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  • 1.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Andersson, Niklas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Eskilsson, Camilla
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Intertwining of caring and learning in care practices supported by a didactic approach2018In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, Vol. 31, no July, p. 95-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights how caring and learning interact and become an intertwined phenomenon. The analysis of the research findings from two studies, in which the interaction between caring and learning in two educational units was investigated, has been guided by a Reflective Lifeworld Research approach grounded in a lifeworld-oriented phenomenology. The analysis procedure was concluded in a synthesis of the interaction between caring and learning in a Dedicated Educational Unit (DEU) and a didactic method inspired by a lifeworld educational perspective has been developed.

    The results show that through trust and genuine meetings between patients and students caring and learning can converge and be intertwined. Both students and patients take an active role in the health process as well as the learning process. In order to achieve an intertwining process qualified supervision, care managers who take responsibility for a caring and learning environment and a consensus between the nursing school and the healthcare organization is required.

    The didactic method that can support the intertwining of caring and learning consists of three themes; genuine meetings, sensitivity for the patient's story and reflection in interaction. These themes are tools for the supervision.

  • 2.
    Eskilsson, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Lindberg, Elisabeth
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Ekebergh, M.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Hörberg, U.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Managers' responsibility to support caring and learning in clinical education units2017In: Clinical Nursing Studies, ISSN 2324-7940, E-ISSN 2324-7959, Vol. 5, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:Managers in clinical education units (CEUs) have the responsibility to facilitate evidence-based environments for both caring and learning. Promoting such environments might be challenging in times of financial constraints and organisation changes.

    Objective:The purpose of this study was to describe how managers experience their responsibility to support the caring and learning environments in CEUs. 

    Methods:The study method followed the principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research (RLR) grounded in a phenomenological approach. The study was conducted at a hospital in Southern Sweden. Ten first- and second-line managers responsible for CEUs were interviewed. The interviews were conducted as reflective dialogues using an open, and bridled approach.

    Results:The results show that clinical education unit managers regard the responsibility to support caring and learning environments as a challenging experience, elucidated in three themes: (1) to have or to take responsibility; (2) cooperation that supports and challenges; and (3) bringing it all together— a daily struggle.

    Conclusions:In conclusion, the managers of CEUs need to be aware of the importance of common theoretical grounds for caring and learning. Caring and learning are more likely to be intertwined when responsibility is taken, when collaboration between actors is characterised by respect and when an awareness of the importance of reflection is present. Awareness of the importance of creating opportunities for reflection and mutual collaboration among the different actors involved could lead to improvements in nursing education and, therefore, improved patient care.

  • 3.
    Eskilsson, Camilla
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare. Linnéuniversitetet.
    Vårdande och lärande sammanflätas i genuina möten: erfarenheter, förutsättningar och ansvarpå utbildningsvårdavdelning2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The overall aim of this thesis is to create knowledge about caring and learning asan intertwining phenomenon at a Dedicated Education Unit and how it can bedeveloped.

    Approach and methodA lifeworld approach, based on the phenomenological philosophies foremost derivedfrom Husserl and Merleau-Ponty was used and carried out in lifeworld interviews andwith meaning-oriented analysis in accordance with reflective lifeworld research. Theparticipants were: 13 student nurses (study I), 11 patients (study II), 8 supervisors (studyIII) all from the same DEU in orthopedic care and 10 managers from various DEUs(study IV).

    Main findingsIntertwined caring and learning is most evident in genuine encounters between studentsand patients, supported by supervisors and managers. The intertwining is created inappealing challenges where students feel safe and ready. In the encounter with thepatient they gain a sense of the whole where they can find their personal style. Patients,who feel invited to participate, could describe the encounter with students as genuineand a new dimension in nursing care. These encounters are characterized by closeness,thoroughness, accessibility, acknowledgement and sensitivity. When the encounter isless genuine, supervisors constitute an essential support for stabilizing the care.Supervisors constantly move in order to either stay close to or stand back, adjusting tothe students’ and patients’ needs. Their demanding task as reflective supervisors requirespauses in order to maintain motivation. The managers’ daily struggle in a stressful andchallenging reality is influenced by them either having or taking responsibility.Differences in approaches are shown in terms of more or less involvement andcommitment in caring environment and educational issues.

    ConclusionsGenuine encounters are characterized by the core of both caring and learning and willthereby benefit both the students and the patients. Identifying and supporting genuineencounters is necessary for students, supervisors and managers. It is time to find ways todevelop a unified view of how caring and learning can be intertwined.

  • 4.
    Eskilsson, C.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Hörberg, U.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Ekebergh, M.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Lindberg, E.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Carlsson, G.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Caring and learning intertwined in supervision at a dedicated education unit ‒ a phenomenological study2015In: Reflective Practice, ISSN 1462-3943, E-ISSN 1470-1103, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 753-764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supervising student nurses in clinical praxis entails dealing with both caring and learning aspects. There is a dearth of research focusing on both the caring and learning aspects in supervision. The present study describes how caring and learning is intertwined in supervision. The study was performed with a Reflective Lifeworld Research approach and analyzed phenomenologically for meanings. Eight interviews were conducted with supervisors on an orthopedic-dedicated education unit. The findings reveal how supervisors constantly move in order to be either close to or standing back, adjusting to the students’ and the patients’ needs. This is described in more detail via the constituents: handling responsibility in constant movement, participating in a new and different way, coexisting with students creates meaning and development. The findings show that a reflective attitude in supervision , clear structure for daily activities, and a lifeworld-led didactics can promote a learning and caring environment. Supervisors’ demanding task requires pauses in order to maintain motivation among supervisors. A mutual link between supervisors, students and patients is crucial in order to create an environment where caring and learning are intertwined. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

  • 5.
    Eskilsson, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Hörberg, Ulrica
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö. Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    Patients' experiences of being cared for by student nurses2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background It is crucial for patients to be met by understanding in their vulnerability, to be treated by competence that ensure adequate care and met with an encouraging attitude to participate in their health process. They meet professional careers as well as students, but nevertheless the aim for caring is the same: to provide good and secure care for the patients, all in line with a caring science approach. A limit amount of studies illuminate patients’ experiences of receiving care from student nurses. Aim The aim was to describe how patients perceived being cared for by student nurses, in a clinical context Method The study has been performed with a Reflective Lifeworld Research approach founded on phenomenology. 11 lifeworld interviews were conducted with patients, recently discharged from an orthopedic Dedicated Education Unit. Data have been analyzed for meanings. Results Patients perceive that they are being carried along on the students' learning process like a journey together. This is characterized by a fluctuation between stable and unstable care from the students. Along this journey, patients are in need of a mutual invitation to participation, of genuine encounters, and essential support. Conclusion The patient-student-supervisor relationship is of importance for patients’ experience of being cared for by student nurses in a clinical setting. Genuine encounters between patient and student must be identified and can be stimulated by didactic support and reflection grounded in caring science with a lifeworld perspective. Supervisors have to support to both students and patients in order to create a safe environment in which caring and learning are intertwined. Students require patients in their learning process but patients’ vulnerability, need for participation, genuine encounters and essential support, must be taken into account.

  • 6.
    Eskilsson, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Hörberg, Ulrica
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö, Institutionen för hälso- och vårdvetenskap.
    The experiences of patients receiving care from nursing students at a Dedicatd Education Unit: A phenomenological study2015In: Nurse Education in Practice, ISSN 1471-5953, E-ISSN 1873-5223, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 353-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to describe how patients perceive being cared for by student nurses, in aclinical context in the form of a Dedicated Education Unit (DEU). The study has been performed with aReflective Lifeworld Research (RLR) approach grounded in phenomenology. Lifeworld interviews wereconducted with patients who had received care from student nurses on an orthopaedic DEU and datahave been analysed for meanings. The findings reveal how patients experience to be carried along as apart of the students' learning process. This is described in more detail via the constituents: a mutualinvitation to participate, the importance of genuine encounters, and essential support. Patients experienceboth a stable and a less stable care in a learning environment and it is thus essential for them to beinvited to be a part of both the students' learning process and their own health process. The findings alsohighlight the key role of the supervisors for patients' sense of security. Finally there are indications thatconcepts such as DEU with a lifeworld-led didactic, based on reflection on both the patients' stories andthe students' experiences, can create learning environments that support patients' health processes andalso students’ learning processes.

  • 7.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Eskilsson, Camilla
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Hörberg, Ulrica
    Caring and learning as intertwined- an educational curriculum challenge2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Caring and learning in clinical educational contexts is characterized by an encounter between lived experiences of the patient and the student’s knowledge and understanding. In other words, it is an encounter between two lifeworlds, which has the potential to create a fruitful tension to develop deep knowledge about the patient’s world that can give direction for practice. We will argue that a particular kind of Caring science knowledge becomes an important tool to support this caring and learning process where the goal is to intertwine lived experiences of health and illness with professional knowing and scientific knowledge. From this perspective is even caring and learning an intertwined phenomenon, and it is this intertwining that enables lifeworld led care. Aim This paper presents a study that illustrate how caring and learning is intertwined from the students’ view in an educational clinical context. Method/design The study was carried out using Reflective Lifeworld Research (RLR) with a phenomenological approach. Lifeworld interviews were conducted with students after their clinical placement on a Dedicated Education Unit (DEU). Result The result shows that the essential meaning of the intertwined phenomenon is a movement where caring and learning fall into place which appears in an atmosphere filled with appealing challenges, but has to be sensitive to the students’ readiness. The atmosphere depends on their sense of security and how they experience confirming and affirming responses. Encountering the patient means that the students can gain a sense of the whole and the theory falls into place. The results also highlight how the student, in this atmosphere, has a desire to find a new role in a personal style. Conclusions On the basis of this study a challenge to the curriculum is presented, that is, to develop didactics and supervision models that use a holistic approach and adopt a reflective attitude upon caring and learning as intertwined and not separated.

  • 8. Hörberg, Ulrica
    et al.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Holst, Hanna
    Andersson, Niklas
    Eskilsson, Camilla
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Lifeworld-led learning takes place in the encounter between Caring Science and the Lifeworld.2014In: Clinical Nursing Studies, ISSN 2324-7940, E-ISSN 2324-7959, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 107-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning in caring contexts could be illustrated as an encounter between the scientific knowledge of caring and the learner’s lifeworld. This encounter needs a support that has the potential to bring caring science to life and to start an intertwining process with the lifeworld that creates embodied knowledge. The aim of this article is to illustrate the meaning of this encounter with help of a theoretical foundation and two examples of research projects with a reflective lifeworld research approach (RLR) founded on phenomenology. Both examples describe the student nurses’ perspective. One illustrates promoting learning through lifeworld-led supervision in pairs of students. The other illustrates learning environments that bridges the gap between theory and practice. These two examples show how the intertwining of caring science theory with lived experience required a certain learning and caring atmosphere that is open and sensitive for the lifeworld. In conclusion, lifeworld-led learning is more than learning per se. Lifeworld theory as a basis for supporting students’ learning could provide both a broadened and deepened understanding of the meaning of learning and also a greater understanding of how to support students’ learning.

  • 9.
    Eskilsson, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Hörberg, Ulrica
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Student nurses’ experiences of how caring and learning is intertwined: A phenomenological study2013In: Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, ISSN 1925-4040, E-ISSN 1925-4059, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 82-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Clinical studies in nursing education ought to create conditions for the students to link theory to praxis. Previous research in this field focuses on the gap between theory and practice, learning environments, supervision and reflection connected to caring and learning. In addition there are studies that propose the concept of learning and caring as intertwined. The aim of this study is to describe how caring and learning is intertwined from a student perspective. Methods: The study was carried out using Reflective Lifeworld Research (RLR) with a phenomenological approach. Lifeworld interviews were conducted with students after their clinical placement on a Dedicated Education Unit (DEU). Results: The essential meaning is a movement where caring and learning fall into place which appears in an atmosphere filled with appealing challenges, but has to be sensitive to the students’ readiness. The atmosphere depends on their sense of security and how they experience confirming and affirming responses. Encountering the patient means that the students can gain a sense of the whole and the theory falls into place. The results also highlight how the student, in this atmosphere, has a desire to find a new role in a personal style. Conclusions: The study emphasizes the importance of supporting the students in understanding learning and caring as intertwined and not separated. A dualistic approach could harm the students’ aim to get the knowledge embodied. This holistic perspective requires a reflective attitude on caring and learning and has to be further developed in the didactics and supervision.

  • 10.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Hörberg, Ulrica
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Lindberg, Elisabeth
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Eskilsson, Camilla
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Andersson, Niklas
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Holst, Hanna
    The encounter between Caring Science and the Lifeworld2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific knowledge is characterized by abstract descriptions and structures which are not identical to the lived reality. Scientific knowledge cannot directly be applied on the lived existence, without being transformed and adjusted to the individual’s very complex lifeworld. Learning in caring contexts is an encounter between the scientific knowledge of caring and the learner’s lifeworld. This encounter needs a support that has the potential to bring caring science to life and to start an intertwining process with the lifeworld that creates embodied knowledge. Lifeworld didactics are built on an approach about learning as an individual process and that learning takes its point of departure in the learner’s previous experiences, which accompanies the learning process. The challenges within lifeworld didactics is to be open and sensitive to the learner’s lifeworld and with tact support the development of a reflective attitude in the learning process. Lifeworld didactics strategies are of crucial importance in different caring contexts. This paper presents three lifeworld led phenomenological research projects that have focused on acquiring caring science knowledge in caring contexts, more precisely it is the encounter between caring science and the lifeworld. The research is within the framework of lifeworld didactics, but the three projects each have a special focus. The first illustrates how the learning and caring processes merge and become an intertwined phenomenon in nursing students’ learning. The research is carried out in Dedicated Educational Units (DEU), within psychiatric and orthopedic care. Three perspectives are illustrated in the project; that of the students, the supervisors and the patients. The overall aim is to develop a supervision model that has the potential to support the students’ learning processes as well as the patients’ caring processes. The second illustrates how the concepts ‘patient perspective’ and ‘patient participation’ can be implemented in a clinical setting for elderly patients in order to improve the quality of care. This project is inspired by Participatory Action Research and is built on collaboration between the university and the health care services. The aim is to develop reflective educational material in terms of filmed drama episodes, based on the result of two studies about elderly patients’ participation in team meetings. The third illustrates the perspective of lifeworld didactics in two phenomenological studies that focus on Students` learning in an encounter with patients and Students` learning on the way to becoming professional - supported by supervision in pairs of students. The findings show patterns of essential meanings that have specific significance in the art of supporting students` learning in clinical education. These are; the significance of responsibility, its extent and shape in relation to the supervisor’s ability to adopt a reflective supervising attitude and to be supportive enough but at the same time to not assume the responsibility. The learning process shows to be a challenge for students, where safety in pairs of students has a great significance when coping with the challenge to learn and develop.

  • 11.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Horberg, Ulrica
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Lindberg, Elisabeth
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Eskilsson, Camilla
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Holst, Hanna
    Andersson, Niklas
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    The Encounter between Caring Sciences and the Lifeworld: The Art of Making Knowledge Alive and Embodied2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific knowledge is characterized by abstract descriptions and structures, which are not identical to the lived reality. Scientific knowledge cannot directly be applied on the lived existence, without being transformed and adjusted to the individual’s very complex lifeworld. Learning in caring contexts is an encounter between the scientific knowledge of caring and the learner’s lifeworld. This encounter needs a support that has the potential to bring caring science to life and to start an intertwining process with the lifeworld that creates embodied knowledge. Lifeworld didactics are built on an approach about learning as an individual process and that learning takes its point of departure in the learner’s previous experiences, which accompanies the learning process. The challenges within lifeworld didactics are to be open and sensitive to the learner’s lifeworld and with tact support the development of a reflective attitude in the learning process. Lifeworld didactics strategies are of crucial importance in different caring contexts. This symposium presents three lifeworld led phenomenological research projects that have focused on acquiring caring science knowledge in caring contexts, more precisely it is the encounter between caring science and the lifeworld. The research is within the framework of lifeworld didactics, but the three projects each have a special focus.

  • 12.
    Eskilsson, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Andersson, Niklas
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Ekebergh, Margaretha
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Is caring and learning an intertwined Phenomenon?2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to deepen knowledge whether caring and learning are an intertwined phenomenon in Dedicated Educational Units (DEU). The context is psychiatric and orthopaedic care, and the research is based on caring science.

    The research question is this: What characterizes the relationship between caring and learning in a DEU? This will be illuminated from three perspectives; the student, supervisor and patient perspectives.

    The question for the student is this: What is it like to learn the nursing profession by caring for patients on a DEU? The question for the supervisor is this: What is it like to supervise nursing students on a DEU? And the final question is directed at the patient: What is it like to be cared for by nursing students in a DEU?

    The underpinning philosophical and theoretical perspectives are lifeworld theory, caring science and its didactics.

    The aim of this project is to develop a supervision model that views caring and learning as an intertwined concept with the potential to support students‟ learning processes as well as patients‟ caring processes.

  • 13.
    Eskilsson, Camilla
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Carlsson, Gunilla
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Feeling confident in burdensome yet enriching care: Community nurses describe the care of patients with hard-to-heal wounds2010In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 9-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Treating patients with hard-to-heal wounds is a complex task that requires a holistic view. Therefore this study focuses on the nurse's perspective with the aim on describing how community nurses experience the phenomenon the care of patients with hard-to-heal wounds. The method used was a reflective lifeworld approach. Seven qualitative interviews with community nurses were conducted. The findings show a tension between enriching and burdensome care. In this tension, the nurses try to find energy to reach harmony in their work through reflection, acceptance, and distance. This is further described by the constituents: “taking responsibility,” “showing respect for the whole person,” “being confident in order to offer confidence,” “seeing time and place as important.” The discussion highlights the importance for a nurse to find how to give ideal care in one's duty but not beyond it. As a consequence the concept “compliance” needs to be challenged in order to promote confidence and mutual trust between nurses and patients. Confidence can be seen as a key, both for nurses and patients, and is dependent on good inter-professional cooperation, competence, and closure.

  • 14.
    Eskilsson, Camilla
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    To Care for Patients with Hard-To-Heal Wounds: Homecare Nurses' Narratives2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Eskilsson, Camilla
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Att vårda patienter med svårläkta sår: en både berikande och betungande vård2008In: Sår, ISSN 1653-9591, no 4, p. 18-22Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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