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  • 1.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    National-Authority-Endorsed Privatisation of Teachers’ Continuing Professional Development in Sweden2024Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reveals national-authority-endorsed privatisation of teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD) in the wake of a shift towards more centralised national interventions in Swedish schools. Drawing on data from the Collaboration for Best School (CBS) initiative, the context of the article is a recent state programme that encourages underperforming schools to collaborate with the Swedish National Agency for Education (SNAE) to raise students’ achievement standards and thereby increase equality within and between schools. Guided by meta-governance theory, our analysis revealed that SNAE operates as a meta-governor on behalf of the state to replace university researchers as CPD providers with specific private-sector actors. The results provide evidence of SNAE-enabled substitution processes through three network governance strategies: 1) hidden and authorised substitution, 2) trust building and hybrid participation, and 3) collective reproduction and solutionism. Taken together, these governance strategies reflect national-authority-endorsed privatisation in action, suggesting that SNAE primarily operates as an ideology-driven conduit for private economic interests. The article concludes with a call for new collaborative and autonomous implementation strategies for teachers’ CPD that can further the interests of the teaching profession.

  • 2.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    National-authority-endorsed privatisation of teachers’ continuing professional development in Sweden2024In: Professional Development in Education, ISSN 1941-5257, E-ISSN 1941-5265, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reveals national-authority-endorsed privatisation of teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD) in the wake of a shift towards more centralised national interventions in Swedish schools. Drawing on data from the Collaboration for Best School (CBS) initiative, the context of the article is a recent state programme that encourages underperforming schools to collaborate with the Swedish National Agency for Education (SNAE) to raise students’ achievement standards and thereby increase equality within and between schools. Guided by meta-governance theory, our analysis revealed that SNAE operates as a meta-governor on behalf of the state to replace university researchers as CPD providers with specific private-sector actors. The results provide evidence of SNAE-enabled substitution processes through three network governance strategies: 1) hidden and authorised substitution, 2) trust building and hybrid participation, and 3) collective reproduction and solutionism. Taken together, these governance strategies reflect national-authority-endorsed privatisation in action, suggesting that SNAE primarily operates as an ideology-driven conduit for private economic interests. The article concludes with a call for new collaborative and autonomous implementation strategies for teachers’ CPD that can further the interests of the teaching profession.

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  • 3.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT, University of Boras, Borås, Sweden.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Department of Education, University of Boras, Borås, Sweden.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Department of Education, University of Boras, University of Gothenburg, Borås, Sweden.
    The SEN industry and teachers’ CPD: ideal elements of teaching and enabling arrangements2024In: Education Inquiry, E-ISSN 2000-4508, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explored the special educational needs (SEN) industry in relation to teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD) by analysing invoices generated by CPD providers in Sweden. Guided by the theory of practice architectures (TPA), we examined the characteristics of the offered SEN content, focusing on the implied elements of ideal teaching practices and the arrangements that have led to SEN becoming a key component of the teacher CPD market in Sweden. The results provided evidence of a SEN industry operating in the interests of private economic growth rather than the needs of teachers or the teaching profession.

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  • 4.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    A Neuro-Educational Ideal on the Market of Continuing Professional Development for Teachers; Characteristics,Consequences and Critique2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Ett neuropedagogiskt ideal på lärares kompetensutvecklingsmarknad.: Kännetecken, konsekvenser och kritik.2023In: Nordisk Tidskrift för Allmän Didaktik, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to examine the increased focus on neuroeducational content in teachers’ continuing professional development (CPD) and to further explore its characteristics and consequences for teaching. The empirical material is based on 236 invoices representing CPD and other material that followed from extended studies of, primarily, identified CPD actors’ webpages. The cluster of characteristics is presented as a pedagogic modality based on concepts and phenomena from the sociologist of education Basil Bernstein; selection, organization, evaluation, classification and framing. The pedagogic modality is finally discussed, and critiqued, not least regarding its consequences for teachers and students. The overall conclusion is that a neuroeducational modality brings several potential risks, not least concerning conditions for teachers and students. 

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  • 6.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Fakturan, fortbildningen och forskningen2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Langelotz, Lill
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. University of Gothenburg, Dep. of Education and Special Education.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Continuing Professional Development – a Threat to Teacher Professionalism2022In: AERA annual meeting San Diego 21-26 April 2022: Cultivating Equitable Education Systems for the 21st Century, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper asks following burning question: Where is a critical know-whyperspective on education, in teachers’ continuing professional development(CPD)? Point of departure is the first result of an ongoing (2020-2023)government funded research project in Sweden. A follow-the-money approachwas used to collect data. 1000 invoices, from three Swedish municipalities,were inductively analyzed and categorized. The results exposed how ethicalissues, climate crises, and social (in)justice are almost absent in the CPDcontentas is critical know-why professional knowledge. Framed by the notionof professionalism, we here further explore one of the municipalities anddiscuss fast policies imprint on local sites, the lack of cultivating know-whyknowledge, and how CPD might be a threat to teachers’ professionalism.

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  • 8.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Johansson, Jonas
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    En samtida diskurs om betydelsen av fysisk aktivitet för undervisning och lärande: Kritisk analys av artiklar i lärarfackliga tidskrifter.2022In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 249-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how teacher union journals in Sweden construct (1) problems related to teaching and learning assumed to be caused by pupils’ physical inactivity, and (2) solutions regarding how and by whom these problems should be addressed. This is done through a critical discourse analysis of four strategically selected articles published in two teacher union journals where researchers, physicians, school leaders and teachers are interviewed about the potential of more physical activity in schools. The overall conclusion is that the examined teacher union journal articles connect physical activity to teaching and learning in ways that de-professionalise teachers.

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  • 9.
    Langelotz, Lill
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. University of Gothenburg, Department of Education and Special Education.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    How is teacher professionalism in Sweden shaped in an era of marketisation of teachers’ continuing professional development?2022In: Transforming the Future of Education: the Role of Reserach: AARE 2022 Conference in Adelaide 27/11-1/12, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an international body of knowledge about teacher development in general as well as the potential problems with commercial actors in the CPD-field. Less is known about the CPD-content and the impact it has on teachers’ professionalism.  

    The aim of this paper is to investigate what types of teacher professionalism that a CPD-field dominated by commercial actors shape in Sweden. The starting point is an analysis of 679 invoices and the content (knowledge) offered on the CPD-market, and purchased under two years. The result is part of an ongoing research project funded by the Swedish Research Council (2020-2023).

    679 invoices from 73 schools were collected. The coding built on the extraction of information from the total set of invoices and on entering data into a statistic program file (SPSS) consisting of a multitude of variables – both deductively and inductively set. 

    A practice-ecological ontology, the theory of practice architectures (TPA) is adopted, to explore how CPD-practices shape teacher practices and teacher professionalism. CPD concerns changing peoples’ sayings-doings-relatings i.e. practices (like teaching). To analyse how the CPD-content shape Swedish teachers, teacher professionalism is here conceptualized as three constituent components: behavioural, attitudinal, and intellectual. These components are previously described as overlapping but analytically seperable. 

     The behavioural change, dominate. Teachers are supposed to develop various teaching skills related to for example computer-programs, to diagnose students and to meet students' reading-, mathematics- or communication- difficulties.  This CPD is part of a world-wide edu-tech-business.  

    The attitudinal component, where teachers’ attitudes are (to be) modified, is indeed visible in the data. Costs concern kick- off/summing-up-the-year activities, including conference-facilities, food, etc. The principal, teachers or the school health group are engaged in the content delivered. Teacher-collaboration, student-motivation or school-development etc. is focussed. Another CPD-content, overlapping attidunal and behavioural changes. Teachers are supposed to change their behaviour in relation to “problematic student behaviour” and diagnoses like ADHD. The intellectual component is not as frequent. Subject-specific CPD in Mathematics or Second Language Teaching is , however, purschased.  

    Next step in the project is teacher- and principal-interviews to investigate the experiences of and motives for the CPD purchased and, to get hold of the CPD that take place without generating any fees. and to trace the arangments that enable and/or constrain CPD-practices. The study is limited to three (of 278) municipalities in Sweden, both national and international studies would benefit the knowledge development

     

  • 10.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Langelotz, Lill
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Innehåll och pedagogiska diskurser på lärares kompetensutvecklingsmarknad: en studie av insatser som genererar fakturor2022In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här artikeln är att bidra med fördjupad kunskap om innehållet i lärares kompetensutveckling i en decentraliserad utbildningssektor. Specifikt fokus riktas mot hur innehållet i denna kompetensutveckling relaterar till lärares undervisningsuppdrag att utveckla såväl kunskaper som värderingar hos elever. Artikeln tar sin utgångspunkt 679 kompetensutvecklingsfakturor från tre socio-ekonomiskt olika kommuner i Sverige. Teoretiskt är studien baserad i Bernsteins fenomen pedagogisk diskurs, som i sin tur bidrar med de analytiska begreppen instruktionell och regulativ diskurs vilka har styrt analysen av fakturamaterialet. Resultatet åskådliggör i vilken grad kompetensutvecklingsinnehållet orienteras mot ämneskunskaper och generella kompetenser (instruktionell diskurs) respektive det som rör elevers värderingar (regulativ diskurs). Vidare illustrerar resultatet flera samband mellan kompetensutvecklingens diskursiva inriktning, skolform (grundskola och gymnasium) och typ av kompetensutvecklingsaktör. Analysen visar också att innehållet i lärares kompetensutveckling karaktäriseras av att lärare uppmuntras att inta en intraindividuell förändringsambition i relation till sina elever och inte av en ambition om intergruppförändring, det vill säga med syfte att utjämna skillnader mellan sociologiskt definierade grupper.

  • 11.
    Hesslow, Eva
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Loenheim, Lisa
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Svensklärarens professionalism så som den konstrueras av en betydande kompetensutvecklingsaktör2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den studie som vi vill presentera genomförs i anslutning till det av Vetenskapsrådet finansierade projektet Fakturan, fortbildningen och forskningen (dnr 2019-03828) som studerar lärares kompetensutveckling i en marknadskontext. I projektet har cirka tusen fakturor över köpt fortbildning samlats in i tre kommuner. Vi har för SMDI-konferensens räkning valt en dominerande fortbildningsaktör och studerat aktörens program för tvådagarskonferenser där svenskämnet är i fokus. Studien syftar till att undersöka vilken typ av svensklärarprofessionalism som en av landets större kompetensutvecklingsaktörer uppmuntrar. Datamaterialet består av programblad från denna aktör där respektive svenskämnesinriktad konferens olika inslag beskrivs. Såväl högstadiet som gymnasieskolan är representerade och såväl språk- som litteraturdimensionen av svenskämnet. För att analysera fenomenet professionalism har vi tagit hjälp av Linda Evans analytiska indelning i tre professionella komponenter; ’behavioural’, ’attitudinal’ och ’intellectual’ (Evans, 2011). I ’behavioural’-komponenten ingår att kompetensutveckling bistår lärare i att bli bättre på processer och procedurer, i ’attitudinal’-komponenten’ ingår att uppmuntra lärare att ändra sina värderingar eller känna högre motivation på jobbet och ’intellectual’- komponenten, slutligen, står för ökad analysförmåga eller nya sätt att förstå specifika fenomen. Vi kommer att ge exempel på innehåll som representerar de olika komponenterna och visa proportionerna mellan de tre komponenterna. Vi diskuterar vilka tänkbara konsekvenser resultatet kan innebära för svensklärarprofessionen. 

    Evans L. (2011). The scholarship of researcher development: mapping the terrain and pushing back boundaries. International Journal for Researcher Development, 2(2), 75-98. 

  • 12.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Langelotz, Lill
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Unpacking the Special Educational Needs Industry: Voices from Invoices2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Already ten years ago Tomlinson (2012) spoke of the “rise of the expanded and expensive SEN [Special Educational Needs] industry”(p. 75). In this paper, we explore the SEN industry on a continuing professional development (CPD) market for teachers in Sweden. This market seems to well meet the exaggerated importance of teachers’ CPD. Such an exaggeration is a highly globalized phenomenon and thus, we argue, of high significance to the research community (cf Kennedy, 2014). International studies reveal clear evidence of an increasing state-encouraged marketization and privatisation of teacher CPD. Characteristic of this development is that companies establish and profile themselves on the market by selling solutions and improvements aligned with current policy discourses – a dimension of the ongoing privatisation of the education sector that Ball (2009) calls “organisational recalibration” (p. 84).

    A recent estimation is that about 25 000 commercial actors operate within the Swedish education sector (It-pedagogen, 2021) and previous research exemplifies how some of these “edupreneurs” offer CPD packages to schools and teachers, which in many cases can be linked to policy trends (Forsberg & Wermke, 2012; Player-Koro & Beach, 2017). Over the past decade, there has been a flood of governmental initiatives in Sweden offering various forms of professional development programs for teachers – as for example the ‘Special Educator Initiative’ – and commercial actors seem to pick up the discourses of these policy reforms and develop their businesses accordingly (Ideland et al., 2020; Levinsson & Norlund, 2018). Ideland et al. (2020) illustrate “how companies enact spaces of business possibilities made up through discourses of ‘schools in crisis’ and policy reforms” (p. 85). However, what characterizes dicsourses in the content descriptions of CPD offered at a commersialised CPD-market – and how this might influence SEN-oriented practices – needs further investigation. 

    In this paper, we present results from the ongoing project Following invoices – finding professional learning (the Invoice Project), funded by the Swedish Research Council. The overall aim in the project is to deepen the understanding of teacher learning, in times when different stakeholders try to control and impact on education and teachers’ work.  

    We started the project by “following the money” (Ball, 2012) in three municipalities in Sweden and analyzed a multitude of invoices concerning teachers’ professional development. One of the results, so far, is the fact that the CPD market in Sweden to great extent offers content with a SEN focus. 37 % of the collected invoices relate to SEN content. 

    The aim of this paper is to unpack prevalent SEN-oriented discourses on the CPD market and to discuss the possible impact these may have on various educational practices, such as professional learning and teaching practices. From a practice-oriented perspective educational practices are interdependent; they enable and constrain each other mutuallly in the ‘education complex’ (e.g., Kemmis et al., 2012; Mahon et al., 2020). 

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used

    In the overall study - the Invoice Project – 674 invoices from 2018 and 2019, were collected from the CPD accounts for elementary and upper secondary school teachers in three Swedish municipalities (municipal invoices are subject to the principal of openness in the Swedish constitution). The selected municipalities were chosen to reflect rural and urban areas with varying socioeconomic characteristics. 

    A first analysis of the invoices revealed that a majority of the invoices (37 %) had a SEN-oriented content. The criterion for the categorization was that the CPD title and/or the content description included not only the notion of Special Needs Education but also phenomena such as ‘dyslexia’, ‘dyscalculia’, ‘ADHD’, ‘gifted children and ´neuropsychiatric disorders’.

    The data production and analytical work for this paper included the following steps:

    1. Extending information. The collected invoices regarding SEN-oriented CPD did not always supply the information needed to address the purpose of and the questions posed in this paper. Therefore, we made further Internet searches and/or contacted schools and/or CPD providers via email or phone to obtain the information required. 

    2. Extracting and coding. Information was extracted from the invoices and coded into an SPSS program file comprising a number of variables including SEN-oriented CPD. We distributed all SEN invoices evenly among the three of us to organise the work and perform the first step of the coding process in individual SPSS files based on the same variable structure. We continuously engaged in formal and informal coding sessions to construct subcategories of SEN-oriented CPD. 14 different SEN categories were developed in this process. The data in the individual files were later transferred into a joint SPSS file for analysis.

    3. Mapping and analysing.  We used descriptive statistics, mainly frequencies and relative frequencies, computed in the SPSS program to explore the distribution of invoices, costs and actors over SEN related CPD contents. Frequencies and relative frequencies were mapped via bar charts and tables to illustrate and summarize the characteristics of SEN-oriented CPD in the studied municipalities. 

    4. Identifying discourses. We identified tentative discourses in the CPD actors’ content descriptions collected from our Internet searches. To deepen the analyses, we exploited our joint experiences in working with educational discourses in a Faircloughian and Foucauldian critical sense (see Langelotz 2014; 2017a; 2017b; Norlund, 2009; 2021; Norlund & Levinsson 2018).

    Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings

    The findings show a number of prevalent discourses, of which we will present a few during our presentation this paper. These discourses seem, in turn, to be embedded within an umbrella discourse of solutionism. The discourse of solutionism starts with a well-defined (and often simplified) problem to which the CPD offers a solution (cf. Ideland et al., 2020).

    We will discuss the potential consequences in relation to each practice in the education complex (practices of teaching, learning, researching, leading and CPD) respectively. 

    References

    Ball, S. (2009). Privatising education, privatising education policy, privatising educational research: network governance and the ‘competition state’. Journal of Education Policy, 24(1), 83-99. https://doi.org/10.1080/02680930802419474

    Ball, S. (2012). Show me the money! Neoliberalism at work in education. Forum, 54(1), 23-27.

    Forsberg, E. & Wermke, W. (2012). Knowledge soursces and autonomy: German and Swedisch teachers’ continuing professional development of assessment knowledge. Professional Development in Education, 38(5), 741-758. 

    Ideland, M., Jobér, A., & Axelsson, T. (2020). Problem solved! How eduprenuers enact school crises as business possibilities. European Educational Research Journal, 20(1) 83–101.

    Kennedy, A. (2014). Understanding continuing professional development: the need for theory to impact on policy and practice. Professional Development in Education, 40(5), 688-697.

    Kemmis, S., Edwards-Groves, C., & Wilkinson, J. (2012). Ecologies of practices. In P. Hager, A. Lee, and A. Reich (EDs.), Practice-Theory Perspectives on Professional Learning, 33–49. Dordrecht: Springer. 

    Langelotz, L. (2014). Vad gör en skicklig lärare? En studie om kollegial handledning som utvecklingspraktik.(Doctoral thesis, Gothenburg Studies in Educational Sciences, 348). Göteborg: Universitatis Gothoburgensis.

    Langelotz, L. (2017a). Kollegialt lärande i praktiken. Kompetensutveckling eller kollektiv korrigering? [Collegial Learning in Practice: Professional Learning or Collective Correction?]. Stockholm: Natur & Kultur.

    Langelotz, L. (2017b).  Collegial mentoring for professional development. In K.  Mahon, S. Kemmis, S. Fransisco & Lloyd, A. (Eds.) Exploring educational practices through the lens of practice architectures. Singapore: Springer. 

    Levinsson, M., & Norlund, A. (2018). En samtida diskurs om hjärnans betydelse för undervisning och lärande: Kritisk analys av artiklar i lärarfackliga tidskrifter. Utbildning & Lärande, 12(1), s. 7-25.

    Mahon, K., Edwards-Groves, C., Fransisco, S., & Kauko, M. (2020). Pedagogy, Education and Praxis in Critical Times. Singapore: Springer 

    Norlund, A. (2009). Kritisk sakprosaläsning i gymnasieskolan. Didaktiska perspektiv på läroböcker, lärare och nationella prov. Göteborg Studies in Educational Sciences 273. Göteborg. Acta Universitatis Gothoburgensis. 

    Norlund, A. (2020). Suggestopedi som språkdidaktiskt verktyg i vuxenutbildning - en kritisk textanalys. Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, 25(2–3), 7–25.

    Player-Koro, C., & Beach, D. (2017). The influence of Private Actors on the Education of Teachers in Sweden. A Networked Ethnography Study of Education Policy Mobility. Acta Pedagogica Vilnesia, 39. 

    Tomlinson, S. (2012). The irresistible rise of the SEN industry. Oxford Review of Education 38(3), 267-286.

  • 13.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Using Photo Elicitation Interviews to Explore Newly Arrived Pupils' Social and Academic Experiences2021In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 202-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to shed light on the spatial experiences of newly arrived pupils in relation to both their social and academic life at school. Data is derived from an on-going municipal project and includes 90 photographic images taken by nine newly arrived pupils as a basis for auto-driven photo elicitation interview methodology. The study draws on analytical spatial concepts and is placed within a theoretical frame contributed by the geography scholar Doreen Massey and three propositions. The interviewed pupils express mainly positive experiences. The findings also reveal the complexity of space in school.

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  • 14.
    Langelotz, Lill
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Following Invoices: Researching CPD Actors in a Marketized Field2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    PROJEKTET FAKTURAN, FORTBILDNINGEN OCH FORSKNINGEN: ETT SVENSKLÄRARFOKUS2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Suggestopedi som språkdidaktiskt verktyg i vuxenutbildning - en kritisk textanalys2020In: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345, Vol. 25, no 2-3, p. 7-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här artikeln är att belysa hur förespråkare för den språkdidaktiska metoden suggestopedi konstruerar 1) problemet med att vuxna med utomeuropeisk språkbakgrund inte lär sig tillräckligt snabbt samt 2) lösningen, det vill säga hur denna problematik kan och bör bemötas enligt involverade projektaktörer. Detta görs genom en kritisk diskursanalys av sex strategiskt utvalda texter som alla framhåller suggestopedi som en fruktbar metod och som alla knyter an till projekt finansierade av Europeiska socialfonden. Analysen genomförs i fem steg. I det första steget identifieras hur problemet med att de vuxna inte lär sig snabbt nog konstrueras av aktörer som är involverade i projekten och i det andra steget identifieras vilka lämpliga åtgärder som föreslås i syfte att adressera det uppfattade problemet. Steg tre packar upp det nätverk av praktiker i vilken Europeiska socialfonden är en central aktör. Därefter belyses motstridigheter och luckor som trädde fram via analysen liksom potentiella metodologiska problem. De slutsatser som går att dra handlar om att det finns kritiska aspekter att beakta både när det gäller hur de vuxna med utländsk bakgrund konstrueras och vad beträffar den tillämpade didaktiska metoden.

  • 17.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Beach, Dennis
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Teacher Educators in Neoliberal Times: A Phenomenological Self-Study2020In: Phenomenology & Practice, E-ISSN 1913-4711, Vol. 14, no 1, SI, p. 7-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, and most Western countries, pervasive neoliberal policies have dramatically transformed the entire education sector in a matter of decades. As teacher educators, we have experienced how neoliberal currents have pushed Swedish teacher education towards a teacher training paradigm which may risk undermining the foundations for professional judgement. Moreover, the Bologna Process and the introduction of New Public Management have had significant consequences for what it means to be a teacher educator. In this study, we present our everyday experiences of being teacher educators, immersed in a teacher education culture in Sweden which has evolved under the pressures of neoliberalism. To address these complex lived experiences, we engaged in a phenomenological first-person account. Three main themes emerged from an analysis of lived experience descriptions: (a) Alignment Slaves; (b) Audit Puppets; (c) Techno Phobes. These themes reflect different lived dimensions of being teacher educators confronted with neoliberal agendas. The paper concludes with a call for resistance to bring about change within teacher education.

  • 18.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    "Alla elever är olika" - en kritisk kommentar till olikhetsdiskursen2019Other (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Langelotz, Lill
    Changing Educational Practices in the Light of the Theory of Practice Architectures2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This symposium is exploring how research and theoretical recourses reveal structures that constrain, enable or force changes in educational practices. In an uncertain time, when for example democratic values are at stake in Europe, schools democratic fulfilling, and the professionals’ possibilities to explore and change their practices are fundamental.

    In a number of different empirical studies, across different educational settings, from preschool to higher education in Sweden, we address two fundamental questions: What is happening in this educational practice? How can we understand it? The theory of practice architectures (Kemmis & Grootenboer, 2008; Kemmis et.al, 2014) was applied to explore the educational practices and the conditions that enabled and constrained them in their sites. Practice is here understood open and changeable and are activities hanging together in time and space (Schatzki, 2002).

    According to the theory, practices are shaped and hold in place by three kinds of overlapping arrangements: Cultural-discursive arrangements such as how discourses and languages affect what is possible to sayin and about practice (e.g., deficit discourses, critical discourses, discipline-specific discourses, languages). Material-economic arrangements, how material, technological, financial, organisational, and other resources affect what it is possible to doin practice (e.g., buildings, schedules, workload calculators, funding). Social-political arrangements are arrangements that affect the ways in which it is possible for people to relateto others (and things and places) in practice (e.g., organisational rules, mandates, solidarities, hierarchies).

    In this symposium, we would like to first: present the theory and discuss it as a methodological, theoretical and analytical resource for professionals in educational settings (Nicolini, 2012), and second: discuss some of the results from the empirical cases, which highlight how practices in different ways can be understood from the lens of the theory of practice architectures e.g. how practices are hold in place from cultural-discursive, material-economic and social-political arrangements. How these arrangements enable and constrain practices at the site. And finally, the studies will show how the theory gives an understanding on how to be able to change practices, often in dialogue with teachers/leaders.

    References

    Nicolini, D. (2012). Practice Theory, Work and Organization. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.Kemmis, S., & Grootenboer, P. (2008). Situating praxis in practice: Practice architectures and the cultural, social and material conditions for practice. In S. Kemmis & T. J. Smith (Eds.), Enabling praxis: Challenges for education (pp. 37–62). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

    Kemmis, S., Wilkinson, J., Edwards-Groves, C., Hardy, I., Grootenboer, P. & Bristol, L. (2014).Changing Practices, Changing Education. Springer Verlag, Singapore.Schatzki, T.R. (2002). The site of the social: a philosophical account of the constitution of social life and change.University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

  • 20.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Fiction reading in a practice where L1 and L2 learners are taught together2019In: Pedagogy, Culture & Society, ISSN 1468-1366, E-ISSN 1747-5104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with an educational practice that involved mainstreaming students taking Swedish as a second language and others taking Swedish as a first language. It explores the fiction-reading teaching practice in this mainstreaming framework, a matter of which has been intensely debated internationally. Three upper secondary classes and four teachers were involved and the empirical data consists of interviews and classroom observations. The analysis is built on the theory of practice architecture and captures a set of three arrangements; cultural-discursive, material-economic and social-political, and seeks to illuminate the associated opportunities and obstacles. The teachers’ balanced approaches were found to be enabling while constraining aspects emerged in relation to, among other things, unclear policy documents. The theory not only helped identifying the complexity of implementing a mainstreamed classroom, but also the benefits arising from teachers who took a praxis approach.

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  • 21.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    The Research Field of Reality Environments in Education2019In: International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, ISSN 1941-8647, E-ISSN 1941-8655, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 68-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reality technologies are being introduced in schools due to high anticipated or claimed educational benefits. This article explores the reliability of foundations of such claims for use of three kinds of technology-based ‘environments': virtual, augmented and mixed reality. It is a follow-up of a previous stage in a research review and includes 35 articles. A variety of problematic issues appear, among which can be found ‘false dichotomies,' ‘lack of precision' and ‘neuromyths.' Examples are also given of fruitful approaches.

  • 22.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    En kritisk in- och utzoomning av ett hjärnbaserat synsätt på elever.2018In: Nordisk tidskrift för allmän didaktik, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 18-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to contribute with a critical understanding of the popular brain interest in contemporary education. The study is framed by the theory of practice architectures in combination with the concept of recontextualization. As a first step, we zoom in on an ecology of municipal school practices and its elements of a brain interest. The empirical ma- terial for this step includes remedial action plans, interviews with teacher teams and student health teams, and self reports. Here, the neuromythical idea of learning styles constitutes one of the manifestations. The second step is built on a zooming-out process in order to trail actors who potentially nurture general and specific brain interests. The analysis shows that many actors are involved, among which we find teacher union journals, book publishers and so forth. The analysis also shows that these actors work in a harmonious interplay. Towards the end of the article we cast a critical eye on the interest and on this interplay. 

  • 23.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    En samtida diskurs om hjärnans betydelse för undervisning och lärande: Kritisk analys av artiklar i lärarfackliga tidskrifter2018In: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, p. 7-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to shed light on 1) how representatives of a certain research field, i.e. neuroscience, view problems in the classroom and 2) how and by whom these problems should be addressed. This is done through a critical discourse analysis of four strategically selected articles published in two teacher union journals where neuroscientifically oriented researchers and teachers are interviewed about the potential of brain-based education. Our analysis follows five steps. Firstly, we identify how the problem of learning is constructed by neuroscientists and teacher union journals in combination and, secondly, what measures are suggested as appropriate to address the problem. In a third step, we identify the network of practices in which interviewed neuroscientists make up the hub. Towards the end, we report the inconsistencies and gaps emerging from the analysis and reflect on potential methodological problems. The overall conclusion is that representatives of neuroscience apply brain research to teaching and learning in ways that de-professionalise teachers.

  • 24.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Förenklingar, myter och tveksam nytta2018In: Pedagogiska Magasinet, ISSN 1401-3320, Vol. 1, no 0705795736Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärare översköljs av uppmaningar om att lära sig mer om hjärnan. Men neuropedagogiken är problematisk för skolan, skriver forskarna Anita Norlund och Magnus Levinsson.

  • 25.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Hjärnan är komplex, men tydligen inte undervisningen2018In: Biologen, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Pedagogy, Education and Praxis: A ten-year progress report from an international research network2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper 3 – Conditions for praxis: local and global

     

    Ian Hardy (University of Queensland), Ingrid Henning-Loeb (University of Gothenburg, Sweden), Anita Norlund (University of Borås, Sweden), Kiprono Langat (Charles Sturt University), Kirsten Petrie (University of Waikato, New Zealand).

     

    The practices of educators are affected, consciously or otherwise, by changing cultural, social, political, and material conditions for praxis and praxis development in the contexts in which educators work. Educational trends and conditions play out in nuanced ways across different national contexts. However, changing conditions for practice equally share many similarities. Of particular note is the way in which the processes and elements of neoliberalism and new public management have shaped education and the practices of educators globally.  

     

    In this presentation, the focus is on how, in different national contexts, the changing cultural, social, political, and material conditions for praxis and praxis development affect educational practices of the ‘teaching’ workforce. Drawing on empirical research undertaken by members of the PEP network, within and across different national contexts allows for a unique interrogation of how praxis and praxis development is prefigured by different governing conditions in different countries and educational sites. This work highlights the conditions that constrain educational practices, while importantly offering insights into the conditions of possibility for local practices where educators ‘resist’ particular arrangements and instead create opportunities to enhance educational practices. 

     

  • 27.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Students’ Values Versus Their Academic Growth. A Theoretical Overview of How To Solve Misconceptions About the Pedagogic Relation2018In: Italian Journal of Sociology of Education, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 108-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to provide a critical overview and interpretation of pedagogic modalities and their characteristics. It describes the construction and specification of pedagogic modalities and relates various practical implementations of different educational approaches to distinct ideological starting points. By doing so, it offers an elaborated understanding of the often dualistically presented dilemma between students’ identity growth and their academic progress. An element of Bernstein’s theory is brought together with a four-field model from the same theorist and analytically sorted in terms of their relationship to one-another. This makes it possible to establish coherent understandings of phenomena that have not previously been identified or well understood and to draw conclusions in the perspective of equity. 

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  • 28.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Den samtida diskursen om hjärnans betydelse i utbildning: Analys av artikel i en lärarfacklig tidning.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Filosofen Ian Hacking (2004) har med en kritisk hållning utsett det första århundradet av 2000-talet till ’hjärnans århundrade’. Med detta tycks följa en stärkt diskurs om hjärnans betydelse inte bara i allmänhet utan också i utbildning. Parallellt med denna löper diskursen om elevers försämrade kunskaper. Givet detta är syftet med vår presentation att bidra med en kritisk förståelse för, och analys av, hur elevers bristande lärande konstrueras som ett neurobiologiskt fenomen och vilka åtgärder som föreslås utifrån detta.

    Som utgångspunkt för vår analys har vi en strategiskt vald artikel ur Lärarnas tidning. I artikeln görs det en stor poäng av att lärare behöver mer kunskap om tonårshjärnan för att kunna anpassa undervisningen efter just dessa elevers specifika behov och på så vis förbättra villkoren för deras lärande. För analysen har vi vänt oss till diskursanalytikern Norman Fairclough (2003) och följt en av flera av dennes övergripande analysnycklar. Denna hjälper oss att exempelvis visa i vilka nätverk av sociala praktiker som det aktuella fenomenet är placerat och uppstår. Vårt angreppssätt inkluderar en transitivitetsanalys byggd på systemisk-funktionell lingvistik (SFL). Med ett särskilt fokus på den ideationella metafunktionen undersöks hur erfarenheter framställs, vilka aktörer och aktiviteter som är inblandade och vilka omständigheterna är kring dessa aktiviteter.

    Genom detta angreppssätt är vår ambition att förstå hur problemet med elevers bristande lärande är rotat i hur vårt sociala liv är ordnat, det vill säga vad som avgör att man idag letar förklaringar till ett framställt problem i neurologiska företeelser snarare än i didaktiska eller ideologiska. Den status som hjärnforskning har i förhållande till pedagogisk forskning tycks innebära en maktförskjutning som medför att forskare inom pedagogik och didaktik marginaliseras i den aktuella debatten om skolan. Nya fynd inom hjärnforskningen lyfts fram av olika intressenter som lösningen på elevernas sjunkande kunskapsresultat, dock utan att relatera dessa fynd till mer grundläggande pedagogiska och didaktiska frågor. I vår presentation drar vi slutsatser kring vad resultatet innebär för lärare, elever och underv

  • 29.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Levinsson, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Den samtida diskursen om hjärnans betydelse i utbildning – analys av artikel i en lärarfacklig tidning.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den samtida diskursen om hjärnans betydelse i utbildning –

    analys av artikel i en lärarfacklig tidning

    Magnus Levinsson & Anita Norlund

    Filosofen Ian Hacking (2004) har med en kritisk hållning utsett det första århundradet av 2000-talet till ’hjärnans århundrade’. Med detta tycks följa en stärkt diskurs om hjärnans betydelse inte bara i allmänhet utan också i utbildning. Parallellt med denna löper diskursen om elevers försämrade kunskaper. Givet detta är syftet med vår presentation att bidra med en kritisk förståelse för, och analys av, hur elevers bristande lärande konstrueras som ett neurobiologiskt fenomen och vilka åtgärder som föreslås utifrån detta.

    Som utgångspunkt för vår analys har vi en strategiskt vald artikel ur Lärarnas tidning. I artikeln görs det en stor poäng av att lärare behöver mer kunskap om tonårshjärnan för att kunna anpassa undervisningen efter just dessa elevers specifika behov och på så vis förbättra villkoren för deras lärande. För analysen har vi vänt oss till diskursanalytikern Norman Fairclough (2003) och följt en av flera av dennes övergripande analysnycklar. Denna hjälper oss att exempelvis visa i vilka nätverk av sociala praktiker som det aktuella fenomenet är placerat och uppstår. Vårt angreppssätt inkluderar en transitivitetsanalys byggd på systemisk-funktionell lingvistik (SFL). Med ett särskilt fokus på den ideationella metafunktionen undersöks hur erfarenheter framställs, vilka aktörer och aktiviteter som är inblandade och vilka omständigheterna är kring dessa aktiviteter.

    Genom detta angreppssätt är vår ambition att förstå hur problemet med elevers bristande lärande är rotat i hur vårt sociala liv är ordnat, det vill säga vad som avgör att man idag letar förklaringar till ett framställt problem i neurologiska företeelser snarare än i didaktiska eller ideologiska. Den status som hjärnforskning har i förhållande till pedagogisk forskning tycks innebära en maktförskjutning som medför att forskare inom pedagogik och didaktik marginaliseras i den aktuella debatten om skolan. Nya fynd inom hjärnforskningen lyfts fram av olika intressenter som lösningen på elevernas sjunkande kunskapsresultat, dock utan att relatera dessa fynd till mer grundläggande pedagogiska och didaktiska frågor. I vår presentation drar vi slutsatser kring vad resultatet innebär för lärare, elever och undervisning och vad som skulle behövas för att åstadkomma eventuella förändringar.

  • 30.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Elevhälsoteam och lärarlag – professioners maktförskjutningar.2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Titel Elevhälsoteam och lärarlag – professioners maktförskjutningar

    Syfte/mål Syftet med presentationen är att bidra med förståelse för nutida maktförskjutningar där en del av det pedagogiska ansvaret läggs över på elevhälsoprofessionen.

    Metod

    Underlaget för studien utgörs av 28 fokusgruppsintervjuer, hälften genomförda med elevhälsoteam och hälften med lärarlag, båda tillhörande grundskolan. Intervjuerna gjordes i två olika kommuner i västsvenska kommuner med olika demografiska egenskaper men med liknande treåriga projekt.

    Teoretisk inramning

    Intervjufrågorna skapades utifrån teorin om praktikarkitekturer (Kemmis et al., 2014) och dess tre typer av manifestationer i en praktik; sayings (det som uttrycks), doings (det som görs) och relatings (interaktion och relationer). En inzoomning (Nicolini, 2012) av de studerade praktikerna visar att elevhälsoteam tagit på sig stort ansvar och exempelvis infört hemklassrum för elever trots lärares protester. En utzoomning indikerar att en ny skollag (SFS 2010:800, 29 kap. 8 §), vilken enligt teorin om praktikarkitekturer ska ses som ett socialt-politiskt arrangemang som påverkar relatings, har möjliggjort denna typ av maktförskjutningar. Andra arrangemang är de kulturellt-diskursiva (kopplat till sayings) och materiellt-ekonomiska (kopplats till doings).

    Förväntade slutsatser

    Även utanför Sverige syns professioner med orientering mot hälsofrågor expandera (Tomlinson, 2012). Slutsatser av studien kan sammantaget dras om konsekvenser för lärarprofessionen och denna professions position i en eventuellt förminskande samtida förändringsprocess.

    Relevans för pedagogiskt arbete

    Presentationen bidrar med kunskap om lärarprofessionens villkor.

     

    Kemmis, S., Wilkinson, J., Edwards-Groves, C., Hardy, I., Grootenboer, P. & Bristol, L. (2014). Changing Practices, Changing Education. Singapore: Springer Verlag.

    Nicolini, D. (2012). Practice theory, work, and organization: an introduction. 1. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    SFS 2010:800. Skollag. Stockholm: Utbildningsdepartementet.

    Tomlinson, S. (2012). The irresistible rise of the SEN industry. Oxford Review of Education, 38(3), 267-286.

  • 31.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Persson, Elisabeth
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Följeforskning av projektet Svenska 1 och svenska som andraspråk 1, Sven Eriksonsgymnasiet, Borås.2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna slutrapport berör följeforskning av det av Sparbanksstiftelsen Sjuhärad delfinansierade Pilotprojektet Svenska 1 och Svenska som andraspråk 1. Projektet har genomförts på Sven Eriksonsgymnasiet i Borås under läsåret 2016/2017 och omfattat tre klasser i årskurs ett.

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  • 32.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Ljungblad, Bertil
    Kungsbacka stad.
    Samforskning i projektet Introduktionsteam – Rutiner för mottagande av nyanlända elever i Kungsbacka kommun.2017Report (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 33.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    The literature classroom in a mainstreamed organization – The case of reading Selma Lagerlöf. 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation is the result of a joint project including both a teacher group at an upper secondary school and its regional university. The project refers to a transformation of the practice from an organisation where the two subjects Swedish (L1) and Swedish as a second language (L2) were separated to an alternative organisation where L2 students were mainstreamed in L1 education. The main reason for the project was the teachers’ dissatisfaction with the fact that students enrolled in the Swedish as a second language subject felt excluded. Already in the start a crucial issue emerged; i.e. how to deal with literature education (see Hammond, 2006). The two subjects had since long been characterised by two different literature traditions. Now, the L1 tradition of giving priority to classic novels, and of giving the students access to the common cultural heritage, was found to collide with the L2 tradition where priority had rather been given to identity building for young people from ethnic origin other than the mainstream and which had relied on contemporary novels. Given this the aim of the presentation is to report the analysis of what happened when the L1 and L2 literature education was conducted in a new organisational form. The novel given space by the teachers was The Emperor of Portugallia by the Swedish author Selma Lagerlöf.

    The empirical material consists of focus group interviews with students, observations of lessons and formal meetings, as well as of background documents. The theoretical approach guiding the research is found within the theory of practice architecture (Kemmis et al., 2014), an approach which has previously proved fruitful in similar studies of transformation. The theory facilitates the capturing of three arrangements; cultural-discursive (how the project and activities are understood by teachers and students), economic-material (what is being done) and socio-political (how the involved teachers and students relate to each other and how they relate to artefacts such as the chosen novel and the two curricula). The theory helps drawing conclusions in terms of how the arrangements enables or constraints the students’ success.

  • 34.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    "Varken en mirakelmedicin eller en farsot": en översikt över forskning om undervisningsteknologi i form av så kallade verklighetsmiljöer2017In: Paideia, ISSN 1904-9633, no 13, p. 6-16Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Marzano, Antonio
    University of Salerno.
    De Angelis, Marta
    University of Rome “Tor Vergata”.
    Decentralization tendencies and teacher evaluation policies in European countries.2016Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Dipace, Anna
    University of Foggia, Foggia, Italy.
    Education, games and apps in Swedish schools2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Dipace, Anna
    Education, games and apps in Swedish schools2016In: / [ed] Mcgraw Hill, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This paper is part of a larger research project conducted by a group of researchers belonging to the University of Borås (Sweden) in order to expand the knowledge on how mobile apps are identified, motivated and implemented in Swedish schools. Here, we show results that shed light on features of games and apps chosen by a variety of educational actors. Despite of a huge literature that shows the benefits of games in formal education, little is known about whether or not this is also the case for research specifically focusing on apps in educational settings. In fact, research on games and applications in education is limited, both within a Swedish and an international setting. Besides, there are in proportionality more studies on higher education than on compulsory school. Thus, the study of the use of games and apps in education in general, and the use of games and apps both for students with a diagnosis of ASD and newly-arrived students in particular, seems to have been largely overlooked so far. These are grounds for arguing that this study is needed. The data production took place in two municipalities of Western Sweden. 

  • 38.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Inte på allvar – när debatter iscensätts i klassrummet. 2016In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, ISSN 1102-6472, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 25-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Not taken seriously? – when debates are staged within the classroom. The classroom debate is considered a democratic tool and, as such, surrounded by high hopes. In parallel, it seems to be a complex task for teachers to arrange classroom debates that meet their inten- tions. This article takes an interest in matches and mismatches between teachers’ intentions and the students’ reactions, with a particular focus on reactions that include irony and similar aspects, an aspect only tangentially treated in previous research. Given this, the aim is to illustrate, analyse and understand a variation of debate realisations. The empirical mate- rial consists of tape recordings from four different arrangements and from three secondary schools. The analytical procedure relied on critical classroom discourse analysis (CCDA). In addition, three dimensions of a debate; the relational, the textual and the intellectual, were used to highlight didactical aspects in particular. The different debate realisa- tions are discussed in relation to sociological aspects and the results give an understanding for the circumstance that classroom debates are not realised isolated from the surrounding world. 

  • 39.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Reality environments in formal education – Neither a panacea nor a plague.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation reports the results of a literature review where a particular kind of technology-based teaching approaches; i e. virtual, augmented, mixed and hybrid reality environments, were investigated. The concepts refer to different levels of immersion; for instance, augmented reality ‘allows the user to see a real world that is supplemented with virtual worlds’ (Kerawalla et al., 2006).

    Applications of the technological approaches in education is still argued to be ‘in its early stage of development’ (Falloon, 2010). Most research has been conducted on higher education (Duncan, Millar & Jiang, 2012) while a focus on primary and secondary school has largely been overlooked so far, as confirmed by Gerstein (2009). Literature reviews have previously been conducted within the area (see Selwyn, 2007; Allison, 2008; Hew & Cheung, 2010; Parsons & Cobb; 2011; Grynszpan et al., 2014; Wass & Porayska-Pomsta, 2014; Abdul Jabbar & Felicia, 2015), but there are still gaps to be acknowledged. This review attempts to fill such a current gap not only by spanning the ‘reality continuum’ of all three types of environments but also by taking a particular interest in formal school for children and young people. In addition the review contributes a didactically based perspective. A combined interest in these aspects is uncommon in the literature. Thus, this review aims to provide knowledge of what virtual, augmented and mixed reality environments bring to formal learning practices at school. Here, ‘school’ refers to primary and secondary, including upper secondary, school.

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used

    The review was conducted in two steps; one exploratory and one systematic. The exploratory phase was characterized by a manual process inlcuding a snowball approach and the systematic phase by using the SAGE and ERIC (via ProQuest) databases. The search query was directed to articles that matched the indicators of the varied ‘realities’ in combination with the notion of ‘classroom’. Papers dealing with both compulsory school and higher education (as in Hew & Cheung, 2010) were included but processed without a focus on higher education. In total 42 articles were included. Together the total corpus of included studies provided evidence for the potential homogenous and/or heterogeneous character of the field. The approach enabled a focus on tensions between established different interests and as such supported the critical discussion that ends the review. The year span covers publications from 2006 to 2015. Particularly when previous literature reviews were dealt with, a few insights from an earlier date were also considered. In the broader perspective, the overall process should be characterized as iterative. A specific example is ‘hybrid reality’ which appeared as a concept in the middle of the procedure and called for a change of indicators.

    Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings

    The results include a didactically oriented overview, focusing the aspects 'material', 'organisation' and 'assessment'.The results also include an overview of affordances and constraints. The affordances emerging from the review in total overrule the evidenced constraints, but reliability and validity matters should be kept in mind. My conference presentation will mainly focus on the latter, i. e. reliability and validity matters as well as tensions. To give an example, one problematic matter in the research is the proneness to refer to what can be regarded as false dichotomies; traditional classroom work is by definition characterized as unsophisticated whereas technology-based work is depicted the opposite  Dunleavy, Dede and Mitchell (2009) suggest that the ‘cultural and technological shift’ call for further studies regardless of seeing the technology  ‘as neither a panacea nor a plague ’(p. 7). This suggestion sums up and concludes the review.

    References

    Duncan, I., Miller, A. & Jiang, S.  (2012), S. A taxonomy of virtual worlds usage in education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(6), 949-964.

    Dunleavy, M., Dede, C. & Mitchell, R. (2009). Affordances and limitations of immersive participatory augmented reality simulations for teaching and learning. Journal  of Science Education and Technology, 18(1), 7-22.

    Falloon, G, (2010). Using avatars and virtual environments in learning: What do they have to offer? British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(1), 108-122.

    Gerstein, J. (2009). Beyond the game: Quest Atlantis as an online learning experience for gifted elementary students. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research, 2(1), 2-18.

    Hew, K. F & Cheung, W. S. (2010). Use of three-dimensional (3-D) immersive virtual worlds in K-12 and higher education settings: A review of the research. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(1), 33-55.

    Kerawalla, L, Luckin, R., Seljeflot, S. & Woolard, A. (2006). “Making it real”: exploring the potential of augmented reality for teaching primary school science. Virtual Reality, 10(3),163-174.

  • 40.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Recognising debate types within the classroom – an expansion of prevailing conceptual divisions.2016In: L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, ISSN 1567-6617, E-ISSN 1573-1731, ISSN 1567-6617, Vol. 16, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although much research has previously addressed elements of classroom discourse and the practices of pupils’ debate and discussion, I argue there is a need to expand the framework for analysing the forms of such oral classroom activities, particularly regarding expressions of differences in opinion. Commonly applied analytical tools generally recognise just two forms, adversarial and deliberative. By operationalising a conceptual set of categories defining how differences in opinion are expressed within the classroom, I show that this is too narrow. A third form (agonistic) can be recognised based on Chantal Mouffe’s theory of democracy and politics, and another form is what I call the relativistic. Thus, I propose an analytical framework with a set of four forms to address the nature of debate. By providing empirical classroom examples to support each form, this article is intended not only for researchers but also to benefit practising teachers.

  • 41.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    The contemporary emphasis on diagnoses in education – a critical perspective2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research group RCIW is regularly involved in projects initiated and conducted by municipalities. A couple of these projects have enabled the understanding of what happens in local, educational practices when measures are taken to improve the conditions for students diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a diagnosis getting high contemporary emphasis. The results from the municipal projects are supportive and encouraging. However, also some more worrying aspects of these have emerged, and found vital to examine. These critical aspects make up the focus for the planned presentation.

     

    Aim and research questions

    The presentation aims at shedding critical light on problematic elements of the contemporary attention to ASD diagnoses, from now on referred to as ‘the public ASD discourse’. It should be clarified that the mentioning of the current attention to ASD as a discourse does not mean a rejection of the diagnosis per se, only that a strengthened emphasis (as it seems) needs a critical eye.

     

    The research questions are:

    1)         What expressions are there for a public ASD discourse within local, educational practices?

    2)         What nourishes the discourse?

    3)         How do the consequences related to the discourse, in turn, relate to social (un-) sustainability?

     

    The empirical material produced within the two projects is rich and consists of focus group interviews (one set of interviews with five teacher teams in municipality A, two sets of interviews with five teacher teams in municipality B and two sets of interviews with five student health teams in municipality B), photo elicitation interviews with students diagnosed with ASD (six in municipality A and five in municipality B) remedial action plans (24 from municipality A) and a variety of field notes from formal and informal meetings.

     

    The theoretical frames guiding the analysis are collected both from the practice theorists Davide Nicolini and Stephen Kemmis, and from the sociologist of education Basil Bernstein. Kemmis’ theory of practice architecture makes it possible to capture three arrangements significant of a transformation process (see Kemmis et al. 2014), as in this case the municipal projects. The first type, cultural-discursive arrangements, are expressed in sayings and takes an interest in how the involved participants understand the ongoing transformation process. The second, economic-material arrangements, are expressed in doings and refers to what is being done within the projects. Finally, socio-political arrangements are expressed in relatings, and is examined in how the involved actors and students relate to each other, but also how they relate to artefacts such as the new legislation for the student group of concern. The presentation relies on an understanding of practice architectures as dynamic, where arrangements overlap and sometimes are mutually dependent.

     

    Nicolini supplies the concepts of zooming-in and zooming-out of a practice (see Nicolini, 2012). A zooming-in corresponds to the first research question, in which the presentation will take its start. The zooming-in here refers to the local practices and their expressions of the ASD diagnosis and its importance. Next, the presentation will move to a zooming-out in which it is examined from where the public ASD discourse gets its nutrition (second research question).

    Here, Bernstein’s (2000) conceptual set of different recontextualisation fields complements the zooming-out stage; the set will be used to refine and capture the variety of actors supporting the discourse. Included in this group of actors are policy documents, teacher union journals and other actors loosely or strongly involved in education. As a third and final step, a repeated zooming back will take place and in connection a reasoning on consequences for students in the local (and national) practices. Here, the unsustainable aspects of the diagnosis discourse will be discussed (research question 3).

     

    To give two examples of the findings, first, the results how that the discourse evokes a plethora of subcategories for the different varieties of autism and the different students. This vocabulary refers to the category of sayings (representative of cultural-discursive arrangements), in turn connected to a change in how the actors look upon students (socio-political arrangements). Second, the results show that several modifications of teaching activities are made (an expression of doings and representing economic-material arrangements) causing a potential lock-in effect for the students. These matters unfortunately run counter to the project management’s initial ambition of less segregation and increased academic success for the students. Finally, the presentation will provide insights in how some expressions and arrangements also run counter to paragraph 4.5 in the sustainable development goals.

     

    By 2030, eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education and vocational training for the vulnerable, including persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples and children in vulnerable situations.

     

     

     

    References

    Bernstein, B. (2000). Pedagogy, symbolic control and identity: theory, research, critique. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

     

    Kemmis, S., Wilkinson, J., Edwards-Groves, C., Hardy, I., Grootenboer, P. & Bristol, L. (2014). Changing Practices, Changing Education. Singapore: Springer Verlag.

    Nicolini, D. (2012). Practice theory, work, and organization: an introduction. 1. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

     

     

  • 42.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    The ‘neurological gaze ' on pupils - trailing its nourishers.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to shed light on contemporary expressions of a ‘neuorological gaze’ on pupils (Langager, 2014), and how the nourishment of these expressions can be understood. It proposes a connection to the conference theme by arguing that a ‘neurological gaze’ is easily incorporated into ‘intra-individual change’ discourses which, in contrast to ‘inter group-change’ discourses, can be considered unhelpful when it comes to social justice and education (Bernstein, 1990). The research on which the presentation draws is based on four municipal projects, which we as presenters have followed. All projects have an overarching aim to support and reinforce inclusion in their schools. Data include remedial action plans, focus group interviews with teacher teams, teachers' self reports, pupil interviews and municipal project documents. The theoretical framework is primarily informed by the theory of practice architectures (Kemmis et al. 2014). This theory is based on a division into three arrangements; cultural - discursive, material-economic and socio-political arrangements. These are all of interest to our study, and overlap, but the study of a neurological gaze implies a special interest in the cultural-discursive arrangements. As Nicolini (2012) argues, it is not enough to make a zooming in of local practices, as is the case in our study of the data. It is also important to zoom out and trail the nourishers of the gaze. For this we turned to Bernstein’s concept of recontextualisation (Bernstein 1990, 2000) and its set of recontextualisation fields. Actors representing this variety of fields are able to either contribute to a strengthened discourse or to undermine it. The concept of recontextualisation enabled our trailing of connections between the local field and others such as the pedagogical and the official field. Findings from our zooming in on the local practice show several expressions for a neurological gaze. Here, we find a faith in learning styles as well as in the need for pupils’ exercising their working memory. We also find arranged in-service development arrangements based on the idea of BrainGym. By zooming out and following the trail for what nourishes this gaze, we found that actors in all the recontextualisation fields contribute their part of nourishment. This means that publishers, professional development companies, teacher union journals and others strengthen the gaze. Normally, phenomena under recontextualisation are the object of a disharmonious process but the results of our study show that the neurological gaze is recontextualised in an unexpected harmony which in turn calls for a critical eye. Hacking (2004) argues that the first century after the millennium shift will be the century of the brain. Thus, a study from a Nordic perspective is of great concern since the Nordic countries by tradition have put weak faith in intra-individual approaches and stronger in sociological equity approaches.

    Bernstein, Basil (1990): Class, codes and control. Vol. 4, The structuring of pedagogic discourse. London: Routledge.

    Hacking, Ian. (2004, 24 juni): Minding the Brain. The New York Review of Books.

    Kemmis, Stephen, Wilkinson, Jane, Edwards- Groves, Christine, Hardy, Ian, Grootenboer, Peter & Bristol, Laurette. (2014). Changing Practices, Changing Education. Springer Verlag, Singapore.

    Langager, Søren (2014): Children and youth in behavioural and emotional difficulties, skyrocketing diagnosis and inclusion/exclusion processes in school tendencies in Denmark. Emotional and Behavioural Differences 19(3), 284-295.

    Nicolini, Davide (2012). Practice theory, work, and organization: an introduction. 1. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press 

  • 43.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Curcio, Igor Danilo Diego
    Dipace, Anna
    Virtual realities and education2016In: Research on Education and Media, ISSN 2037-0849, Vol. 8, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the state-of-the-art of virtual reality, augmented reality mixed reality technologies, and their applications in formal education. We also present a selected list of case studies that prove the utility of these technologies in the context of formal education. Furthermore, as byproduct, the mentioned case studies show also that, although the industry is able to develop very advanced virtual environments technologies,their pedagogical implications are strongly related to a well designed theoretical framework.

  • 44.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    When problems are located to their brains.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Education and Transition - the Aspect of Newly Arrived Pupils2015In: Proceedings of the European Conference in Educational research,Education and Transition - Contributions from Educational Research, Budapest, 2015., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Educational Spaces and Social Arenas - Photo Elicitation to Ecplore Pupils' Experience of School2015In: Proceedings of European Conference on Educational Research from Education and Transition - Contributions from Educational Research, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Four Ways of Expressing Differences of Opinion inside the Classroom2015In: Conference Publication:10th IAIMTE Conference 2015: Languages, Literatures, and Literacies, 2015, p. 216-217Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    How to Develop Inclusive Pedagogical Practices?: Identification of needs of in-service competencies through collaboration between rresearchers and practitioners2015In: NERA-the 43rd Annual Congress of the Nordic Educational Research Association 4-6 March 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Persson, Elisabeth
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Rosvall, Per-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Strömberg, Marianne
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Authority with an unclear position2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has previously addressed elements of school supervision and inspection and the practices of state authorities. For example, Ouston, Fidler and Earley (1997) have noticed that it is important how inspections and supervisions are carried out in terms of giving schools the possibilities to amend what has been identified as problematic. How countries organise supervision and inspection between authorities differ, but Ball (2007) in the UK and Apple (2005) in the US as well as Rönnberg (2012) in Sweden have noticed a discursive drift in how authorities present themselves, from a discourse with more emphasis on supervision, towards one with more emphasis on inspection. Here Sweden holds a certain position since the Swedish educational system since the mid 1990s, in a short time have turned from one of the most regulated to one of the most deregulated (Lundahl, 2002). In addition, the organisation of authorities and the function of authorities were reformed in a rapid pace.

    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 50.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bokanmälan av Læringslaboratorier og: eksperimenter av Dorthe Staunæs, Hanne Kirstine Adriansen, Katia Dupret, Steen Høyrup och Niels Christian Mossfeldt Nickelsen (red.)2014In: Paideia, ISSN 1904-9633, no 8Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 51.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Detta vet vi om visualisering som inkluderande undervisningsresurs2014In: Inklusionens historie og aktualitet. Festskrift til en ildsjæl - Ole Hansen / [ed] L. Quortrup, Fredrikshavn: Dafolo A/S , 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Entrepreneurialism Recontextualised in Rhetorical Harmonisation2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although criticized from a scientific perspective, the belief in entrepreneurial education as a transformation practice seems to be growing strong rapidly. Among a variety of critical studies, we find Nylund and Rosvall (2011) who argue that the wordings characteristic of entrepreneurial learning are no more than empty words, difficult to relate to specific knowledge (academic or content area matters), and supposedly difficult to operationalize in specific teaching situations. Among critical studies we also find Holmgren and From (2005) who stress that the benefits of entrepreneurial education lack empirical foundation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 53.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Läroboksbilden som resurs i svenskämnets debattundervisning2014In: Mötesplatser - texter för svenskämnet / [ed] Ann Boglind, Per Holmberg, Anna Nordenstam, Studentlitteratur , 2014, p. 155-177Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Meningsbrytningar i olika former2014In: Rhetorica Scandinavica, ISSN 1397-0534, E-ISSN 2002-7974, no 65, p. 40-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous research has addressed the characteristics of debates and argumentation I argue there is a need to expand the framework for analysing the forms of such oral activities, particularly regarding expressions of differences in opinion. Commonly applied analytical tools generally recognize just two forms, antagonistic and deliberative. By operationalising a conceptual set of categories, I show that this is too narrow. A third form (agonistic) can be recognized based on Chantal Mouffe’s theory of democracy and politics, and another form that is oriented to relativism. Thus, I propose an analytical framework with a set of four forms to address the nature of differences of opinion. In addition I provide empirical examples from a variety of contexts to support each form.

  • 55.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Visualisering som inkluderande undervisningsresurs2014In: Inklusionens historie og aktualitet. Festskrift til en ildsjael – Ole Hansen. / [ed] Lars Qvortrup, Dafolo A/S. , 2014, p. 163-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    When Teachers Are Confronted with Ideological Aspects of Their Profession2014In: Policy Futures in Education, ISSN 1478-2103, E-ISSN 1478-2103, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 526-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article falls under the research area of school development. It also takes into account neo-liberalistic tendencies, such as these have been approached in educational research. The article takes as its starting point a development project that began when four rural secondary schools turned to their regional university for scientific support. It seems to be a general fact that more and more schools turn to universities for help as a result being subjected to ranking lists, i. e. a neo-liberally oriented phenomenon in such. School development work has proven difficult in general terms and current tendencies, I argue, risk reinforcing these difficulties. The urgent, practical needs from the schools risk colliding with the critical interests of academia. Here, I argue, we find a problem that needs further exploration. The aim of this article is to explore responses from teachers towards a specific activity that encouraged the teachers to take an objective look at their day-to-day practices, and to relate teaching and assessment approaches theoretically to pupils’ social backgrounds. Three aspects were investigated in particular: first, teachers’ attitudinal responses to being provided with an understanding of diverse and conflicting interests; second, teachers’ attitudinal responses to being provided with tools for meeting school rhetoric in a critical way; and third, teachers’ attitudinal responses to being guided by a specific pedagogical discourse. The data consists of 61 written responses from teachers representing four rural schools. The “appraisal theory” was adopted as an analytical tool for capturing evaluative stances from the teachers. The results highlight the intricacies of confronting teachers with certain sociological and theoretical topics that reveal the fact that school is not a neutral place. I suggest further debate on this matter.

  • 57.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Dimenäs, Jörgen
    Kolback, Kerstin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Wede, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    ”En trygg och framgångsrik skola”: Pedagogiska övertygelser i fyra landsortsskolor.2013In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 81-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "A SAFE AND SUCCESSFUL SCHOOL" - PEDAGOGICAL BELIEFS IN FOUR RURAL SCHOOLS. This article is based on empirical material, collected within a school development project. The project involves four secondary schools located in manufacturing and non-academically oriented Swedish municipalities. More specifically, the material consists of teachers’ written reactions in relation to certain activities, as well as of field notes from seminars and municipal reports. Certain convictions appearing from the involved teachers and school directions are analysed according to pedagogic discourses identified in Basil Bernstein’s theory of sociology of education. There are two parallel aims of the article; first, to shed light on contemporary prevailing pedagogical convictions (primarily in schools similar to our selection) and second, to make specifications of an analytic tool intended for categorisations of pedagogical convictions. Referring to the first aim, our results point towards the fact that certain discourses are more dominant than others, all of which based on beliefs that naturalise differences between pupils. Grounded in this picture, the authors discuss possible consequences for pupils who, due to their social background, run the risk of being less familiar with what is expected from school as an institution.

  • 58.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    ”Varför tycker du man ska ha dödsstraff, då?” Ett sociologisk-didaktiskt verktyg för analys av klassrumsdebatter2013In: Educare, ISSN 1653-1868, E-ISSN 2004-5190, no 1, p. 35-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Debates, as the discursive curriculum activities they are, are occasionally arranged in classrooms. Here, the aim is to offer a tool for analyses of such activities. By adopting a sociological-didactical perspective, this article takes Basil Bernstein’s conceptual pair vertical and horizontal discourse as its starting point. The ‘vertical discourse’ is roughly speaking school-oriented whereas the ‘horizontal discourse’ is more often played out in informal contexts. These two central concepts will be specified in particular relation to the classroom debate as curricular content. Two contrasting authentic classroom debates were intentionally selected in order to try out the ana-lytical tool. Both the debates deal with the same topic, i. e. death penalty. The debates, however, also differ from each other; they are put into prac-tice in remarkably different ways and in different contexts, although they are both collected from, in a sociological perspective, supposedly less ad-vantaged areas. I argue that the tool offered is a needed and fruitful way of capturing what happens in classroom debates.

  • 59.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bokanmälan av Pædagogiske teorier, femte utgåvan av Jens Rasmussen (red.) Billesø & Baltzer, Værløse, 20122012In: Paideia, ISSN 1904-9633, no 4, p. 58-59Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Norlund, Anita
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Dimenäs, Jörgen
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Kolback, Kerstin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Wede, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Ledarskap i undervisning och bedömning2012In: Lärare som ledare - i och utanför klassrummet / [ed] Gunnar Berg, Frank Sundh, Christer Wede, Studentlitteratur , 2012, p. 166-172Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Dimenäs, Jörgen
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Kolback, Kerstin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Wede, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Hur lärare och lärarstuderande kommunicerar relationen mellan värdefrågor och ämnesspecifikt innehåll under verksamhetsförlagd utbildning2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 62.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Om kritisk läsning på gymnasiet2011In: Kritisk läsning av pedagogiska texter / [ed] Marie Carlson, Kerstin Brömssen von, Studentlitteratur , 2011, p. 155-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Skoldebatten i ett textdidaktiskt och sociologiskt perspektiv2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 64.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    The interplay between subject recontextualizers: Social reproduction through critical reading2011In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 659-678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses a Bernsteinian approach to explore, examine, and theorize about an activity in the upper-secondary curriculum within the Swedish Language subject. Based on an examination of the interplay between different educational actors in this recontex- tualization process the possibilities for pupils with different social backgrounds and their possibilities to gain access to valuable knowledge are delineated. The analysis is con- ducted in relation to a specific classroom activity called ‘reading critically’, of which four different aspects are described, each of which in its own way illustrates how didactic choices are justified in general and also specifically for pupils from different social back- grounds. Finally, an attempt is made to examine the findings in light of the recent neo- liberal turn in education in Sweden.

  • 65.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Filantropi, ideologi och multimodalitet2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hemlöshet är ett globalt och snabbt växande socialt problem. Detta dilemma är också föremål för en rad filantropiska åtgärder. I min presentation kommer jag att uppehålla mig kring tre olika budskap som alla relaterar till hemlöshetsåtgärder. De tre budskapen förenas såväl i sitt innehåll som i att de är multimodalt konstruerade. Budskapen skiljer sig också från varandra genom att producenterna vilar mot olika ideologiska ståndpunkter. Med andra ord är det tre politiska texter som är i fokus. Dessa kan man dessutom finna i tre olika geografiska och offentliga kontexter. Syftet med min presentation är att sätta in textproducenternas val i ett ideologiskt och geografiskt sammanhang. För detta motiv använder jag såväl multimodal (Kress & van Leeuwen, 2001) som geosemiotisk teori (Scollon & Scollon, 2003). Geosemiotiken hävdar att textuella och visuella fenomen inte får sin fulla betydelse förrän de analyseras utifrån sin offentliga placering.

  • 66.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Läroböckernas bilder och svenskämnets identitet2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Läroböckernas bilder och svenskämnets identitet2010Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 68.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Läsning av sakprosatexter: teoretiska, ideologiska och didaktiska perspektiv2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Läsning innebär en socialisation av ideologisk, kulturell och politisk art. Utifrån ett sådant antagande avser min presentation att ge ett teoretiskt bidrag till forskning om literacy. För detta motiv använder jag Basil Bernsteins fyrfältsmodell (1990), i vilken han identifierar fyra typer av pedagogiker och relaterar dessa till potentialen för social rättvisa. Jag kommer att exemplifiera och diskutera olika synsätt på läsning i de fyra pedagogikerna. Till de fyra kommer jag också att lägga en femte pedagogik i ett försök till utveckling av den ursprungliga modellen. Behovet av detta tillägg är ett resultat av mina egna studier (Norlund, 2009) som bygger på läroboksanalyser, lärarintervjuer och en kategoriseringsstudie av nationella prov för gymnasiets svenskämne. Modellen bygger på två axlar. Bernstein låter den ena axeln representera vilka undervisningsformer som respektive pedagogiker prioriterar. En form innebär att man ser underlättande (facilitation) som ett undervisningsideal. Där är läraren den som förser elever med läsmaterial utifrån vilket elever sedan gör sina egna upptäckter. I den andra undervisningsformen värderas istället mer explicit undervisning om läsning. På modellens andra axel arbetar Bernstein med undervisningens mål, dvs om undervisningen är tänkt att leda till förändring inom individen eller till förändring mellan grupper. Fyr(fem)-fältsmodellen gör det möjligt att identifiera olika läsundervisningsideal och på vilka olika ideologiska och sociologiska synsätt som dessa ideal grundar sig. Jag ger såväl fiktiva som empiriskt grundade exempel på vad som kan betecknas som prioriterat i de olika pedagogikerna. Dessa prioriteringar kan delas in i olika fokus. Dels handlar det om vilket material som förespråkas för eleverna att läsa, dels vilka aktiviteter som förespråkas för dem att genomföra. Jag urskiljer också huruvida ämnesspecifik eller ämnesöverskridande läsning förordas i de olika pedagogikerna. Hur ideologiska aspekter kan kopplas till diskursiva förändringar och vad det kan antas betyda för läsaktiviteter behandlas likaså. I detta avseende knyter jag an till konferensen Svenska med didaktisk inriktning i Malmö 2009, där min presentation behandlade större diskursiva förändringar och dess förmodade påverkan på läsning i en modersmålskontext. Några sådana diskursiva förändringar är estetisering (Fairclough, 2003) sensationalisering (Chouliaraki, 1999) och riskdramatisering (Giddens, 1991). Jag tar tacksamt emot synpunkter på fruktbarheten i min utvidgade modell. Dessutom välkomnar jag en diskussion om nuvarande modersmålsämneskonceptioner, och relevansen för femfältsmodellen som en utmanare till dessa.

  • 69.
    Dimenäs, Jörgen
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Kolback, Kerstin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Wede, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Relationen mellan ämnesinnehåll och moralfrågor och dess betydelse vid bedömning.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 70.
    Dimenäs, Jörgen
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Kolback, Kerstin
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Wede, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Bedömning för lärande: för Skola 20112009Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 71.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Critical Reading Activities: Ideals from Various Pedagogic Actors Interact and Counteract2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    En kritisk granskning av kritisk läsning2009In: Perspektiv på läsning: liv, lust och läsning / [ed] Madeleine Ellvin, Lena Manderstedt, Svensklärarföreningen , 2009Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Kritisk läsning på gymnasiet2009In: Manus, ISSN 2000-4028, Vol. 2, p. 4-5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 74.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Kritisk sakprosaläsning i gymnasieskolan. Didaktiska perspektiv på läroböcker, lärare och nationella prov2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical reading of non-fiction is an essential activity in a range of contexts. Such activities were accentuated in the curricular reform of 1994. At that time, upper secondary education in Sweden was reorganized in order to prepare pupils in both academically and vocationally oriented education for further studies. For this reason, all pupils take the same core subject courses with the same curricular targets. Various aspects of critical reading appear in research and in the syllabus. Consequently, four aspects of critical reading run through the thesis: critical-analytical, critical-evaluative, critical-integrative and critical-ideological. The aim of this thesis is to study a recontextualising process where critical reading is relocated from academia to the upper secondary classroom. Additionally, a central aim is to study the creation of this process for students at two types of upper secondary programmes, i.e. academic or vocational programmes, which attract young people from different socio-economic backgrounds. The thesis has its theoretical base in Bernstein’s theory of pedagogy. According to this theory, the recontextualisation process involves various fields such as the official recontextualising field, the pedagogic recontextualizing field, the local recontextualizing field and the specialized field of research. Another field is added, ‘discursive changes’, where theoretical aspects from Fairclough are used. Each field contributes to the process with resources and undertakes to introduce students from the horizontal discourse (everyday and informal) into the vertical discourse (specialized and formal). The empirical material gathered for this thesis can be grouped in three parts, each representing a recontextualising field and a separate study. The first study consists of a contrasting analysis, mainly of four textbooks. The textbooks were studied using Halliday’s analytical tools. In the second study, 21 teachers were interviewed about their choices in the classroom in order to enhance critical reading of non-fiction. The teachers were selected from five upper secondary schools in three municipalities. The third study scrutinizes a national test and how it defines and evaluates reading activities. The results show that neither critical reading nor non-fiction has a dominating position in the subject of Swedish. The national test offers several factual texts in its text collection but as a result of the test process it is likely that some of the pupils pass the test without using any non-fiction text. The trends that have appeared in each study are integrated in a separate chapter that takes a closer look at the inter-relations between the actors. The actors interact and counteract. As a result of this, certain aspects of critical-reading seem to be disfavoured, i.e. critical-analytical, critical-integrative and critical-ideological aspects. In contrast to this, critical-evaluative activities receive more attention. Both textbooks and teachers equip the pupils with tools for evaluating sources. Above all, the critical-evaluative activities are favoured by other actors who emphasize the importance of ICT. Consequently, there is greater focus on truth vs. falsehood, putting critical activities at risk of becoming superficial. The striving for parity, which was accentuated by the reform in 1994, in some respects seems to have been taken seriously. In other respects, however, the results show that pupils in academically and vocationally oriented programmes encounter different teaching forms, which prevent vocational pupils’ induction into the vertical discourse. One such example is the fact that textbooks address their readers in different ways, assuming that the vocational pupils need more entertainment, warnings about the Internet and an intimate relation with the book, while the academic pupils are met by tasks, tools and instructions that support their induction into the vertical discourse, and their chances of being illegible for higher studies. The teachers interviewed both challenge and adapt to the reactions from their pupilss which appear to be both enabling and hindering induction. Moreover, they both challenge and adapt to discursive changes. The recontextualising process is nourished by discursive changes such as sensationalizing, dramatizing of risks, narcissism and conversationalization. It is important to discuss the consequences of the intricate web that makes up this process.

  • 75.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Svenskämnets sakprosaläsning i relation till klassbegreppet: i ljuset av diskursiva förändringar2009Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 76.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    When anyone can publish anything: how to evaluate sources according to textbooks for different educational choices2007In: The Reading Matrix: an International Online Journal, E-ISSN 1533-242X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 85-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study emanates from an assumption that the skill of evaluating sources is placed in a complicated field, where an old academic tradition is paired with a contemporary emphasis on the possibilities and risks with modern sources. The aims of the study is to contribute with a description and analysis of these views as they are expressed in textbooks. The material consists of chapters in a range of recent textbooks, some aiming at upper secondary students at vocational programs and some at the more theoretical programs. Of particular interest is the interpersonal structure of the books. Common and diverse ways of addressing the readers are focused. Hence, the study takes a closer look at lingustic features, visual design, student tasks and the presentation of the motives for evaluating sources. The results of the study inform of procedures and choices that are intended to influence students’ critical reading. It exemplifies various views of what is desirable in the matter of evaluating sources and to what extent this fact is interfoliated with the type of program the students take. An analysis and a discussion of possible social consequences conclude the article.

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  • 77.
    Hesslow, Eva
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Loenheim, Lisa
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Norlund, Anita
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Lärares professionella behov så som de konstrueras av en inflytelserik kompetensutvecklingsaktörIn: Pedagogisk forskning i Sverige, ISSN 1401-6788, E-ISSN 2001-3345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här artikeln är att analysera (svensk-)lärares professionella behov så som de konstrueras av en inflytelserik aktör på kompetensutvecklings-marknaden. Teoretiskt är studien baserad på Evans (2011a, 2011b) modell över professionell utveckling. Modellen är en typologi av utvecklingskomponenter och förändringsdimensioner av professionalism. Vår analys bygger på tre konferens-program från den inflytelserika aktören och fokuserar särskilt på konferenser för svensklärare. Vi analyserar materialet dels kvantitativt genom en redogörelse för proportionerna mellan utvecklingskomponenternas ingående förändringsdimen-sioner, dels kvalitativt genom karakterisering och exemplifiering av vad som kännetecknar de olika förändringsdimensionerna. I det senare av dessa två steg framgår vilka tillägg vi gör till Evans modell. Resultatet åskådliggör i vilken grad kompetensutvecklingsinnehållet orienteras mot att utveckla lärares beteenden, attityder eller intellektuella aktivitet. Det visar sig att beteendekomponenten dominerar, en omständighet som vi problematiserar i artikeln. Mot slutet diskuterar vi vilka tänkbara konsekvenser resultatet i sin helhet kan tänkas innebära för lärarprofessionen.

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