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  • 1.
    Jabbari, Mostafa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Osadolor, Osagie Alex
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Nair, Ramkumar B
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    All-polyamide composite coated-fabric as an alternative material of construction for textile-bioreactors (TBRs)2017Inngår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, nr 11Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    All-polyamide composite coated-fabric (APCCF) was used as an alternative material for the construction of textile-bioreactors (TBRs), which are prepared as a replacement of the traditional stainless steel bioreactors (SSBRs) or concrete-based bioreactors. The material characteristics, as well as the fermentation process performance of the APCCF-TBR, was compared with a TBR made using the polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-coated polyester fabric (PVCCF). The TBRs were used for the anaerobic fermentation process using baker's yeast; and, for aerobic fermentation process using filamentous fungi, primarily by using waste streams from ethanol industries as the substrates. The results from the fermentation experiments were similar with those that were obtained from the cultivations that were carried out in conventional bioreactors. The techno-economic analysis conducted using a 5000 m3 APCCF-TBR for a typical fermentation facility would lead to a reduction of the annual production cost of the plant by 128,000,000 when compared to similar processes in SSBR. The comparative analyses (including mechanical and morphological studies, density measurements, thermal stability, ageing, and techno-economic analyses) revealed that the APCCF is a better candidate for the material of construction of the TBR. As the APCCF is a 100% recyclable single-polymer composite, which was prepared from Nylon 66 textile production-line waste, it could be considered as an environmentally sustainable product. 

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  • 2.
    Osadolor, Osagie Alex
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Design and development of a novel textile based bioreactor:: Ethanol and biogas production as case studies2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioreactors are designed to provide enabling conditions for the controlled growth of microorganisms, such as good heat and mass transfer, aeration, hydrodynamics, geometry for adequate gas holdup, pH and foaming control, conditions for optimal substrate consumption and product formation, as well as mechanisms for monitoring microbial conditions. Additionally, bioreactors are designed to handle stress that would be exerted on them by the weight of the fermenting media and by the high pressure used for sterilisation. Bioreactors are usually constructed with materials such as stainless steel, carbon steel and borosilicate glass, which must be suitable for growing the fermenting microbes, be inert and corrosion proof. In this thesis, a textile-based bioreactor was designed and developed for aerobic and anaerobic fermentation based production processes with emphasis on mixing, mass transfer, temperature control, rheology, hydrodynamics and stress containment in the bioreactor.

    Temperature control was carried out using a heat control tubing either at the bottom of the bioreactor or as a heating jacket around its vertical height. The developed temperature control system was tested anaerobically and aerobically. Under anaerobic conditions with yeast it resulted in 200 % increase in ethanol productivity in comparison with the prototype without temperature control.

    A mixing system was developed for flocculating microbes and tested for anaerobic fermentation processes such as ethanol and biogas production. The developed mixing system led to the elimination of mass transfer limitation even at 30 times less bulk flow conditions. The mixing system also favoured stable bed formation, and the possibility of operating the bioreactor at a dilution rate above 1/h for ethanol production using flocculating yeast. A mixing system was also developed for aerobic fermentation and it led to improved media rheological and hydrodynamic performance of the bioreactor for fungi fermentation. The improved performance could be seen from minimised foam formation and stabilisation at an aeration rate of 1.4 VVMon a viscous, integrated first- and second-generation ethanol substrate with an initial viscosity of 93 cP.

    The stress that would be exerted on the bioreactor when used for large-scale applications was simulated and validated at laboratory scale. For 100–1000 m3 bioreactor, the tension per unit length that would be exerted on it would be between 300–20000 N/m.

    In this thesis, it was found that the use of the developed textile bioreactor was effective in reducing the fermentation-associated investment cost by 21 % or more, introducing flexibility and addressing several technical problems associated with both anaerobic and aerobic fermentation-based production processes.

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  • 3.
    Osadolor, Osagie Alex
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Nair, Ramkumar B
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Effect of media rheology and bioreactor hydrodynamics on filamentous fungi fermentation of lignocellulosic and starch-based substrates under pseudoplastic flow conditions2018Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 263, s. 250-257Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to study how media rheology and bioreactor hydrodynamics would influence fermentation of lignocellulosic and starch-based substrates under pseudoplastic flow conditions. This was investigated using hydrolyzed wheat straw, wheat-based thin stillage and filamentous fungi as inoculum in bubble column, airlift and horizontal hybrid tubular/bubble column (textile bioreactor) bioreactors. The rheological models showed that the consistency index was dependent on biomass growth (R2 0.99) while the flow behavior index depended on biomass growth and suspended solid (R2 0.99). Oxygen transfer rate above 0.356 mmol-O2/L/h was needed for growing fungi with a cube-root growth rate constant of 0.03 g1/3/L1/3/h. At 1.4 VVM aeration the textile bioreactor performed better than others with minimal foaming, yields of 0.22 ± 0.01 g/g and 0.47 ± 0.01 g/g for ethanol and biomass, substrate consumption rate of 0.38 g/L/h. Operating the bioreactors with air-flowrate to cross-sectional area ratio of 8.75 × 10−3 (m3/s/m2) or more led to sustained foaming.

  • 4.
    Osadolor, Osagie Alex
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Lennartsson, Patrik
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Textile bioreactor a possible solution to reducing ethanol fermentation cost2016Inngår i: Bioprocess and Bio Therapeutics, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing concern on bioethanol application as a transportation fuel because of the current low price of crude oil. To reduce the ethanol fermentation cost, how ethanol bioreactors can be designed to offer process flexibility, reduced investment cost, optimal productivity and more than 1 h-1 dilution rates without washout was investigated. A bioreactor made with textile as its backbone material of construction was designed to anaerobically utilize flocculating yeast for ethanol production without using mixing devices like aerators, spargers and stirrers. A mixing system was developed that used the flocculating yeast in the form of a fluidized bed in the bioreactor, and the conditions needed to maintain the fluidized bed in the bioreactor were determined. Recirculation flow rate and utilization of the mixing system were used as process variables for fermentation experiments. It was found that it is possible to use the fluidized mixing system in the bioreactor at dilution rate of 1.2 h‑1 without washout. Mass transfer limitations associated with mixing when using flocculating yeast was resolved even at low recirculation mixing rate of 0.0016 VVM. Specific ethanol productivity of 0.29 ± 0.01 g-ethanol/g-biomass/h with complete sucrose consumption was attained. Using the bioreactor with flocculating yeast can reduce the fermentation investment cost of a 100,000 m3/y ethanol plant by 37 %. 

  • 5.
    Osadolor, Osagie Alex
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Lennartsson, Patrik
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    Textile bioreactor for ethanol production2015Inngår i: Bioreactor Design and Engineering, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem statement: To achieve optimal production, optimal process conditions needs to be used. However, this increases the cost of fermentation. How can a bioreactor be developed to produce at optimal levels under suboptimal conditions with a substantial reduction of the fermentation cost. Purpose: Designing and developing the bioreactor features like temperature control, mixing, aeration, charging in and transfer out, and appropriate biomass contacting pattern within the textile bioreactor, with the overall goal of optimal productivity with substantial savings in the fermentation cost. Methods: A 30 L prototype of the textile bioreactor, with a working volume of 25 L was worked on. Temperature was controlled by a PVC tubing and a thermostatic circulator. Mixing and aeration control was achieved by using silicone tubing. Fermentation experiments with yeast as biomass were performed using temperature (30 °C to room temperature of 22 °C), mixing (with and without mixing), and flowrates (1.5 L/min – 0.04 L/min) as process variables. Results: No bacteria contamination was observed in all experiments performed. Optimum fermentation time of 15 h and ethanol yield of 0.48 ± 0.01 g/g sucrose was gotten from experiments performed at 30 °C with mixing and a flowrate of 0.92 L/min. Experiments done without mixing and at room temperature had the longest fermentation time of 42 h and an ethanol yield of 0.49 ± 0.02 g/g sucrose. Temperature was found to be the process variable with the highest impact on the fermentation rate. The specific productivity reduced from 1.34 ± 0.02 g L −1 h −1 under optimal temperature and mixing conditions to 0.53 ± 0.02 g L −1 h −1 at room temperature without mixing. The same optimal ethanol production rate can be gotten under sub optimal production conditions. At room temperature and without mixing, using a bioreactor volume 2.53 times the volume of that used with optimal temperature and mixing would give the same optimal productivity. This can reduce the fermentation investment cost of a 100,000 m3/y ethanol production facility by 26 %. While using a 1300 m3 textile bioreactor in place of a stainless steel reactor in this plant can reduce the fermentation cost by 19 %. Conclusion: 26 % investment cost reduction, and optimal ethanol production can be achieved under sub optimal conditions by using appropriate volume of the textile bioreactor. 

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  • 6.
    Osadolor, Osagie Alex
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Lennartsson, Patrik
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Development of Novel Textile Bioreactor for Anaerobic Utilization of Flocculating Yeast for Ethanol Production2015Inngår i: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 98-112, artikkel-id 101566Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Process development, cheaper bioreactor cost, and faster fermentation rate can aid in reducing the cost of fermentation. In this article, these ideas were combined in developing a previously introduced textile bioreactor for ethanol production. The bioreactor was developed to utilize flocculating yeast for ethanol production under anaerobic conditions. A mixing system, which works without aerators, spargers, or impellers, but utilizes the liquid content in the bioreactor for suspending the flocculating yeast to form a fluidized bed, was developed and examined. It could be used with dilution rates greater than 1.0 h−1 with less possibility of washout. The flow conditions required to begin and maintain a fluidized bed were determined. Fermentation experiments with flow rate and utilization of the mixing system as process variables were carried out. The results showed enhanced mass transfer as evidenced by faster fermentation rates on experiments with complete sucrose utilization after 36 h, even at 30 times lesser flow rate.

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  • 7.
    Osadolor, Osagie Alex
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Lundin, Magnus
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Lennartsson, Patrik
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Membrane stress analysis of collapsible tanks andbioreactorsInngår i: Biochemical engineering journal, ISSN 1369-703X, E-ISSN 1873-295XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Collapsible tanks, vessels or bioreactors are finding increasing usage in small/medium scaleprocesses because they offer flexibility and lower cost. However, if they are to be used atlarge scale, they need to be shown capable of handling the physical stress exerted on them.Because of their nonconventional shape and non-uniform pressure distribution, thin shellanalysis cannot be used in calculating their stress. Defining curvature in terms of pressureaddressed these challenges. Using curvature and numerical analysis, the membrane stress incollapsible tanks designed as bioreactors of volumes between 100-1000 m3 were calculated.When the liquid/gas height and static pressure are known, an equation for calculating tensionper length was developed. An equation that could calculate the liquid height from thebioreactor’s volume, dimensions and working capacity was generated. The equation gavevalues of liquid height with a maximum deviation of 3% from that calculated by curvatureanalysis. The stress values from the liquid height and tension equations had a maximumdeviation of 6% from those calculated by curvature analysis. The calculated tensile stress in a1000 m3 collapsible tank was 14.2 MPa. From these calculations, materials that optimize bothcost and safety can be selected when designing collapsible tanks.

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  • 8.
    Patinvoh, Regina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Osadolor, Osagie Alex
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Cost effective dry anaerobic digestion in textile bioreactors: Experimental and economic evaluation2017Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 245, nr Pt A, s. 549-555Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to study dry anaerobic digestion (dry-AD) of manure bedded with straw using textile-based bioreactor in repeated batches. The 90-L reactor filled with the feedstocks (22-30% total solid) and inoculum without any further treatment, while the biogas produced were collected and analyzed. The digestate residue was also analyzed to check its suitability as bio-fertilizer. Methane yield after acclimatization increased from 183 to 290NmlCH4/gVS, degradation time decreased from 136 to 92days and the digestate composition point to suitable bio-fertilizer. The results then used to carry out economical evaluation, which shows dry-AD in textile bioreactors is a profitable method of handling the waste with maximum payback period of 5years, net present value from $7,000 to $9,800,000 (small to large bioreactors) with internal rate of return from 56.6 to 19.3%.

  • 9.
    Patinvoh, Regina
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Osalie, Alex
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Chandolias, Konstantinos
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sarvari Horvath, Ilona
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Innovative Pretreatment Strategies for Biogas Production2017Inngår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 224, s. 13-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas or biomethane is traditionally produced via anaerobic digestion, or recently bythermochemical or a combination of thermochemical and biological processes viasyngas (CO and H2) fermentation. However, many of the substrates feedstocks haverecalcitrant structure and difficult to digest (e.g., lignocelluloses or keratins), or theyhave toxic compounds (such as fruit flavors or high ammonia content), or not digestibleat all (e.g., plastics). To overcome these challenges, innovative strategies for enhancedand economically favorable biogas production were proposed in this review. Thestrategies considered are commonly known physical pretreatment, rapid decompression,autohydrolysis, acid- or alkali pretreatments, solvents (e.g. for lignin or cellulose)pretreatments or leaching, supercritical, oxidative or biological pretreatments, as well ascombined gasification and fermentation, integrated biogas production and

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