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  • 1.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    FINOLA hemp fiber: from waste to technical textiles2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile industry is witnessing the renaissance of hemp fiber, due to its sustainability. FINOLA is a breed of hemp that is grown in cold climates for grain production, including EU countries. 

    However, after harvest, the residual stalks of these plants are considered low-value waste by-products. In this paper, we aim at optimizing the best methodology to extracting the short fibers from these agri-waste residue of FINOLA hemp, and to use them to produce higher-value technical textiles that can be used in many industries, such as construction and automotive, as an alternative to fossil-based fibers. Ultra-sound assisted mechanical extraction, with a multiple-step process had been developed for this residue. The obtained fibers are analyzed, and the relation between the process parameters and the fiber length is being investigated. The storage conditions will be assessed in relation with the obtained fiber length as well. This process is foreseen to increase the efficiency of this agricultural resource and contribute to circular economy and sustainability of textile sector.

  • 2.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Finola hemp: Fibre extraction from crops intended for grain-production2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work reports the mechanical extraction process of Finola hemp fibres from the agri-waste of the food industry. FINOLA is a breed of hemp that is grown in cold climates for grain production, including EU countries. However, after harvest, the residual stalks of these plants are considered low-value waste by-products. In this paper, we aim at optimizing the methodology to extracting the short fibres from these agri-waste residue of FINOLA hemp, and to use them to produce higher-value technical textiles that can be used in many industries, such as construction and automotive, as an alternative to fossil-based fibres. Mechanical extraction, with a multiple-step process had been developed for this residue. The obtained fibres showed the potential of use as a material to produce nonwovens from 100% hemp or hemp blends with other fibres. This process is foreseen to increase the efficiency of this agricultural resource and contribute to circular economy and sustainability of textile sector.

  • 3.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Opening Ratio vs. Quality: Optimizing Fibre Extraction from Hemp Residues2023In: Innovation aspects of textile industry / [ed] Magdalena Tokarska, Lodz: Technical University of Lodz, 2023, p. 48-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemp has emerged as a sustainable alternative to various materials in multiple industries, from textiles to construction. One of the most crucial aspects of optimizing its industrial application is extracting good fibre. While various chemical and mechanical methods exist for this extraction, the mechanical route is often favoured for its eco-friendly profile. This study aims to explore how the 'opening ratio' in mechanical extraction machinery affects the quality of hemp fibres obtained from residues. 

    The hemp residue being used comes from Finola hemp; a variety of hemp known for its seeds. However, Finola also contains fibres with potential for various applications. Mechanical extraction trials were conducted using varying opening ratios on a special decorticator machine; the fibres obtained were then subject to a series of quality tests, including tensile strength and fibre length. Preliminary findings suggest a correlation between the opening ratio and fibre quality. This research carries significant implications for the industrial application of hemp fibres. An optimized opening ratio in mechanical extraction processes could enhance the commercial value of hemp fibres while promoting sustainability by turning residues into valuable raw materials. The potential for using Finola fibres in textiles, composites, and other industrial applications is worth exploring.

  • 4.
    Kahoush, May
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Eco-Technologies for Immobilizing Redox Enzymes on Conductive Textiles, for Sustainable Development2022Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this work are to investigate the use of different eco-technologies as strategies for immobilization of redox enzymes on conductive carbon-based felts, to produce bio-functionalized textiles for a future use in sustainable applications while maintaining low environmental impact. Methods using cold remote plasma, electrically conductive biocompatible coating (PEDOT:PSS) and natural crosslinker for the enzyme (genipin) were tested and showed to be efficient in the intended applications. The enzymatic activity of the used glucose oxidase was maintained for multiple number of uses, and showed potential in sustainable wastewater treatment applications in bio-Fenton and bio-electro-Fenton setups. 

  • 5.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Towards sustainable textile sector: Fractionation and separation of cotton/ polyester fibers from blended textile waste2022In: Sustainable Materials and Technologies, ISSN 2214-9937, article id e00513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textiles made of blended cotton/polyester fibers have a huge share of the markets nowadays. The desirable properties of these blends made them a popular choice for both producers and consumers. However, at the end of life, this blended textile waste is often being disposed of in landfills in many parts of the world, since the fibers are hard to be fractionated and/or separated from each other and sorted according to their type, which hinders their recyclability and re-introduction to the supply chain. A significant loss of resources and big environmental impacts are only few consequences of these practices. In this article, we highlight the state of the art of fractionation and separation of cotton/polyester blended textile waste and the methods used in literature, which could be classified into mechanical, chemical and biological approaches. Additionally, we critically discuss the challenges facing these processes and their scaling-up, providing insights on how to overcome these challenges and the new initiatives in this regard, in order to contribute to the circularity and sustainability of the textile sector.

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  • 6.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Genipin-mediated immobilization of glucose oxidase enzyme on carbon felt for use as heterogeneous catalyst in sustainable wastewater treatment2021In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 105633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzyme immobilization is necessary process to improve the bioactivity and stability of the biocatalyst. In this study, glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was immobilized on plasma-treated fibrous carbon felt as a textile carrier to produce a heterogeneous catalyst. Genipin, as a naturally occurring crosslinker, that has less cytotoxicity than conventional crosslinkers, was used in the enzyme immobilization process. UV-Vis and FTIR spectra confirmed the crosslinking reaction between genipin and the primary amines of GOx enzyme, by forming blue-pigmented aggregates. GOx relative activity after crosslinking and immobilization on the carbon felt was maintained up to 40%, with stability in performance up to 6 cycles for the plasma treated carbon, while maintaining their bio-electro-activity as shown from cyclic voltammetry scans (CV). The obtained heterogeneous catalysts have been tested for use in sustainable wastewater treatment of Remazol Blue RR (RB) dyestuff by means of Bio-Fenton (BF) and enzymatic Bio-electro-Fenton (BEF) processes. The produced samples resulted in high color removal efficiency, up to 93% discoloration of (RB) for the first use in (BF) process in 3 h. Meanwhile, enzymatic (BEF) process resulted in up to 34% of COD removal, with simultaneous power density generation up to 0.16 ± 0.01 μW.cm−2 at a current density of around 10 ± 2 μA.cm−2 in 12 h. These results highlight the importance of genipin as a bio-based crosslinker for enzymes, and the potential use in both (BF) and (BEF) as sustainable approaches for wastewater treatment and as a step towards zero-energy degradation of organic matter.

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  • 7.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT (France).
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    ENSAIT, GEMTEX – Laboratoire de Génie et Matériaux Textiles, F‐59000 Lille, France.
    Cayla, Aurélie
    ENSAIT, GEMTEX – Laboratoire de Génie et Matériaux Textiles, F‐59000 Lille, France.
    Mutel, Brigitte
    Université de Lille, F‐59000 Lille, Nord de France, France.
    Guan, Jingping
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215006 China.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Influence of remote plasma on PEDOT:PSS‐coated carbon felt for improved activity of glucose oxidase2020In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing wettability of carbon felts is an important strategy to improve their efficiency in bio‐electrochemical applications. Herein, influence of cold remote plasma (N2 + O2) treatment on surface properties of carbon felts with poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) coating was tested, aiming to improve immobilizing of glucose oxidase enzyme (GOx). Spectra of N 1s and O 1s confirmed the integration of carbonyl and ether as well as amide and amine groups on bare carbon fiber surface, while on coated fibers, carbonyl groups were pre‐dominant. S 2p spectra confirmed oxidation of PEDOT:PSS coating with reduction of (S−) compared to (SO3−) group. GOx immobilized on different samples showed highest activity for PEDOT:PSS coating subjected to plasma with 2% O2, maintaining up to 60% after immobilization, and 37% of its activity after six cycles for some samples. Enzymes immobilized on samples without plasma treatment lost their activity after four cycles.

  • 8.
    Kahoush, May
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Eco-Technologies for Immobilizing Redox Enzymes on Conductive Textiles, for Sustainable Development2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Enzyme immobilization on electrically conductive supports is necessary to improve their bioactivity and stability, for use and re-use in applications depending on bio-electrochemical response, such as in bioelectrodes, biosensors, or biofuel cells. However, the immobilization methods used are still facing many challenges in terms of health hazards and high environmental impact. Thus, it is important to find balanced and eco-friendly approaches to achieve efficient immobilization with minimum harmful consequences.

    Hence, within the frame of this thesis, the use of eco-technologies such as cold remote plasma, a bio-compatible conductive (PEDOT:PSS) polymer coating, and a bio-based crosslinker “genipin” which has low toxicity, to immobilize glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme on conductive carbon fiber-based nonwoven textiles was investigated. These carbon-based textiles, regardless of their hydrophobicity, are robust materials to be used as alternative for expensive rigid metals, since they possess good electrical conductivity and good resistance to corrosion in different media.

    The results obtained showed that cold remote plasma treatment with nitrogen and oxygen gas mixture was efficient in functionalizing the surface of carbon felts and PEDOT:PSS coated felts. This increased carbon fiber surface energies, and facilitated the immobilization of GOx by physical adsorption with maintained bioactivity and improved reusability. Furthermore, immobilization of GOx using genipin as a crosslinking agent improved remarkably the stability of performance of bio-functionalized carbon felts. This crosslinker showed to be able to directly crosslink the enzymes without a matrix or hydrogel. Finally, the obtained bio-functionalized carbon textiles were primarily evaluated for use in sustainable applications for wastewater treatment such as Bio-Fenton (BF) and enzymatic Bio-Electro-Fenton (BEF). The results showed that bioactivity and bio-electro-activity of immobilized GOx was promising in color removal of Remazol Blue RR reactive dye and its partial degradation from solution in both treatments, which proved the success of the chosen immobilization methods in producing bioactive textiles that can be used as electrodes for power generation and pollution control.

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  • 9.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT.
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    Université de Lille, Nord de France, France.
    Aurélie, Cayla
    Université de Lille, Nord de France, France.
    Brigitte, Mutel
    Université de Lille, Nord de France, France.
    Jinping, Guan
    College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Surface modification of carbon felt by cold remote plasma for glucose oxidase enzyme immobilization2019In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 467, p. 1016-1024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite their chemical inertness and poor hydrophobicity, carbon-based materials are widely used in electrochemical applications due to their robustness, good electrical conductivity and corrosion resistance. The purpose of the work carried was to increase the wettability of nonwoven carbon fiber felts for improved efficiency in bio/electrochemical applications. Virgin Carbon Felt (VCF) was first treated with cold remote plasma (CRP) using a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen (1 or 2 %) as plasma gas.  Bio-functionalization of the carbon felts with glucose oxidase (GOx) enzyme was then carried using physical adsorption method. FTIR and XPS analysis showed an integration of new oxygenated functional groups (C-O and C=O) as well as amines and amides on the surface of VCF treated by the CRP treatment, which improved the wettability of the samples. Capillary uptake increased from around 0 % (for VCF) to nearly 750 % with 2 % oxygen in plasma gas. GOx enzyme showed higher activity after immobilization at pH 5.5 on the CRP treated samples, maintaining up to 50 % of its initial enzymatic activity after six cycles while with the VCF, no enzymatic activity was observed after the fourth cycle. These obtained felts can be used as electrodes in sustainable bioprocesses.

  • 10.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    ENSAIT .
    Cayla, Aurélie
    ENSAIT.
    Guan, Jinping
    Soochow University .
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bio-Electro-Fenton for the Treatment of Textile Wastewater2018In: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Fiber and Polymer Biotechnology / [ed] Jürgen Andreaus, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 73-74, article id OP 22Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT.
    Behary, Nemeshwaree
    ENSAIT.
    Cayla, Aurélie
    ENSAIT.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bio-Fenton and Bio-Electro-Fenton as sustainable methods for degrading organic pollutants in wastewater2018In: Process Biochemistry, ISSN 1359-5113, E-ISSN 1873-3298, Vol. 64C, p. 237-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an overview of the bio-Fenton and bio-electro-Fenton processes for sustainable wastewater treatment is provided. These two methods have been used in recent years to treat many kinds of persistent pollutants while maintaining the sustainability in materials and power consumption compared to conventional methods, through efficient eco-designed systems. The different kinds of electrodes used for the bio-electro-Fenton are reviewed, along with the influencing factors affecting the efficiency of these methods, and the different designs used to construct the reactors. Moreover, the various organic pollutants from industrial sources, like effluents from textile and pesticides facilities, treated using these processes are also reported. However, the main challenge facing these technologies is to improve their performance, stability and lifetime to achieve more sustainable and cost-effective wastewater treatment on pilot and large scales. Hence, future perspectives and trends are discussed to overcome the drawbacks of these methods.

  • 12.
    Kahoush, May
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. ENSAIT.
    Bio-functionalization of conductive textile materials with redox enzymes2017In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2017, Vol. 254, article id 112002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, immobilization of oxidoreductase enzymes on electrically conductive materials has played an important role in the development of sustainable bio-technologies. Immobilization process allows the re-use of these bio-catalysts in their final applications.

    In this study, different methods of immobilizing redox enzymes on conductive textile materials were used to produce bio-functionalized electrodes. These electrodes can be used for bio-processes and bio-sensing in eco-designed applications in domains such as medicine and pollution control.

    However, the main challenge facing the stability and durability of these electrodes is the maintenance of the enzymatic activity after the immobilization. Hence, preventing the enzyme’s denaturation and leaching is a critical factor for the success of the immobilization processes. 

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  • 13.
    Kahoush, May
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Behary, NemshwareeENSAIT.Cayla, AurileENSAIT.
    Comparison of three different methods for immobilizing redox enzymes on a multi-filament conductive carbon yarn2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
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