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  • 1.
    Morshed, Mohammad Neaz
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Immobilizing catalysts on textiles: case of zerovalent iron and glucose oxidase enzyme2021Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Katalytiska system är en av de effektivaste teknikerna för moderna kemiska processer. I processen används en molekyl, en ”katalysator” som är kapabel att pådriva en kemisk reaktion utan att själv bli producerad eller förbrukad under processens gång. Katalytiska system kräver separation av katalysatorerna från andra produkter efter varje cykel, vilket är både kostsamt och resurskrävande. Därför är det relevant att immobilisera katalysatorerna genom att binda dem till ett solitt stödmaterial som möjliggör att katalysatorerna enkelt kan separeras. Immobiliserade katalysatorer kan återanvändas och visar ofta på bättre stabilitet än fria katalysatorer. Men det är en långdragen process att immobilisera katalysatorer då det kräver exklusiva stödmaterial och ett komplext förberedelseförlopp. I många fall är stödmaterialen mer kostsamma än katalysatorerna själva. 

    I denna doktorsavhandling arbetar jag därför med ett innovativt koncept, där jag använder textil som ett billigt och enkelt stödmaterial för immobilisering av katalysatorer. Genom systematiskt utförda experiment har underlag samlats in för att visa på immobilisering av en oorganisk katalysator (nollvalent järnpartikel-Fe0) och ett biokatalysator (glukosoxidasenzym-GOx) på en textil stödstruktur. Syftet med denna avhandling är att fastställa möjligheten att använda textil som stödmaterial för immobilisering av katalysatorer i jakten på framställningen av ett heterogent katalytiskt system (oxiderande och reducerande) för rening av avloppsvatten. Ett nonwoventyg av polyester (PF) valdes som textilt stödmaterial för immobilisering av katalysatorer för dess kvalitativa (hög styrka, porositet, biokompabilitet och resistans mot de flesta syror, oxiderande medel samt mikroorganismer) och kommersiella (tillgänglighet, låg kostnad och enkelhet att modifiera) fördelar. En kombination av miljövänliga och resurseffektiva processer (så som plasmabehandling, användning av hypergrenade dendrimerer, biobaserade polymerer) har använts för att modifiera PF ytan till fördelaktiga ytkemiska egenskaper gällande hög och stabil utdelning av immobiliserade katalysatorer.  

    Avhandlingen består av tre separata delar som handlar om immobilisering av katalysatorer på textiler: (a) immobilisering och stabilisering av oorganiskt Fe0 på PF och optimering av dess möjligheter i oxiderande och/eller reducerande katalytiska system, (b) immobilisering av GOx på PF och optimering av dess användning i biokatalytiska system, (c) utformning av heterogena bio-Fentonsystem med hjälp av immobiliserade katalysatorer (Fe0 och GOx). I alla delar aktiverades PF:s hydrofobiska fiberyta genom en plasmabehandling (antingen atmosfärisk plasma -AP eller kall fjärrplasma -CRP) efterföljt av kemisk ympning med hypergrenade dendrimerer (polyetylenglykol-OH/polyamidoamin-etylendiaminkärna) eller polymerer som innehåller den funktionella gruppen amin/tiol (3-aminopropyl-trietoxysilan/polyetylenimin, kitosan/1-tioglycerol) innan immobilisering av endera katalysatorerna. Immobiliseringen av Fe0 genomfördes med in-situ eller ex-situ reduktions-immobiliseringsmetod, medan GOx immobiliserades genom en fysisk adsorptionsmetod. Ett antal tillvägagångssätt utforskades i sökandet efter optimala förhållanden för immobilisering av katalysatorer samt förbättringsmöjligheter av immobiliserade katalysatorers katalytiska förmåga.  

    Olika analytiska och instrument-tekniker användes för att kontrollera ytmodifieringen av textilier, effektiviteten av immobiliserade katalysatorer, fysiokemiska egenskaper av immobiliserade katalysatorer och deras katalytiska aktivitet för avlägsnandet av färgämnen, fenoler eller patogena föroreningar från vatten. Resultaten från plasmabehandlingen visade att båda AP och CRP framgånsrikt aktiverat PF ytan genom integrering av polära funktionella grupper (–COOH och –OH) genom AP och karboxyl/hydroxyl-grupper (–COOH/–OH) och aminogrupper (–NH2) genom CRP. Dessutom kunde ympade hypergrenade dendrimerer och funktionella polymerer på plasma-aktiverad PF ge en skräddarsydd yta med specifika funktionella ändgrupper. När det gäller immobiliseringen av Fe0 på en PF-yta visade resultaten att reduktionsmetoderna (in-situ eller ex-situ) för framställning av Fe0-partiklar hade synergieffekter på hur väl immobiliseringen lyckades när det gäller morfologi, stabilitet, partikelstorlek och spridning av immobiliserad Fe0. Ytkemiska egenskaper av PF påverkade också stabiliteten av immobiliserad Fe0 och tillhörande egenskaper, något som observerats genom flertalet studier. Detaljerade resultat visade att en PF-yta som innehåller de funktionella grupperna –COOH, –OH, och –SH främjar belastning och stabiliseringen av Fe0 mer än en yta rik på de funktionella grupperna – NH2. Slutligen, alla Fe0-immobiliserade PF prov visade hög katalytisk aktivitet i avlägsnandet av föroreningar i vatten i både oxiderande och reducerande system. När det gäller GOx-immobiliserade PF prov fanns det att lyckad immobilisering av enzym på textil var relaterad till typen och omfattningen av funktionella ytgrupper integrerade i PF-ytan. Resultaten visade vidare att en PF-yta med –COOH eller – NH2-grupper garanterade högre belastning och stabilitet hos GOx jämfört med -COOH och -OH rika ytor. Dessa resultat är viktiga eftersom de styrker interaction mellan den textila ytan och enzymer, vilket utgör en grund för möjligheterna för starka immobiliseringar av GOx på textila stödmaterial. Som validering av konceptet så visar denna avhandling också den första lyckade framtagningen av ett komplett heterogent bio-Fenton system för rening av avloppsvatten med hjälp av immobiliserade katalysatorer (Fe0 och GOx). 

    Denna avhandling om immobilisering av katalysatorer på textil och applicering av immobiliserade katalysatorer i rening av avloppsvatten (både oxiderande och reducerande system) bidrar inte bara till allmän kunskap om heterogena katalytiska system, Fenton/Fenton-system och bio-Fenton system, utan öppnar också upp för lovande möjligheter att använda textilier som stödmaterial för immobilisering av olika katalysatorer för ett brett spektrum av användningsområden. 

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  • 2.
    Agrawal, Tarun Kumar
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Contribution to development of a secured traceability system for textile and clothing supply chain2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Secured traceability implies not only the ability to identify, capture, and share required information on product transformation throughout the supply chain (SC), but also the ability to ensure the security of the traceability data. Due to information asymmetry and lack of transparency, textile and clothing (T&C) industries often face challenges in implementing and maintaining sufficient traceability. The SC actors find it difficult to identify and track the suppliers and sub-suppliers involved. Additionally, the opaque and largely untraceable structure of the SC has enabled the easy intrusion of counterfeits. Hence, a secured traceability system is imperative to ensure that the required traceability data are captured and shared among SC actors, thereby allowing the tracking and tracing of the products in the SC. Further, a secured traceability system helps organizations in various decision-making processes and protects customers from counterfeits. This thesis contributes to the development of a secured traceability system for the T&C sector. It examines traceability at product and information levels, based on the system-of systems approach. At the product level, the thesis introduces a secured traceability tag that can be printed on the textile surface. The secured tag is hard to copy and is durable enough to withstand normal textile use, thus providing sufficient security besides product tagging for traceability implementation. At the information level, the thesis explores and classifies traceability data that can be shared at business-to-business and business-to customer levels for the implementation of secured traceability. Subsequently, a block chain-based traceability framework is proposed for the T&C supply chain to systematically capture and share data in the supply chain network. The proposed framework demonstrates the applicability of shared data infrastructure to traceability without a central authority and develops technology-based trust among the supply chain actors. It relies on no central authority, and has customized data privacy and accessibility rules, thus providing a unique opportunity, flexibility, and authority to all supply chain actors to trace their supply chains and create transparent and sustainable supply chain networks.

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  • 3.
    Malm, Veronica
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Functional Textile Coatings Containing Flake-shaped Fillers: investigations on selected optical and electrical properties2018Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the manufacturing and characterisation of functionalised textile coatings containing different types of flake-shaped fillers with angle-dependent colour-changing and electrically conductive properties, respectively. Common benefits of these types of flakes are their high aspect ratio, which offers low filler loading with high functional performance. However, when applied on flexible fabric, their impact on the mechanical properties and durability leads to that a trade-off between, for example, flexural rigidity and functional performance need to be taken into account. Both experimental studies, with different functional approaches, explore how formulation additives e.g. rheology modifiers and cross-linker and knife coating parameters e.g. gap height and speed influence the formulation viscosity, which in turn strongly influences the amount of solids deposited on the fabric, and the functional performance.

    Multilayered mica pigments can provide an angle-dependent colour change based on the phenomenon of interference, and has great potential in application within the textile design and product authentication fields. However, optimal conditions for intense colour-changing effects using these types of flake-shaped pigments depend on a plane-parallel orientation to a flat substrate. The pigment orientation is challenged by textile substrates, which have a textured surface due to the cross-sectional shape of the fibre, the yarn composition and fabric construction. In addition, the semi-transparent nature of these types of pigments means that the substrate colour highly influences the colour-changing effects.

    Metal flake-shaped fillers for high electrical conductivity applications are particularly advantageous for reliable power and signal transferring interconnections in the field of electronic textiles. As the conductivity depends on the electron transport between the metal flakes, the challenge is to establish and maintain the three-dimensional network of contacting surfaces between flakes. Although the network is held together and adhered to the substrate by an insulating polymer film matrix, it is highly sensitive to dimensional impact upon different

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  • 4.
    Ma, Ke
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Inter-Organizational Collaboration for Optimizing Textile Supply Chains2018Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens trend med kundanpassning och personalization i modeindustrin har medfört ökad efterfrågan på massanpassning och små serier i den textila försörjningskedjan. Det finns emellertid många nackdelar i de försörjningskedjemodeller som används för att möta dessa trender. De senaste decennierna har samarbete spelat en viktig roll i organisering av försörjningskedjor, och samarbete har också tillämpats i flera olika branscher. Den här typen av samarbete inom leverantörskedjan tillämpas emellertid sällan i textilindustrin och det saknas också forskning på området. Med utgångspunkt i potentiella fördelar med att tillämpa samarbetestrategier i leverantörskedjan inom textilindustrin utforskas i den här avhandlingen alternativa strategier för samverkan mellan försörjningskedjor. Syftet är att optimera befintliga modeller över textila försörjningskedjor.

    I den här avhandlingen görs en omfattande litterarturöversikt avseende forskning om försörjningskedjan, och olika former för samarbete. Litteraturöversikten leder fram till nya samarbetsparadigm och strategier för leveranskedjan vilket ger en teoretisk bas och inriktning för forskningen. I avhandlingen utvecklas tre innovativa försörjningskedjemodeller med motsvarande optimeringsstrategier: (1) en ny resursdelningsmekanism för optimering av plaggtillverkningselektronik i textilförsörjningskedjan, (2) ett centralt orderbehandlingssystem för optimering av efterfrågestyrt textilförsörjningskedja, och (3) en gemensam molntjänstplattform för optimering av textilförsörjningskedjan. Fyra strategier för samarbete mellan leverantörskedjor - resursdelning, informationsdelning, gemensamt beslutsfattande, vinstdelning - ligger till grund för utvecklandet av dessa tre samarbetsmodeller. Vidare har optimeringsheuristik utformats för olika mål, och dessa samarbetsstrategier realiseras i tre simuleringsmodeller genom att använda simuleringsteknik med diskret händelse- eller multi-simuleringstekniker. Genom att göra flera simuleringar under olika betingelser tydliggörs fördelarna med respektive samarbetsstruktur.

    Resultatet från simuleringarna visar på signifikant förbättrad effektivitet i försörjningskedjan för respektive modell och givet olika förutsättningar. De modeller och strategier som föreslås i den här avhandlingen har potential att optimera den textila försörjningskedjan.

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  • 5.
    Kumar, Vijay
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Exploring fully integrated textile tags and information systems for implementing traceability in textile supply chains2017Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploring fully integrated textile tags and information systems for implementing traceability in textile supply chains

    Traceability, in general, refers to keeping track of information to a certain degree. The concept of traceability is considered important to verify the various aspects of products in different industries and their global supply chains. Textile industry is among those which are accused time‐to‐time for opaque supply chains and unsustainable practices. Particularly, the aftermath of a series of industrial catastrophes, customers and non‐government organizations have started to scrutinize the brands to bring transparency in their supply chains. In this direction, traceability has been identified as a tool for organizations to trace their supplies throughout the supply chains and collect relevant information to ensure transparency and claim validation. Traceability has been further acknowledged as a competitive element and often acts as a decisive factor in purchase process. Moreover, the textile products are one of the most counterfeit‐prone items around the world. As a result, the demand for traceability has been intensified for supply chain monitoring and security, and product authentication.

    The principal aim of this thesis was to address the implementation of traceability information systems in the textile supply chain. Further, it investigates the feasibility of yarn‐based integrated tracking tags as a means to impart traceability in textiles. It has been pursued through several independent studies in the domain of textile manufacturing, supply chain management and information systems. The appended papers in this thesis address various aspects of traceability implementation in the textile supply chain and how traceability information can be encoded into the textiles using yarn‐based coding.

    Traceability consists of two components namely information system and tagging. The latter component is used to uniquely identify the product in the supply chain which assists in recalling and/or storing the relevant traceability data from/in the information system. Different actors in the supply chain manage the traceability data in their information systems, therefore traceability tag acts as a linking agent for information exchange. In this direction, this thesis introduces the concept of yarn coding and yarn coding‐based integrated tags which can be potentially used in future for textile traceability applications. In addition, a framework is proposed for the implementation of traceability information system in the textile supply chain. The work highlights various elements which can play a significant role in promoting and/or implementing traceability. Regardless of perspective or viewpoint, traceability is interwoven between technical and managerial aspects; therefore traceability implementation requires a techno‐managementapproach to obtain an optimal solution.

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  • 6.
    Kooroshnia, Marjan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Creating diverse colour-changing effects on textiles2015Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    With the technological progress of materials science, the palette of colours with which to print on textiles has expanded beyond those with previously known properties and expressions to a new generation, with more advanced functionality and expressive properties. This new range of colours is characterised by their ability when printed on textiles to change colour in relation to external factors and internal programmes; for example, leuco dye-based thermochromic inks generally change colour in response to temperature fluctuations. This research explores the design properties and potentials of leuco dye-based thermochromic inks printed on textiles, with regard to creating a wider range of colour-changing effects for textile applications. The significance of this for textile design is related to the development of a methodology for designing dynamic surface patterns. The research was conducted by creating a series of design experiments using leuco dye-based thermochromic inks, which resulted in different recipes and methods, along with a pedagogical tool. The results highlighted the diverse colour-changing properties of leuco dye-based thermochromic inks, which have the potential to create more complex patterns on textiles. The outcome of this research proposes a foundation for textile designers with which to approach new ways of thinking and designing.

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  • 7.
    Åkerfeldt, Maria
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Electrically conductive textile coatings with PEDOT:PSS2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In smart textiles, electrical conductivity is often required for several functions, especially contacting (electroding) and interconnecting. This thesis explores electrically conductive textile surfaces made by combining conventional textile coating methods with the intrinsically conductive polymer complex poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS).

    PEDOT:PSS was used in textile coating formulations including polymer binder, ethylene glycol (EG) and rheology modifier. Shear viscometry was used to identify suitable viscosities of the formulations for each coating method. The coating methods were knife coating, pad coating and screen printing. The first part of the work studied the influence of composition of the coating formulation, the amount of coating and the film formation process on the surface resistivity and the surface appearance of knife-coated textiles. The electrical resistivity was largely affected by the amount of PEDOT:PSS in the coating and indicated percolation behaviour within the system. Addition of a high-boiling solvent, i.e. EG, decreased the surface resistivity with more than four orders of magnitude. Studies of tear strength and bending rigidity showed that textiles coated with formulations containing larger amounts of PEDOT:PSS and EG were softer, more ductile and stronger than those coated with formulations containing more binder. The coated textiles were found to be durable to abrasion and cyclic strain, as well as quite resilient to the harsh treatment of shear flexing. Washing increased the surface resistivity, but the samples remained conductive after five wash cycles.

    The second part of the work focused on using the coatings to transfer the voltage signal from piezoelectric textile fibres; the coatings were first applied using pad coating as the outer electrode on a woven sensor and then as screen-printed interconnections in a sensing glove based on stretchy, warp-knitted fabric. Sensor data from the glove was successfully used as input to a microcontroller running a robot gripper. These applications showed the viability of the concept and that the coatings could be made very flexible and integrated into the textile garment without substantial loss of the textile characteristics. The industrial feasibility of the approach was also verified through the variations of coating methods.

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  • 8.
    Malm, Veronica
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Textilhögskolan.
    Colour-changing textile coatings containing multi-layered mica pigments: an experimental study2014Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the possibility of producing angle-dependent colour-changing textiles with thickened polyurethane (PU)-based aqueous dispersion containing multi-layered mica pigments using a direct coating method. Colour changing textile coatings with the latest generation of layered mica pigment (EP) have a promising future for functional purposes such as authentication and aesthetic eye-catching applications. The surface structure and colour of the substrate as well as the coating formulation combined with different coating parameters will strongly influence the colour-changing effects of textile coatings containing EPs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the substrate surface roughness increased when constructed of multifilament yarns with high thread count, spun staple-fibre yarns with higher and spun staple-fibre yarns with lower thread counts. Multi-angle spectrophotometer measurements of EP-coated samples showed that the colour differences in form of CIE L*a*b*-coordinates varied to a great extent, depending on detection angles, surface roughness and colour of the substrates. Increased surface roughness generated less plane-parallel orientated EP-platelets and consequently a less pronounced colour-changing effect on coated textiles. The lightness, L*-values, for white substrates were much higher than the corresponding values obtained with black substrates. Thus white substrates greatly affect the colour-changing effects, which become less intense and much more difficult for the human eye to distinguish. Different types of rheology modifiers (RMs), dispersion in oil of sodium polyacrylates (LDPSAPs), hydrophobically modified alkali-swellable acrylic emulsions (HASEs) and hydrophobically modified ethoxylated polyurethanes (HEURs) provided EP-formulations with similar viscosity profiles. However, it was found that the choice of RM as well as variations in gap heights and coating speed could increase the solids deposit, corresponding to more and better dispersed EPs within the coated layer as well as more plane-parallel oriented platelets as confirmed by SEM. Multi-angle spectrophotometer measurements with six detection angles showed that the variations of the absolute values of L* and a* were more pronounced between detection angles of -15° and 15°, corresponding to the angles where the strongest colour changes can be visually observed. Slow-coated samples with a higher deposit were measured to be lighter and of higher chroma compared to samples coated at a higher speed. The colour-changing effects were found to be governed by the choice of RM and coating parameters in terms of variations of the amount of coating deposited onto the samples.

  • 9.
    Jansen, Barbara
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Textilhögskolan.
    Composing over time, temporal patterns: in Textile Design2013Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this thesis is a first attempt investigating a new field, exploring the visual effects of movement using light as a continuous time-based medium. Composing over time, temporal patterns - in Textile Design is a practice based research project that investigates the following research question: What does it mean, if time and change – constant movement – becomes part of the textile design expression? The research question has been investigated in a number of experiments that explore the visual effects of movement using light integrated into textile structures as a medium. Thereby, the textile design pattern reveals its composition, not in one moment of time any more, but in fact over time. This thesis aims to create time-based textiles with an emphasis on developing aesthetics of movement – or to establish movement as an aesthetic moment in textile design. Two distinct groups of experiments, colour flow and rhythm exercise, explore a range of different time-based expressions. The experiments have been displayed and explored using woven and braided textile structures which have been construct mainly through the integration of PMMA optical fibres. Through the design processes a first platform and understanding about time as a design material has been developed, which allows composing time-based patterns in light design. New design variables, notions and tools have been defined and established. The achieved new expressions will hopefully lead to discussions on and envisioning of future textiles, opening up the general perception of what textiles are supposed to be like, to show, to express etc., i.e. expands notions of what it means to read a piece of textile work.

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  • 10.
    Peterson, Joel
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Textilhögskolan.
    Customisation of Fashion Products Using Complete Garment Technology2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Complete garment knitting technology is a method of producing knitted products, generally fashion garments, ready-made directly in the knitting machine without additional operations such as cutting and sewing. This makes it possible to manufacture a knitted fashion garment with fewer processes then with conventional production methods. In the fashion business customer demand is always changing due to fashion trends, so to be able to manufacture and deliver products rapidly is important. Mass customisation is a customer co-design process of products and services that tries to meets the needs of an individual customer’s demand for certain product features. In the fashion business this means that the customer can order a garment with a customised style, colour, size, and other personal preferences. The principal objective of this dissertation was to examine if and how complete garment technology can be applied to the customisation of knitted fashion products. It was pursued through several independent studies in knitting technology, mass customisation, and fashion logistics against a theoretical frame of reference in these areas. The papers in this thesis present various examples of how knitted fashion garments can be customised and integrated into fashion retailing concepts. The starting point of the research was the Knit-on-Demand research project conducted at the Swedish School of Textiles in collaboration with a knitting manufacturing and retailing company. The aim was to develop a shop concept built on the complete garment technology where a garment could be customised, produced, and delivered as quickly as possible. This initial idea failed due to the expense of investing in complete garment knitting technology, and so other avenues of research had to be found. The Knit-on-Demand project continued, using a business model similar to the complete garment concept but with the retail store and the production unit situated in different locations. The overall research question addressed in this thesis is: How can complete garment knitting technology be applied in a retail concept for customised garments? This question is then divided in two problems: What are the fashion logistics effects of combining complete garment technology and mass customisation? How does the co-design process function in the customisation of knitted fashion garments? The following is a qualitative study based on five research articles applying different research methodologies: case studies, simulations, and interviews. The empirical context is the area of mass customisation of fashion products and knitting technology, more specifically called complete garment knitting production technology. No prior studies describing mass customisation of complete garment knitting technology in combination with fashion logistics were found in the literature. The main contribution of this study is the demonstration that complete garment knitting technology can be applied in the customisation of fashion products. It also illustrates the importance of the co-design process between the company and the customer through which a knitted garment can be customised, produced, and delivered to the customer in three to five hours. The process of co-design and manufacture of a customised complete fashion product is examined, and the advantages and disadvantages associated with customisation of knitted garments are identified and described.

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  • 11.
    Åkerfeldt, Maria
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Textilhögskolan.
    Studies of electrically conductive textile coatings with PEDOT:PSS2012Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates electrically conductive coatings of textiles, obtained with a direct coating and the addition of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) dispersion to a thickened polyurethane (PU)-based formulation. Textiles with enhanced electrical conductivity have potential applications in antistatic, electrostatic discharge protective, electromagnetic interference shielding, sensoric and temperature-regulating products. The composition of the coating formulation will have a large impact on the obtained coated textiles. Firstly, the amount solids (polymer content) of the components will affect the shear viscosity which is amongst other important for the level of penetration of the coating. In this work, different coating formulations have been studied with steady state shear viscometry. It was found that the viscosity during knife coating to a large extent could be controlled by the addition of a hydrophobically modified ethoxylated urethane (HEUR) rheology modifier. Secondly, the level of conductivity will depend on the amount conductive material, in this case PEDOT:PSS, that is present in the coating, indicating percolation behaviour of the system. Conductivity was evaluated with two-point and four-point surface resistivity measurements. Addition of a high-boiling solvent, i.e. ethylene glycol, was however imperative for low surface resistivity. Thirdly, tear strength measurements, performed with the dynamic pendulum method, and investigations of bending rigidity, with the Kawabata evaluation system for fabrics, KES-F-2, showed that samples coated with formulations containing larger amounts of PEDOT:PSS and ethylene glycol were significantly softer and more ductile than samples coated with formulations containing more binder. A decrease in surface resistivity could also be obtained by increasing the amount deposited coating on the substrate. This decrease was however counteracted by the concurrent increase of insulating binder polymers in the coating. The increased coating deposit resulted in stiffer samples with lower tear strength due to increased brittleness. The influence of kinetics during film formation on the surface resistivity was also studied but was found to be close to insignificant. Abrasion resistance was investigated for all samples with a modified Martindale method and the samples showed less impact from this than expected.

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