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  • 1.
    Ishola, Mofoluwake M.
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Brandberg, Tomas
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Sanni, Sikiru A.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Biofuels in Nigeria: A critical and strategic evaluation2013Inngår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 55, s. 554-560Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nigeria is among the World’s 10 most important exporters of petroleum, but has several difficulties in its domestic energy situation. Power outages are frequent in the cities and 49% of the population has no access to electricity at all. The use of fossil fuels and firewood causes many environmental problems and the population increase in combination with a growing economy results in unmanageable amounts of waste in the cities. The use of biofuels has the potential to alleviate some of these problems and this review aims at evaluating the situation regarding biofuel production in Nigeria through literature studies and contacts. It was found that in spite of good geographic conditions and high investment in biofuel production, progress has been slow. The Nigerian sugarcane sector does not yet satisfy the domestic demand for sugar, while large-scale sugarcane-based ethanol production seems distant. Ethanol production from cassava would require input of energy and enzymes and would probably be too expensive. Sweet sorghum, which is relatively easy to process into bioethanol, has some advantages in a Nigerian context, being widely cultivated. Biodiesel production runs the risk of becoming controversial if edible crops currently being imported would be used. Jatropha curcas (non-edible) is an interesting crop for biodiesel production but the complete life cycle of this process should be further analyzed. The biofuel concept, which would bring the most immediate benefits, is probably biogas production from waste. It requires no irrigation or input of land and also provides a cleaner environment. Besides it would reduce the widespread use of firewood and produce fertilizer.

  • 2. Jafari, Vahid
    et al.
    Labafzadeh, Sara R.
    Jeihanipour, Azam
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Karimi, Keikhosro
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Construction and demolition lignocellulosic wastes to bioethanol2011Inngår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 36, nr 11, s. 2771-2775Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work deals with conversion of four construction and demolition (C&D) lignocellulosic wastes including OSB, chipboard, plywood, and wallpaper to ethanol by separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF). Similar to other lignocelluloses, the wastes were resistant to the enzymatic hydrolysis, in which only up to 7% of their cellulose was hydrolyzed. Therefore, the lignocellulosic wastes were treated with phosphoric acid, sodium hydroxide, or N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO), which resulted in improving the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis to 38.2–94.6% of the theoretical yield. The best performance was obtained after pretreatment by concentrated phosphoric acid, followed by NMMO. The pretreated and hydrolyzed C&D wastes were then successfully fermented by baker’s yeast to ethanol with 70.5–84.2% of the theoretical yields. The results indicate the possibility of producing 160 ml ethanol from each kg of the C&D wastes at the best conditions.

  • 3. Jeihanipour, A
    et al.
    Aslanzadeh, S
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Rajendran, K
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Balasubramanian, G
    Taherzadeh, M. J
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    High-rate biogas production from waste textiles using a two-stage process2013Inngår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 52, s. 128-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The efficacy of a two-stage Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR), modified as Stirred Batch Reactor (SBR), and Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Bed (UASB) process in producing biogas from waste textiles was investigated under batch and semi-continuous conditions. Single-stage and two-stage digestions were compared in batch reactors, where 20 g/L cellulose loading, as either viscose/polyester or cotton/polyester textiles, was used. The results disclosed that the total gas production from viscose/polyester in a two-stage process was comparable to the production in a single-stage SBR, and in less than two weeks, more than 80% of the theoretical yield of methane was acquired. However, for cotton/polyester, the two-stage batch process was significantly superior to the single-stage; the maximum rate of methane production was increased to 80%, and the lag phase decreased from 15 days to 4 days. In the two-stage semi-continuous process, where the substrate consisted of jeans textiles, the effect of N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) pretreatment was studied. In this experiment, digestion of untreated and NMMO-treated jeans textiles resulted in 200 and 400 ml (respectively) methane/g volatile solids/day (ml/g VS/day), with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2 g VS/L reactor volume/day (g VS/L/day); under these conditions, the NMMO pretreatment doubled the biogas yield, a significant improvement. The OLR could successfully be increased to 2.7 g VS/L/day, but at a loading rate of 4 g VS/L/day, the rate of methane production declined. By arranging a serial interconnection of the two reactors and their liquids in the two-stage process, a closed system was obtained that converted waste textiles into biogas.

  • 4.
    Lukitawesa, Lukitawesa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Safarudin, Ahmad
    Millati, Ria
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Niklasson, Claes
    Inhibition of patchouli oil for anaerobic digestion and enhancement in methane production using reverse membrane bioreactors.2017Inngår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Patchouli oil is an essential oil extd. from arom. crop Pogostemon cablin and is widely used in perfumery industry, food industry, and/or even as medicine. The leaves have 4.6% oil that is extd. by steam, but remains an enormous amt. of wastes contg. ca 0.8% oil. Patchouli waste is an interesting substrate for methane prodn. However, the oil has been found to have antibacterial activity. The inhibition of patchouli oil on anaerobic digestion was investigated in this study under thermophilic conditions (55 °C). The patchouli oil showed antibacterial effect, where addn. of 0.05, 0.5 and 5 g/L patchouli oil reduced biogas prodn. by 16.2%, 27.2% and 100% resp. As patchouli oil is a lipophilic compd., hydrophilic polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane was used to protect the microorganisms against this inhibitor in a reverse membrane bioreactor (rMBR) system. The methane yield of fresh plant and waste were 86 and 179 NmL CH4/gVS, resp. when using free cells. Although using solely an rMBR did not give significant rise to methane yield, the combination rMBR and free cell strategy to protect part of the digesting microorganisms against this inhibitor considerably enhanced the methane prodn. by 73% for fresh patchouli plant, compared to digestion using free cells. [on SciFinder(R)]

  • 5.
    Wainaina, Steven
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Mukesh Kumar, Awasthi
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sárvári Horváth, Ilona
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Anaerobic digestion of food waste to volatile fatty acids and hydrogen at high organic loading rates in immersed membrane bioreactors2020Inngår i: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The organic loading rate (OLR) is an essential parameter that controls the anaerobic digestion process. This work investigated the performance of immersed membrane bioreactors operated at high OLRs of 4, 6, 8 and 10 g volatile solids (VS)/L/d regarding the fermentation behavior, product recovery and microbial dynamics during the acidogenic fermentation of food waste to volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and hydrogen. The highest yield of 0.52 g VFA/ gVSadded was attained at 6 g VS/L/d, while an optimal hydrogen yield of 14.7 NmL/ gVSadded was obtained at 8 g VS/L/d. The bacterial populations, analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria at OLRs 4 and 8 g VS/L/d while Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria phyla dominated at 6 and 10 g VS/L/d. Moreover, the presence of Clostridium and Lactobacillus genera correlated with the acetate, butyrate, caproate and lactate production.

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