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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Anders K. H.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Holfve Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Applications of eigenvector centrality to small social networksManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates conceptual and methodological questions that may arise in applying eigenvector centrality to small social networks such as school classes. The focus on small networks brings out surprising and subtle properties related to the interpretation of the measure. We investigate examples where the weighted adjacency matrix of the underlying social network quantifies inter-individual preferences of whom to work with or play with. We show that mathematical operations such as transposition and symmetrization of the weighted adjacency matrix enhances the power of the measure. It is demonstrated that it is not sufficient to work with the original weight matrix. By working with a symmetrized or a semi-symmetrized or a transposed weight matrix different characteristics of the social interaction are revealed. The method chosen depends on the purpose of the investigation. Identifying isolated or popular individuals in the network are also facilitated using these operations.

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  • 2.
    Holfve Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Modified Attitudes Towards School, Teacher And Peers Are Found In Networks Of Mixed Ethnicity2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Holfve Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Students' individual choices of peers to work with during lessons may counteract segregation2015Inngår i: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 122, nr 2, s. 577-594Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to test whether or not students from differently segregated schools within a city could compensate for this variation through their choices of classmates to work with. Data for 1,697 students from 78 classes in year 6 of compulsory school, with an average of 20 % immigrants, was collected covering both segregated and non-segregated areas with respect to housing and schools. Each student was asked which three peers he/she preferred working with in the classroom and ranked these names in order 1–3. The coherence of the networks formed using bilateral choices was analysed by use of eigenvector centrality (SSI). A higher SSI of a network indicated a high coherence of individuals within the network and therefore considered more isolated (or segregated) than networks with lower SSI. The names of the students were categorized as Scandinavian or non-Scandinavian. Networks were formed consisting of Scandinavians, non-Scandinavians and a mixture. In classrooms with non-Scandinavians, mixed networks were quite common. There was no difference of weighted SSI between the three types of networks within the same school class. Furthermore the coherence of the total number of networks formed by Scandinavians, non-Scandinavians and mixed networks was equal. Segregation between the different student networks could neither be demonstrated at a class level, nor between the three types of networks irrespective of class. Segregation within schools was thus at least partly neutralized by peer effects seen in student´s voluntary choices. Outside networks overrepresentation of lonely non-Scandinavian girls and of absent Scandinavian boys was found.

  • 4.
    Holfve Sabel, Mary-Anne
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Orlenius, Kennert
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Gaini, Firouz
    Norwegian Centre for Child Research (NOSEB) Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    Ethical Attitudes Among Young People In Late Modernity2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5. Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    A comparison of student attitudes towards school, teachers and peers in Swedish comprehensive schools now and 35 years ago2006Inngår i: Educational research (Windsor. Print), ISSN 0013-1881, E-ISSN 1469-5847, Vol. 48, nr 1, s. 55-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background This investigation focuses on student attitudes and looks at school quality from the perspective of affective variables rather than students' knowledge or abilities. The concept of attitude includes ways of feeling, thinking and behaving and maintaining an expression of one's identity within the environment. The analysis focuses on student attitudes 35 years apart between the late 1960s and 2003. During this period, major changes in the Swedish national curricula occurred, although the goal orientation has remained that of equity and democracy. Purpose The purpose of the paper was to investigate whether major changes in Swedish student attitudes towards school, teachers and classmates had occurred between the late 1960s and 2003, and to discuss possible changes in relation to educational policies. In addition, a recently described CFA model was examined in relation to the investigation in order to see if development of the method using factor scores could be applied in further analysis of the possible differences between the two time periods. Sample In 1967/68, 1488 pupils from 60 classes in the Gothenburg area in the compulsory 6th grade responded to a questionnaire. In 2003, 1540 pupils from 78 grade 6 classes in Gothenburg City responded to the same questionnaire. Design and methods The questionnaire consisted of 40 items with five alternatives and was originally constructed in 1960. Confirmatory factor analysis was used with previously described latent variables at two levels, within and between classes. Factor scores were computed for the factors at both levels. At the within level, seven factors were found and four of these were relational factors; at the between level, three factors were identified. Results In general, the attitudes on item level were more positive today. The differences between classes had increased. Factor scores at the individual level showed no significant changes in the factors 'interest in school', 'view of teacher' and 'working atmosphere in the classroom'. Significant positive changes had occurred in all four peer relational factors: 'relation with classmates', 'view of peers', 'lack of anxiety' and 'view of fuss' (disturbances). At the class level the means of the three factors: 'teacher and teaching', 'working atmosphere' and 'social relations with classmates', had all increased. The investigation 35 years ago showed a rather negative Swedish student attitude also on an international perspective. By comparison, the present investigation shows a general improvement in attitudes on class level. Within classes the pattern is differentiated. Significant changes in the within-class level were seen in peer relational factors. Conclusions The student attitudes towards school, teachers and classmates are found to be more positive now than 35 years ago. Most striking are the changes in peer relational aspects. The earlier compulsory school with its focus on theoretical knowledge did not achieve all the goals of the curriculum. The present curriculum with its focus on interactional aspects of learning may have implemented changes in relational patterns and created a more positive student attitude at class level, but the variation among classes is wide. An even more differentiated picture is seen within classes. Current national and international investigations are unable to relate a positive school attitude to greater achievement.

  • 6.
    Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Are there signs of student segregation related to foreign background during classroom work in the city of Gothenburg?2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gothenburg, the second largest city of Sweden, has a rather high proportion of school segregation (index 0.26), which is above national level. Differences in school quality have been shown due to school segregation. One factor is related to effects from peer relationships (Gustafsson, 2006). Previous obstacles in measuring peer effects have now decreased (see for example Hoxby, 2000; Boozer & Cacciola, 2001; Gustafsson, 2003; Zimmerman, 2003).

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 7. Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Att sakna betyg i basämnen. En kvalitativ studie av elevens perspektiv i årskurs 9.1998Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8. Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Attitudes towards Swedish comprehensive school: comparisons over time and between classrooms in grade 62006Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the study is to understand student attitudes towards different aspects of school using data from the late 1960s and 35 years later, and to analyze the impact both from teachers and students on classroom climate. Another important aim in order to accomplish this is to develop suitable instruments and methods. The starting point of the empirical work was a 40-item attitude questionnaire that was used in the Didactical Process Analysis (DPA) project conducted in Göteborg in the late... mer 1960s, which comprised 60 classrooms and 1600 grade 6 students. This attitude questionnaire was reanalyzed using two-level confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), the reanalysis resulting in seven factors describing differences in student attitudes within classrooms, three factors describing attitude differences between classrooms. The original 40-item questionnaire was expanded with 31 new items concerning school environment, teaching and interaction between the students, and between the teacher and the students. This instrument was administered to 78 classes, with the participation of 1696 students and 78 teachers in Göteborg. The first objective was to compare the attitudes of students now with the DPA investigation 35 years ago using identical items. The analysis focused both on item-level data and on factor scores computed from the two-level CFA model. The results showed a general improvement in attitudes. A differentiated picture was seen on the within-class level with significant changes in peer relational factors but not in school factors. The present curriculum with its focus on interaction aspects of learning may have implemented changes in relational patterns and created a more positive student attitude. On between-class level all three factors had increased their levels of attitudes, but the variation among classes was wide. The second objective was to analyze differences between the points of view of students and their teachers, and to analyze which factors explained classroom differences in attitudes. Differences in teacher-student perspectives were seen on item level. The students’ attitudes emphasized the importance of positive interaction with both teacher and peers. Teachers noted the level of work ambitions, stress and disturbance among students. The factors of most importance for classroom differences in attitudes concerning work atmosphere and social relations were a sensible management of deviancy, and creation of a safe and orderly environment.

  • 9.
    Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Characteristics of Students without Reciprocal Friendship during School Work2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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  • 10.
    Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Comparison Between Popular and Lonely Pupils’ Attitudes: Consequences for Class Level Interaction During Work and Break2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Comparison of popular and lonely students' attitudes, and their relationship to the classroom situation as reported by teachers2014Inngår i: British Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science, ISSN 2278-0998, Vol. 4, nr 7, s. 897-921Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the attitudinal profiles of Popular and Lonely students in school classes and their similarities and differences, relationships to gender and cultural backgrounds, and the classroom characteristics reported by teachers. Study Design: Self-reports on attitudes were collected from 1531 students representing 77 grade 6 classes from comprehensive schools in the city of Göteborg, Sweden. The students were asked to answer 40 questions, each with five possible responses. Each student was asked to rank the three peers they would most prefer to work with in the classroom and to play with during breaks. In addition, data was gathered from the teacher of each class. Place and Duration of Study: Sampling of all data autumn 2003. Work up of sociometric data 2013. Methodology: Based on a previous two-level confirmatory factor analysis, three school factors and four relational factors were identified. Weighted adjacency matrices were used to quantify social relationships. The eigenvector of the largest eigenvalue of each adjacency matrix yielded individual indices drawn from the eigenvector components and a group index from the eigenvalue. Symmetrized matrices were used to reveal the most popular individuals in each network. Lonely individuals were outliers who were not nominated by other students and were identified based on bilateral choices using semi-symmetrized matrices. Results: Popular (11.5%) and Lonely (8.5%) students have similar attitudes to school and teachers. Around 10% of both groups had very positive attitudes for all factors. However, lonely students were three times likelier than popular students to have negative attitudes and also expressed more anxiety, considered disruption to be more common, and sometimes reported problematic relationships with their classmates and peers. Half of the popular students had negative or neutral attitudes to school factors and 40% had negative or neutral scores for relational factors. Conclusion: The working conditions were most positive in classrooms with only one large peer group and a minimum of Lonely students.

  • 12.
    Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Differences between Teacher and Students in Perceptions of Interactions2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous study student attitudes demonstrated the importance of management of deviancy and a safe and orderly classroom. Classrooms with structures accepted by the majority have been found to be beneficial also for students at risk. Characteristics include teacher enthusiasm, well known standards of behavior and mutual and sensitive esteem among students. It is still unrevealed in what way positive attitudes in student groups can be explained from their teacher perspective. Theoretically one can assume that an appreciated teacher explains positive student attitudes on group level. Here, a further attempt is made to explore students’ attitudes in classrooms from their teacher’s perspective. Four subjects were investigated: teachers’ judgments of students’ interaction and behavior, students’ appreciation of their teacher and students’ attitudes towards stress factors in school. 1540 students from 78 classes in grade 6 answered a 71 item questionnaire about school, teacher and peers using a five point scale. Simultaneously their 78 teachers responded to 45 background questions about themselves, their students and the conditions in classroom and school. The second part of the student questionnaire comprised of 31 items which were slightly reformulated to reveal teachers opinion of their class using a five point scale. Two teacher variables were constructed, Teacher Interaction Judgment and Teacher Behavior Judgment. According to teachers, qualities in relationships and behavior among students are dependent on long term familiarity among peers and with the teacher and amount of pair wise work (positive). Negative associations were found with amount of teacher negotiation with students, the frequency of plenary teaching and the existence of student groups avoiding each other. The explained variation was about 50% in the two teacher variables. The two student class variables were labeled Students´ appreciation of their teacher and Students´ attitudes towards stress factors. Student group appreciation of the teacher and students´ experience of stress factors are here shown to have a close positive connection, i.e. the most positive attitudes towards the teacher appear in classrooms with low levels of stress factors with an explained variation of 60 %. Teacher judgment of interaction and behavior in the classroom is not related to students´ appreciation of the teacher. Classroom interaction on group level is thus separated from the teacher popularity. However, the amount of stress factors according to students is somewhat more related to teacher judgment. This study demonstrates differences between teacher and students´ responses within the same classroom. Teacher capacity to create learning environments where students can cooperate without emotions of stress or fear is highly appreciated. The teacher responses give clues to representative conditions in differing classrooms.

  • 13. Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Etik och livsåskådning i morgondagens skola. Bakgrund och resultat i Lpo94 och i kursplaner.1994Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Gender attitudes in school have changed mainly in peer relational factors over a period of 35 years2011Inngår i: Gender and Education, ISSN 0954-0253, E-ISSN 1360-0516, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 73-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15. Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Klassen-eleven-läraren2006Inngår i: Resultatdialog 2006 : forskning inom utbildningsvetenskap, Vetenskapsrådet , 2006Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Avsikten med projektet: Ansökan till Vetenskapsrådet lämnades år 2001 av min handledare professor Jan-Eric Gustafsson, IPD, GU. Huvudsyftet var att genom mätningar av attityder och uppfattningar förbättra förståelsen av både elevernas och lärarnas arbetsmiljö i grundskolan. Målsättningen var att beskriva olika klassrumsmiljöer utan att inkludera individuella elevers resultat. Genom att undersöka vad elever och lärare tycker om skolan, arbetet och varandra utan att använda testresultat på kunskaper blir det möjligt att rikta blicken mot arbetsmiljöns kvaliteter. Den svenska skolmodellen för den kommunala skolan är att skapa jämlika villkor för eleverna. Det är därför viktigt att undersöka om olika klassrum uppvisar stor variation och vad denna i så fall beror på. När elever går i samma klass delar de erfarenheter vilket medför att de liknar varandra mer än elever generellt gör även om de går i samma årskurs. Stora enkätundersökningar tar i allmänhet inte hänsyn till detta. Ett viktigt syfte var därför att utveckla och pröva nya instrument och metoder för analys som skulle göra det möjligt att skilja på individ- och klassnivå. I planeringen ingick också att jämföra elevernas attityder till skolan, läraren och kamraterna i klassen under två skilda tidsepoker med olika läroplaner. Ett tredje syfte var att jämföra elevattityderna med lärarens uppfattningar om sina elever. Avsikten var att få fram faktorer som uppfattas viktiga i klassrumsmiljön. När svaren analyserats blir det möjligt att bättre förstå vad som kännetecknar såväl goda som mindre goda inlärningsklimat. Möjligheten att både se hur det ser ut inom enskilda klasser och bedöma vilka skillnader i uppfattningar som finns mellan olika klasser kunde på detta sätt tillgodoses.

  • 16.
    Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Learning, interaction and relationships as components of student well-being: differences between classes from student and teacher perspective2014Inngår i: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 119, nr 3, s. 1535-1555Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The attitudes of students to their school, teachers and peers were investigated with 1,540 students in grade six from 30 schools and 78 classes. Using structural equation modelling, the students’ perceptions of well-being were investigated at class level using seven items with high reliability. Their well-being was dependent on at least three factors: students’ learning (seven items), student-to-student interaction (six items) and teacher–student relationships as described by students (ten items). Together, these factors explained 72 % of the variability of well-being between classes. The students’ well-being appeared to be significantly different between schools and between classes in the same school. The teachers’ opinions of their classes with the highest class score for well-being were compared with the lowest. The differences in the evaluation of the teachers’ own classes explain a number of critical issues which impact on educational outcomes. Students need to be aware of the combined effects of learning and socialisation.

  • 17. Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Pedagogiska teorier om eleven i skolutredningar på 1940-tal och 1990-tal. En metaforanalys.2000Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18. Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Student are more positive to school, teacher and peers now than 35 years ago and changing patterns between genders have occured2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19. Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Student attitude in grade 6 towards school, teacher and peers now and 35 years ago2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Teachers' Knowledge and Opinion of Their Own Classes with High or Low Students' Attitudes of Wellbeing2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The teacher as a socializing agent with competence to promote social goals is not mentioned among students of education portraying an ideal teacher (1). However, the teacher has great responsibility for teacher-student relationships in classrooms. Also non-verbal behaviours have impact (2). Understanding teacher behaviour encompasses socio-communicative style e.g. a willingness to listen to students. The instructional outcomes including student’s interest towards both the teacher and the course content was shown to rely on collective communication behaviours (3). Teachers’ social and emotional competences develop supportive relationships and management of the classroom and thereby increasing effectiveness and reducing stress (4). A meta-analysis on learner-centred teacher-students relationships pointed out a number of personal teacher variables. Among the individual teacher characteristics nondirective style, empathy and warmth were associated with student outcomes. The largest association was however related to positive teacher-student relationship (5). To fully comprehend this aspect the learner’s situation becomes of interest. Features of the school and the classrooms may influence student motivation. The assumption was that contextual environmental conditions and lack of motivation were intervened (6). In this sense educators become responsible. According to Baker (7) children need relationships to construct the views about themselves and of the social world all in line with the attachment theory. A positive learning situation balances the conflict between academic press and support. Through the whole elementary school period relatively little is known about the development of the nature in teacher-student relationship. Academic competence increases during late middle-school. Similarly the student’s beliefs, attitudes and motivationalsets regarding schooling differentiate. Peer relationships become central for the individual after grade 5 and students’ become more engaged in peer acceptance. Parallel teachers report less positive relationships with boys, including conflicts, than with girls. Individuals at risk of poor school outcomes, who would benefit from closer relationships with a non-familial adult, have the same strong need for peer acceptance. Students with behavioural or learning problems seem more teacher dependent. Across grades, gender, and types of school outcomes students with positive teacher relationship were significantly advantaged compared to affected peers without this (7). Students’ perception of the relationship with their teacher was related to how they evaluated their academic work (8). At least four aspects were argued to influence teacher – student relationship. These were: the context of the teacher, the individual student, the peers, and the interpersonal culture of the classroom and the surrounding school (9). For students to manage teacher expectations, interference between feelings of confidence and appreciation within the classroom is substantial. Teacher expectations were thus important but they regarded classroom relationships either as central or superficial. The authors (9) concluded that few studies have examined teachers’ perceptions of the interpersonal school climate with effects on outcomes. The purpose of the present study was to explore teachers’ knowledge and opinion of classrooms with either high or low students’ attitudes towards wellbeing. The intention was to reveal important characteristics of relational and learning qualities inside differing school environments. Method An investigation of students’ self-reports on attitudes to school, teacher and peers included 1540 students from 78 classes in grade 6. The students and their teachers answered questionnaires using a five point scale. The 78 teachers also responded to 45 background questions about themselves, their students and the conditions in classroom and school (10). Before the results were sampled the author observed the quality of social competence of the students of the class and the quality of teacher-student interaction using a 3 point scale. Class means were calculated for each student item. Students’ Wellbeing was constructed from 13 student items (Cronbach’s α 0.86), Students’ Learning from another 14 statements (α 0.77), and finally Students’ Judgement of Teacher-Student Relationships from another 10 statements (α 0.92). The teachers knowledge and opinion of their classes with the highest (n=15) and the lowest (n=15) scores of Students’ Wellbeing were compared using independent t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Statistics were calculated using SPSS 19.0. Statistical significance was set at p < .05. Expected Outcomes Observed Interaction Teacher-Students correlated with observed Social Competence (r=0.38, p=0.001). The variable Students’ Wellbeing highly correlated to Students’ Learning (r²=0.65) and to Students’ Judgement of Teacher-Student Relationships (r²=0.63). Considerable variation between schools and between classes was found. Classes with high scorings of Students’ Wellbeing (> 50) were compared with those of low scorings (< 45) regarding teachers’ opinion of their own class. In classes with high scorings; academic work was characterized by less frequent plenary teaching, more use of computers, higher school work ambitions , boys and girls worked better together, and students took more responsibility for free choice of work. Teachers reported that work conditions were better, the school environment was less messy, the teachers did not wish to switch to another class, were more fond of their class, and had been teaching the class for a longer period of time. In the classes scoring high on Student wellbeing teachers also reported less disturbance between students, fewer peer groups, less bullying among students, and the students seemed less stressed. The results include both excellent and catastrophic classroom attitudes and relationships. Teachers need awareness of the impact on student outcomes from factors in the context, e.g. relationships and environment.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 21.
    Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen för Pedagogik.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    Application of Spectral Segregation Index (SSI) as a Measure of Segregation at the Individual Level in Peer Networks2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 22. Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    et al.
    Ericsson, Ulla-Karin
    Har skolans nya styrdokument förändrat högstadielärarens syn på elever i svårigheter?1997Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23. Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric
    Attitudes towards school, teacher and classmates at classroom and individual levels: an application of two-level confirmatory factor analysis.2005Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 187-202Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pupils' responses in Grade 6 to a 40-item questionnaire originally constructed to reveal different school attitudes were re-analysed using recently developed techniques for latent variable analysis of two-level data. One aim was to test a model for investigation of classroom environment and another aim was to compare exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis when applied at individual and class levels. When using confirmatory factor modelling a separation of the individual and class-level influences on the between-group matrix was obtained. At class level three factors could be justified: Teachers and Teaching, Social Relations in Classrooms and Work Atmosphere in Classrooms. We conclude that the present analysis encourages further use of this type of questionnaire when investigating pupils' attitudes in a large number of classes. Two-level latent variable analysis is useful for comparing pupils' attitudes within and between classes

  • 24. Holfve-Sabel, Mary-Anne
    et al.
    Gustafsson, Jan-Eric
    Attitudes towards school, teacher and classmates at classroom and individual levels: an application of two-level confirmatory factor analysis.2003Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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