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  • 1.
    Hedegård, Lars
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Balkow, Jenny
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Louwerse, Marianne
    Digital teknik och kvantitativ metod i undervisningen2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitalisering i form av ny teknik är ett av de områden som våra framtida företagsekonomiska studenter förväntas kunna hantera i ett kommande yrkesliv. Samtidigt måste beslutsfattare idag i allt högre grad förhålla sig till kvantitativ data som samlas in via digital teknik. Vi måste därför inom ramen för våra utbildningar skapa möjligheter för ökad kompetens hos studenterna att samla in, analysera och förstå kvantitativ data så att dessa kan omvandlas till beslutsunderlag. Företagsekonomiska utbildningar måste således ge studenterna både teoretiska och praktiska kunskaper att hantera digital teknik och kvantitativ data i relevanta professionsmiljöer. Med sessionen [en workshop] adresserar vi hur företagsekonomisk utbildning kan göra detta genom att samla erfarenheter av undervisning som syftar till att ge studenterna teoretisk och praktisk kunskap av digital teknik och kvantitativ metod.

  • 2.
    Fuentes, Christian
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Balkow, Jenny
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wittrock, Hanna
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Mobile shopping from home: Digitalization and the reconfiguration of domestic retailscapes2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile shopping is becoming an increasingly widespread phenomenon and an emerging field of research (Groß, 2015). While much of the early research in this field has been focused on understanding what affects the acceptance of technology for mobile shopping and intentions and attitudes driving mobile shopping, there is a growing body of work that sets out to understand how mobile shopping is carried out in practice and what this entails (for an overview of this field, see Fuentes & Svingstedt, 2017).

    Studies within this activity-based stream of research show that consumers are using mobile phones to for example search for product information, check store availability, compare prices, and purchase products online (Spaid & Flint, 2014). Consumers are also using mobile phones to chat about products with friends, to check blogs on the go, and to coordinate their shopping trips with friends and family (Fuentes & Svingstedt, 2017). Mobile phones, it would seem, are both used as practical and social shopping tools, offering consumers a broad range of possibilities (Spaid & Flint, 2014). The use therefore of mobile phones is having significant impact on shopping. Some studies even indicate that as mobile phones are becoming increasingly integrated into shopping practices, they are reconfiguring the practice of shopping. 

    While much can be said about what this means for the practice of shopping, one of the more significant changes is the temporal and spatial shift that comes as the result of the ubiquity of mobile phones. Because we carry these devices with us at all times (more or less) and because of the development of wifi and mobile internet, consumers today have access to retailscapes wherever and whenever they are. In addition to allowing consumers to shop on the go, as other studies have shown (Fuentes & Svingstedt, 2017), this also means that a considerable amount of shopping is today done digitally from home. Smartphones are central in this new home-shopping practice, enabling consumers access to multiple retail sites as well as a plethora of shopping tools (budget apps, shopping list apps) and third-party sites (such as price runner). While shopping from home has been possible ever since the advent of catalogue shopping, we propose that the introduction of the smartphone and other mobile digital devices is leading to the reconfiguration of mobile shopping from home, changing both how we shop at home but also how we approach and perform our homes. 

    The aim of this paper is therefore to examine and explain how and under what conditions mobile phones are reconfiguring both the practice of mobile shopping from home and the spatialities and temporalities of the home. This is important both to understand the developing practice of mobile shopping but also to be able to comment on the impact that digitally enabled commercialization is having on consumers everyday lives. Theoretically we draw on the theoretical framework of practice theory and the geographically influenced concept of retailscape (Fuentes, Bäckström, & Svingstedt, 2017) to conceptualise home shopping as mode of practice both anchored in and capable of reconfiguring the spatial and temporal make-up of the home. 

    Empirically, the analysis draws on an on-going ethnographically inspired study of home shopping consumers. Participants are asked to document their at-home mobile shopping using a research app, taking photos and writing comments, for a period of two weeks. They are then interviewed using the collected material but also going beyond it about their home shopping and how/when/where it is performed, what other practices it is connected to/inhibits and how this practice has developed over time. 

    Preliminary results indicate that at home mobile shopping – defined in the broad sense to include – is a practice that has been increasing in intensity, particularly during the pandemic. While consumers approach and conduct mobile shopping from home in different ways, they all developed more or less routinized forms of mobile shopping. In establishing these new modes of shopping, the practices “carved out” space for themselves, being often conducted in specific home place – in the kitchen/by the fridge, in bed or the sofa – depending on the practice. Moreover, mobile shopping from home required that the practice be “wedged-in” between other practices. Temporal ordering and synchronizing with other practices were crucial for the reconfiguring effects that mobile shopping had on everyday lives. It was thus clear that mobile shopping from home was a practice that had to be actively worked into the nexus of everyday practices and what once in place it reconfigured by the spatial and temporal organisation of the home. 

    This digitally enabled reconfiguration had both positive and negative outcomes for consumers. While mobile shopping from home often helped consumer juggle their busy lifestyles, they were also often worried that this practice was conducted at the expense of other social and work-related practices. Similarly, while mobile shopping from home made their home a more functional space, particularly so under the pandemic, it also connected their homes to multiple retailscapes, at times with perceived negative results. 

    To conclude, while we do not claim homes had previously been free of commercial influence, on the contrary the home has a long history as a retailscape (see for example catalogue shopping and the phenomenon of TV-shop), mobile phones lead to the enactment of new domestic retailscapes. Both the mechanisms involved in this process and the outcome of it warrants scholarly attention.

  • 3.
    Giri, Chandadevi
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Thomassey, Sebastien
    Balkow, Jenny
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Zeng, Xianyi
    Forecasting New Apparel Sales Using Deep Learning and Nonlinear Neural Network Regression2019In: 2019 International Conference on Engineering, Science, and Industrial Applications (ICESI), 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to other retail industries, fashion retail industry faces many challenges to foresee future demand of its products. This is due to ever-changing choices of their consumers, who get influenced by rapidly changing market trends and it leads to the short life cycle of a fashion product. Due to the advent of e-commerce business models, fashion retailers have to put a multitude of virtual product images along with their feature information on their websites in order for their customers to know the fashion products and improve their purchasing experience. It is imperative for fashion retailers to predict future consumer preferences in advance; however, they lack advanced tools to achieve this goal. To overcome this problem, this research work combines the historical information of products with their image features using deep learning and predicts future sales. Apparel images are converted into feature vectors and then are merged with historical sales data. We applied backward propagation neural network model to predict the sales of a new product. It is found that the model performs quite well despite the small size of the dataset. This approach could be promising for forecasting the new arrivals of apparels in the market, and fashion retailers could improve their efficiency and growth.

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  • 4.
    Löfström, Tuwe
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Johansson, Ulf
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Balkow, Jenny
    Sundell, Håkan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    A data-driven approach to online fitting services2018In: Data Science and Knowledge Engineering for Sensing Decision Support / [ed] Jun Liu (Ulster University, UK), Jie Lu (University of Technology Sydney, Australia), Yang Xu (Southwest Jiaotong University, China), Luis Martinez (University of Jaén, Spain) and Etienne E Kerre (University of Ghent, Belgium), 2018, p. 1559-1566Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to accurately predict several attributes related to size is vital for services supporting online fitting. In this paper, we investigate a data-driven approach, while comparing two different supervised modeling techniques for predictive regression; standard multiple linear regression and neural networks. Using a fairly large, publicly available, data set of high quality, the main results are somewhat discouraging. Specifically, it is questionable whether key attributes like sleeve length, neck size, waist and chest can be modeled accurately enough using easily accessible input variables as sex, weight and height. This is despite the fact that several services online offer exactly this functionality. For this specific task, the results show that standard linear regression was as accurate as the potentially more powerful neural networks. Most importantly, comparing the predictions to reasonable levels for acceptable errors, it was found that an overwhelming majority of all instances had at least one attribute with an unacceptably high prediction error. In fact, if requiring that all variables are predicted with an acceptable accuracy, less than 5% of all instances met that criterion. Specifically, for females, the success rate was as low as 1.8%.

    Download full text (pdf)
    A data-driven approach to online fitting services
  • 5.
    Hjelm Lidholm, Sara
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Radon, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sundström, Malin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Balkow, Jenny
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Understanding On-Line Fashion Buying Behavior on Impulse: Feelings Nothing More Than Feelings2017In: Advanced Fashion Technology and Operations Management / [ed] Alessandra Vecchi, London: London College of Fashion , 2017, p. 235-249Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Johansson, Ulf
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Sundström, Malin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Håkan, Sundell
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Rickard, König
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Jenny, Balkow
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Dataanalys för ökad kundförståelse2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Balkow, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Sundström, Malin
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Produktinformation i butiken2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här är en studie om konsumenters behov av produktinformation i butik. Vi har testat konsumenters kännedom om QR-koder och deras intention att vilja använda QR-koder i fysiska butiker. Rapporten redogör för resultaten från intervjuer av butikskunder samt ett experiment där respondenterna har fått scanna en QR-kod med fördjupad produktinformation. De viktigaste resultat som framkommit är: • Kännedomen om QR-koder som fenomen är hög, men användningen eller benägenheten att använda dem i fysiska butiker är låg • I de fall då konsumenter kan tänka sig att använda QR-koder i butik anser åldersgruppen 12-40 år att man kan göra det om man får relevant och fördjupad produktinformation. Konsumenter över 40 år kan bara tänka sig att använda QR-koder om man får en rabatt eller prissänkning. Utifrån dessa resultat har följande kunskaper erhållits • Det finns en potential i att erbjuda kunder produktinformation i butik med hjälp av digital teknik. Främst därför att det ger ett kundvärde men också för att det underlättar för butiksmedarbetare när det är mycket kunder i butiken. • Att erbjuda digitala informationsverktyg kräver dock att konsumenterna ”undervisas” i hur man gör samt erhåller ett verkligt värde i form av trovärdig och konsumentnyttig information. • I ett övergångsskede kan konsumenter erbjudas någon form av rabatt eller prissänkning för att få dem att börja använda informationskanalen.

  • 8.
    Sundström, Malin
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Balkow, Jenny
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Florhed, Jonas
    Tjernström, Matilda
    Wadenfors, Pernilla
    Inpulsive Buying Behaviour: The Role of Feelings When Shopping for Online Fashion2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an in-depth study of young Swedish consumers and their impulsive online buying behaviour for clothing. The aim of the study is to develop the understanding of what factors affect impulse buying of clothing online and what feelings emerge when buying online. The study carried out was exploratory in nature, aiming to develop an understanding of impulse buying behaviour online before, under and after the actual purchase. The empirical data was collected through personal interviews. In the study, a pattern of the consumers recurrent feelings are identified through the impulse buying process; escapism, pleasure, reward, scarcity, security and anticipation. The escapism is particularly occurring since the study revealed that the consumers often carried out impulse purchases when they initially were bored, as opposed to previous studies.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Sundström, Malin
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Balkow, Jenny
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Convenience and E-retail Consumers in China and Sweden2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The dream of 1,3 billion customers has now entered the online phase. After a slow start, the number of online shoppers in China has started to accelerate. The estimates are that there are some 450 million Internet users in China today (Muncaster, 2012; Xinhua, 2012, BCG 2011) but the estimates of the number of online shoppers range from 150 million (Kearney, 2012) to the recent estimates made by PWC of that indicates that 70% of the Chinese internet users are also shopping online. Considering that the growing middle class is expected to reach 800 million by 2015 and the recently revealed plans to subsidise high-speed Internet access also in rural areas , the Boston Consulting Group projects that China will be able to surpass the US to become the largest e-commerce market in the world by that same time, which might lead to wonder if retailers are missing China’s e-commerce boom. Like always, in order to avoid missing a market opportunity, the need for knowledge about the why, how, and when of consumer buying behavior is a main ingredient. We believe the first question of “why” (Chinese consumers sometimes buy from the Internet) is a good starting point. In a survey made by the Acquity Group that covered 1000 respondents in 150 Chinese cities three main reasons for why Chinese engage in e-commerce was outlined (Indvik, 2012) namely greater product selection, the ability to compare prices and, finally, convenience. However, the meaning of convenience in the context of e-commerce contains different meanings. Previous studies made in Sweden have shown that a convenient e-commerce purchase differs according to the buying situation and customer motives. Sometimes e-customers want to save time and energy, sometimes they search for a greater supply of products, and sometimes they want to be anonymous (Sundström, 2007). The objective in this paper is thus to make an initial study in order to create an understanding of how Chinese e-commerce customers perceive the concept of convenience. The empirical data presented is collected with a qualitative approach, using drawings which are analyzed. The sample comes from both Chinese and Swedish consumers based on the mission to “draw a picture of how they thought of the Internet store in terms of convenience”. The methodology using drawings come from the design field (Yi-Luien Do et al., 2000) and from the field of psychiatry (Wojaczynska-Stanek et al., 2008). To supplement the drawings group interviews with Chinese consumers. The convenience illustrations are analysed with the help of a theoretical framework based on prior academic literature on retail store convenience, and existing literature on e-convenience, benefits of convenience, convenience in the context of technological innovations, and convenient decision making. Results indicate that great product selection and the possibility to compare prices were important to the Chinese consumers but that the time factor was of outmost important both to female and male respondents. Considering the traffic in central cities and the distance between home/workplace to the shops are time consuming. The structure of the retail market also makes shopping time consuming since the traditional markets are often divided by industry, which means that you buy cloths in one area and consumer technology in another. It also shows how shopping online is a more social occurrence since the respondents gather up around the computer to buy together and to discuss the purchase. The paper ends with a discussion on how knowledge about consumer-convenience could contribute when performing empirical studies focusing on how consumers perceive the use of self-service-technologies in a Chinese retail setting.

  • 10.
    Balkow, Jenny
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    In the middle: on sourcing from China and the role of the intermediary2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past three decades China’s rapid transition from a closed economy to become the factory of the world has astonished economists all over the world. Surveys among sourcing practitioners show that China is the most interesting market for sourcing and research points to lower costs as the main reason. This dissertation is an exploratory study of the role of the intermediary for Swedish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) that source from China. Three questions are discussed. The first question concerns why Swedish SMEs choose to source from China. Although costs are a major factor for the companies, it is usually other triggers that cause the change in strategy, such as management interest or pressure from a large customer. The second research question concerns how Swedish SMEs choose to source from China and how the role of the intermediary is related to this process. The study shows that finding a good supplier is not difficult. The companies use informal channels, references and sometimes unorthodox methods such as following the supplier of the raw material to find suppliers that deliver high quality goods. The problem is however to maintain a steady quality and on time delivery which is why intermediaries are introduced late in the relationship. The cases in this study show example of five different intermediated strategies; Direct, Service,Traditional, RepO and FICE/WFOE. The traditional intermediated strategy is the only strategy where there is little or no relation between buyer and supplier, whereas the other four strategies involve different degrees of interaction between all three actors in the dyad; the buyer, the supplier and the intermediary. The third research question concerned the role of the intermediary. The study shows that the respondents are influenced by their structural view on what role the different forms of intermediaries may take. Although the respondents discuss the importance of having a long-term view on the relationship with the supplier they continuously allow intermediaries to enter the relationship on a short-term basis for quality control. These quality control centers (QC) commonly work on a fixed commission based on services that has to be specified. When the buyers are trying to change their strategy to look for an intermediary with higher involvement they usually turn to internal intermediaries (i.e. subsidiaries). When deciding on a long term intermediary the buyer usually looks for competences that supplement their own knowledge – that is Chinese language, good knowledge of the Chinese market but also technological competence. What the western owned intermediaries in China stresses however is the need to find intermediaries to supplement the suppliers’ competences, so that they are able to translate the needs of the buyer’s customer and becomes a physical reminder that they are sent from the buyer. The case of QC, shows that if a company let the relationship with the intermediary develop through interaction they can become just as involved. The study is based on interviews with key informants at Swedish SMEs andat different types of intermediaries in China. The empirical data are presented infive themes developed through an iterative process of theoretical studies anddata collection. The first two themes are directly related to the first tworesearch questions. The third theme focuses on the sourcing process andactivities of four small Swedish design companies. The fourth theme displayshow the intermediaries in China discuss their role. Finally, the fifth theme pictures the supply chain of one focal company at five points in time when they are in the process of changing their supply chain to increase transparency.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Eriksson, Sören
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Backman, Mikaela
    Högskolan i Jönköping, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Balkow, Jenny
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Jönköping, IHH, Företagsekonomi.
    Dahlkild, Jenny
    Högskolan i Jönköping, IHH, Nationalekonomi.
    Varför producera utomlands?: 11 fallstudier från Jönköpings län om outsourcing och offshoring2008Book (Other academic)
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