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  • 1.
    Ayllon, David
    et al.
    Universidad de Alcalá.
    Gil-Pita, Roberto
    Universidad de Alcalá.
    Seoane, Fernando
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi. KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Detection and Classification of Measurement Errors in Bioimpedance Spectroscopy2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 6, artikkel-id e0156522Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurement errors may be caused by parasitic stray capacitance, impedance mismatch, cross-talking or their very likely combination. An accurate detection and identification is of extreme importance for further analysis because in some cases and for some applications, certain measurement artifacts can be corrected, minimized or even avoided. In this paper we present a robust method to detect the presence of measurement artifacts and identify what kind of measurement error is present in BIS measurements. The method is based on supervised machine learning and uses a novel set of generalist features for measurement characterization in different immittance planes. Experimental validation has been carried out using a database of complex spectra BIS measurements obtained from different BIS applications and containing six different types of errors, as well as error-free measurements. The method obtained a low classification error (0.33%) and has shown good generalization. Since both the features and the classification schema are relatively simple, the implementation of this pre-processing task in the current hardware of bioimpedance spectrometers is possible.

  • 2.
    Bylow, Helene
    et al.
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Health Metrics Unit, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg.
    Lepp, Margret
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Claesson, Andreas
    Department of Medicine, Centre for Resuscitation Science, Karolinska Institute.
    Lindqvist, Jonny
    Centre of Registers Västra Götaland.
    Herlitz, Johan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Effectiveness of web-based education in addition to basic life support learning activities: A cluster randomised controlled trial.2019Inngår i: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 7, artikkel-id e0219341Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Effective education in basic life support (BLS) may improve the early initiation of high-quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillation (CPR-AED).

    AIM: To compare the learning outcome in terms of practical skills and knowledge of BLS after participating in learning activities related to BLS, with and without web-based education in cardiovascular diseases (CVD).

    METHODS: Laymen (n = 2,623) were cluster randomised to either BLS education or to web-based education in CVD before BLS training. The participants were assessed by a questionnaire for theoretical knowledge and then by a simulated scenario for practical skills. The total score for practical skills in BLS six months after training was the primary outcome. The total score for practical skills directly after training, separate variables and self-assessed knowledge, confidence and willingness, directly and six months after training, were the secondary outcomes.

    RESULTS: BLS with web-based education was more effective than BLS without web-based education and obtained a statistically significant higher total score for practical skills at six months (mean 58.8, SD 5.0 vs mean 58.0, SD 5.0; p = 0.03) and directly after training (mean 59.6, SD 4.8 vs mean 58.7, SD 4.9; p = 0.004).

    CONCLUSION: A web-based education in CVD in addition to BLS training enhanced the learning outcome with a statistically significant higher total score for performed practical skills in BLS as compared to BLS training alone. However, in terms of the outcomes, the differences were minor, and the clinical relevance of our findings has a limited practical impact.

  • 3. Faustová, M
    et al.
    Sacherová, V
    Sheets, DH
    Svensson, Jan-Erik
    Taylor, DJ
    Coexisting Cyclic Parthenogens Comprise a Holocene Species Flock in Eubosmina2010Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 5, nr 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Mixed breeding systems with extended clonal phases and weak sexual recruitment are widespread in nature but often thought to impede the formation of discrete evolutionary clusters. Thus, cyclic parthenogens, such as cladocerans and rotifers, could be predisposed to “species problems” and a lack of discrete species. However, species flocks have been proposed for one cladoceran group, Eubosmina, where putative species are sympatric, and there is a detailed paleolimnological record indicating a Holocene age. These factors make the Eubosmina system suitable for testing the hypotheses that extended clonal phases and weak sexual recruitment inhibit speciation. Although common garden experiments have revealed a genetic component to the morphotypic variation, the evolutionary significance of the morphotypes remains controversial. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we tested the hypothesis of a single polymorphic species (i.e., mixing occurs but selection maintains genes for morphology) in four northern European lakes where the morphotypes coexist. Our evidence is based on nuclear DNA sequence, mitochondrial DNA sequence, and morphometric analysis of coexisting morphotypes. We found significant genetic differentiation, genealogical exclusivity, and morphometric differentiation for coexisting morphotypes. Conclusions We conclude that the studied morphotypes represent a group of young species undergoing speciation with apparent reproductive barriers despite coexistence in the freshwater pelagic zone.

  • 4.
    Frisk Torell, Matilda
    et al.
    Institution of Neuroscience and physiology, Gothenburg University.
    Strömsöe, Anneli
    County Council of Dalarna, Dalarna University.
    Herlitz, Johan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Claesson, Andreas
    Center of Resuscitation and Science, Karolinska Institute.
    Svensson, Leif
    Center of Resuscitation and Science, Karolinska Institute.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Institution of Neuroscience and physiology, Institution of Nutrition and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra.
    Outcome of exercise-related out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is dependent on location: Sports arenas vs outside of arenas.2019Inngår i: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 2, artikkel-id e0211723Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The chance of surviving an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) seems to be increased if the cardiac arrests occurs in relation to exercise. Hypothetically, an exercise-related OHCA at a sports arena would have an even better prognosis, because of an increased likelihood of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and higher availability of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). The purpose of the study was to compare survival rates between exercise-related OHCA at sports arenas versus outside of sports arenas.

    METHODS: Data from all treated exercise-related OHCA outside home reported to the Swedish Register of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (SRCR) from 2011 to 2014 in 10 counties of Sweden was analyzed (population 6 million). The registry has in those counties a coverage of almost 100% of all OHCAs.

    RESULTS: 3714 cases of OHCA outside of home were found. Amongst them, 268(7%) were exercise-related and 164 (61.2%) of those occurred at sports arenas. The 30-day survival rate was higher for exercise-related OHCA at sports arenas compared to outside (55.7% vs 30.0%, p<0.0001). OHCA-victims at sports arenas were younger (mean age±SD 57.6±16.3 years compared to 60.9±17.0 years, p = 0.05), less likely female (4.3% vs 12.2%, p = 0.02) and had a higher frequency of shockable rhythm (73.0% vs 54.3%, p = 0.004). OHCAs at arenas were more often witnessed (83.9% vs 68.9%, p = 0.007), received bystander CPR to a higher extent (90.0% vs 56.8%, p<0.0001) and the AED-use before EMS-arrival was also higher in this group (29.8% vs 11.1%, p = 0.009).

    CONCLUSION: The prognosis is markedly better for exercise-related OHCA occurring at sports arenas compared to outside. Victims of exercise-related OHCA at sports arenas are more likely to receive bystander CPR and to be connected to a public AED. These findings support an increased use of public AEDs and implementation of Medical Action Plans (MAP), to possibly increase survival of exercise-related OHCA even further.

  • 5. Gusdal, Annelie
    et al.
    Josefsson, Karin
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för vård, arbetsliv och välfärd.
    Thor Adolfsson, Eva
    Martin, Lene
    Registered nurses' perception about the situation of family caregivers to patients with hearth failure - A focus group interwiev study2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, s. 1-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Heart failure is a growing public health problem associated with poor quality of life and significant morbidity and mortality. The majority of heart failure care is provided by family caregivers, and is associated with caregiver burden and reduced quality of life. Research emphasizes that future nursing interventions should recognize the importance of involving family caregivers to achieve optimal outcomes.

    Aims

    The aims of this study are to explore registered nurses’ perceptions about the situation of family caregivers to patients with heart failure, and registered nurses’ interventions, in order to improve family caregivers’ situation.

    Methods

    The study has a qualitative design with an inductive approach. Six focus group interviews were held with 23 registered nurses in three hospitals and three primary health care centres. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    Results

    Two content areas were identified by the a priori study aims. Four categories and nine subcategories emerged in the analysis process. The content area “Family caregivers' situation” includes two categories: “To be unburdened” and “To comprehend the heart failure condition and its consequences”. The content area “Interventions to improve family caregivers' situation” includes two categories: “Individualized support and information” and “Bridging contact”.

  • 6.
    Westman, Johan O.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Franzen, Carl Johan
    Proteomic Analysis of the Increased Stress Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Encapsulated in Liquid Core Alginate-Chitosan Capsules2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 11, s. 12-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS8066 encapsulated in semi-permeable alginate or alginate-chitosan liquid core capsules have been shown to have an enhanced tolerance towards complex dilute-acid lignocellulose hydrolysates and the lignocellulose-derived inhibitor furfural, as well as towards high temperatures. The underlying molecular reasons for these effects have however not been elucidated. In this study we have investigated the response of the encapsulation on the proteome level in the yeast cells, in comparison with cells grown freely in suspension under otherwise similar conditions. The proteomic analysis was performed on whole cell protein extracts using nLC-MS/MS with TMT® labelling and 2-D DIGE. 842 and 52 proteins were identified using each method, respectively. The abundances of 213 proteins were significantly different between encapsulated and suspended cells, with good correlation between the fold change ratios obtained by the two methods for proteins identified in both. Encapsulation of the yeast caused an up-regulation of glucose-repressed proteins and of both general and starvation-specific stress responses, such as the trehalose biosynthesis pathway, and down-regulation of proteins linked to growth and protein synthesis. The encapsulation leads to a lack of nutrients for cells close to the core of the capsule due to mass transfer limitations. The triggering of the stress response may be beneficial for the cells in certain conditions, for example leading to the increased tolerance towards high temperatures and certain inhibitors.

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