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  • 1.
    Brancoli, Pedro
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    The use of life cycle assessment in the support of the development of fungal food products from surplus bread2021In: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 7, no 3, article id 173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of food waste as feedstock in the manufacture of high-value products is a promising avenue to contribute to circular economy. Considering that the majority of environmental impacts of products are determined in the early phases of product development, it is crucial to integrate life cycle assessment during these phases. This study integrates environmental considerations in the development of solid-state fermentation based on the cultivation of N. intermedia for the production of a fungal food product using surplus bread as a substrate. The product can be sold as a ready-to-eat meal to reduce waste while generating additional income. Four inoculation scenarios were proposed, based on the use of bread, molasses, and glucose as substrate, and one scenario based on backslopping. The environmental performance was assessed, and the quality of the fungal product was evaluated in terms of morphology and protein content. The protein content of the fungal food product was similar in all scenarios, varying from 25% to 29%. The scenario based on backslopping showed the lowest environmental impacts while maintaining high protein content. The results show that the inoculum production and the solid-state fermentation are the two environmental hotspots and should be in focus when optimizing the process. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • 2.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Circular bioeconomy through valorisation of agro-industrial residues by the edible filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prevention of dramatic climate change and ensuring food and nutrition security for subsequent generations necessitates the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and efficient use of the world’s resources, including efficient waste disposal. The agro-industrial sector generates a large amount of organic waste, that is currently underexploited owing to poor waste management practices. The circular bioeconomy model is expected to play an important role in the transition towards a sustainable future, and a group of microorganisms known as fungi can be part of the solution, owing to their ability to convert organic waste into useful products, including both materials and energy. These processes hold great potential to change waste materials into resources, leading to societal and environmental benefits. The versatility of various fungi, including their ability to grow in both submerged and solid states, enables the valorisation of liquid and solid streams such as ethanol plant residues ‘thin stillage’ and surplus bread. However, fungal strains need to produce marketable products and exhibit good growth characteristics to be considered suitable for industrial applications. An interesting candidate is the edible filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia. This fast-growing fungus is able to grow on a wide array of substrates, in both liquid and solid states, and produce industrially relevant products, including its own nutrient rich fungal biomass and carotenoid pigments. 

    Submerged fermentation by N. intermedia in semi-synthetic medium showed that the formation of carotenoids can be enhanced by modulating various factors such as light, low pH, high aeration, and the addition of Mg2+ and Mn2+. When cultivated in thin stillage, 6.3 g/L ethanol was produced, along with protein-rich fungal biomass with potential application as feed. However, an additional step was needed to promote pigment production in the fungal biomass. 

    Inspired by the traditional use of N. intermedia for food production by solid-state cultivation, the fungal biomass obtained from cultivation in thin stillage was used as inoculum in a subsequent solid-state fermentation step on surplus bread. The fungal product obtained contained up to 33% proteins and 1.2 mg carotenoids/g total material dry weight. By further combining bread as substrate with brewer’s spent grain, a nutrient-rich fungal-fermented product with an attractive texture was successfully produced. The solid-state cultivation resulted in an improved ratio of essential amino acids, and an increase in dietary fibre, minerals, and vitamins, that added further value to the product. To scale up the process, a novel plug-flow bioreactor was developed and successfully operated semi-continuously, without the addition of an external inoculum. Furthermore, a techno-economic feasibility study of on-site solid-state fermentation in small-scale bakeries revealed that the implementation of this process to sustainably use surplus bread at bakery level is economically feasible. 

    These studies lay the foundation for the development of N. intermedia as a tool to convert waste material into useful products, contributing to a fossil fuel-free future with positive impacts on the economy.

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  • 3.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Post-treatment of Fungal Biomass to Enhance Pigment Production2019In: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new post-treatment method of fungal biomass after fermentation is revealed. The post-treatment strategy was utilized to produce pigments as an additional valuable metabolite. Post-treatment included incubation at 95% relative humidity where the effects of harvesting time, light, and temperature were studied. Pigment-producing edible filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia cultivated on ethanol plant residuals produced 4 g/L ethanol and 5 g/L fungal biomass. Harvesting the pale biomass after 48 h submerged cultivation compared to 24 h or 72 h increased pigmentation in the post-treatment step with 35% and 48%, respectively. The highest pigment content produced, 1.4 mg/g dry fungal biomass, was obtained from washed biomass treated in light at 35 °C whereof the major impact on pigmentation was from washed biomass. Moreover, post-treated biomass contained 50% (w/w) crude protein. The post-treatment strategy successfully adds pigments to pre-obtained biomass. The pigmented fungal biomass can be considered for animal feed applications for domestic animals.

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  • 4.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fristedt, R.
    Food and Nutrition Science, Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology , Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, K.
    Food and Nutrition Science, Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology , Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Undeland, I.
    Food and Nutrition Science, Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology , Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    From stale bread and brewers spent grain to a new food source using edible filamentous fungi2020In: Bioengineered, ISSN 2165-5979, E-ISSN 2165-5987, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 582-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By-products from the food sector with a high load of organic matter present both a waste-handling problem related to expenses and to the environment, yet also an opportunity. This study aims to increase the value of stale bread and brewers spent grain (BSG) by re-introducing these residues to the food production chain by converting them to new protein-enriched products using the edible filamentous fungi Neurospora intermedia and Rhizopusoryzae. After 6 days of solid state fermentation (at 35°C, with a95% relative humidity and moisture content of 40% in the substrate) on stale bread, a nutrient-rich fungal-fermented product was produced. The total protein content, as analyzed by total amino acids, increased from 16.5% in stale sourdough bread to 21.1% (on dry weight basis) in the final product with an improved relative ratio of essential amino acids. An increase in dietary fiber, minerals (Cu, Fe, Zn) and vitamin E, as well as an addition of vitamin D2 (0.89 µg/g dry weight sample) was obtained compared with untreated stale bread. Furthermore, addition of BSG to the sourdough bread with the aim to improve textural changes after fermentation showed promising outcomes. Cultivation of N. intermedia or R. oryzae on stale sourdough bread mixed with 6.5% or 11.8% BSG, respectively, resulted in fungal-fermented products with similar textural properties to a commercial soybean burger. Bioconversion of stale bread and BSG by fungal solid state fermentation to produce a nutrient-enriched food product was confirmed to be a successful way to minimize food waste and protein shortage. © 2020, © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

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  • 5.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    From surplus bread to burger using filamentous fungi at bakeries: Techno-economical evaluation2021In: Cleaner Environmental Systems, ISSN 2666-7894, Vol. 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel approach of utilizing unsold bread at bakeries as a substrate for the fermentative production of a fungal food product have been developed. Techno-economic feasibility of implementing on-site solid-state fermentation in small-scale bakeries in Sweden to recover 10 kg/day surplus bread using the edible fungus Neurospora intermedia was investigated. Different inoculation to substrate ratios were compared, where 24% of fermented solids to inoculate the next batch presented the best fermentation-benefit ratio. Total capital cost was at its maximum €12,600 that can process 70 tons bread (10 kg/day) in its 20-years lifetime to produce 63 tons of product. Operational costs were dominated by labour cost (53%). Outcomes indicate that the process implementation is economically feasible with an annual net profit of €62,000, rate of return on investment of 18.5%, with a payback-period of 4 years at a discount rate of 7%. According to sensitivity analysis, product-selling price and process bread capacity were critical to the process's economics. Increasing the capacity to 100 kg/day resulted in a substantial increase in net profit value of €5,700,000 compared to the base case scenario. Implementation of this process cast insights on techno-economic performance of a sustainable treatment for surplus bread at bakery-level.

  • 6.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sintca, Carissa
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Combining submerged and solid state fermentation to convert waste bread into protein and pigment using the edible filamentous fungus N. intermedia.2019In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 97, p. 63-70, article id S0956-053X(19)30509-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste streams from ethanol and bread production present inexpensive, abundant and underutilized renewable substrates that are highly available for valorisation into high-value products. A combined submerged to solid state fermentation strategy was studied using the edible filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia to biotransform ethanol plant residues 'thin stillage' and waste bread as substrates for the production of additional ethanol, biomass and a feed product rich in pigment. The fungus was able to degrade the stillage during submerged fermentation, producing 81 kg ethanol and 65 kg fungal biomass per ton dry weight of thin stillage. Concurrently, the second solid state fermentation step increased the protein content in waste bread by 161%. Additionally, 1.2 kg pigment per ton waste bread was obtained at the best conditions (6 days solid state fermentation under light at 95% relative humidity at 35 °C with an initial substrate moisture content of 40% using washed fungal biomass to initiate fermentation). This study presents a means of increasing the value of waste bread while reducing the treatment load on thin stillage in ethanol plants.

  • 7.
    Hellwig, Coralie
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Rousta, Kamran
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fungi Burger from Stale Bread? A Case Study on Perceptions of a Novel Protein-Rich Food Product Made from an Edible Fungus2020In: Foods, ISSN ISSN 2304-8158, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 1112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study aims to assess how a novel fungi product made from the filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, cultivated on bread residuals, is perceived using questionnaires. Participants were asked to rate characteristic attributes of a fungi burger patty and state their preference when comparing it to Quorn and hamburger patties. The data were analyzed to assess whether gender or age was statistically associated with preference profiles. Neither age nor gender was associated with the preference profiles regarding the comparison of burger patties. Except for age and bitterness, age and gender were also not associated with the preference profiles regarding the sensory characteristics of the fungi burger patty. Most of the participants liked the characteristics of the fungi burger patty. The results indicate that fungi products from waste can become accepted products when information dissemination targets environmental benefits. Moreover, to be commercially accepted, the chewiness and bitterness of the product should be improved. Other improvements should target the overall taste in order to cater to people who prefer meat-based protein sources.

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  • 8.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ferreira, Jorge A.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Pigment Production by the Edible Filamentous Fungus Neurospora Intermedia2018In: Fermentation, ISSN 2311-5637, Vol. 4, no 11, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of pigments by edible filamentous fungi is gaining attention as a result of the increased interest in natural sources with added functionality in the food, feed, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and textile industries. The filamentous fungus Neurospora intermedia, used for production of the Indonesian food “oncom”, is one potential source of pigments. The objective of the study was to evaluate the fungus’ pigment production. The joint effect from different factors (carbon and nitrogen source, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and MnCl2) on pigment production by N. intermedia is reported for the first time. The scale-up to 4.5 L bubble column bioreactors was also performed to investigate the effect of pH and aeration. Pigment production of the fungus was successfully manipulated by varying several factors. The results showed that the formation of pigments was strongly influenced by light, carbon, pH, the co-factor Zn2+ and first- to fourth-order interactions between factors. The highest pigmentation (1.19 ± 0.08 mg carotenoids/g dry weight biomass) was achieved in a bubble column reactor. This study provides important insights into pigmentation of this biotechnologically important fungus and lays a foundation for future utilizations of N. intermedia for pigment production. 

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  • 9. Nair, R. B.
    et al.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Does the second messenger cAMP have a more complex role in controlling filamentous fungal morphology and metabolite production?2018In: MicrobiologyOpen, E-ISSN 2045-8827Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 10.
    Wang, Ricky
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Taherzadeh, Mohammad J
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Lennartsson, Patrik R.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Solid-state fermentation of stale bread by an edible fungus in a semi-continuous plug-flow bioreactor2021In: Biochemical engineering journal, ISSN 1369-703X, E-ISSN 1873-295X, Vol. 169, article id 107959Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Wikandari, Rachma
    et al.
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
    Tanugraha, Daniel Reinhart
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
    Yastanto, Anang Juni
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
    Manikharda, Manikharda
    Department of Food and Agricultural Product Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
    Gmoser, Rebecca
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Teixeira, José António
    Centro de Engenharia Biológica (CEB), Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal; LABBELS—Associate Laboratory in Biotechnology, Bioengineering and Electromechanical Systems, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal.
    Development of Meat Substitutes from Filamentous Fungi Cultivated on Residual Water of Tempeh Factories2023In: Molecules, ISSN 1431-5157, E-ISSN 1420-3049, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 997-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been an increased motivation to reduce meat consumption globally due to environmental and health concerns, which has driven the development of meat substitutes. Filamentous fungal biomass, commonly known as mycoprotein, is a potential meat substitute since it is nutritious and has filaments to mimic meat fibrils. The current study aimed to investigate the potential use of a cheap substrate derived from the food industry, i.e., residual water in a tempeh factory, for mycoprotein production. The type of residual water, nutrient supplementation, optimum conditions for biomass production, and characteristics of the mycoprotein were determined. The results showed that the residual water from the first boiling with yeast extract addition gave the highest mycoprotein content. The optimum growth condition was a pH of 4.5 and agitation of 125 rpm, and it resulted in 7.76 g/L biomass. The mycoprotein contains 19.44% (w/w) protein with a high crude fiber content of 8.51% (w/w) and a low fat content of 1.56% (w/w). In addition, the amino acid and fatty acid contents are dominated by glutamic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with an umami taste and are considered healthier foods. The current work reveals that the residual boiling water from the tempeh factory can be used to produce high-quality mycoprotein.

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