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  • 1.
    Lewis, Erin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Borås.
    Kooroshnia, Marjan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Dumitrescu, Delia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Walters, Kathryn
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Colour, texture, and luminance: Textile design methods for printing with electroluminescent inks2023In: Cultura e Scienza del Colore - Color Culture and Science Journal, ISSN 2384-9568, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 27-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printable smart materials offer textile designers a range of changeable colours, with the potential to redefine the expressive properties of static textiles. However, this comes with the challenge of understanding how the printing process may need to be adapted for these novel materials. This research explores and exemplifies the properties and potential of electroluminescent inks as printable smart colours for textiles, in order to facilitate an understanding of designing complex surface patterns with electroluminescent inks. Three conventional textile print methods – colour mixing, halftone rasterization, and overlapping – have been investigated through experimental design research to expand the design potential of electroluminescent inks. The result presents a set of methods to create various color mixtures and design complex patterns. It offers recipes for print formulation and documents the outcomes, offering a new design resource for textile surface pattern designers to promote creativity in design, and provides fundamental knowledge for the creation of patterns on textiles using electroluminescent inks.

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  • 2.
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    "EMF sniffer": Exhibition in DRAFTS 4: Body and Space Relations2023Artistic output (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Radiant Textiles: Designing electromagnetic textile systems2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To regard the electromagnetic domain of conductive textiles is to unlock a realm of expressive possibilities. The underexplored area of the electromagnetic domain in con­ductive textiles implies that numerous computational and electronic textiles created thus far possess untapped capabilities. These textiles, composed of metals and metal alloys, transcend our perception by constantly interacting with electromagnetic waves, fields, and signals. Serving as energetic materials, they extend a textile’s design qual­ities beyond its visible and tangible elements, ushering designers into an intangible, non-visual, extrasensory realm.

    Through experimental design research, the research program aims to explore the ex­pressive possibilities of the electromagnetic domain of textiles. To achieve this, there is an initial focus on material development to understand the means through which these phenomena can be expressed. Subsequently, the design of methods and tools for sens­ing and perceiving the phenomena are explored. This foundational knowledge is crucial in uncovering the aesthetic potentials of electromagnetic systems involving sensing circuits and textile artefacts. Additionally, design variables that extend the expressive possibilities of textiles are proposed including textile radiance, electromagnetic texture, electromagnetic fusion, electromagnetic coupling, diffusion, and field shape. Further­more, the results suggest a framing for how electromagnetic textiles function through acts of sensing, acting, and revealing. 

    Through examples, exhibitions, and publications, an argument is made for positioning electromagnetic textiles as a distinctive category of smart textiles, unveiling the often overlooked design potential residing within electromagnetic phenomena. The choice of how to sense and reveal electromagnetic phenomena through textiles presents aesthetic implications for multisensory textiles, requiring designers to transcend the realms of visibility and tactility, thereby challenging the predominant senses employed in conventional textile design. This presents as an expanded design space that allows for unconventional textile expressions. This forms the basis for radiant textiles: a type of smart textile that regards a textile’s electromagnetic qualities and properties, and which opens to multisensorial textile expressions.

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  • 4.
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Radiant Textiles: Field topologies of woven textile structures2023Artistic output (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiant textiles are smart textiles regarded for their electromagnetic properties. The work is a series of 3D-printed objects that make visible the otherwise imperceptible magnetic fields of woven textile structures. These fields are captured through a “magnetic textile scanning” method that employs magnetometer readings. The data is used in 3D design software to create visualizations for 3D printing.

  • 5.
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Between yarns and electrons: A method for designing electromagnetic expressions in woven smart textiles2022In: Artifact: Journal of Design Practice, ISSN 1749-3463, Vol. 9, no 1-2, p. 23.1-23.25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of woven smart textiles presents a discrepancy of scale where the designer works at the level of structural textile design while facets of the material express at scales beyond one’s senses. Without appropriate methods to address these unknown (or hidden) material dimensions, certain expressional domains of the textile are closed off from textile design possibilities. The aim of the research has been to narrow the gap that presents when one designs simultaneously at the scale of textile structure and electron flow in yarns. It does this by detailing a method for sensing, visualizing, and discussing expressions of electromagnetism in woven smart textiles. Based on experimental research, a method of textile surface scanning is proposed to produce a visualization of the textile’s electromagnetic field. The woven textile samples observed through this method reveal an unknown textural quality that exists within the electron flow – an electromagnetic texture, which emerges at the intersection of woven design and electromagnetic domain variables. The research further contributes to the definition of specific design variables such as: field strength and diffusion expanding the practice of woven smart textile design to the electromagnetic domain.

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  • 6.
    Stasiulyte, Vidmina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Introducing Sensory-Material Aesthetics in Textile Design Education2022In: Diseña, ISSN 2452-4298, Vol. 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In textile design education, material expressions tend to be directed toward visual-tactile sensory domains. Yet, materials are perceived by all senses, as the body’s experience is mediated through multiple sensory modalities. This paper presents an experiential learning workshop designed to introduce textile design students to somaesthetics as a way to increase sensory competencies and enrich the exploration of sensory-material expressions in textile design. Teaching methods involved a sensitizing exercise, a reflective sense collage, a collaborative sense map task, and a final design task. An evaluative discussion is based on workshop feedback by the students and reflections by the researchers. The main contributions of the paper are guidelines as an inspirational source for introducing sensory-material aesthetics in textile design education.

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  • 7.
    Davis, Felicia
    et al.
    Stuckeman Center for Design Computing, Pennsylvania State University, USA .
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Borås.
    Oghazian, Farzaneh
    Stuckeman Center for Design Computing, Pennsylvania State University, USA .
    Evrim, Berfin
    School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape University of Calgary, Canada.
    Tuning in: Reflections in the Wake of Blackness through a Knitted Textile Antenna2022In: ISEA 2022 POSSIBLES: PAPER / [ed] ISEA International, ISEA International , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the context and inspirations for the Flower Antenna, a large-scale, hovering, sculptural sound installation that combines sound and transmission art, computational textiles, and architectural design. Computational textiles include microcontrollers and other electronic components as well as use the natural property of the fabric to communicate information to people The Flower Antenna was exhibited at the Museum of Modern Art’s (MOMA) Reconstructions: Architecture and Blackness in America during the spring of 2021. The authors discuss the use of electromagnetic waves via an electronically active textile construction as a form of non-visual media used to represent the paradox of Blackness and the presence of Black people in architecture in the wake of the history of slavery in the United States. Electromagnetic waves are neither seen nor recognized by most people, yet they shape the spaces people inhabit and support almost every part of society today with the use of invisible networks cast by the internet and its structures. This artistic project contributes to a discussion and reconstructing an understanding of Black culture in transmission arts, textile design, and in architecture. 

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    ISEA-FlowerAntenna
  • 8.
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Borås.
    Between Yarns and Electrons: A method for designing textural expressions in electromagnetic smart textiles2021In: Nordic Design Conference 2021: Scales of Design, Kolding, DK, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of smart textiles presents a discrepancy

    of scale where the designer works at the level of

    structural textile design while facets of the material

    express at scales beyond one’s senses. Without

    methods to narrow this gap, certain expressional

    domains of the textile are closed off from design

    possibilities. The aim of the research has been to

    design a method for observing, visualizing, and

    describing expressions of electromagnetism in

    textiles. Through a method of textile surface

    scanning, one can produce a visualization of its

    electromagnetic field. Woven textile samples

    observed through this method reveal a textural

    quality that exists within the electron flow – an

    electromagnetic texture, which emerges at the

    intersection of woven design and electromagnetic

    domain variables. The design variables field

    strength, diffusion, and field shape contribute in

    narrowing the gap that presents when one designs

    simultaneously at the scale of textile structure and

    electron flow in yarns.

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  • 9.
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Radiant Textile Systems: Textile Design Thinking in Action2021In: Radiant Textile Systems: Textile Design Thinking in Action, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile design research is a rapidly growing research area that broadly aims to discuss the ubiquitous role of textiles across various intersecting fields including technology, health care, sports, health and well-being, and artistic practices. Textile design research often utilizes textile thinking as a notion elemental to the design process, where the thinking, making, knowing with, in, and of itself, bound up within the agencies of the materials themselves. Here, the focus moves beyond the tangible design outcome to suggest other forms and practices of knowledge-making that transcends disciplinary boundaries, even manifesting in immaterial design outcomes. 

    This artistic research explores the ways in which electromagnetic fields can be expressed through textile materials and textile design processes. To do this, scientific and artistic nuances of both the tangible textile material and the intangible electromagnetic phenomena must be articulated. The framework presented includes artistic methods and tools used to design radiant textile systems, which present in the liminal space between textiles and free space. The framework introduces new notions for qualifying electromagnetic phenomena in the context of textile design, and that opens toward new textile interactions. 

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide an example of how artistic research can fluidly move between the scientific and the artistic, and when given this freedom, it begins to articulate relations found in the interstices between practice, methods, and tools, and the developments therein, and lead to theory development in the context of textile-based artistic research. This presentation will include video, audio, and photographic materials that demonstrate the ways in which the artistic research has been carried out to date, and design examples that have been made using the framework, methods, and tools developed within the research.

  • 10.
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Borås.
    Radiant Textiles: A framework for designing with electromagnetic phenomena2021Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of smart, interactive, computational, and electronic textiles involves working with unknown variables that expand the tangible dimensions of textiles. Non-visual concepts such as electromagnetic fields, electrical current, computational code, and the temporal attributes of materials that exhibit dynamic qualities require that textile designers be able to perceive and manipulate domains of the textile that extend beyond its conventional forms of expression. Through these qualities, the textile becomes an interface to otherwise imperceptible phenomena of electromagnetism and thereby opens up to new textile design expressions. However, to do so requires a shift in the understanding of how fundamental textile concepts such as material, form, and expression interrelate to affect the expressive domain of the textile itself.

    This research aims to describe the material attributes, characteristics, and expressions of electromagnetic phenomena as explored through experimental research methods and suggests ways in which electromagnetic phenomena can be worked with as a design material for smart textiles. Further, it seeks to expand upon conventional design variables of textiles to include its electromagnetic domain. The experiments presented in this thesis suggest a framework for working with magnetic, dielectric, and conductive materials through textile techniques of weaving and knitting. The experiments point to the interrelationship between the textile material, structure, and form, identifying this triad as the key influencers that determine how textile expressions can embrace electromagnetic phenomena.

    The results of the experimental work are methods that show accessible ways for textile designers to visualize and perceive electromagnetic fields in textiles, such as sensing the impressions of textile structures on the magnetic field using a method of scanned-surface imaging; perceiving electromagnetic fields using textile antennas and spatial exploration, resulting in sonic expression; and kinetic textile behaviours at the yarn level through magnetic interactions. Furthermore, the design possibilities of the materials, methods and tools suggested in this thesis are demonstrated through examples of interactive artefacts, e.g., in the form of ambient energy harvesting forest mobiles and radio-frequency (RF) body extensions. The results suggest the variety of electromagnetic textile expressions that can be created when methods and tools to perceive and manipulate electromagnetic phenomena in textiles are consciously utilized.

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  • 11.
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Borås.
    Abstract Everywhere: Dressing in Electromagnetic Atmospheres2020In: Unlikely: Journal for Creative Arts, ISSN 2205-0027, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As an artistic space, the electromagnetic atmosphere sits akin to the notion of ether as a non-visual and omnipresent force; an "abstract everywhere" (Milutis, 2002). It forms an energetic ambiance that seems to come "from nowhere and everywhere at once" (Kahn in Vincente et al., 25). It is a space devoid of exactitudes, an invisible sandbox of infinite expressions of electromagnetic properties that afford physical interaction. As Dunne posits, the electromagnetic atmosphere is simultaneously a physical, conceptual, and notional space (102). To situate oneself in this liminal space requires a method through which to perceive this energetic ether in relation to ourselves.

    The artistic research that is presented here stems from a practice of experimental textile design, through which body-based textile antenna designs are proposed. These antennas allow the wearer to explore the boundaries of their body within this electromagnetic atmosphere through means of interaction. As textile antennas receive electromagnetic waves they are converted to soundwaves that the wearer can hear in real-time through the use of headphones. Interaction with the textile antennas combine body positioning, movement, and the directional quality of electromagnetic waves, resulting in changes to the sonic expressions one hears.

    Considering that the act of wearing on the body is communicative, we question how signification occurs with these body-based textile antennas as technological objects. Using Barthes' semiotic notions of dress objects and dressing, signified and signifier (Barthes, 1983), we explore the notion that these objects may carry signification through frequency-based interactions with electromagnetic atmosphere. As a result, we speculate on bodily signifiers for perceiving the abstract everywhere.

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  • 12.
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Borås.
    Disobedient Antennas: Breaking the Rules of Textile Antenna Design2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporarily, antennas are receding into their parent devices, minimizing or disappearing completely from sight. They are affected by the technological trend toward miniaturization of electronic devices [8]. Similarly, textile antennas are being embedded into clothing where they lay flat to the body, seamlessly integrated into the surface of the garment [7]. Yet the question arises whether textile antennas must be discrete and designed out of sight. In this paper we propose a possible alternative. Disobedient Antennas are textile interaction design examples using textile design and experimental research methods. They are textile receiver antennas that disrupt the convention of planar textile antennas [7,8] to suggest that textile antennas can be voluminous and sculptural wearable objects. Further, they occupy a performative space, suggesting body-space-object interaction by using the antennas to perceive and explore electromagnetic fields through sonic feedback. Their use opens to improvised movements and choreographies in response to electromagnetic space.

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  • 13.
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Borås.
    Fabricating Networks: Transmissions and Receptions from Pittsburgh's Hill District, Flower Antenna2020Other (Refereed)
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  • 14. Hartman, Kate
    et al.
    Kourtoukov, Boris
    Colpitts-Campbell, Izzie
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Borås.
    Monarch 2: An Iterative Design Approach to Prototyping a Wearable Electronics Project2020In: Monarch 2: An Iterative Design Approach to Prototyping a Wearable Electronics Project, Eindhoven, NL, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monarch is a wearable electronics prototype that enables the wearer to amplify or extend body language through the use of a muscle-activated kinetic textile for the purpose of augmented social interaction. This pictorial details the second prototype stage with a focus on addressing the wearability [5,14], technical, and production challenges resulting from the first prototype [7]. The purpose of these improvements is to enable a small batch production of the prototype for further testing in daily life. Design decisions are brought to the foreground for observation and reflection, including those surrounding material choices and production methods. The result is a detailed visual account of the generative and evaluative discoveries [12] as well as a contribution of several recommendations that can be applied to small batch production of wearable electronic prototypes in a research lab context.

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    Monarch 2
  • 15.
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Borås.
    Monarch 2: Live demonstration2020In: Monarch 2: Live Demonstration, Eindhoven, NL: SIGCHI, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monarch is a wearable electronics prototype that enables the wearer to amplify or extend body language through the use of a muscle-activated kinetic textile for the purpose of augmented social interaction. This pictorial details the second prototype stage with a focus on addressing the wearability [5,14], technical, and production challenges resulting from the first prototype [7]. The purpose of these improvements is to enable a small batch production of the prototype for further testing in daily life. Design decisions are brought to the foreground for observation and reflection, including those surrounding material choices and production methods. The result is a detailed visual account of the generative and evaluative discoveries [12] as well as a contribution of several recommendations that can be applied to small batch production of wearable electronic prototypes in a research lab context.

  • 16.
    Lewis, Erin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Borås.
    Stasiulyte, Vidmina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sound-Based Thinking and Design Practices with Embodied Extensions2020In: TEI '20: Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction, ACM Digital Library, 2020, p. 889-892Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     The discourse surrounding intangible materials in interaction design is often directed toward

    computational materials [2, 9], however, this studio focuses on sonic and electromagnetic fields as

    intangible materials with distinctive qualities and methods of interaction. Participants explore the

    notion of extended body by augmenting their natural hearing abilities through body-space-object

    interactions. Using analog and radio-frequency (RF) sonic extenders, participants direct, block,

    amplify, and filter sounds, and perceive the surrounding electromagnetic landscape, thereby

    creating a “super sense” of heightened audition. This sonic experience explores the sensorial

    possibilities of the future body, where aural augmentation could take place. Using soundwalking

    and soundmapping as methods, participants explore transitive sonic forms that change their

    qualities and content over time in downtown Sydney. Participants produce a collective soundmap

    identifying embodied sonic extensions and acousmatic techniques, along with movements,

    gestures, and choreographies. This data will be used to stimulate a final discussion.

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  • 17.
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Borås.
    Kooroshnia, Marjan (Designer)
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Walters, Kathryn (Designer)
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Electroluminescent Textiles2019Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Borås.
    Design Potentials of Magnetic Yarns2018In: Design Potential of Magnetic Yarns, Porto, Portugal, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetism holds a strong potential as a design material due to the array of possible expressions based on its fundamental behaviours of attraction and repulsion. The magnetic phenomenon presents itself simultaneously as visual and non-visual material through its quality of being imperceptible under certain conditions until manifested in some way, such as physical interaction or electronic control. This balancing of physical constants, material and immaterial considerations of magnetic phenomenon, become a rich site for exploration and experimentation when combined with the immense variables available in textile design such as yarn attributes (yarn number, yarn twist, fiber composition) and textile structure (woven, non-woven, knit, twisted and interlaced). Therefore, the use of magnetism as a design material holds a strong potential for dynamic and responsive textile expressions when used in composition with one another. While the discourse surrounding the material-immaterial relationship is active and present across various design disciplines [1,2,3], the representation of magnetic phenomenon as a design material remains underrepresented in the field of textile design. This experiment illustrates a method of creating yarns that are responsive to magnetic fields through a process of hand-painting natural, synthetic, and combination yarns with a widely-available ferromagnetic solution. The result is a reference catalogue of yarns exhibiting design potentials for textile-based magnetic interactions.

    Experiment

    This poster presentation describes a method of creating yarns that are responsive to magnetic fields through a process of hand-painting natural, synthetic, and combination yarns with a widely-available ferromagnetic solution. The yarns measure 10 cm in length and are grouped in bundles to form tassels. They are anchored to a fixed structure at a central point from which all movement arises. A magnetic field is applied to the yarns through the use of permanent- and electro-magnets. These painted yarns exhibit a unique variety of behaviours and characteristics ranging from lifting/dropping, expansion/compression, splaying, and fluctuating movements, as well as the yarn’s ability to hold structural form. These expressions are based on the yarn variants of fiber composition, weight, twist, flexibility, absorption ability, and evenness of absorption.

    Results

    This experiment results in a catalogue of natural and synthetic yarn attributes pre- and post- ferritic treatment, which identities their magnetic and behavioural abilities. The results suggest design potentials to be further explored through textile construction methods such as weaving and knitting.

    Figure 1. Magnetic yarns in a woven textile construction.

    Acknowledgement

    This research is supported by the Swedish School of Textiles, University of Borås, Sweden

    References

    1. Wiberg, M. (2014). Methodology for materiality: Interaction design research through a material lens. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 18(3), 625-636.
    2. Dunne, Anthony. (2006). Hertzian Tales: Electronic Products, Aesthetic Experience, and Critical Design (Rev. ed.]. ed.). MIT Press.
    3. Kwon, H., Kim, H., & Lee, W. (2014). Intangibles wear materiality via material composition. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 18(3), 651-669.

     

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  • 19.
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Borås.
    Kinetic Body Extensions for Social Interactions2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This studio invites participants to explore ways of extending physical expressivity through a combined use of wearable electronics and structural textile design. Participants are introduced to an electronics and material prototyping method developed by Social Body Lab for constructing kinetic textile body extensions intended for use in social interactions. Participants will learn to use a servo motor in combination with folded and pleated paper, textiles, and structural materials to create a kinetic wearable module that can expand and contract in form. These kinetic modules can vary in size, form, complexity, and placement on the body, depending on the intended application. Pressure, flexion, ambient light, and electromyography (EMG) are sensors that will be explored as possible triggers for these modules using body movements and gestures. Through prototyping, testing, wearing, and group discussion, participants will explore ways in which their kinetic body extensions can amplify, extend, or subvert existing body language.

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  • 20.
    Lewis, Erin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Högskolan i Borås.
    Magnetic Textiles: Exploring the Non-Visual in Textile Design2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Workshop within the course 'Form and Materials 2'

    WORKSHOP: Magnetic Textiles: Exploring the Non-Visual in Textile Design

    This workshop will explore the design possibilities of magnetic phenomenon in textile design. Magnetic phenomenon holds the quality of being imperceptible until manifested in some way, such as through physical interaction. This phenomenon presents itself as a non-visual material, and, paradoxically, as a physical material to be utilized in design. The inclusion of magnetic threads in textile constructions allow for hidden attributes to be expressed, for example through kinetic behaviours and haptic feedback, which thereby enhance the dimensions of design available to us. This area of non-visual material exploration becomes particularly rich when combined with the variables specific to textile design such as yarn compositions, structure, and texture.

    In this workshop students will work with magnetic and non-magnetic threads, wires, or yarns, to create a series of magnetic textile design samples using one or more textile construction technique(s) of their choosing (e.g. knitting, crochet, weaving, etc.). Students will design textiles that emit sound waves or electromagnetic radiation, or that are kinetically actuated through the use of neodymium magnets. Students will have both independent and supported work periods. Samples will be presented on the last day of the workshop in a group critique format

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