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  • 1.
    Akbari, Samira
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Root, Andrew
    MagSol, Tuhkanummenkuja 2, 00970, Helsinki, Finland.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Åkesson, Dan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Novel Bio-based Branched Unsaturated Polyester Resins for High-Temperature Applications2023Ingår i: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unsaturated polyester resins, one of the most important thermosets, are invariably produced from oil-based monomers. Their application is limited in areas where high thermal stability is required due to their low Tg. Besides, these resins contain 30–40% hazardous styrene as a reactive solvent. Therefore, developing bio-based solventless unsaturated polyester resin with medium to high thermomechanical properties compared to petrochemical-based counterparts is important. In order to achieve this, a series of branched bio-based unsaturated polyester resins were synthesized using bulk polymerization method in two steps. In the first step, four different intermediates were prepared by reacting glycerol (as a core molecule) with either isosorbide (diol), 1,3-propanediol (diol), 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (saturated diacid), or adipic acid (saturated diacid). In the second step, the branched intermediate was end capped with methacrylic anhydride to introduce reactive sites for cross-linking on the branch ends. The chemical structure of the resins was characterized by 13C-NMR. FT-IR confirmed the polycondensation reaction in the first step and the end functionalization of the resins with methacrylic anhydride in the second step. The effect of 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and isosorbide on thermomechanical and thermal properties was investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results indicated that 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid based resins had superior thermomechanical properties compared to a commercial reference unsaturated polyester resin, making them promising resins for high-temperature composite applications. For example, the resin based on 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and isosorbide and the resin based on 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid and 1,3-propanediol gave glass transition temperatures of 173 °C and 148 °C, respectively. Although the synthesized 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid based resins had higher viscosity (22.7 Pas) than conventional unsaturated polyester (0.4–0.5 Pas) at room temperature, preheated resins can be used for making high-temperature-tolerance fiber-reinforced composite. 

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  • 2. Gurram, Rajesh
    et al.
    Souza Filho, Pedro
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Zamani, Akram
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    A solvent-free approach for production of films from pectin and fungal biomass2018Ingår i: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 26, nr 11, s. 4282-4292Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-binding ability of the pectin molecules was used to produce pectin films using the compression molding technique, as an alternative method to the high energy-demanding and solvent-using casting technique. Moreover, incorporation of fungal biomass and its effects on the properties of the films was studied. Pectin powder plasticized with 30% glycerol was subjected to heat compression molding (120 °C, 1.33 MPa, 10 min) yielding pectin films with tensile strength and elongation at break of 15.7 MPa and 5.5%, respectively. The filamentous fungus Rhizopus oryzae was cultivated using the water-soluble nutrients obtained from citrus waste and yielded a biomass containing 31% proteins and 20% lipids. Comparatively, the same strain was cultivated in a semi-synthetic medium resulting in a biomass with higher protein (60%) and lower lipid content (10%). SEM images showed addition of biomass yielded films with less debris compared to the pectin films. Incorporation of the low protein content biomass up to 15% did not significantly reduce the mechanical strength of the pectin films. In contrast, addition of protein-rich biomass (up to 20%) enhanced the tensile strength of the films (16.1–19.3 MPa). Lastly, the fungal biomass reduced the water vapor permeability of the pectin films.

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  • 3. Krishnaprasad, R
    et al.
    Veena, N.R.
    Maria, H.J.
    Rajan, R
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Joseph, K
    Mechanical and thermal properties of bamboo microfibril reinforced polyhydroxybutyrate biocomposites2009Ingår i: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 109-114Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present investigation, microfibrils were extracted from raw bamboo and characterized using scanning electron microscope. Composites based on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and bamboo microfibril were prepared with various microfibril loading. The mechanical and thermal properties of the resulting composites were measured. Tensile strength and impact strength of the composites were found to be increasing with increase in the loading of bamboo microfibrils, reached an optimum and thereafter decreased with further increase in microfibril loading. Percentage crystallinity was found to be increasing with increase in fibril loading. Thermal stability of the composite was higher than that of pure PHB. The composite could be developed further for various structural applications.

  • 4.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Alagar, Ragunathan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Akhtar, Naeem
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    End of life textiles as reinforcements in biocomposites2017Ingår i: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, s. -12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of attempts have been made to recycle cotton/polyester blend woven fabrics after use; however, most of these fabrics are disposed of in landfills. Major part of these blend fabrics are not recycled due to complexity of the fibre arrangement and cannot be separated economically. This study shows that these discarded woven fabrics could be directly used as reinforcements in composites without fibre separation. Uniform alignment in the woven fabric provided consistent properties to the composites. The fabrics were reinforced by soybean-based-bioresins to produce biocomposites. The composites were analysed for mechanical, thermal, viscoelastic and morphological properties. Porosity and wettability of the composites were also evaluated. Results demonstrate that the tensile strength and modulus of over 100 and 10 MPa, respectively, can be obtained without any fibre treatment. Furthermore, impact strength over 70 kJ/m2 was obtained without any chemical treatment on fibres. The porosity of the composites produced was less than 9 vol%. Additionally, the fabrics were treated with alkali in order to improve the fibre–matrix interface and the composite properties were studied. From the economical perspective, these composites can be produced at a low cost as the major component is available for free or low cost.

  • 5. Mousavi, Najmeh
    et al.
    Kumar Ramamoorthy, Sunil
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 58, Stockholm, 100 44, Sweden.
    Zamani, Akram
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Production of Mycelium-Based Papers from Carrot Pomace and Their Potential Applications for Dye Removal2024Ingår i: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Current study aimed at valorizing carrot pomace (CP), an abundant waste from the juice industry. A water-soluble fraction of CP was separated from solid fraction of CP (SFCP) and employed as feedstock for producing fungal biomass (FB) in bench-scale bioreactors. FB combined with SFCP were used to develop mycelium-based papers (MBP) using the wet-laid method. The potential and capacity of FB, SFCP and MBP to remove dye (methylene blue) from wastewater was then investigated. The maximum achieved dye removal was 92% when using a mixture of SFCP and FB in their suspended forms. The MBP with the lowest density (549 kg/m3) reached 83% dye elimination. The findings of this study support the valorization of carrot pomace, through environmentally benign processes, to mycelium-based papers with potential application in wastewater treatment.

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  • 6.
    Svensson, Sofie
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Åkesson, Dan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Bohlén, Martin
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Reprocessing of High-Density Polyethylene Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes2020Ingår i: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 28, nr 7, s. 1967-1973Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High-density polyethylene (HDPE) was compounded with 3 wt% carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In order to simulate mechanical recycling, both the nanocomposite and neat HDPE were repeatedly extruded and subsequently analysed by tensile tests, Charpy impact strength, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), oxidation induction time (OIT), Gel Performance Chromatography (GPC), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and TEM After 10 cycles of extrusion, thermal, mechanical, and rheological tests did not reveal any significant degradation. In order to better study the effect of the CNTs, a large number of cycles were simulated by processing the materials for up to 200 min. After 200 min of processing, the neat HDPE was significantly degraded whereas the nanocomposite was almost unaffected.

  • 7. Wretfors, Christer
    et al.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Hedenqvist, Mikael S.
    Marttila, Salla
    Nimmermark, S.
    Johansson, Eva
    Use of industrial hemp fibers to reinforce wheat gluten plastics2009Ingår i: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 259-266Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The next generation of manufactured products must be sustainable and industrially eco-efficient, making materials derived from plants an alternative of particular interest. Wheat gluten (WG) is an interesting plant material to be used for production of plastic similar materials due to its film-forming properties. For usage of plastics in a wider range of applications, composite materials with improved mechanical properties are demanded. The present study investigates the possibilities of reinforcing WG plastics with hemp fibers. Samples were manufactured using compression molding (130 °C, 1600 bar, 5 min). Variation in fiber length, content (5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%) and quality (poor, standard, good) were evaluated. Mechanical properties and structure of materials were examined using tensile testing, light and scanning electron microscopy. Hemp fiber reinforcement of gluten plastics significantly influenced the mechanical properties of the material. Short hemp fibers processed in a high speed grinder were more homogenously spread in the material than long unprocessed fibers. Fiber content in the material showed a significant positive correlation with tensile strength and Young's modulus, and a negative correlation with fracture strain and strain at maximum stress. Quality of the hemp fibers did not play any significant role for tensile strength and strain, but the Young's modulus was significantly and positively correlated with hemp fiber quality. Despite the use of short hemp fibers, the reinforced gluten material still showed uneven mechanical properties within the material, a result from clustering of the fibers and too poor bonding between fibers and gluten material. Both these problems have to be resolved before reinforcement of gluten plastics by industrial hemp fibers is applicable on an industrial scale.

  • 8.
    Åkesson, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Kuzhanthaivelu, Gauthaman
    Swedish Centre of Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 501 90, Borås, Sweden.
    Bohlén, Martin
    Rise Research Institutes of Sweden, Molndal, Sweden.
    Effect of a Small Amount of Thermoplastic Starch Blend on the Mechanical Recycling of Conventional Plastics2021Ingår i: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 985-991Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The usage of bioplastics could increase in the future which may cause contamination of the waste streams of conventional plastics. The objective of this study was to investigate if a small amount of biopolymer contaminating conventional polymers would significantly affect mechanical and thermal properties. A starch-based plastic was first compounded by blending plasticised starch with PLA (polylactic acid). This polymer blend was subsequently compounded with HDPE (high density polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) or PET (polyethylene terephthalate) at 0%, 1% and 5% of the biopolymer. The compounds were characterised by tensile tests, Charpy impact tests, DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy). Tests showed that PE and PP were not significantly affected in terms of tensile strength and modulus but the elongation at break showed a strong reduction. PET was, on the other hand, incompatible with the starch-based plastic. Already at 1% contamination, PET had lost most of its impact strength.

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  • 9.
    Åkesson, Dan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Vrignaud, Thomas
    Tissot, Clément
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Mechanical Recycling of PLA Filled with a High Level of Cellulose Fibres2016Ingår i: Journal of Polymers and the Environment, ISSN 1566-2543, E-ISSN 1572-8919, Vol. 25, nr 3, s. 185-195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Composites consisting of 30 vol% PLA and 70 vol% cellulose fibres were prepared with compression moulding. In the first part of the study, the recyclability of this composite material was investigated by grinding the material and using the recyclate obtained as a filler for PLA. Thus, the recyclate was compounded with PLA in loadings ranging from 20 to 50 wt%. The composites obtained were characterised by tensile tests, Charpy impact tests, DMTA, and SEM. Tests showed that the recyclate had a relatively good reinforcing effect. Stress at break increased from about 50 to 77 MPa and the modulus increased from 3.6 to 8.5 GPa. In the second part of the study, the ability to mechanically recycle the composites obtained was evaluated by repeated processing. Composite with two loadings of the recyclate (20 wt% and 50 %) was injection moulded repeatedly, six times. Tests showed that the composite material with 20 wt% recyclate could withstand six cycles relatively well, while the composite with the higher load degraded much more quickly. For the composites with 50 wt% recyclate, signs of polymer degradation could be seen already after reprocessing the composite once.

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