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  • 1.
    Morshed, Mohammad Neaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Immobilizing catalysts on textiles: case of zerovalent iron and glucose oxidase enzyme2021Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Catalytic systems are one of the most effective technologies of modern chemical processes. The system uses a molecule called ‘catalyst’ that is capable of catalyzing a reaction without being produced or consumed during the process. A catalytic system requires the separation of catalysts from products after each cycle, which is an expensive and resource-intensive process. This brought to the relevance of immobilization of catalyst, where catalysts are bind to a solid support material that will ensure the easy separation of catalyst. Immobilized catalysts are reusable and usually show better stability than the free catalyst. However, immobilization of catalyst is challenging, as it requires exclusive support material involving a complex preparation process. In many instances, the preparation of support material is more resource-intensive and expensive than the catalyst themselves.  

    Therefore, this doctoral thesis focused on the innovative concept of using textile as reliable, widely accessible, and versatile support material for catalyst immobilization. Evidence from systematic experiments was gathered for the case of immobilization of an inorganic catalyst (zerovalent iron-Fe0) and a biocatalyst (glucose oxidase -GOx) on textile support. The goal of this thesis is to establish the feasibility of textile as support material for immobilization of catalyst in the pursuit of fabrication of heterogeneous catalytic system (oxidative and reductive) for wastewater treatment. Polyester nonwoven fabric (PF) was chosen as textile support material for catalyst immobilization due to both qualitative (high strength, porosity, biocompatibility and resistance to most acids, oxidizing agents, and microorganisms) and commercial (availability, cheap and easily customizable) advantages. A combination of eco-friendly and resource-efficient processes (such as plasma treatment, hyperbranched dendrimer, bio-based polymers) has been used for tailoring the PF surface with favorable surface chemical properties in the view of high and stable immobilization yield of the catalyst.

    The thesis has three distinct parts related to immobilizing catalyst on textiles- (a) immobilization of Fe0 on PF and optimizing their feasibility in both oxidative and reductive catalytic system; (b) immobilization of GOx on PF and optimizing their use in a bio-catalytic system; (c) design of the complete heterogeneous bio-Fenton system using immobilized catalysts (Fe0 and GOx). In all parts, the hydrophobic surface of PF was activated by plasma ecotechnology (either air atmospheric -AP or cold removal plasma-CRP) followed by chemical grafting of hyperbranched dendrimers (polyethylene glycol-OH or polyamidoamine ethylene-diamine core) or functional polymers (3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane, polyethylenimine, chitosan, or 1-thioglycerol) before immobilizing either of two catalysts. The immobilization of Fe0 was carried out through either the in-situ or ex-situ reduction-immobilization method, whereas GOx was immobilized through the physical adsorption method. Several approaches were explored in search of optimum conditions for catalyst immobilization as well as to improve the catalytic performance of immobilized catalysts.

    Diverse analytical and instrumental techniques were used to monitor the surface modification of textiles, efficiency of immobilization of catalysts, Physico-chemical properties of immobilized catalysts, and their catalytic activities in the removal of dyes, phenols, or pathogenic pollutants from water. Results from plasma treatment showed that both AP and CRP successfully activated the PF surface through integrating polar functional groups (–COOH and –OH) by AP and carboxyl/hydroxyl (–COOH/–OH), amino (–NH2) functional groups by CRP. Along with that, grafted hyperbranched dendrimers and functional polymers on plasma-activated PF provided a tailor-made surface with specific end functional groups. Regarding the immobilization of Fe0 on PF, the results revealed that the reduction method (in-situ or ex-situ) of producing Fe0 have synergistic effects on the morphology, stability, particle size, and distribution of the immobilized Fe0. The surface chemical properties of PF also influenced the stability of immobilized Fe0 and related properties as observed throughout various studies. Detailed results revealed that a PF surface rich in –COOH, –OH, and –SH functional groups favors the loading and stabilization of Fe0 over surface rich in – NH2 functional groups. To end with, all Fe0-immobilized PF showed high catalytic activates in the removal of pollutants from water in both oxidative and reductive systems. In the case of GOx-immobilized PF, the success of immobilization of enzyme on textile was found to be related to the type and extent of surface functional groups present on the PF surface. The results demonstrated that PF surface rich in –COOH, – NH2 functional groups guaranteed higher loading and stability of GOx compared to –COOH, –OH functional groups-rich surface. These results carry great importance as they provide evidence of textile:enzyme interactions and grounds for further robust immobilization of GOx on textile support through surface engineering. As a proof of concept, this thesis also reveals the first successful design of a complete heterogeneous bio-Fenton system for wastewater treatment using immobilized catalysts (Fe0 and GOx).  

    The novelty of the research presented in this doctoral thesis is primarily attributed to the novelty of immobilizing two different types of catalysts (inorganic catalyst and biocatalysts) on synthetic textile support for wastewater treatment application. In general, this thesis contributes to general knowledge of the heterogeneous catalytic system, Fenton/Fenton-like system, and the bio-Fenton system as well as it opens promising prospects of the use of textile as support material for immobilizing different catalysts for a wide range of applications.  

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  • 2.
    Agrawal, Tarun Kumar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Contribution to development of a secured traceability system for textile and clothing supply chain2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Secured traceability implies not only the ability to identify, capture, and share required information on product transformation throughout the supply chain (SC), but also the ability to ensure the security of the traceability data. Due to information asymmetry and lack of transparency, textile and clothing (T&C) industries often face challenges in implementing and maintaining sufficient traceability. The SC actors find it difficult to identify and track the suppliers and sub-suppliers involved. Additionally, the opaque and largely untraceable structure of the SC has enabled the easy intrusion of counterfeits. Hence, a secured traceability system is imperative to ensure that the required traceability data are captured and shared among SC actors, thereby allowing the tracking and tracing of the products in the SC. Further, a secured traceability system helps organizations in various decision-making processes and protects customers from counterfeits. This thesis contributes to the development of a secured traceability system for the T&C sector. It examines traceability at product and information levels, based on the system-of systems approach. At the product level, the thesis introduces a secured traceability tag that can be printed on the textile surface. The secured tag is hard to copy and is durable enough to withstand normal textile use, thus providing sufficient security besides product tagging for traceability implementation. At the information level, the thesis explores and classifies traceability data that can be shared at business-to-business and business-to customer levels for the implementation of secured traceability. Subsequently, a block chain-based traceability framework is proposed for the T&C supply chain to systematically capture and share data in the supply chain network. The proposed framework demonstrates the applicability of shared data infrastructure to traceability without a central authority and develops technology-based trust among the supply chain actors. It relies on no central authority, and has customized data privacy and accessibility rules, thus providing a unique opportunity, flexibility, and authority to all supply chain actors to trace their supply chains and create transparent and sustainable supply chain networks.

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  • 3.
    Malm, Veronica
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Functional Textile Coatings Containing Flake-shaped Fillers: investigations on selected optical and electrical properties2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the manufacturing and characterisation of functionalised textile coatings containing different types of flake-shaped fillers with angle-dependent colour-changing and electrically conductive properties, respectively. Common benefits of these types of flakes are their high aspect ratio, which offers low filler loading with high functional performance. However, when applied on flexible fabric, their impact on the mechanical properties and durability leads to that a trade-off between, for example, flexural rigidity and functional performance need to be taken into account. Both experimental studies, with different functional approaches, explore how formulation additives e.g. rheology modifiers and cross-linker and knife coating parameters e.g. gap height and speed influence the formulation viscosity, which in turn strongly influences the amount of solids deposited on the fabric, and the functional performance.

    Multilayered mica pigments can provide an angle-dependent colour change based on the phenomenon of interference, and has great potential in application within the textile design and product authentication fields. However, optimal conditions for intense colour-changing effects using these types of flake-shaped pigments depend on a plane-parallel orientation to a flat substrate. The pigment orientation is challenged by textile substrates, which have a textured surface due to the cross-sectional shape of the fibre, the yarn composition and fabric construction. In addition, the semi-transparent nature of these types of pigments means that the substrate colour highly influences the colour-changing effects.

    Metal flake-shaped fillers for high electrical conductivity applications are particularly advantageous for reliable power and signal transferring interconnections in the field of electronic textiles. As the conductivity depends on the electron transport between the metal flakes, the challenge is to establish and maintain the three-dimensional network of contacting surfaces between flakes. Although the network is held together and adhered to the substrate by an insulating polymer film matrix, it is highly sensitive to dimensional impact upon different

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  • 4.
    Ma, Ke
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Inter-Organizational Collaboration for Optimizing Textile Supply Chains2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, as the increasing trend of customization and personalization in fashion market, the mass customization and small-series production has become more and more important in textile supply chain. However, there are still many drawbacks in existing supply chain models which are used to cope with this trend. Collaboration plays a vital role in supply chain management in past decades. However, supply chain collaboration is rarely applied in textile industry, neither in research nor in practice. Considering the potential advantages of the application of supply chain collaboration, to bridge the gap, this thesis employs multiple supply chain collaboration strategies to optimize existing textile supply chain models.

    In this PhD research, a thorough investigation and literature review regarding supply chain collaboration was conducted. Several emerging supply chain collaboration paradigms and strategies were identified, which provided a theoretical foundation and research direction for the subsequent research. Consequently, three innovative supply chain models with corresponding optimization strategies were developed: (1) a novel resource sharing mechanism for optimizing garment manufacturing echelon in textile supply chain, (2) a central order processing system for optimizing demand-driven textile supply chain, and (3) a collaborative cloud service platform for optimizing make-to-order textile supply chain. Identified supply chain collaboration strategies, viz. resource sharing, information sharing, joint decision-making, profit sharing, were employed for developing the three collaborative models. Optimization heuristics were also designed for different objectives in three models respectively. The three proposed supply chain collaboration strategies were realized in three simulation models by employing discrete-event simulation technology or multi-agent simulation technology. Several experiments were conducted to demonstrate the advantages of such collaborative structure under different conditions. Based on simulation experiment results, multiple supply chain performances were improved significantly in each model under different conditions. The developed models with corresponding strategies can optimize current textile supply chain and help companies maintain competence in the trend of mass customization in textile industry.

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  • 5.
    Kumar, Vijay
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Exploring fully integrated textile tags and information systems for implementing traceability in textile supply chains2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploring fully integrated textile tags and information systems for implementing traceability in textile supply chains

    Traceability, in general, refers to keeping track of information to a certain degree. The concept of traceability is considered important to verify the various aspects of products in different industries and their global supply chains. Textile industry is among those which are accused time‐to‐time for opaque supply chains and unsustainable practices. Particularly, the aftermath of a series of industrial catastrophes, customers and non‐government organizations have started to scrutinize the brands to bring transparency in their supply chains. In this direction, traceability has been identified as a tool for organizations to trace their supplies throughout the supply chains and collect relevant information to ensure transparency and claim validation. Traceability has been further acknowledged as a competitive element and often acts as a decisive factor in purchase process. Moreover, the textile products are one of the most counterfeit‐prone items around the world. As a result, the demand for traceability has been intensified for supply chain monitoring and security, and product authentication.

    The principal aim of this thesis was to address the implementation of traceability information systems in the textile supply chain. Further, it investigates the feasibility of yarn‐based integrated tracking tags as a means to impart traceability in textiles. It has been pursued through several independent studies in the domain of textile manufacturing, supply chain management and information systems. The appended papers in this thesis address various aspects of traceability implementation in the textile supply chain and how traceability information can be encoded into the textiles using yarn‐based coding.

    Traceability consists of two components namely information system and tagging. The latter component is used to uniquely identify the product in the supply chain which assists in recalling and/or storing the relevant traceability data from/in the information system. Different actors in the supply chain manage the traceability data in their information systems, therefore traceability tag acts as a linking agent for information exchange. In this direction, this thesis introduces the concept of yarn coding and yarn coding‐based integrated tags which can be potentially used in future for textile traceability applications. In addition, a framework is proposed for the implementation of traceability information system in the textile supply chain. The work highlights various elements which can play a significant role in promoting and/or implementing traceability. Regardless of perspective or viewpoint, traceability is interwoven between technical and managerial aspects; therefore traceability implementation requires a techno‐managementapproach to obtain an optimal solution.

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  • 6.
    Kooroshnia, Marjan
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Creating diverse colour-changing effects on textiles2015Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the technological progress of materials science, the palette of colours with which to print on textiles has expanded beyond those with previously known properties and expressions to a new generation, with more advanced functionality and expressive properties. This new range of colours is characterised by their ability when printed on textiles to change colour in relation to external factors and internal programmes; for example, leuco dye-based thermochromic inks generally change colour in response to temperature fluctuations. This research explores the design properties and potentials of leuco dye-based thermochromic inks printed on textiles, with regard to creating a wider range of colour-changing effects for textile applications. The significance of this for textile design is related to the development of a methodology for designing dynamic surface patterns. The research was conducted by creating a series of design experiments using leuco dye-based thermochromic inks, which resulted in different recipes and methods, along with a pedagogical tool. The results highlighted the diverse colour-changing properties of leuco dye-based thermochromic inks, which have the potential to create more complex patterns on textiles. The outcome of this research proposes a foundation for textile designers with which to approach new ways of thinking and designing.

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  • 7.
    Åkerfeldt, Maria
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Electrically conductive textile coatings with PEDOT:PSS2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In smart textiles, electrical conductivity is often required for several functions, especially contacting (electroding) and interconnecting. This thesis explores electrically conductive textile surfaces made by combining conventional textile coating methods with the intrinsically conductive polymer complex poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS).

    PEDOT:PSS was used in textile coating formulations including polymer binder, ethylene glycol (EG) and rheology modifier. Shear viscometry was used to identify suitable viscosities of the formulations for each coating method. The coating methods were knife coating, pad coating and screen printing. The first part of the work studied the influence of composition of the coating formulation, the amount of coating and the film formation process on the surface resistivity and the surface appearance of knife-coated textiles. The electrical resistivity was largely affected by the amount of PEDOT:PSS in the coating and indicated percolation behaviour within the system. Addition of a high-boiling solvent, i.e. EG, decreased the surface resistivity with more than four orders of magnitude. Studies of tear strength and bending rigidity showed that textiles coated with formulations containing larger amounts of PEDOT:PSS and EG were softer, more ductile and stronger than those coated with formulations containing more binder. The coated textiles were found to be durable to abrasion and cyclic strain, as well as quite resilient to the harsh treatment of shear flexing. Washing increased the surface resistivity, but the samples remained conductive after five wash cycles.

    The second part of the work focused on using the coatings to transfer the voltage signal from piezoelectric textile fibres; the coatings were first applied using pad coating as the outer electrode on a woven sensor and then as screen-printed interconnections in a sensing glove based on stretchy, warp-knitted fabric. Sensor data from the glove was successfully used as input to a microcontroller running a robot gripper. These applications showed the viability of the concept and that the coatings could be made very flexible and integrated into the textile garment without substantial loss of the textile characteristics. The industrial feasibility of the approach was also verified through the variations of coating methods.

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  • 8.
    Malm, Veronica
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Colour-changing textile coatings containing multi-layered mica pigments: an experimental study2014Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the possibility of producing angle-dependent colour-changing textiles with thickened polyurethane (PU)-based aqueous dispersion containing multi-layered mica pigments using a direct coating method. Colour changing textile coatings with the latest generation of layered mica pigment (EP) have a promising future for functional purposes such as authentication and aesthetic eye-catching applications. The surface structure and colour of the substrate as well as the coating formulation combined with different coating parameters will strongly influence the colour-changing effects of textile coatings containing EPs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the substrate surface roughness increased when constructed of multifilament yarns with high thread count, spun staple-fibre yarns with higher and spun staple-fibre yarns with lower thread counts. Multi-angle spectrophotometer measurements of EP-coated samples showed that the colour differences in form of CIE L*a*b*-coordinates varied to a great extent, depending on detection angles, surface roughness and colour of the substrates. Increased surface roughness generated less plane-parallel orientated EP-platelets and consequently a less pronounced colour-changing effect on coated textiles. The lightness, L*-values, for white substrates were much higher than the corresponding values obtained with black substrates. Thus white substrates greatly affect the colour-changing effects, which become less intense and much more difficult for the human eye to distinguish. Different types of rheology modifiers (RMs), dispersion in oil of sodium polyacrylates (LDPSAPs), hydrophobically modified alkali-swellable acrylic emulsions (HASEs) and hydrophobically modified ethoxylated polyurethanes (HEURs) provided EP-formulations with similar viscosity profiles. However, it was found that the choice of RM as well as variations in gap heights and coating speed could increase the solids deposit, corresponding to more and better dispersed EPs within the coated layer as well as more plane-parallel oriented platelets as confirmed by SEM. Multi-angle spectrophotometer measurements with six detection angles showed that the variations of the absolute values of L* and a* were more pronounced between detection angles of -15° and 15°, corresponding to the angles where the strongest colour changes can be visually observed. Slow-coated samples with a higher deposit were measured to be lighter and of higher chroma compared to samples coated at a higher speed. The colour-changing effects were found to be governed by the choice of RM and coating parameters in terms of variations of the amount of coating deposited onto the samples.

  • 9.
    Jansen, Barbara
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Composing over time, temporal patterns: in Textile Design2013Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this thesis is a first attempt investigating a new field, exploring the visual effects of movement using light as a continuous time-based medium. Composing over time, temporal patterns - in Textile Design is a practice based research project that investigates the following research question: What does it mean, if time and change – constant movement – becomes part of the textile design expression? The research question has been investigated in a number of experiments that explore the visual effects of movement using light integrated into textile structures as a medium. Thereby, the textile design pattern reveals its composition, not in one moment of time any more, but in fact over time. This thesis aims to create time-based textiles with an emphasis on developing aesthetics of movement – or to establish movement as an aesthetic moment in textile design. Two distinct groups of experiments, colour flow and rhythm exercise, explore a range of different time-based expressions. The experiments have been displayed and explored using woven and braided textile structures which have been construct mainly through the integration of PMMA optical fibres. Through the design processes a first platform and understanding about time as a design material has been developed, which allows composing time-based patterns in light design. New design variables, notions and tools have been defined and established. The achieved new expressions will hopefully lead to discussions on and envisioning of future textiles, opening up the general perception of what textiles are supposed to be like, to show, to express etc., i.e. expands notions of what it means to read a piece of textile work.

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  • 10.
    Peterson, Joel
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Customisation of Fashion Products Using Complete Garment Technology2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Complete garment knitting technology is a method of producing knitted products, generally fashion garments, ready-made directly in the knitting machine without additional operations such as cutting and sewing. This makes it possible to manufacture a knitted fashion garment with fewer processes then with conventional production methods. In the fashion business customer demand is always changing due to fashion trends, so to be able to manufacture and deliver products rapidly is important. Mass customisation is a customer co-design process of products and services that tries to meets the needs of an individual customer’s demand for certain product features. In the fashion business this means that the customer can order a garment with a customised style, colour, size, and other personal preferences. The principal objective of this dissertation was to examine if and how complete garment technology can be applied to the customisation of knitted fashion products. It was pursued through several independent studies in knitting technology, mass customisation, and fashion logistics against a theoretical frame of reference in these areas. The papers in this thesis present various examples of how knitted fashion garments can be customised and integrated into fashion retailing concepts. The starting point of the research was the Knit-on-Demand research project conducted at the Swedish School of Textiles in collaboration with a knitting manufacturing and retailing company. The aim was to develop a shop concept built on the complete garment technology where a garment could be customised, produced, and delivered as quickly as possible. This initial idea failed due to the expense of investing in complete garment knitting technology, and so other avenues of research had to be found. The Knit-on-Demand project continued, using a business model similar to the complete garment concept but with the retail store and the production unit situated in different locations. The overall research question addressed in this thesis is: How can complete garment knitting technology be applied in a retail concept for customised garments? This question is then divided in two problems: What are the fashion logistics effects of combining complete garment technology and mass customisation? How does the co-design process function in the customisation of knitted fashion garments? The following is a qualitative study based on five research articles applying different research methodologies: case studies, simulations, and interviews. The empirical context is the area of mass customisation of fashion products and knitting technology, more specifically called complete garment knitting production technology. No prior studies describing mass customisation of complete garment knitting technology in combination with fashion logistics were found in the literature. The main contribution of this study is the demonstration that complete garment knitting technology can be applied in the customisation of fashion products. It also illustrates the importance of the co-design process between the company and the customer through which a knitted garment can be customised, produced, and delivered to the customer in three to five hours. The process of co-design and manufacture of a customised complete fashion product is examined, and the advantages and disadvantages associated with customisation of knitted garments are identified and described.

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  • 11.
    Åkerfeldt, Maria
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Studies of electrically conductive textile coatings with PEDOT:PSS2012Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates electrically conductive coatings of textiles, obtained with a direct coating and the addition of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) dispersion to a thickened polyurethane (PU)-based formulation. Textiles with enhanced electrical conductivity have potential applications in antistatic, electrostatic discharge protective, electromagnetic interference shielding, sensoric and temperature-regulating products. The composition of the coating formulation will have a large impact on the obtained coated textiles. Firstly, the amount solids (polymer content) of the components will affect the shear viscosity which is amongst other important for the level of penetration of the coating. In this work, different coating formulations have been studied with steady state shear viscometry. It was found that the viscosity during knife coating to a large extent could be controlled by the addition of a hydrophobically modified ethoxylated urethane (HEUR) rheology modifier. Secondly, the level of conductivity will depend on the amount conductive material, in this case PEDOT:PSS, that is present in the coating, indicating percolation behaviour of the system. Conductivity was evaluated with two-point and four-point surface resistivity measurements. Addition of a high-boiling solvent, i.e. ethylene glycol, was however imperative for low surface resistivity. Thirdly, tear strength measurements, performed with the dynamic pendulum method, and investigations of bending rigidity, with the Kawabata evaluation system for fabrics, KES-F-2, showed that samples coated with formulations containing larger amounts of PEDOT:PSS and ethylene glycol were significantly softer and more ductile than samples coated with formulations containing more binder. A decrease in surface resistivity could also be obtained by increasing the amount deposited coating on the substrate. This decrease was however counteracted by the concurrent increase of insulating binder polymers in the coating. The increased coating deposit resulted in stiffer samples with lower tear strength due to increased brittleness. The influence of kinetics during film formation on the surface resistivity was also studied but was found to be close to insignificant. Abrasion resistance was investigated for all samples with a modified Martindale method and the samples showed less impact from this than expected.

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