through semi-structured interviews,and in addition to this, netnographic interviews were conducted. From the empirical work, athematicization was created based on the statements of the informants and three main themeswere devised. The first main theme approached Tinder's different consumption areas,Consuming Tinder, which is important in the analysis, primarily through its explanation factorfor the two following themes; Tinder - dating or hook-up as well as Tinder and self. Theempirical material was analyzed based on social psychological theories of self andconsumption. The thesis contains a number of topics that emerged during the interviews,including the tension whether Tinder is a dating or a hook-up app. This theme was studied onthe basis of several subtitles to ultimately conclude that the consumption of Tinder is havingan impact on young people's self-perception. The study found a number of different waysyoung people consume Tinder and, depending on how Tinder is consumed, differentiate selfperceptionsto expression. Furthermore, the thesis conclude that young people construct aaltered presentation of themselves on Tinder, and there is an awareness that this presentationis not true to reality. Young adults alter their presentations in the hope of achieving morematches, and with this behavior, it appeared to follow an objectification where other userswere more viewed as an object than a person.The thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 138.
    Bakare, Fatimat O.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Thermomechanical properties of bio-based composites made from a lactic acid thermoset resin and flax and flax/basalt fibre reinforcements2016In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 83, p. 176-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low viscosity thermoset bio-based resin was synthesised from lactic acid, allyl alcohol and pentaerythritol. The resin was impregnated into cellulosic fibre reinforcement from flax and basalt and then compression moulded at elevated temperature to produce thermoset composites. The mechanical properties of composites were characterised by flexural, tensile and Charpy impact testing whereas the thermal properties were analysed by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed a decrease in mechanical properties with increase in fibre load after 40 wt.% for the neat flax composite due to insufficient fibre wetting and an increase in mechanical properties with increase fibre load up to 60 wt.% for the flax/basalt composite. The results of the ageing test showed that the mechanical properties of the composites deteriorate with ageing; however, the flax/basalt composite had better mechanical properties after ageing than the flax composite before ageing.

  • 139.
    Bakare, Fatimat Oluwatoyin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of biocomposites from lactic acid thermoset resins and cellulose fibre reinforcements2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesis of polymers from renewable origin has been reported by many authors and it has been found out that it has enormous potential and can serve as alternative to conventional thermoplastics and thermosets in many applications. The use of these renewable resources will provide sustainable platforms to substitute fossil fuel-based materials. To date, efforts made to produce 100% bio-based thermosetting materials have yet to be achieved. Many studies have been reported on increasing the renewability ratio of thermoset materials produced.

    A lot of reports have been made on the synthesis of thermoplastic resins from lactic acid for biomedical applications such as tissue engineering but only few reports have been made on composite applications. The issue of high melt viscosity of thermoplastic resins from lactic acid has been of paramount problem because of its difficulty in impregnation into fibre reinforcement. Bio-based thermoset resins have been produced for composite applications from plant oils and improved mechanical properties have been achieved.

    In this thesis, an alternative route for synthesis of lactic acid based thermoset resins have been explored to solve the above problem. Thermoset resins were synthesized from lactic acid with different co-reactants and were characterized using NMR, FT-IR, DSC, DMA and TGA. Their rheological properties were also investigated. The resins were reinforced with natural and regenerated cellulose fibres in non-woven and woven form, and with different fibre alignment and fibre loading. The resulting composites were characterized by mechanical testing regarding tensile, flexural and impact strength, and by SEM analysis regarding morphology.

    The results showed that these composites could possibly be used in automobile, transport, construction and furniture applications, particularly for interior purposes. The resins produced were found to be promising materials for composite production due to the good mechanical properties achieved.

  • 140.
    Balchman, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fransén, Josefin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sociala förhållanden och uppförandekoder - Hur tar textila företag sitt ansvar?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle är Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) ett omtalat och aktuellt ämne. Det främjar hållbar utveckling och innefattar det ansvar som företag förväntas ta för sin samhällspåverkan ur socialt-, miljömässigt- och ekonomiskt perspektiv. I takt med att allmänhetens intresse för CSR växer, ökar pressen att företag ska implementera och aktivt arbeta med dessa frågor. Vidare efterfrågas en tydlig redovisning av arbetet för att företagsintressenter ska kunna ta del av informationen. Denna uppsats syftar till att belysa den sociala aspekten av CSR med fokus på textila företags uppförandekoder samt uppföljning och efterlevnad av dessa. Den empiriska undersökning som ligger till grund för uppsatsens resultat baseras på en kombination av litteraturstudie, kvalitativa intervjuer med nyckelpersoner på två svenska fallföretag i textilbranschen samt interna dokument från företagen så som års- och hållbarhetsredovisningar, uppförandekoder och pressmeddelanden. Litteraturstudien gav till följd en undersökningsmodell med åtta områden som enligt forskning har inverkan på företags utformande av CSR-arbete. Genom övrigt empiriskt material undersöktes hur de utvalda företagen såg på detta. Resultatet av denna studie mynnar ut i en modell som visar hur de olika områdena inom CSR påverkar företags uppföljningar av uppförandekod samt efterlevnad av dessa.

  • 141.
    Balesic, Armin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Chau, Ronny
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    IAS 39 vs. IFRS 9 – En komparativ studie ur ett intressentperspektiv2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IASB began the process of developing a new accounting standard after the global financial crisis. The current standard IAS 39 received criticism of being too complicated and lacking in its financial accounting of financial assets following the financial crisis. IASB’s process resulted in the completion of IFRS 9 which purpose is to replace the current standard IAS 39 concerning financial instruments. The implementation of IFRS 9 may affect a company’s financial assets differently concerning classification, reclassification, recognition, measurement and impairment. Financial assets can be measured at either fair value or amortized cost. The problem regarding these methods is the subjectivity of valuation of the financial assets.This paper applies a comparative analysis with the purpose of predicting the effects a transition from IAS 39 to IFRS 9 will have on a typical company’s financial assets. The hypothetical cases purpose is to highlight the most distinct differences between standards regarding classification, reclassification, recognition, measurement and impairment. The distinct differences are then analysed from an accounting perspective and a modified stakeholder theory.The technical analysis highlights the differences regarding the accounting treatment of a company’s financial assets. The analysis continues with an analysis on how IASB’s qualitative characteristics of accounting diverge between the standards for shareholders and Finansinspektionen. Shareholders request information which may influence their economic decision and assessment. Finansinspektionen request information and effects which will have a positive impact on a company’s financial stability.The purpose of this paper is thus to highlight the most distinct differences between IAS 39 and IFRS 9 as well as examining how the transition might affect shareholders and Finansinspektionen based on IASB’s qualitative characteristics. This paper illustrates the accounting treatment of classification, reclassification, measurement and impairment separately to elucidate the impact from a transition from IAS 39 to IFRS 9. This paper describes the different options for classification with additional terms to increase readability and a modified stakeholder theory to analyse IASB’s qualitative characteristics. The results of this paper indicate that the implementation of IFRS 9 led to changes mostly of technical nature in how to present the financial information. The most substantial difference between IAS 39 and IFRS 9 regards to the impairment treatment of financial assets.The shareholders are positively affected after a transition to IFRS 9 because the change strengthens IASB’s qualitative characteristics in a greater extent. Finansinspektionen is not affected to the same degree as shareholders. Although the most significant and positive effect for the regulatory institution with a transition may lead to increased financial stability.This paper is hereinafter written in Swedish.

  • 142.
    Balorda, Milica
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lee, Cecilia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Goodwillnedskrivningar före och efter finanskrisen: en jämförande studie mellan industribranschen och IT- och telekombranschen2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    IFRS 3 has had a big impact on how listed companies treat the recognition of goodwill. The underlying assumptions of the impairment tests are based on management’s estimates of the future, which could lead to subjective evaluations. When IFRS was introduced in 2005 Sweden was in a boom period, up until 2008 when the global financial crisis emerged and hence subsequent recession. A financial crisis may lead to the needs to make write-downs on both financial and non-financial assets. Therefore the authors want to examine in what way the financial crisis in 2008 affected companies' goodwill impairments. Since there are differences between the industrial sector and the IT and telecommunications sector in terms of accounting for goodwill, it is interesting to compare these sectors to examine if there are any significant differences.The purpose of the study is to examine how the recent financial crisis in 2008 affected companies' impairments of goodwill and assumptions in impairment testing, as well as the extent to which businesses disclosed about the impairment losses before and after the financial crisis to see if there are any significant differences between the industrial sector and the IT and telecommunications sector. The companies that are included in the study are companies that are listed on the Stockholm Stock Exchange. With a quantitative method, the authors have chosen to examine the annual reports of 15 companies in the industrial sector and 15 companies in the IT and telecommunications sector from the years 2006, 2007, 2009 and 2010. The authors have chosen as methods for the research a quantitative content analysis and performed statistical calculations. The parameters studied include disclosure on goodwill, total impairment losses, discount rates, growth rates and cash-generating units.It was only one of the study’s hypotheses that was correct. This hypothesis dealt with the discount rates before and after the financial crisis, were the study showed a significant difference between the IT and telecommunications sector and the industrial sector before the financial crisis compared to the period after the financial crisis. Another difference that was significant was the industrial sectors total impairment losses before and after the financial crisis, were the sector’s total impairment losses increased between the examined periods. The average discount rate in the IT and telecommunications sector increased between the examined periods and this difference was also considered to be significant. Furthermore, the study showed that the industrial sector had more extensive disclosure on goodwill impairments after the financial crisis compared with the previous period, unlike the IT and telecommunications sector that disclosed about goodwill impairments to a lesser extent after the financial crisis.This thesis is written in Swedish.

  • 143.
    Barghi, Hamidreza
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bulk Hydrophilic Functionalization of Polyamide 462013Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    (EN)A modified polymer as result of a bulk functionalization of polyamide 46 (PA 46) is presented, as well as methods for synthesizing the modified polymer. This functionalization of PA 46 is performed to provide a homogenous semi-permeable polyamide 46 capable of different charges and different porosities with particles of nanoscale size in order to replace or improve other polyamide fibers used in the textile industry, filtering processes, selective sorption, controlled release devices, phase transfer catalysts, chromatography media, biocompatible capsules, artificial skins, organs, bone void repair as well as in cell bioreactors and incubators, dental impliments, medical devices, clothing, detectors, perfusion devices, in regenerative medicine, and fuel cells. (FR)Un polymère modifié comme résultat d'une fonctionnalisation en masse de polyamide 46 (PA 46) est présenté, ainsi que des procédés de synthèse du polymère modifié. Cette fonctionnalisation de PA 46 est effectuée pour fournir un polyamide 46 semi-perméable homogène apte à des différentes charges et de différentes porosités avec des particules d'une dimension à l'échelle nanométrique afin de remplacer ou d'améliorer d'autres fibres de polyamide utilisées dans l'industrie textile, les procédés de filtration, la sorption sélective, les dispositifs à libération entretenue, les catalyseurs de transfert de phase, les supports de chromatographie, les capsules biocompatibles, les peaux artificielles, les organes, la réparation de cavités osseuses ainsi que les bioréacteurs et incubateurs de cellules, les implants dentaires, les dispositifs médicaux, les vêtements, les détecteurs, les dispositif de perfusion, en médecine régénérative et dans les piles à combustible.

  • 144. Barghi, Hamidreza
    et al.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Surface electroconductive modification of biopolymers2015In: Surface Modification of Biopolymers / [ed] Kumar, V., Singha, A.S., USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 145.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Söderlöv, Erik
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Cellulosic Smart Textile Fibers based on Organic Electronics2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paradigm shift of merging structural properties of materials with other functionalities prevails and cellulose based fibres are no exception. For the realisation of so called smart materials, including smart textiles, electrical conductivity is of special importance, enabling sensorics, signal transmission, energy supply, energy generation, and actuation. We here discuss taking use of the advancement within the organic electronics community of conjugated polymeric systems producing smart textile fibres for inclusion into garment as well as interior and technical textiles. Specifically, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) known as PEDOT is studied as a model system. PEDOT has relevance being a working horse within the organic electronics community. Our emerging pilot line is based on creating conductivity by vapour polymerization of EDOT monomers on an oxidant coated textile fibre where these could be taken from arrange of materials. Here we focus on cellulose based fibres. It is shown that Tencell-Lyocell is a suitable substrate offering many  anchoring sites and that multiple depositions with layers deposited directly on each other decreased the resistance from 5.1 (± 1.6) kΩ/10 cm to 1.0 (± 0.1) kΩ/10 cm, for one layer and multiple layers respectively. Furthermore, adding 15 wt. % of the copolymer PEG-PPG-PEG to the oxidant solution decreased the resistance from 6.8 (± 1.2) kΩ/10 cm to 3.9 (± 0.8) kΩ/10 cm.

  • 146.
    Bashir, Tariq
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Nils-Krister
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    High-strength electrically conductive fibers: functionalization of polyamide, aramid and polyester fibers with PEDOT polymer2017In: Polymers for Advanced Technologies, ISSN 1042-7147, E-ISSN 1099-1581, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 310-318, article id 10.1002/pat.4116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, high-performance fibers such as aramid (Twaron), polyamide (PA6), polyester (PET), and hybrid Twaron/PA6 fibers were transformed into electroactive fibers by coating them with conjugated polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) through vapor phase polymerization (VPP) method. The VPP is considered as an efficient technique for depositing CPs on different substrates regardless of their lower solubility in various solvents. In this paper, PEDOT-coated high-performance fibers were prepared under already optimized reaction conditions, and then a comparison between electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of different fibers, before and after coating, was made. The obtained coated fibers were characterized through scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), 2-probe electrical resistance measurement method, and tensile testing. It was revealed that at particular reaction conditions, all high performance textile substrates were successfully converted into electroactive fibers. The voltage-current (V-I) characteristics showed that PEDOT-coated polyester fibers exhibited highest conductivity value among all other substrate fibers. The active PEDOT layers on high performance fibers could behave as an antistatic coating to minimize the risks associated with static charges at work places. Also, the obtained fibers have potential to be used as smart materials for various medical, sports, and military applications.

  • 147.
    Bayramoglu, Helena
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Andersson, Linnea
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    CSR på mindre modeföretag2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats har till syfte att beskriva hur mindre modeföretag arbetar med hållbarhetsfrågor och möter konsumenternas förväntningar på hållbar utveckling. Uppsatsen bygger på en kvalitativ metod där främst intervjuer med mindre modeföretag ligger som underlag för hur det ser ut på marknaden idag. Som ytterligare underlag har semistrukturerade intervjuer genomförts med experter på CSR och hållbarhet. Resultatet för uppsatsen visar att det finns två huvudområden som påverkar ett företags arbete med CSR. Dels är bristen på utbildning och kunskap en bidragande faktor till att många inte har ett utvecklat arbete för dessa frågor. Ekonomi och tid är också en bristvara för mindre modeföretag, vilket gör att de måste fokusera på andra områden. Intervjuer med anställda på mindre modeföretag och experter på området, visar att företag som har arbetat med CSR och hållbarhet från start har en stor fördel för att kunna arbeta på området. Det underlättar att redan från start ha en utarbetad plan för dessa frågor istället för att införa det i efterhand. Det är dock aldrig försent att påbörja ett hållbart arbete och uppsatsens slutsats visar att det går att skapa förändring även med små medel. Det är bättre att börja med små förändringar som kan leda till något större, än att inte göra något alls. Det viktigaste är att företaget har ett intresse för frågan och viljan att utvecklas på området. Utan ett genuint engagemang blir det svårt att framgångsrikt uppnå företagets mål och skapa långsiktig förändring.

  • 148.
    Bazooyar, Faranak
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bohlén, Martin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Computational Studies of Water and Carbon Dioxide Interactions with Cellobiose2015In: Journal of Molecular Modeling, ISSN 1610-2940, E-ISSN 0948-5023, Vol. 21, p. 2553-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    B3LYP/6-311++G** with dispersion correction (DFT-D) was used to study local and global minimum energy structures of water (H2O) or carbon dioxide (CO2) bonding with a pair of cellobiose molecules. The calculations showed that neither the H2O nor the CO2 prefer to be between the cellobiose molecules, and that the minimum energy structures occur when these molecules bond to the outer surface of the cellobiose pair. The calculations also showed that the low energy structures have a larger number of inter-cellobiose hydrogen bonds than the high energy structures. These results indicate that penetration of H2O or CO2 between adjacent cellobiose pairs, which would assist steam or supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) explosion of cellulose, is not energetically favored. Comparison of the energies obtained with DFT-D and DFT (the same method but without dispersion correction) show that both hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions play an important role in cellobiose-cellobiose interactions.

  • 149.
    Bazooyar, Faranak
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Molecular-level Simulations of Cellulose Steam Explosion2015In: Quantum Matter, ISSN 2164-7615, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 115-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations are used to study steam explosion of crystalline cellulose using 100, 160, 210 and 250 °C saturated steam. The simulations are based on the COMPASS force field, which provides a valid description of the cellulose crystal structure and water-cellobiose interactions. Disruption of the crystal structure during steaming is typically larger than that during the explosion stage and the restructuring is larger at increased temperature and pressure. This is seen by an increased separation of the cellulose chains from the center of mass of the crystal during the initial stages of the steaming, especially for chains in the outer shell of the elementary fibril. There is a large change in the radius of gyration and fraction of anti torsion angle conformers for chains in the outer shell of the elementary fibril. In addition, the disruption at the reducing and non-reducing ends of the cellulose crystal is larger than in the central core, increasing susceptibility to enzymatic attack in these end regions.

  • 150.
    Bellini, Viktor
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Virtuell projekteringsteknik: En analys av BIM med avseende på VR inom konstruktion2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of BIM in the construction business is something that involves major changes for many companies. When new technologies like virtual reality begin to become more prevalent, it can be difficult for companies to keep up with developments. A better understanding of how building information modeling (BIM) focusing on virtual reality in structural engineering and projection will therefore be beneficial for the projection process and thus construction.In order to implement VR, it is first necessary that companies use three-dimensional models (3D) and modeling programs such as Revit or Tekla which is specifically designed for BIM. These types of programs plays a vital role in ensuring that the technology is used in an optimal and a user-friendly way, as constructors have a very time-consuming schedule. In addition, all participants in the project have access to a huge amount of information, where each building component has a linked data such as geometry and material. Something that makes BIM very useful is together with different plugins such as Revit structure analysis or linking timetables and cost with building components from the 3D model to create BIM 5D, where the two D-s represent time and cost. By moving one more step further and integrating VR into the model, you have the opportunity to use buildings in a context that opens up communication bridges and creates an image of projects that are close to reality.With this is mind, in this work, tests have been performed on models to find areas where VR may be useful. Based on the constructors own experiences of design tools in combination with their thoughts and ideas, applications were developed where VR might be useful to constructors. The results of the interviews showed that VR is currently less useful for constructors in smaller project, but that it has its uses in more complex cases where the constructor needs a complement to get a better overall understanding as well as for other participants in a project. For a constructor it is therefore more suited in a project as a review tool and useful in the final stages of a project. However, it may be a tool under the projection process for other parties in projects to increase mutual understanding.

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