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  • 1.
    Sharma, Sumit
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India.
    Shukla, Siddharth
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India.
    Rawal, Amit
    Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India.
    Jee, Shyam
    Ayaydin, Ferhan
    Vásárhelyi, Lívia
    Kukovecz, Ákos
    Kumar, Vijay
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Droplet navigation on metastable hydrophobic and superhydrophobic nonwoven materials2024In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 683, article id 132993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rendering any surface non-wettable requires it to be clean and dry after the droplet is deposited or impacted. Leveraging and quantifying the non-periodic or random topology non-wettable is intricate as the Cassie-Baxter state competes with the Wenzel or impaled state, which becomes further challenging for irregular and heterogeneous nonwoven materials. Herein, we report the fundamental insights of the impalement dynamics of droplets on metastable nonwovens and self-similar nonwoven-titanate nanostructured materials (SS-Ti-NMs) using laser scanning confocal microscopy in three dimensions. Our results represent the first example of liquid imbibition in metastable nonwovens and SS-Ti-NMs involving a complex interplay between a triumvirate of factors – the number of fibres in the defined cross-sectional area (volume), pore features, and intrinsic wetting properties of the constituent entities. Predictive models of the apparent contact angle and breakthrough pressure for nonwovens and their SS-Ti-NMs have been proposed based on micro- and nano-scale structural parameters. Enabled by X-ray microcomputed tomography analysis, a key set of three-dimensional fibre and structural parameters of nonwovens has been unveiled, which played a vital role in validating the predictive models of apparent contact angles.

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  • 2.
    Rawal, Amit
    et al.
    Department of Textile and Fibre Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India.
    Singh, Danvendra
    Department of Textile and Fibre Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India.
    Maurya, Alok
    Department of Textile and Fibre Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India.
    Shukla, Siddharth
    Department of Textile and Fibre Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi, India.
    Hussen, Muktar Seid
    Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Textilmaschinen und Textile Hochleistungswerkstofftechnik, 01062, Dresden, Germany; Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
    Kyosev, Yordan
    Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Textilmaschinen und Textile Hochleistungswerkstofftechnik, 01062, Dresden, Germany.
    Szenti, Imre
    Interdisciplinary Excellence Centre, Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720, Rerrich Béla tér 1, Szeged, Hungary.
    Kukovecz, Akos
    Interdisciplinary Excellence Centre, Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, H-6720, Rerrich Béla tér 1, Szeged, Hungary.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kumar, Vijay
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ultrasonic fortification of interfiber autohesive contacts in meltblown nonwoven materials2024In: Journal of Advanced Joining Processes, ISSN 2666-3309, Vol. 9, article id 100217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autohesion is a unique class of adhesion that enables the bonding of two identical surfaces by establishing intimate contact at interfaces. Creating intimacy between two identical surfaces poses a challenging task, often constrained by the presence of surface roughness and chemical heterogeneity. To surmount this challenge, we document a variety of autohesive traits in polypropylene-based meltblown nonwovens, accomplished through a facile, scalable, energy-efficient, and cost-effective ultrasonic bonding process. The mean work of autohesion for a single polypropylene bond, serving as a figure of merit, has been computed by extending the classical Johnson−Kendall−Roberts (JKR) theory by factoring in peel strength along with key fiber and structural parameters of nonwoven materials. Achieving a high figure of merit in ultrasonically bonded nonwovens hinges on the synergistic interplay of key process parameters, including static force, power, and welding speed, with the fiber and structural properties acting in concert. In this regard, peel-off force analysis has also been conducted on a series of twenty-seven ultrasonically bonded meltblown nonwovens prepared using a 33 full factorial design by systematically varying process parameters (static force, power, and welding speed) across three levels and extension rate. X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) analysis has been performed on select ultrasonically bonded nonwoven samples to discern their bulk characteristics. A broad spectrum of mean work of autohesion for a single polypropylene bond, ranging from 1.88 to 9.93 J/m², has been ascertained by modulating key process parameters.

  • 3.
    Johansson, Matilda
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Dhakal, H. N.
    Advanced Polymers and Composites (APC) Research Group, School of Mechanical and Design Engineering, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO1 3DJ, UK.
    Effect of lignin acetylation on the mechanical properties of lignin-poly-lactic acid biocomposites for advanced applications2023In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 202, article id 117049Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioplastics that possess characteristics like durability and low cost are desired for versatile applications in industries such as automotive manufacturing, marine transport manufacturing, aerospace applications, and the building industry. The automotive industry is an example of an industry that is now shifting towards a more focused approach addressing the issue concerning sustainability and the development of sustainable material. To achieve a lightweight and sustainable construction, one of the methods used by the automotive original equipment manufacturers is by substituting conventional fossil-based, non-renewable composites, and metallic materials with a bio-based alternative. One of the drawbacks with biobased polymers can be the poor interfacial adhesion, leading to poor mechanical properties when compares to conventional material. The aim of this research is to investigate if a low-cost by-product could be used as a component in a composite matrix material in the automotive industry to reduce the final weight and increase the non-petrochemical material usage of composite material without compromising the thermal and mechanicals properties demanded. In this research, lignin was chemically altered by esterification the functional groups to increase the compatibility with polylactic acid. The esterification was performed with the use of acetic acid anhydride and pyridine. To evaluate and determine the esterification, Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy was used. By blending the modified lignin with polylactic acid the intention was to improve the thermomechanical properties and the interfacial linkage between the components. The effects of lignin acetylation on the tensile properties, impact strength, and thermal stability and moisture repellence behaviour were investigated. According to the experimental results the modification of lignin, increased the impact strength for all the blends containing acetylated lignin compares to pristine lignin. The largest increase observed was for blends containing 20 wt% acetylated lignin and polylactic acid, which resulted in a 74% improvement compared with the blend composed of pristine lignin and polylactic acid. Similarly, the thermal stability was improved significantly with acetylation of the lignin. Moreover, the moisture repellence behaviour was also increased. The reason for the improved properties can be explained by the better interfacial compatibility between lignin and polylactic acid matrix. An increased thermal stability and a moisture repellent behaviour of the blends containing chemically modified lignin could be observed when compared with neat polylactic acid which makes the acetylation treatment of lignin a possible approach for the future of biocomposite production. 

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  • 4.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    FINOLA hemp fiber: from waste to technical textiles2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile industry is witnessing the renaissance of hemp fiber, due to its sustainability. FINOLA is a breed of hemp that is grown in cold climates for grain production, including EU countries. 

    However, after harvest, the residual stalks of these plants are considered low-value waste by-products. In this paper, we aim at optimizing the best methodology to extracting the short fibers from these agri-waste residue of FINOLA hemp, and to use them to produce higher-value technical textiles that can be used in many industries, such as construction and automotive, as an alternative to fossil-based fibers. Ultra-sound assisted mechanical extraction, with a multiple-step process had been developed for this residue. The obtained fibers are analyzed, and the relation between the process parameters and the fiber length is being investigated. The storage conditions will be assessed in relation with the obtained fiber length as well. This process is foreseen to increase the efficiency of this agricultural resource and contribute to circular economy and sustainability of textile sector.

  • 5.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Finola hemp: Fibre extraction from crops intended for grain-production2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports the mechanical extraction process of Finola hemp fibres from the agri-waste of the food industry. FINOLA is a breed of hemp that is grown in cold climates for grain production, including EU countries. However, after harvest, the residual stalks of these plants are considered low-value waste by-products. In this paper, we aim at optimizing the methodology to extracting the short fibres from these agri-waste residue of FINOLA hemp, and to use them to produce higher-value technical textiles that can be used in many industries, such as construction and automotive, as an alternative to fossil-based fibres. Mechanical extraction, with a multiple-step process had been developed for this residue. The obtained fibres showed the potential of use as a material to produce nonwovens from 100% hemp or hemp blends with other fibres. This process is foreseen to increase the efficiency of this agricultural resource and contribute to circular economy and sustainability of textile sector.

  • 6.
    Lindström, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    van der Holst, Floor
    Saxion University of Applied Science.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Investigation Of Abrasive Pre-Treatment To Mitigate Length Loss During Mechanical Textile Recycling2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental burden of the textile industry can be decreased with an increased use of mechanically recycled fibers. However, it is well known that the recycling process is harsh and shortens the fibers substantially. Still, little has been investigated about the influencing factors of the fiber length loss. 

    Previous research has shown that the parts of a garment that is more worn, lose less fiber length in the mechanical recycling process.1 One explanation could be that a loss of fibers during wearing create a more open structure of the textile. By removing fibers from the yarns in a textile, the yarn structure is partly broken down, and the yarn linear density is decreased. The strength of spun staple fiber yarns is dependent on the friction and contact surfaces between fibers. In addition, fiber migration, the variation of radial position of a fiber in the yarn, causes the fibers to lock between different helical layers and thus creates a self-locking mechanism giving strength to the yarn.2 Removal of any fiber in such a yarn affect all fibers in contact with that fiber. This in turn makes both the textile and yarns weaker and consequently more easily disentangles in a mechanical recycling process – keeping more of the fiber length. 

    The work at hand investigated this theory by subjecting woven cotton textiles with abrasion treatment prior to mechanical recycling. We compared two different methods of abrasion with unabraded textile. The two pre-treatment abrasion methods used were rubbing with sandpaper and raising with steel pins. By measuring the fiber length post mechanical recycling, we could estimate the efficiency of the recycling process in respect to preservation of the fiber. 

    Results showed that only the raising process had a positive impact in mitigating fiber length loss through the recycling process. During the rubbing with sandpaper, the fabric was pressed and thus became denser. On the contrary, the raising process pulled out the fibers and created a fuzzy surface. As the removal of any fiber affect all fibers in direct contact, even fibers in the center of the yarn are affected when surface fibers are pulled out or weakened. The raising process extracted fibers which opened up the fabric and affected the yarn structure. Hence, the yarns were more easily disentangled in the recycling process. The result gives great insight into the mechanisms of mechanical recycling and can be used for future development of the same. 

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  • 7.
    Uusi-Tarkka, Eija-Katriina
    et al.
    School of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, SE-50190 Borås, Sweden.
    Khalili, Pooria
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, SE-50190 Borås, Sweden.
    Heräjärvi, Henrik
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Department of Textile Technology, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business, University of Borås, SE-50190 Borås, Sweden.
    Haapala, Antti
    School of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland;FSCN Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Wood-Fiber-Based All-Cellulose Composites and Cellulose-Polypropylene Biocomposites2023In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 15, no 3, article id 475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores wood-fiber-based fabrics containing Lyocell yarn in the warp and Spinnova–Lyocell (60%/40%) yarn in the weft, which are used to form unidirectional all-cellulose composites (ACC) through partial dilution in a NaOH–urea solution. The aim is to investigate the role of the yarn orientation in composites, which was conducted by measuring the tensile properties in both the 0° and 90° directions. As a reference, thermoplastic biocomposites were prepared from the same fabrics, with biobased polypropylene (PP) as the matrix. We also compared the mechanical and thermal properties of the ACC and PP biocomposites. The following experiments were carried out: tensile test, TGA, DSC, DMA, water absorption test and SEM. The study found no significant difference in tensile strength regarding the Spinnova–Lyocell orientation between ACC and PP biocomposites, while the composite tensile strength was clearly higher in the warp (Lyocell) direction for both composite variants. Elongation at break doubled in ACC in the Lyocell direction compared with the other samples. Thermal analysis showed that mass reduction started at a lower temperature for ACC, but the thermal stability was higher compared with the PP biocomposites. Maximum thermal degradation temperature was measured as being 352 °C for ACC and 466 °C for neat PP, and the PP biocomposites had two peaks in the same temperature range (340–474 °C) as ACC and neat PP combined. ACCs absorbed 93% of their own dry weight in water in just one hour, whereas the PP biocomposites BC2 and BC4 absorbed only 10% and 6%, respectively. The study highlights the different properties of ACC and PP reference biocomposites that could lead to further development and research of commercial applications for ACC.

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  • 8.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Opening Ratio vs. Quality: Optimizing Fibre Extraction from Hemp Residues2023In: Innovation aspects of textile industry / [ed] Magdalena Tokarska, Lodz: Technical University of Lodz, 2023, p. 48-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemp has emerged as a sustainable alternative to various materials in multiple industries, from textiles to construction. One of the most crucial aspects of optimizing its industrial application is extracting good fibre. While various chemical and mechanical methods exist for this extraction, the mechanical route is often favoured for its eco-friendly profile. This study aims to explore how the 'opening ratio' in mechanical extraction machinery affects the quality of hemp fibres obtained from residues. 

    The hemp residue being used comes from Finola hemp; a variety of hemp known for its seeds. However, Finola also contains fibres with potential for various applications. Mechanical extraction trials were conducted using varying opening ratios on a special decorticator machine; the fibres obtained were then subject to a series of quality tests, including tensile strength and fibre length. Preliminary findings suggest a correlation between the opening ratio and fibre quality. This research carries significant implications for the industrial application of hemp fibres. An optimized opening ratio in mechanical extraction processes could enhance the commercial value of hemp fibres while promoting sustainability by turning residues into valuable raw materials. The potential for using Finola fibres in textiles, composites, and other industrial applications is worth exploring.

  • 9.
    Ehsanimehr, S.
    et al.
    Université de Lorraine, CNRS, LPCT, 54000, Nancy, France.
    Sonnier, R.
    IMT – Mines Ales, Polymers Hybrids and Composites (PCH), 6 Avenue De Clavières, 30319, Alès Cedex, France.
    Badawi, M.
    Université de Lorraine, CNRS, LPCT, 54000, Nancy, France.
    Ducos, F.
    Université de Lorraine, CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57000, Metz, France.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery.
    Saeb, M. R.
    Department of Polymer Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Gdańsk University of Technology, G. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Vahabi, H.
    Université de Lorraine, CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57000, Metz, France.
    Sustainable Flame-Retardant Flax Fabrics by Engineered Layer-by-Layer Surface Functionalization with Phytic Acid and Polyethylenimine2023In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New generation of mission-oriented fabrics meets advanced requirements; such as electrical conductivity, flame retardancy, and anti-bacterial properties. However, sustainability concerns still are on-demand in fabrication of multi-functional fabrics. In this work, we used a bio-based phosphorus molecule (phytic acid, PA) to reinforce flax fabrics against flame via layer-by-layer consecutive surface modification. First, the flax fabric was treated with PA. Then, polyethylenimine (PEI) was localized above it to create negative charges, and finally PA was deposited as top-layer. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) proved successful chemical treatment. Pyrolysis-combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) showed significant drop by about 77% in the peak of heat release rate (pHRR) from 215 W/g for untreated to 50 W/g for treated flax fabric. Likewise, the total heat release (THR) decreased by more than three times from 11 to 3.2 kJ/g. Mechanical behavior of the treated flax fabric was completely different from untreated flax fabrics, changing from almost highly-strengthened behavior with short elongation at break to a rubber-like behavior with significantly higher elongation at break. Surface friction resistance was also improved, such that the abrasion resistance of the modified fabrics increased up to 30,000 rub cycles without rupture.   

  • 10.
    Uusi-Tarkka, Eija-Katriina
    et al.
    School of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland.
    Levanič, Jaka
    Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Wood Science and Technology, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Heräjärvi, Henrik
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, FI-80130 Joensuu, Finland.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Haapala, Antti
    School of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Science and Forestry, University of Eastern Finland, FI-80101 Joensuu, Finland; FSCN Research Centre, Mid Sweden University, SE-85170 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    All-Cellulose Composite Laminates Made from Wood-Based Textiles: Effects of Process Conditions and the Addition of TEMPO-Oxidized Nanocellulose2022In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 14, no 19, article id 3959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All-cellulose composites (ACCs) are manufactured using only cellulose as a raw material. Biobased materials are more sustainable alternatives to the petroleum-based composites that are used in many technical and life-science applications. In this study, an aquatic NaOH-urea solvent system was used to produce sustainable ACCs from wood-based woven textiles with and without the addition of TEMPO-oxidized nanocellulose (at 1 wt.-%). This study investigated the effects of dissolution time, temperature during hot press, and the addition of TEMPO-oxidized nanocellulose on the mechanical and thermal properties of the composites. The results showed a significant change in the tensile properties of the layered textile composite at dissolution times of 30 s and 1 min, while ACC elongation was the highest after 2 and 5 min. Changes in hot press temperature from 70 °C to 150 °C had a significant effect: with an increase in hot press temperature, the tensile strength increased and the elongation at break decreased. Incorporating TEMPO-oxidized nanocellulose into the interface of textile layers before partial dissolution improved tensile strength and, even more markedly, the elongation at break. According to thermal analyses, textile-based ACCs have a higher storage modulus (0.6 GPa) and thermal stabilization than ACCs with nanocellulose additives. This study highlights the important roles of process conditions and raw material characteristics on the structure and properties of ACCs. 

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  • 11.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Johansson, Belinda
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    All-Cellulose Composites Properties from Pre- and Post-Consumer Denim Wastes: Comparative Study2022In: Journal of Composites Science, E-ISSN 2504-477X, Vol. 6, no 5, article id 130Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the recycling of discarded denim textiles by the production of all-cellulose composites (ACCs). Discarded denim fabrics were shredded into fibers and then made into nonwoven fabrics by carding and needle punching. The produced nonwoven fabrics were converted to ACCs by one-step and two-step methods using an ionic liquid (IL), 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium acetate ([BMIM][Ac]). In this study, the effect of different ACC manufacturing methods, denim fabrics with different contents (a 100% cotton denim (CO) and a blend material (cotton, poly-ester and elastane (BCO)) and reusing of IL as a recycled cellulose solvent on the mechanical pro-perties of the formed ACCs were investigated. The ACCs were characterized according to their tensile and impact properties, as well as their void content. Microscopic analysis was carried out to study the morphology of a cross-section of the formed composites. The choice of the one-step method with recycled IL, pure IL or with a blend material (BCO) had no influence on the tensile properties. Instead, the result showed that the two-step method, with and without DMSO, will influence the E-modulus but not the tensile strength. Regarding the impact properties of the samples, the only factor likely to influence the impact energy was the one-step method with CO and BCO.

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  • 12.
    Pita Miguélez, Inés
    et al.
    Ghent University.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Blomberg, Pontus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Study of spinnability impediments for cottonrecycled fibres due to morphological alterations during simulated production2022Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 13.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Towards sustainable textile sector: Fractionation and separation of cotton/ polyester fibers from blended textile waste2022In: Sustainable Materials and Technologies, ISSN 2214-9937, article id e00513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textiles made of blended cotton/polyester fibers have a huge share of the markets nowadays. The desirable properties of these blends made them a popular choice for both producers and consumers. However, at the end of life, this blended textile waste is often being disposed of in landfills in many parts of the world, since the fibers are hard to be fractionated and/or separated from each other and sorted according to their type, which hinders their recyclability and re-introduction to the supply chain. A significant loss of resources and big environmental impacts are only few consequences of these practices. In this article, we highlight the state of the art of fractionation and separation of cotton/polyester blended textile waste and the methods used in literature, which could be classified into mechanical, chemical and biological approaches. Additionally, we critically discuss the challenges facing these processes and their scaling-up, providing insights on how to overcome these challenges and the new initiatives in this regard, in order to contribute to the circularity and sustainability of the textile sector.

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  • 14.
    Syrén, Felicia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Andersson Drugge, Gabriella
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Peterson, Joel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Chemical treatment of paper yarn from Swedish forests to enhance the yarn knittability2021In: 5th International Conference on Natural Fibers, Funchal/Portugal & Online, May 17-18, 2021: Materials of the Future, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knittability of Swedish paper yarn was attempted to be enhanced using different chemical treatments. To evaluate the effect of the treatments, the coefficient of friction between the yarn and metal was investigated. In addition, the tensile properties of the yarn were clarified.

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  • 15.
    Syrén, Felicia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Peterson, Joel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Effects of Microwave Treatment in Immersed Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of Jute Yarn2021In: Fibers, E-ISSN 2079-6439, Vol. 9, no 7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The versatile bast fiber jute has environmental benefits compared to glass fibers. However, for jute to be used in a composite, the fiber properties need to be altered. This study aims to improve the mechanical properties of jute yarn to make it more suitable for technical applications as a composite. To alter its mechanical properties, jute yarn was immersed in water during microwave treatment. The time and power of the microwave settings differed between runs. Two states of the yarn were tested: fastened and un-fastened. Tensile testing was used at the yarn and fiber level, followed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and microscopy. The treatment result demonstrated the ability to increase the elongation of the jute yarn by 70%. The tenacity was also increased by 34% in the fastened state and 20% in the un-fastened state. FTIR showed that no change in the molecular structure occurred. The treatments resulted in a change of yarn thickness depending on the state of the yarn. The results indicate that microwave treatment can be used to make jute more suitable for technical applications depending on the microwave treatment parameters.

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  • 16.
    Syrén, Felicia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Drugge, Gabriella
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Peterson, Joel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Enhanced Knittability of Paper Yarn from the Swedish Forest by Using Textile Finishing Materials2021In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, no 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Friction between Swedish paper yarn and needles is a limiting factor that-together with the low yarn flexibility-is hindering the knitting and use of paper yarn as a sustainable textile material. To enhance the knittability, paper yarn was coated with textile finishing materials. The effect of six different textile finishing materials used for textiles processing (three different silicone-based, wax, glycerol, and soap) was evaluated. The treatment evaluation was done by determination of the friction coefficient, tensile testing, and knitting. The friction coefficient was determined by an adaption from the ASTM D3108-07 Standard Test Method for Coefficient of Friction, Yarn to Solid Material. The adaption meant using a specially designed rig, making it possible to simulate the yarn/needle friction during the knitting process and use a tensile testing machine to determine the friction coefficient. Through using the same angle for yarn movement during the knitting process in this adaptation, the effect of the flexibility of paper on the friction coefficient is integrated. Tensile testing was performed using a Tensolab 2512A/2512C electromechanical tensile tester, and knitting tests were performed using a Stoll CMS 822 HP knit and wear flat knitting machine with the E5.2 gauge. The results show that knittability is better for the yarns with lower coefficients of friction and can also be enhanced by spraying with regular water. The tensile properties of the yarn is degraded by the treatments. The wax- and soap-treated yarns were most challenging to knit. The silicone-based and glycerol-treated yarns showed enhanced knittability, where the glycerol treatment results in more protruding fibers compared to the other treatments. All treatments reduced the roughness in the feel of the knit. The results indicate that the Swedish paper yarn can be a future sustainable complement to polyester and cotton.</p>

  • 17.
    Syrén, Felicia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Peterson, Joel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Improving the flexibility of paper yarn fabric produced from Swedish forests2021In: AUTEX 2021 - 20th World Textile Conference - Unfolding the Future (Book of Abstracts), 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Lindström, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sjöblom, Therese
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Improving Mechanical Textile Recycling by Lubricant Pre-Treatment to Mitigate Length Loss of Fibers2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there has been some research on how to use short fibers from mechanically recycled textiles, little is known about how to preserve the length of recycled fibers, and thus maintain their properties. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a pre-treatment with lubricant could mitigate fiber length reduction from tearing. This could facilitate the spinning of a 100% recycled yarn. Additionally, this study set out to develop a new test method to assess the effect of lubricant loading. Inter-fiber cohesion was measured in a tensile tester on carded fiber webs. We used polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 aqueous solution as a lubricant to treat fibers and woven fabrics of cotton, polyester (PES), and cotton/polyester. Measurements of fiber length and percentage of unopened material showed the harshness and efficiency of the tearing process. Treatment with PEG 4000 decreased inter-fiber cohesion, reduced fiber length loss, and facilitated a more efficient tearing process, especially for PES. The study showed that treating fabric with PEG enabled rotor spinning of 100% recycled fibers. The inter-fiber cohesion test method suggested appropriate lubricant loadings, which were shown to mitigate tearing harshness and facilitate fabric disintegration in recycling.

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  • 19.
    Lindström, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sjöblom, Therése
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Decreasing Inter-Fiber Friction With Lubricants For Efficient Mechanical Recycling Of Textiles2019In: Autex 19th World Textile Conference: Textiles at the Crossroads, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To decrease the environmental burden of the textile industry and at the same time reduce textile waste, the fibers of discarded textiles can be re-used into new yarns and fabrics. The shortening of fibers during mechanical shredding direct the use of the recovered fibers to low value products. With the use of a lubricant pre-treatment on cotton and polyester fabrics, we decreased the friction during shredding. The reduction in friction was shown with a developed inter-fiber friction test. Further, the pre-treatment was shown to give longer recovered fibers and eliminate melted areas in polyester material.

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  • 20.
    Kadi, Nawar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås.
    Effect of Textile structure in the process parameters of thermoplastic bio-composite2019In: MATEC Web of Conferences, E-ISSN 2261-236X, Vol. 261, no 01005, p. 1-3Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermoplastic bio-composite have a higher potential of use based on the sustainability benefits. Natural fibres today are a popular choice for applications in biocomposite manufacturing. Hybrid yarns are a satisfactory solution to improve the fabrication of composites containing a thermoplastic matrix and plant-based fibres. Nevertheless, it is still difficult to produce bio-composites with superior mechanical properties, due to problematic impregnation and consolidation results during the production process. This paper investigates the processing parameters for the compression moulding of two different hemp/PLA textiles structure bio-composites (warp knitting and weaving structure). Finite element simulations are used to optimise the processing parameters (pressure, temperature, and time). The results demonstrated that the textile structure has a small effect on the time of production. Main while the pressure and temperature of processing parameters depend only on the type of matrix and the thickness of biocomposite has a big impact on the time of production.

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  • 21.
    Syrén, Felicia
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Peterson, Joel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Investigation of microwave treatment effects in the jute tenacity2019In: Aachen-Dresden-Denkendorf International Textile Conference, Dresden, November 28-29, 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The jute was subjected to microwave treatments in two different states: unfastened, andfastened. The effects in mechanical properties depend on the state during treatment. Theunfastened state increases the elongation of the jute yarn. For the fastened state, thetreatment increases the tenacity. The higher tenacity resulting from the treatment makes itpossible for jute yarn to be used in a broader range of applications.

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  • 22.
    Lindström, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Investigation Of Staple Fibre To Fibre Cohesion By Tensile Test Of Web2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Friction and cohesion forces have great influence on the processability of a fibre as well as causing fibre breakage during mechanical recycling of textiles. Through pre-treatment of the fibres or textiles with a lubricant, the friction and cohesion forces can be decreased. However, the measurement of friction coefficient on staple fibres is challenging and needs special machinery. With the development of a new test method of the fibre cohesion force we can measure the effect of a treatment on fibre cohesion, predict the spinnability of a fibre as well as see the effect of a lubricant on the tearing efficiency in textile mechanical recycling.

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  • 23.
    Vogt, Sarah
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Determination of Processing Parameters for Thermoplastic Biocomposites Based on Hybrid Yarns Using Finite Elements Simulation2018In: Journal of Composites Science, ISSN 2504-477X, Vol. 2, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the processing parameters for the compression molding of hemp/PLA hybrid yarn biocomposites and their effect on the final mechanical properties. Finite element simulations are used to develop and assess the processing parameters, pressure, temperature, and time. These parameters are then evaluated experimentally by producing the composites by two different methods, to compare the results of experimentally determined processing conditions to parameters determined by the simulation analysis. The assessment of mechanical properties is done with several experimental tests, showing small improvements for the composites produced with the simulation method. The application of the simulation analysis results in considerably reduced processing times, from the initial 10 min to only three minutes, thereby vastly improving the processing method. While the employed methods are not yet able to produce composites with greatly improved mechanical properties, this study can be seen as a constructive approach, which has the ability to lead to further improvements.

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  • 24.
    Kadi, Nawar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Muhandes, HasanKalácska, GáborSkrifvars, MikaelUniversity of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pin-on-Plate Abrasive Wear Test For Several Composite Materials2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
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  • 25.
    Kadi, Nawar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Baghaei, BehnazUniversity of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.Skrifvars, MikaelUniversity of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The effect of process parameters on the mechanical properties of thermoplastic bio-composite2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Kadi, Nawar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Using Finite Element Simulation to Optimize Thermoplastic Bio - Composites Process Parameters2018In: International Journal of Management and Applied Science, ISSN 2394-7926, Vol. 4, p. 73-75Article, book review (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of thermoplastic composite is clearly of higher potential because of: good impact strength, easier recycling, faster processing conditions (no time for curing is required), possibility of production in longer series, lower cost, absence of toxic solvents and higher fracture toughness and elongation on the fracture. Natural fibres today are a popular choice for applications in composite manufacturing. In fact, a major challenge for natural fibre reinforced composites is to achieve high mechanical performance at competitive prices. This paper investigates the processing parameters for the compression moulding of hemp/PLA hybrid yarn bio-composites and their effect on the final mechanical properties. Finite element simulations are used to develop and assess the processing parameters pressure, temperature, and time. The application of the simulation analysis results in considerably reduced the processing times from initially 10 minutes to only 2 minutes, and improved the mechanical bio-composite

  • 27.
    Lindström, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Utility of conditioner for reduced interfibre friction as predictor of gentler shredding2018In: Aachen-Dresden-Denkendorf International Textile Conference, Aachen, November 29-30 2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 28.
    Kadi, Nawar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Peterson, Joel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Holmudd, Olle
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Karnoub, Amer
    University of Aleppo.
    The Effect of Warp Tension on the Colour of Jacquard Fabric2017In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2017, Vol. 254, article id 082014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this paper is to demonstrate the effect of warp tension on fabric colour for several types of weaves structures, and found a relationship between them. The image analyse technique used to determine the proportion of yarns colour appearance, the advantage of this techniques is the rapidity and reliability. The woven fabric samples are consisting of a polyester warp yarn with continuous filaments and density of 33 end/cm, a polypropylene weft yarn with a density of 24 pick/cm, and the warp tension ranged between 12-22 cN/tex. The experimental results demonstrated the effect of the warp tension on the colour of fabric, and this effect is related to several factors, where the large proportion of warp appearance leads to larger effect on fabric colour. The difference in the value of colour differences ΔEcmc is larger is in the range 16 to 20 cN/tex of warp tension. Using statistical methods, a mathematical model to calculate the amount of the colour difference ΔEcmc caused by the change in warp tension had been proposed.

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  • 29.
    Karnoub, Amer
    et al.
    Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Aleppo.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Holmudd, Olle
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Peterson, Joel
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The Effect of Warp Tension on the Colour of Jacquard Fabric Made with Different Weaves Structures2017In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this paper is to demonstrate the effect of warp tension on fabric colour for several types of weaves structures, and found a relationship between them. The image analyse technique used to determine the proportion of yarns colour appearance, the advantage of this techniques is the rapidity and reliability. The woven fabric samples are consisting of a polyester warp yarn with continuous filaments and density of 33 end/cm, a polypropylene weft yarn with a density of 24 pick/cm, and the warp tension ranged between 12-22 cN/tex. The experimental results demonstrated the effect of the warp tension on the colour of fabric, and this effect is related to several factors, where the large proportion of warp appearance leads to larger effect on fabric colour. The difference in the value of colour differences ΔEcmc is larger is in the range 16 to 20 cN/tex of warp tension. Using statistical methods, a mathematical model to calculate the amount of the colour difference ΔEcmc caused by the change in warp tension had been proposed.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Kadi, Nawar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Muhandes, Hasan
    Kalácska, Gábor
    Thermoplastic biocomposite based on cellulose fibers2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Karnoub, Amer
    et al.
    Aleppo University, Syria.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Azari, Zitouni
    ENIM, France.
    Using the expert system to analyze loom performance2017In: Journal of the Textile Institute, ISSN 0040-5000, E-ISSN 1754-2340, Vol. 108Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 31 of 31
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