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  • 1.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    A Navigation Framework: an aspect when designing CASE tools1997In: Proceedings of the 20th Information Systems Research In Scandinavia (IRIS 20), Braa K & Monteiro E (eds). Oslo, Norway, 1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Communicative Criteria for Usability Evaluation2010In: OZCHI 2010, November 22-26, 2010, Brisbane, Australia.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today we are primarily using computers for communication. We communicate via computers as professionals and at our spare time. One growing context of computer use is when we as citizens communicating with authorities. This paper suggests communication criteria for evaluation of public e- services. The suggested criteria are derived from a communication perspective and applied in a case study for evaluation of an e-service. Communication between authorities and citizens are often communication intensive and consequently conditions and consequences of communication should be evaluated. The aim of the suggested communication criteria is to be a complement to established traditional usability criteria.

  • 3.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. [external].
    Conceptualising Participatory Action Research: Three Different Practices2004In: Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, ISSN 1477-7029, E-ISSN 1477-7029, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 47-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    [external].
    Course Evaluation: When, How, What and Why2010In: Information Systems Education Journal, ISSN 1545-679X, Vol. 8, no 16, p. 8-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: This study is about course evaluation in Swedish higher education. Performing course evaluation is regulated in Swedish law. Despite this, only half of the courses are evaluated. The aim of this study is to understand why satisfactory course evaluations not are performed. Problems are identified from a student perspective and the paper provides proposals for reducing the problems. In order to tackle the problems an evaluation process model consisting of five phases is proposed. A main message is that there is need for an increased government from the university’s management levels to revise the incentives for performing a satisfactory course evaluation.

  • 5.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Data-Driven Innovation: Managing a Project Including Multiple Business Partners2019In: Proceedings of iConference 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proposal describes an ongoing research project called Data-Driven Innovation which comprises 14 researchers and 13 business partners. The project is characterized by partnership, collaboration, and interaction between the involved researchers and the business partners. The purpose of the project is to identify tools that can support the business partners in their efforts to exploit data in order to enhance service delivery and to create competitive advantage. The project is applying a socio-technical perspective in order to avoid a too one-sided technical focus. The proposal ends with presenting a number of challenges due to the increased complexity concerning the management of multiple business partners and researchers. The challenges are: maintaining the balance between competing interests, managing the problem of generalization, mutual learning, and ensure partnership throughout the project.

  • 6.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. [external].
    Illustrating Multi-Grounded Theory: Experiences from Grounding Process2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper challenges traditional grounded theory. Both theoretical and empirical grounding is proposed as claims of validity for theory generation. This paper builds on a framework about multi-grounded theory (MGT) presented in Goldkuhl & Cronholm (2003). In that paper the framework is presented on a conceptual and procedural level. The aim of this paper is to support the use of multi-grounded theory. This paper also takes a critical stand towards MGT.

  • 7.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    [external].
    Information Systems Evaluation: adding process descriptions to six evaluation types2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All around the world there is a huge amount of money invested in IT. It is therefore important to evaluate the return on the investment. Evaluation is complicated and consequently there are a lot of proposals for how to evaluate IT-systems. Several of these proposals reside on the theoretical level. The aim of this paper is to be more concrete and discuss evaluation in terms of “how to do”. This paper builds on a evaluation framework presented by Cronholm & Goldkuhl (2003). In that paper, six generic types for evaluation are presented on an ideal typical level. In this paper, evaluation processes are suggested for how the generic types can be carried out in order to support the use of that framework.

  • 8.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    [external].
    Metodverktyg och användbarhet: en studie av datorstödd metodbaserad systemutveckling1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes usability goals for method tools. Method tools are a type of CASE-tool aiming to support computer- and method-based information systems development. The aim of the thesis is to develop knowledge in order to suggest recommendations for achieving more usable method tools. The thesis takes an action perspective. An important starting-point in identifying usability goals are the existing modelling acts in the system development process specifying requirements for how method tools shall be developed. The thesis is performed as a prototyping approach embracing three steps. Output from a previous step is used as input to the following step. Further the thesis is based on studies of real cases where actors have interacted with method tools. In order to gain data I have used questionnaires, interviews and observations. The thesis embraces 12 usability goals for method tools. These goals are empirically generated and theoretically grounded. The identified usability goals are primary oriented towards the use situation system developer, method tool and task. Several usability goals can be characterised as more general and therefore are valid in areas beyond this use situation. The main contributions of this thesis are recommendations for developing method tools, a goal-means hierarchy presenting a composite description of usability attributes for method tools, characterising knowledge in a taxonomic form and a model which describes how modelling acts are related to usability goals.

  • 9.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    [external].
    Multi-Grounded Theory in Practice: a Review of Experiences from Use2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Need for Action Oriented Design and Evaluation of Information Systems2003In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 306-310., 2003, p. 306-310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem we are approaching is that the actions offered by computerized information systems (IS) often seem to disharmonize with the actions performed in work practice. In this paper, we have analysed a representative usability-oriented checklist supporting design and evaluation of computer-based systems. The analysis has been made from an action perspective. One result is that the checklist is more oriented towards cognitive aspects. Action oriented improvements are suggested.

  • 11.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Nine Principles for Designing a Study Program2006In: Information Systems Education Journal, ISSN 1545-679X, Vol. 4, no 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: This paper outlines nine key principles to consider when designing a study program. Design principles are essential when revising education programs in the field of information systems due to the rapid changes in business technique. These principles are generated from an em-pirical study concerning the development of a modified study program. The principles identi-fied are: Vision; Traceability; Progression and Integration; Manning the development project and anchoring decisions; Pedagogy; Mandatory vs. free choice of courses; Implementation; Evaluation and Marketing. These are compared to a list of criteria generated by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education and the outcome of this comparison is that several of the principles can also be used for the evaluation of study programs. The research has been carried out as action research. This means that there has been an intervention in the process of the designing the study program. The target groups of this paper are study boards, faculty members, teachers and students that are active in different student associations.

  • 12.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Projekt, publikationer och personliga reflektioner2016In: 25 år av kunskapande: - Återblickar och uppskattning från Görans doktorander / [ed] Karin Axelsson & Ulf Melin, Linköpings Universitet , 2016Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    The Usability of Usability Guidelines2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is challenging the usability of traditional usability guidelines. The claim is that guideline descriptions and explanations are not satisfactory. Analysis results demonstrate vagueness and are ambiguous in explanation. The aim of the paper is to propose a set of principles (meta-guidelines) to be used for improving the usability of guidelines.

  • 14.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Utvärdering av Vindtjänsten: en e-tjänst för analys av vindkraftsförhållanden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vindtjänsten är en e-tjänst för analys av vindkraftsförhållande om ansökan om tillstånd för konstruktion av vindkraftverk. Vindtjänsten har utvecklats med finansiellt stöd av VINNOVA och med Boverket som ursprunglig huvudman. Huvudmannaskapet för fortsatt utveckling och drift innehas av Energimyndigheten. Vindtjänsten utvecklades inom ramen för projektet Planeringsportalen som startade 2006 och avslutades under sommaren 2009. Syftet med att utveckla Vindtjänsten är att skapa en e-tjänst för en samlad planeringsinformation. Vindtjänsten skall stödja både vindkraftsentreprenörer och myndigheter i vindkraftsutbyggnadsprocessen och bidra till en snabbare och effektivare hantering. Två utvärderingsansatser har använts för att granska Vindtjänsten: målbaserad och kriteriebaserad utvärdering. Den målbaserade utvärderingen har resulterat i att flera överordnade mål har infriats. Den huvudsakliga karaktären på det stöd som erbjuds är texter för läsning. Information finns både internt i Vindtjänsten men är också externt åtkomlig vi länkar. Det interaktiva stöd som erbjuds motsvaras av den del som kallas för Kartvisaren. Den kriteriebaserade utvärderingen har fokuserat mer användbarhetsfrågor som t ex enkelhet, begripligt språk, handlingstransparens, feedback och informationsstrukturering. Utvärderingen har resulterat i att uppfattningen att Vindtjänsten (inklusive Kartvisaren) är enkel att använda även om en förbättringspotential finns. Studier av de arbetsdokument som framtagits under utvecklingsarbetet visar att projektet haft höga ambitioner inledningsvis som successivt reviderats. Vindtjänsten ger ett gott stöd för att få en samlad planeringsinformation men samtidigt finns en förbättringspotential. Den utvecklingsinriktning som rekommenderas för att ytterligare förbättra Vindtjänstens 1 2010-06-02 användbarhet är: interaktivt stöd för ansökan om tillstånd av vindkraftsetableringar, införande av interaktiva blanketter samt förbättrad pedagogisk uppbyggnad av informationsstrukturer genom en förbättrad kategorisering av information och menyindelning.

  • 15.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    [external].
    Varför CASE-verktyg i systemutveckling: En motiv- och konsekvensstudie avseende arbetssätt och arbetsformer1994Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    [external].
    Why CASE Tools in Information Systems Development?: an Empirical Study Concerning Motives for Investing in CASE Tools1995Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Bruno, Vince
    Usability of IT-Systems is More than Interaction Quality: The Need for Communication and Business Process Criteria2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Competence Development among IT-Consultants2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about the knowledge transferring between IT-consultants. IT-consultants are involved in many complex and challenging situations. They need to manage organisational, semantic and technical issues. Managing this complexity requires a high and a variety of competences. Examples of competences needed are business development, project management, information system development methods and techniques. An IT-consultant often makes continuous movements between different assignments and clients. The competence developed is often individually based. Individually based knowledge is not sufficient since the IT-consultants have to carry organisational working procedures. Furthermore, the competence needed is not static; it is something that should evolve dynamically. In this paper we are proposing a collective competence development approach. The collective competence development approach consists of a process model and a conceptual model. The aim of both these models is to make individual based knowledge as subject to collective reflection.

  • 19.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Reflected Action Learning: a Method for Collective Competence Development2010In: 11th European Conference Knowledge ManagementArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about the knowledge transferring between IT-consultants. IT-consultants are involved in many complex and challenging situations. They need to manage organisational, semantic and technical issues. Managing this complexity requires a high and a variety of competences. Examples of competences needed are business development, project management, information system development methods and techniques. An IT-consultant often makes continuous movements between different assignments and clients. The competence developed is often individually based. Individually based knowledge is not sufficient since the IT-consultants have to carry organisational working procedures. Furthermore, the competence needed is not static; it is something that should evolve dynamically. In this paper we are proposing a collective competence development approach. The collective competence development approach consists of a process model and a conceptual model. The aim of both these models is to make individual based knowledge as subject to collective reflection.

  • 20.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University .
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    Linköping University .
    Strategies for Information Systems Evaluation: Six Generic Types2003In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, ISSN 1566-6379, E-ISSN 1566-6379, Vol. 6, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to the decision of how to perform evaluation depending on the evaluation context. Three general strategies of how to perform evaluation are identified: Goal-free evaluation, goal-based and criteria-based evaluation. Two general strategies of what to evaluate are identified: IT-system as such and IT-system in use. From the three “how-strategies” and the two “what-strategies” we derive a matrix consisting of six generic types of evaluation. Each one of the six types are categorised on a ideal typical level. For each type there is suggested evaluation process model.

  • 21.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Action Design Research: Expanding the Scope2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Design Science Research Constructs: a Conceptual Model2019In: Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design science research (DSR) has become an accepted as well as legitimated research paradigm within the IS discipline. DSR has had a significant impact on IS research and it has the potential to become even more successful.One reason for not being fully adopted is due to gaps in the understanding of DSR constructs. Our literature review has revealed that constructs often are:abstract, synonymous, overlapping, offering slightly different definitions, and difficult to grasp. One implication of these problems is that it might be hard to communicate research results not only to other researchers within the DSR community but also to other disciplines. Consequently, the purpose of this study has been to suggest a conceptual model that includes key DSR constructs and their relationships that can contribute to the understanding and communication of the DSR phenomenon.

  • 23.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Empirical Experiences from the Use of Service-Dominant Logic in an IT-Project2019In: Proceedings ofthe 5thNaples Forum on Service, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose –Over the past several decades, we have witnessed a transformation from an industrial product-oriented economy to a service economy in the IT-sector. The goal of the organizations is to increase their digital organizational capability by implementing digital service transformations. However, adopting a service perspective in the management of digital services continues to be a challenging process for many organizations (Brown et al. 2016). The adoption of a service perspective is not about a minor change of attitude; it is a paradigm shift for the whole IT-sector. One contemporary service perspective is service-dominant logic (SDL). In our literature analysis, we identified that the development of SDL is primarily based on theoretical insights gained from previous prior work by several scholars. We can conclude that theoretical grounding of SDL is firm, but that SDL lacks empirical evidence concerning experiences from applying SDL in the IT-projects. Consequently, the purpose of our study is to present empirical evidence from the use of SDL in an IT-project. The IT-project included the design of a digital tool for service assessment and service innovation.

     

     

    Design/Methodology/approach – Our study has unfolded by means of a four-stage process: 1) Literature review of prior applications and evaluations of SDL, 2) Implementation of an IT-project concerning the development of a digital tool supporting service assessment and service innovation, guided by service-dominant logic, 3) Evaluation of SDL based on empirical experiences gained from the IT-project, 4) Formulation of complementing prescriptive guidance that overcomes the identified challenges in the IT-project. 

     

     

    Findings – The findings consist of three challenges:

    Challenge 1: The understanding of central conceptualizations in SDL.Challenge 2: The generic nature of SDL.Challenge 3: The lack of prescriptive guidance on how to use SDL in IT-projects.

     

     

    Research limitations/implications (if applicable) – Contribution to the knowledge of how to adopt SDL in IT-projects. 

     

     

    Practical implications (if applicable) – Prescriptive guidance that can support organizations in their efforts to transforming their business to become digital service oriented and increase their digital organizational capability.

     

     

    Originality/value – The main discourse about SDL has been largely theoretical. Little attention has been given to how empirical evidence gained from IT-projects can be used to inform the further theoretical development and the practical use of SDL.

  • 24.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Empirical Grounding of Design Science Research Methodology2015In: New Horizons in Design Science: Broadening the Research Agenda / [ed] Donnellan, B., Helfert, M., Kenneally, J., VanderMeer, D., Rothenberger, M., Winter, R., Springer, 2015, p. 471-479Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically ground design science research methodology. We claim that popular design science research methodologies lack empirical grounding based on primary data. That is, the empirical grounding is based on reconstructions of studies conducted for other purposes. To use an existing data set to answer new or extended research questions means to conduct a secondary analysis. We point at several risks related to secondary analyses and we claim that popular design science research methodologies should be based on primary data. Thus, we have systematically collected methodology users’ empirical experiences and reflections from DSR projects and structured them according to the Three Cycle View [23].  The overall findings show that the experiences are mainly positive. However, there are negative experiences such as the guidelines’ granularity, lack of rigorousness concerning evaluation of new knowledge, and support for collaboration.

  • 25.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Evaluation of the Information Systems Research Framework: Empirical Evidence from a Design Science Research Project2016In: Electronic Journal of Information Systems Evaluation, ISSN 1566-6379, E-ISSN 1566-6379, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 157-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence that the design science framework Information System Research (ISR) works in practice. More than ten years has passed since ISR was published in the well-cited article ‘Design Science in Information Systems Research’. However, there is no thoroughly documented evaluation of ISR based on primary data. That is, existing evaluations are based on reconstructions of prior studies conducted for other purposes. To use an existing data set to answer new or extended research questions means to conduct a secondary analysis. We point to several risks related to secondary analyses and claim that popular design science research frameworks should be based on primary data. In this paper, we present an evaluation consisting of empirical experiences based on primary data. We have systematically collected experiences from a three-year research project and we present ting of both strengths and weaknesses are presented. The main strengths are: the bridging of the contextual environment with the design science activities and the rigorousness of testing IT artefacts. The main weaknesses are: imbalance in support for making contributions to both theory and practice, and ambiguity concerning the practitioners’ role in design and evaluation of artefacts. We claim that the identified weaknesses can be used for further development of frameworks or methods concerning design science research. 

  • 26.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Guidelines Supporting the Formulation of Design Principles2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design principles represent design knowledge and constitute a prescriptive component that is included in design theory. In design science research, the formulation of generalised and intelligible design principles that can be reused in new contexts is regarded as an important outcome. Our study has revealed that existing design principles vary in terms of structure, content, and level of abstraction. This variation and inconsistency may obstruct the reusability of the design principles. The purpose of this study is to suggest support for the formulation of design principles. In order to enhance the support for the formulation of design principles, we have suggested three guidelines, which are based on analyses of theoretical statements, existing guidelines, and existing design principles. The guidelines are illustrated by using material from a design science research project.

  • 27.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    I Am Busy Solving My Own Problems, Why Should I Bother About Yours?2014In: / [ed] Thomas Herrman, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    ITIL Compliance with a Service Perspective: a Review Based on Service-Dominant Logic2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology implementation continues to be a challenging process for many organisations and one of the challenges is the transition to service orientation. To apply a service perspective is not a minor change of attitude; it is a paradigm shift for the whole IT sector. Providers of IT services can no longer afford to focus on solving technical problems, they now have to consider the quality of the services and focus on the relationship with customers. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the popular ITIL frameworks comply with a service perspective. We have used service-dominant logic as an analysis model to find out how ITIL corresponds to a service perspective. The findings show that while ITIL highly corresponds to the service perspective in some aspects it fails in others, such as recognising the customers as value co-creators and that products are a distribution mechanism for services.

  • 29.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Problems in IT Service Management2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    The Need for Empirical Grounding of Design Science Research Methodology2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design Science Research (DSR) has been practiced for decades and is an accepted and wide spread research approach in the discipline of Information Systems (IS). DSR is The huge popularity of DSR has lead to that DSR has become the research paradigm within the IS discipline. One purpose of DSR is to guide design and evaluation of artifacts. However, popular DSR methodologies lack empirical evidence based on primary data. This lack is also recognized by several authors of DSR methodologies. Using secondary data for answering new questions implies an analytic expansion which means that methodological issues have to be considered. The purpose of this work-in-progress paper is to justify the need of empirically grounded DSR methodologies by using primary data.

  • 31.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Haraldson, Sandra
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Lind, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Seigerroth, Ulf
    Collaborative practice: an action research approach to efficient ITSM2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses collaborative research as an action research approach. Many times action research is described as embracing one research organisation and one business organisation. We are challenging this view by introducing the concept of collaborative practice. A collaborative practice can be seen as a cluster of local practices and researchers working together. In this way, a collaborative practice should enable joint learning between, and joint development efforts for, several business practices as well as contributing to general practice and the scientific body of knowledge. Based on a case study within efficient IT Service Management (ITSM), the concept of collaborative practice and its relation to other adjacent concepts (such as local practice, general practice and scientific body of knowledge) have been characterized. Our results should be viewed as preliminary since they are gathered from an ongoing project.

  • 32.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Evaluation of Action Design Research2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a growing interest in information systems (IS) research as design research. One popular methodology is Action Design Research (ADR). Despite the popularity, ADR lacks proper evaluation based on primary data. We claim that the existing empirical evidence justifying ADR is either fragmented or based on reconstructions of prior studies conducted for other purposes. Our claim is supported by the authors of ADR who state that “ … because the VIP project was not conducted explicitly as ADR, it cannot be viewed as an exemplar of its application”. The purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence. Examples of empirical evidence show that ADR is highly relevant for an applied discipline such as IS, it creates a bridge between user-oriented perspectives of the IT artefact and technological perspectives and it supports a conceptual movement from a specific instance to a search for a class of problems.

  • 33.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Lind, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    The Need for Systems Development Capability in Design Science Research: Enabling Researcher-System Developer Collaboration2013In: Information Systems and E-Business Management, ISSN 1617-9846, E-ISSN 1617-9854, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 335-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems as an artefact-oriented discipline require a strong interaction between researchers, developers and users regarding design of, development of, and the study of the use of digital artefacts in social settings. During recent years, performing research in a design science research spirit has gained increasing interest. In larger scale design research endeavours, access to systems development capabilities becomes necessary. Such a unit, InnovationLab, was established in 2006 in a university setting in Sweden. In this paper we are investigating the 5 years’ experience of running this InnovationLab. Our findings point to an innovation lab being valuable for research in general and especially for design science research. However, in order to balance the business of an innovation lab, it will be necessary to provide services for other stakeholders (such as administrative units, teachers, and students) as a means for developing systems development capability aimed at supporting researchers.

  • 34.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Lind, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Rudmark, Daniel
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    The Need for Systems Development Capability in Design Science Research: Investigating the role of an Innovation Lab as part of the academy2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems as an artefact-oriented discipline require a strong interaction between researches, developers and users regarding, design of, development of, and the study of the use of digital artefacts in social settings. During latter years performing research in a design science research spirit has gained increasing interest. In larger scale design research endeavours access to systems development capabilities becomes necessary. Such a unit, an InnovationLab, was established in 2006 in a university setting in Sweden. In this paper we are investigating the five years of experience from running this InnovationLab. Our findings point to an innovation lab being valuable for research in general and especially for design science research. However, in order to balance the business of an innovation lab it will be necessary to provide services for other stakeholders (such as administrative units, teachers, and students) as means for developing systems development capability aimed for supporting researchers.

  • 35.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Rittgen, Peter
    Challenges Concerning Data-Driven Innovation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital transformation is highly relevant to most organisations in the business and the government sectors. One important aspect of digital transformation is the capability to exploit data in order to develop new services. For a number of businesses, this capability has become an imperative to their survival in an ever more competitive market. Today, data exploitation is of vital importance for innovation and economic growth. However, there is a lack of consolidated knowledge about the challenges of managing processes for data-driven innovation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to elaborate on challenges concerning data-driven innovation. We have used the Grounded Theory approach to identify such challenges which are: lack of a systematic process, problems with data access, distrust of data, lack of appropriate digital tools and insufficient competence. Our conclusions reveal that data is rarely used as a strategic resource in data-driven innovation and that there is a lack of data management.

  • 36.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Hallqvist, Carina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Assessment of IT Services: The Need for a Service Perspective2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Experiences from sequential use of mixed methods2011In: Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, ISSN 1477-7029, E-ISSN 1477-7029, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Mixed Methods in Use: Experiences from Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches2011In: In proceedings of the 10th European conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies, Caen, France, June 20-21, 2011. / [ed] Marie Ashwin, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Karu, Kaimar
    Axelos.
    Göbel, Hannes
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Hearsum, Philip
    Axelos.
    Hero, Philip
    Support Services Institute.
    IT Service Management: The Alignment of ITIL® Practitioner Guidance with Service-Dominant Logic2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of a service-oriented perspective in the IT sector has become the paradigm, making managers highly aware of the importance of being service oriented and customer focused. In the IT sector, a service-oriented perspective is encompassed in the widespread field of IT Service Management (ITSM). However, while ITSM practitioners are, to a certain degree, becoming aware of the benefits of the contemporary Service-Dominant Logic perspective, the primary market view still adheres to Goods-Dominant Logic. The majority of IT organisations around the globe rely on the ITSM framework ITIL in order to adopt and adapt a service perspective. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the ITIL® Practitioner Guidance (the latest ITIL book) aligns with Service-Dominant Logic. The paper discusses findings in relation to four codes: Definition of service, The role of the service provider, Value and value propositions, and Co-creation.

  • 40.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Lind, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Samverkan kring kompetensförsörjning: temporär arbetskraft som strategisk framgångsfaktor2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektets mål har varit att utveckla co-designbegreppet samt att identifiera nya innovativa samarbetsformer mellan inhyrare och uthyrare (bemanningsföretag) av temporär arbetskraft. Co-design har av flera forskare rapporterats som framgångsrikt Co-design kan ses som en multi- intressentmodell där intressenter stimuleras att tänka ”outside the box” för att hitta nya hållbara lösningar. Syftet är identifiera och diskutera relevanta perspektiv för att skapa en gemensam förståelse av både problemet och den mest tilltalande lösningen. Tillämpandet av co-design innebär en ständig växling mellan ett gemensamt skapande och en gemensam reflektion. Att uppnå en progression genom artikulering ses som viktigt. Vår analys av begreppet co-design har lett till att vi identifierat flera styrkor som är relaterade till innovationsprocessen, verksamhetsdesign, IT-design och samarbete. Vår analys har också identifierat ett antal brister. T ex är det oklart hur överenskommelser ska träffas när konflikterande perspektiv möts. En annan brist är att co-design är väl beskrivet som teori men behöver utvecklas som metod. Dvs, det är oklart hur ett konkret tillvägagångssättet ser ut. Vi har särskilt studerat och baserat resultat utifrån att användning av workshop som arbetsform i ett co-designperspektiv. Vi har genomfört en förstudie av ett co-design-projekt med ett flertal medverkande aktörer. Medverkande i projektet har varit inhyrare av arbetskraft, uthyrare av arbetskraft (tre bemanningsföretag), en facklig organisation samt forskare. De resultat som projektet tagit fram kan indelas i två huvudkategorier. Det ena huvudkategorin är ett tentativt resultat som handlar om workshops som en innovativ arbetsform. Den andra huvudkategorin handlar om förslag på samarbetsområden mellan inhyrare och bemanningsföretag. De identifierade områdena är både sådana som har en förbättringspotential och sådana som innebär helt nya samarbetsmöjligheter.

  • 41.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    [external].
    Melin, Ulf
    Project Oriented Student Work: Group Formation and Learning2006In: Proceedings of the Information Systems Education Conference, 2006, Dallas, Texas, USA, November 2-5, 2006., 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates how semi-randomly formed project groups, compared to forming groups at free will, affect students’ learning in a project-oriented setting. The findings are based on empirical data. We have analyzed students’ experiences by taking a course in the subject of Information Systems. The identified experiences are considered to be either a strength or a problem. We can conclude that how we form project groups has an effect on learning. We can also conclude that several of the experiences from semi-randomly formed project groups are of both a positive and negative nature. In the concluding chapter, we give some explanations in order to understand the differences in students’ experiences.

  • 42.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Neubauer, Matthias
    Stary, Christian
    Guiding situated method transfer in design and evaluation2013In: Universal Access in the Information Society, ISSN 1615-5289, E-ISSN 1615-5297, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 151-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to suggest guidelines for supporting the transfer of design and evaluation methods from one organization/field/sector to another. There exist a variety of methods for designing and evaluating interactive socio-technical systems. Many of them have been developed for dedicated purposes, such as heuristic evaluation, referring to specific situations and artifacts. Due to the recent diversification of devices and the continuing diffusion of society with interactive systems, applying design and evaluation methods in an effective and efficient way has become crucial, in particular when operating under tight economic conditions and demanding user constraints. Learning from other projects, cases, disciplines or sectors seems to be one way to effectively apply methods in design and evaluation. In order to validate the suggested guidelines, the guidelines are theoretically informed and empirically supported by the use of a case study. The results consist of a set of seven guidelines for method transfer. The guidelines are described in terms of questions to ask, expected input and expected output and how they relate to the other guidelines. Transferring methods require an informed procedure, reflecting the rationale of methods, application-specific factors and experience of use. In this paper, some conceptual foundations are given when exploring transferability of methods and implemented in the field of IT cross-sector developments. The developed guidelines allow developers to identify situation-specific elements and design an effective learning experience for a case at hand. The introduced content structure and interactive features show an effective way of developer support.

  • 43.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Persson, Linda
    Tregamma.
    Best Practice in IT Service Management: Experienced Strengths and Weaknesses of using ITIL2016In: International Conference on Management, Leadership and Governance, 2016, p. 60-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the management of IT services and especially on best practices in the IT sector. Successful organizations must continuously improve their business management, including their IT management, in order to retain competitive advantages, and thus they need to reflect upon and improve their ways of working. One important aspect of this is usage of best practices. Best practices are toolsets or frameworks for the management of business and IT alignment, and their purpose is to improve the quality of IT services through delivering superior results compared to other frameworks, time after time. The most cited, globally recognized and adopted best practice is Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL). The problem we address is that there exist contradictory claims concerning the usefulness of best practices. Due to these contradictory claims, the purpose of this paper is to learn more about the strengths and weaknesses of ITIL. To fulfill the purpose of this paper, we have conducted a qualitative study where we have collected empirical experiences from use of ITIL. We have interviewed 15 IT managers and IT consultants about their experiences of using ITIL.

    We can conclude that previous findings are fragmented and thus we have presented a coherent and structured collection of empirical experiences categorized as strengths and weaknesses. The identified strengths are: high reliability, improved cost efficiency, a tool for communication and support for structured work. The identified weaknesses are: lack of concretion, adaptation difficulties, being too comprehensive and having high costs. These strengths and weaknesses have to be managed in accordance with the situation at hand. We believe that our findings can contribute in two ways: 1) they consist of a coherent and structured overview informing about both strengths and weaknesses, and 2) the weaknesses can be used as requirements for a redesign of ITIL. Our study has in a cumulative way advanced the state-of-the-art by adding new knowledge based on empirical data.

  • 44.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Remenyi, Dan
    Grounded Theory in Use: a Review of Experiences2002In: Proceedings of the first European Conference on Research Methodology for Business and Management Studies (ECRM 2002, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates experiences from novice use of the qualitative analysis methodology grounded theory. The methodology can be understood as a reaction against more traditional scientific approaches such as hypothesis testing and quantitative analysis. The paper tries to answer the question: What problems and strengths arise from the practical use of grounded theory? In order to answer the question a list of problems and strengths, categorised into the methodology phases open coding, axial coding, selective coding and theoretical sampling, is presented. Some findings of a more general nature are also presented.

  • 45.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Romare, Sören
    Sofigate.
    Principles for Good Enough IT Service Management2018In: 14thEuropean Conference on Management Leadership and Governance (ECMLG), Utrecht, The Netherlands, Oct 18-19., 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To manage IT services continues to be a challenging process for many organizations. IT service providers are under constant pressure to deliver IT services both at a low cost and high quality, in order to maximize benefits and value for their customers. Obviously, IT service providers find that solving this equation is almost impossible. Thus, there is a need to find new principles or guidance which support satisficing and acceptable IT service delivery. Improvement of IT services delivery are often related to the concept of IT Service Management (ITSM). ITSM focuses on service delivery and can be regarded as an umbrella term including frameworks, models, and methodologies. Our review of the ITSM literature has revealed that best practices and standards have been considered as expensive to implement and maintain, have caused high expectations that are seldom fulfilled, are viewed as too complex, and have high learning thresholds which mean that learning is time-consuming. The purpose of this paper is to suggest principles concerning good enough IT service management which should be seen as a complement to established best practices and standards such as ITIL or ISO/IEC 20000 IT Service Management Standard. Our study has generated four principles: 1) focus on core processes, 2) design for co-creation of value, 3) recognize situation-specific attributes, and 4) avoid over-engineering. The purpose of the principles is to support the assessment of IT service delivery and to promote service management, with respect to costs, effort, and customer value. The principles have been implemented in a digital tool for the assessment and management of IT service delivery. The tool has been used to test and verify the principles in real empirical settings. The principles have also been collaboratively formulated by service practitioners and researchers. We claim that the principles advance theory concerning service management, by providing normative knowledge with respect to the concept of good enough. 

  • 46.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Measures that Matters: Service Quality in IT Service Management2014In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 60-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – IT service management (ITSM) is a discipline for management and maintenance of IT-systems and is claimed to play a critical role in supporting and satisfying business requirements. However, from a customer perspective, ITSM is considered as being costly and the outcome is not always satisfactory. Measurements used to monitor and evaluate ITSM-processes are mainly suggested from a service provider perspective. The purpose of this paper is to suggest measurements for ITSM based on a customer perspective that can be used for improving questionnaires. Design/methodology/approach – The SERVQUAL scale has been used as a base for suggesting customer-oriented measurements for the ITSM-field. The gathered qualitative empirical data consisted of customer feedback, in questionnaires, to five IT service providers in Sweden. Based on these empirical data, the SERVQUAL scale has been modified according to ITSM-specific customer requirements. The service providers represent the sectors: car construction, forest management, IT consultants, public sector and logistics. Findings – The paper demonstrates three types of findings: confirmation of original SERVQUAL determinants that could be reused in the ITSM-field, modification of attributes of the SERVQUAL determinants to better fit in the ITSM-field, and development of new categories and new attributes. Moreover, the analysis of SERVQUAL in relation to the empirical data revealed that the SERVQUAL’s original conceptual structure needed to be improved. The authors have added a third hierarchical level that supports a conceptual understanding. Originality/value – The knowledge contribution consists of a developed SERVQUAL, adjusted to fit the ITSM-field, and a suggested new conceptual structure of SERVQUAL consisting of three concepts: determinant, category and attribute.

  • 47.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Trostek, Linda
    Tregamma.
    Best Practice in IT Service Management: Experienced Strengths and Weaknesses of using ITIL2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the management of IT services and especially on best practices in the IT sector. Successful organizations must continuously improve their business management, including their IT management, in order to retain competitive advantages, and thus they need to reflect upon and improve their ways of working. One important aspect of this is usage of best practices. Best practices are toolsets or frameworks for the management of business and IT alignment, and their purpose is to improve the quality of IT services through delivering superior results compared to other frameworks, time after time. The most cited, globally recognized and adopted best practice is Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL). The problem we address is that there exist contradictory claims concerning the usefulness of best practices. Due to these contradictory claims, the purpose of this paper is to learn more about the strengths and weaknesses of ITIL. To fulfill the purpose of this paper, we have conducted a qualitative study where we have collected empirical experiences from use of ITIL. We have interviewed 15 IT managers and IT consultants about their experiences of using ITIL. We can conclude that previous findings are fragmented and thus we have presented a coherent and structured collection of empirical experiences categorized as strengths and weaknesses. The identified strengths are: high reliability, improved cost efficiency, a tool for communication and support for structured work. The identified weaknesses are: lack of concretion, adaptation difficulties, being too comprehensive and having high costs. These strengths and weaknesses have to be managed in accordance with the situation at hand. We believe that our findings can contribute in two ways: 1) they consist of a coherent and structured overview informing about both strengths and weaknesses, and 2) the weaknesses can be used as requirements for a redesign of ITIL. Our study has in a cumulative way advanced the state-of-the-art by adding new knowledge based on empirical data.

  • 48.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    [external].
    Ågerfalk, Pär
    On the Concept of Method in Information Systems Development1999In: Proceedings of the 22nd Information Systems Research In Scandinavia (IRIS 22), Keuruu, Finland, August 7–10, 1999. / [ed] Käkölä T, 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    System development methods are often used as aids during the development of information systems. This paper examines the concept of method and other related notions in order to achieve a better understanding of their meaning and structure. The motivation for this paper is the emerging flora of different and related concepts and thus a need to sort things out. The main contribution of the paper is a conceptual model describing how the method concept and other related notions relate.

  • 49.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    et al.
    [external].
    Ågerfalk, Pär
    Goldkuhl, Göran
    From Usability to Actability1999In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI International’99), Munich, Germany, August 22–27., 1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50. Goldkuhl, Göran
    et al.
    Cronholm, Stefan
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Adding Theoretical Grounding to Grounded Theory: Towards Multi-Grounded Theory2010In: International Journal of Qualitative Methods, ISSN 1609-4069, E-ISSN 1609-4069, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 187-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to challenge some of the cornerstones of the grounded theory approach and propose an extended and alternative approach for data analysis and theory development, which the authors call multi-grounded theory (MGT). A multi-grounded theory is not only empirically grounded; it is also grounded in other ways. Three different grounding processes are acknowledged: theoretical, empirical, and internal grounding. The authors go beyond the pure inductivist approach in GT and add the explicit use of external theories. A working procedure of theory development in MGT is presented, which can be seen as an extension of the grounded theory approach.

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