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  • 1.
    Arya, Mina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery), University of Borås, 510 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Malmek, Else-Marie
    Juteborg AB, 426 79 Västra Frölunda, Sweden.
    Ecoist, Thomas Koch
    Ecoist AB, 262 72 Ängelholm, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jocke
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 431 53 Mölndal, Sweden.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery), University of Borås, 510 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Khalili, Pooria
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business (Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery), University of Borås, 510 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Enhancing Sustainability: Jute Fiber-Reinforced Bio-Based Sandwich Composites for Use in Battery Boxes2023In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 15, no 18, article id 3842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rising industrial demand for environmentally friendly and sustainable materials has shifted the attention from synthetic to natural fibers. Natural fibers provide advantages like affordability, lightweight nature, and renewability. Jute fibers’ substantial production potential and cost-efficiency have propelled current research in this field. In this study, the mechanical behavior (tensile, flexural, and interlaminar shear properties) of plasma-treated jute composite laminates and the flexural behavior of jute fabric-reinforced sandwich composites were investigated. Non-woven mat fiber (MFC), jute fiber (JFC), dried jute fiber (DJFC), and plasma-treated jute fiber (TJFC) composite laminates, as well as sandwich composites consisting of jute fabric bio-based unsaturated polyester (UPE) composite as facing material and polyethylene terephthalate (PET70 and PET100) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as core materials were fabricated to compare their functional properties. Plasma treatment of jute composite laminate had a positive effect on some of the mechanical properties, which led to an improvement in Young’s modulus (7.17 GPa) and tensile strength (53.61 MPa) of 14% and 8.5%, respectively, as well as, in flexural strength (93.71 MPa) and flexural modulus (5.20 GPa) of 24% and 35%, respectively, compared to those of JFC. In addition, the results demonstrated that the flexural properties of jute sandwich composites can be significantly enhanced by incorporating PET100 foams as core materials. 

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  • 2.
    Uusi-Tarkka, Eija-Katriina
    et al.
    School of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, SE-50190 Borås, Sweden.
    Khalili, Pooria
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, SE-50190 Borås, Sweden.
    Heräjärvi, Henrik
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, SE-50190 Borås, Sweden.
    Haapala, Antti
    School of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland;FSCN Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Wood-Fiber-Based All-Cellulose Composites and Cellulose-Polypropylene Biocomposites2023In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 15, no 3, article id 475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores wood-fiber-based fabrics containing Lyocell yarn in the warp and Spinnova–Lyocell (60%/40%) yarn in the weft, which are used to form unidirectional all-cellulose composites (ACC) through partial dilution in a NaOH–urea solution. The aim is to investigate the role of the yarn orientation in composites, which was conducted by measuring the tensile properties in both the 0° and 90° directions. As a reference, thermoplastic biocomposites were prepared from the same fabrics, with biobased polypropylene (PP) as the matrix. We also compared the mechanical and thermal properties of the ACC and PP biocomposites. The following experiments were carried out: tensile test, TGA, DSC, DMA, water absorption test and SEM. The study found no significant difference in tensile strength regarding the Spinnova–Lyocell orientation between ACC and PP biocomposites, while the composite tensile strength was clearly higher in the warp (Lyocell) direction for both composite variants. Elongation at break doubled in ACC in the Lyocell direction compared with the other samples. Thermal analysis showed that mass reduction started at a lower temperature for ACC, but the thermal stability was higher compared with the PP biocomposites. Maximum thermal degradation temperature was measured as being 352 °C for ACC and 466 °C for neat PP, and the PP biocomposites had two peaks in the same temperature range (340–474 °C) as ACC and neat PP combined. ACCs absorbed 93% of their own dry weight in water in just one hour, whereas the PP biocomposites BC2 and BC4 absorbed only 10% and 6%, respectively. The study highlights the different properties of ACC and PP reference biocomposites that could lead to further development and research of commercial applications for ACC.

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  • 3.
    Khalili, Pooria
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, 510 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, 510 90 Borås, Sweden.
    Dhakal, Hom Nath
    Advanced Polymers and Composites (APC), School of Mechanical Design and Engineering, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3DJ, UK.
    Dashatan, Saeid Hosseinpour
    Brunel Composite Centre, Brunel University London, London UB8 3PH, UK.
    Danielsson, Mikael
    Albany International AB, 302 41 Halmstad, Sweden.
    Gràcia, Alèxia Feiner
    Department of Textile Technology and Design, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-Barcelona Tech—UPC, 08034 Barcelona, Spain.
    Mechanical Properties of Bio-Based Sandwich Composites Containing Recycled Polymer Textiles2023In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 15, no 18, p. 1-14, article id 3815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, sandwich composites were produced by compression moulding techniques, and they consisted of regenerated cellulose fabric (rayon) and bio-based polypropylene (PP) to form facings, while virgin and recycled polyamide (PA) textiles were used as core materials. To compare the mechanical performance between sandwich composites and typical composite designs, a control composite was produced to deliver the same weight and fiber mass fraction from rayon and PP. To evaluate the influence of recycled textile on the mechanical properties of the composites, a series of flexural, low velocity impact (LVI) and tensile tests were performed. It was found that the incorporation of thicker PA textile enhanced the bending stiffness by two times and the peak flexural force by 70% as compared to those of control. Substitution of a layer of recycled textile for two layers of rayon provided a good level of impact energy absorption capacity (~28 J) and maximum force (~4893–5229 N). The tensile strength of the four sandwich composites was reported to be in the range of 34.20 MPa and 46.80 MPa. This value was 91.90 for the control composite. The 2D cross-section slices of the composite specimens did not show any evidence of fiber tow debonding, fiber bundle splitting, or delamination.

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  • 4.
    Khalili, Pooria
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Dhakal, Hom Nath
    Advanced Polymers and Composites (APC), School of Mechanical Design and Engineering, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3DJ, United Kingdom.
    Jiang, Chulin
    Advanced Polymers and Composites (APC), School of Mechanical Design and Engineering, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3DJ, United Kingdom.
    Regenerated cellulose fabric reinforced bio-based polypropylene sandwich composites: fabrication, mechanical performance and analytical modelling2023In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 22, p. 3423-3435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sandwich composites were fabricated successfully with the balsa wood as core material and regenerated cellulose fabric bio-based polypropylene (PP) composite skins. The regenerated cellulose fabric PP composites were produced using two different methods: the conventional stacking lay-up and directly using PP pellets. Sandwich composites were made using the hot press equipment with the customized mold. The sandwich composite system and bio-composite laminate were designed to achieve very close weight to compare the key mechanical properties that each design can bear. It was evidenced from the experimental results that 416% increase in the bending load bearing property of the part can be obtained when sandwich structure was used. These experimental results were in close agreement with one of the analytical modelling utilised. The drop weight impact test results demonstrated that the sandwich specimen is capable of withstanding more than 6 kN load and absorbing the impact energy of 28.37 J.

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  • 5.
    Khalili, Pooria
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Erturk, Semih Ertürk
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fabrication: Mechanical Testing and Structural Simulation of Regenerated Cellulose Fabric Elium(R) Thermoplastic Composite System2021In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, no 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regenerated cellulose fibres are an important part of the forest industry, and they can be used in the form of fabrics as reinforcement materials. Similar to the natural fibres (NFs), such as flax, hemp and jute, that are widely used in the automotive industry, these fibres possess good potential to be used for semi-structural applications. In this work, the mechanical properties of regenerated cellulose fabric-reinforced poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) (Elium(R)) composite were investigated and compared with those of its natural fibre composite counterparts. The developed composite demonstrated higher tensile strength and ductility, as well as comparable flexural properties with those of NF-reinforced epoxy and Elium(R) composite systems, whereas the Young's modulus was lower. The glass transition temperature demonstrated a value competitive (107.7 degrees C) with that of other NF composites. Then, the behavior of the bio-composite under bending and loading was simulated, and a materials model was used to simulate the behavior of a car door panel in a flexural scenario. Modelling can contribute to predicting the structural behavior of the bio-based thermoplastic composite for secondary applications, which is the aim of this work. Finite element simulations were performed to assess the deflection and force transfer mechanism for the car door interior.

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  • 6.
    Khalili, Pooria
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kádár, R.
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Blinzler, B.
    Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg.
    Impregnation behaviour of regenerated cellulose fabric Elium® composite: Experiment, simulation and analytical solution2021In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 10, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filling time and volume fill prediction of long and complex parts produced using the method of resin infusion is of prominent importance. Fibre volume fraction, reinforcement type and composite laminate thickness significantly affect the manufacturing behaviour. It is crucial to have an estimate of fabrication parameters such as filling time. The PAM-RTM (resin transfer moulding) commercial software package makes it possible to characterize the production parameters in connection with lab scale experiments. In this work, simulation tools demonstrate an accurate prediction of the resin infusion process of pulp-based fabrics and characterization of the dynamic phenomena are verified using the analytical solution for a simple part. The accurate prediction for fabrication of pulp-based fabric Elium® composite demonstrated here can be beneficial for scaling up the composite part size and production speed. The filling time was accurately predicted until 270 s for the volume fill of 10-100% using the software tool and analytical solution. This proves the rayon fabric processing capabilities as a reinforcement for industry related projects and opens for the possibility of infusion process optimization.

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  • 7.
    Cong, X.
    et al.
    Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China.
    Khalili, Pooria
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zhu, C.
    Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China.
    Li, S.
    Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China.
    Li, J.
    National Engineering Technology Research Centre of Flame Retardant Material, School of Materials, Beijing Institute of Technology, 5 South Zhongguancun Street, Haidian District, Beijing 100081, China.
    Rudd, C.
    James Cook University, Singapore 387380, Singapore.
    Liu, X.
    Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Ningbo China, Ningbo 315100, China.
    Investigation of fire protection performance and mechanical properties of thin-ply bio-epoxy composites2021In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 1-13, article id 731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid composites composed of bio-based thin-ply carbon fibre prepreg and flame-retardant mats (E20MI) have been produced to investigate the effects of laminate design on their fire protection performance and mechanical properties. These flame-retardant mats rely primarily on expandable graphite, mineral wool and glass fibre to generate a thermal barrier that releases incom-bustible gasses and protects the underlying material. A flame retardant (FR) mat is incorporated into the carbon fibre bio-based polymeric laminate and the relationship between the fire protection properties and mechanical properties is investigated. Hybrid composite laminates containing FR mats either at the exterior surfaces or embedded 2-plies deep have been tested by the limited oxygen index (LOI), vertical burning test and cone calorimetry. The addition of the surface or embedded E20MI flame retardant mats resulted in an improvement from a base line of 33.1% to 47.5% and 45.8%, respectively. All laminates passed the vertical burning test standard of FAR 25.853. Cone calorimeter data revealed an increase in the time to ignition (TTI) for the hybrid composites containing the FR mat, while the peak of heat release rate (PHRR) and total heat release (TTR) were greatly reduced. Furthermore, the maximum average rate of heat emission (MARHE) values indicated that both composites with flame retardant mats had achieved the requirements of EN 45545-2. However, the tensile strengths of laminates with surface or embedded flame-retardant mats were reduced from 1215.94 MPa to 885.92 MPa and 975.48 MPa, respectively. Similarly, the bending strength was reduced from 836.41 MPa to 767.03 MPa and 811.36 MPa, respectively. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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