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  • 1. Abarenkov, Kessy
    et al.
    Adams, Rachel I.
    Irinyi, Laszlo
    Agan, Ahto
    Ambrosio, Elia
    Antonelli, Alexandre
    Bahram, Mohammad
    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    Bok, Gunilla
    Cangren, Patrik
    Coimbra, Victor
    Coleine, Claudia
    Gustafsson, Claes
    He, Jinhong
    Hofmann, Tobias
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Larsson, Ellen
    Larsson, Tomas
    Liu, Yingkui
    Martinsson, Svante
    Meyer, Wieland
    Panova, Marina
    Pombubpa, Nuttapon
    Ritter, Camila
    Ryberg, Martin
    Svantesson, Sten
    Scharn, Ruud
    Svensson, Ola
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Topel, Mats
    Unterseher, Martin
    Visagie, Cobus
    Wurzbacher, Christian
    Taylor, Andy F. S.
    Koljalg, Urmas
    Schriml, Lynn
    Nilsson, R. Henrik
    Annotating public fungal ITS sequences from the built environment according to the MIxS-Built Environment standard - a report from a May 23-24, 2016 workshop (Gothenburg, Sweden)2016In: MycoKeys, ISSN 1314-4057, E-ISSN 1314-4049, no 16, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent molecular studies have identified substantial fungal diversity in indoor environments. Fungi and fungal particles have been linked to a range of potentially unwanted effects in the built environment, including asthma, decay of building materials, and food spoilage. The study of the built mycobiome is hampered by a number of constraints, one of which is the poor state of the metadata annotation of fungal DNA sequences from the built environment in public databases. In order to enable precise interrogation of such data - for example, "retrieve all fungal sequences recovered from bathrooms" - a workshop was organized at the University of Gothenburg (May 23-24, 2016) to annotate public fungal barcode (ITS) sequences according to the MIxS-Built Environment annotation standard (http:// gensc.org/ mixs/). The 36 participants assembled a total of 45,488 data points from the published literature, including the addition of 8,430 instances of countries of collection from a total of 83 countries, 5,801 instances of building types, and 3,876 instances of surface-air contaminants. The results were implemented in the UNITE database for molecular identification of fungi (http://unite.ut.ee) and were shared with other online resources. Data obtained from human/animal pathogenic fungi will furthermore be verified on culture based metadata for subsequent inclusion in the ISHAM-ITS database (http:// its. mycologylab.org).

  • 2. Adrian-Kalchhauser, I
    et al.
    Svensson, Ola
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Kutschera, VE
    Alm Rosenblad, M
    Pippel, M
    Winkler, S
    Schloissnig, S
    Blomberg, A
    Burkhardt-Holm, P
    Pomatoschistus minutus voucher NRM:NRM69326 mitochondrion, complete genome: GenBank: MW0928272020Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The complete Pomatoschistus minutus mitochondrion genome. The voucher NRM:NRM69326 is stored at The Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden. The Genbank Accession number of the annotated sequence MW092827.

  • 3. Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene
    et al.
    Svensson, Ola
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Medicinaregatan 18A, S-41390 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kutschera, Verena E.
    Rosenblad, Magnus Alm
    Pippel, Martin
    Winkler, Sylke
    Schloissnig, Siegfried
    Blomberg, Anders
    Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia
    The mitochondrial genome sequences of the round goby and the sand goby reveal patterns of recent evolution in gobiid fish2017In: BMC Genomics, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Vertebrate mitochondrial genomes are optimized for fast replication and low cost of RNA expression. Accordingly, they are devoid of introns, are transcribed as polycistrons and contain very little intergenic sequences. Usually, vertebrate mitochondrial genomes measure between 16.5 and 17 kilobases ( kb). Results: During genome sequencing projects for two novel vertebrate models, the invasive round goby and the sand goby, we found that the sand goby genome is exceptionally small (16.4 kb), while the mitochondrial genome of the round goby is much larger than expected for a vertebrate. It is 19 kb in size and is thus one of the largest fish and even vertebrate mitochondrial genomes known to date. The expansion is attributable to a sequence insertion downstream of the putative transcriptional start site. This insertion carries traces of repeats from the control region, but is mostly novel. To get more information about this phenomenon, we gathered all available mitochondrial genomes of Gobiidae and of nine gobioid species, performed phylogenetic analyses, analysed gene arrangements, and compared gobiid mitochondrial genome sizes, ecological information and other species characteristics with respect to the mitochondrial phylogeny. This allowed us amongst others to identify a unique arrangement of tRNAs among Ponto-Caspian gobies. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the round goby mitochondrial genome may contain novel features. Since mitochondrial genome organisation is tightly linked to energy metabolism, these features may be linked to its invasion success. Also, the unique tRNA arrangement among Ponto- Caspian gobies may be helpful in studying the evolution of this highly adaptive and invasive species group. Finally, we find that the phylogeny of gobiids can be further refined by the use of longer stretches of linked DNA sequence.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Marica
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Ola
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. The Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Swartz, Terese
    Universeum, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Manera, Jack L.
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Bertram, Michael G.
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Eva-Lotta
    Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Increased noise levels cause behavioural and distributional changes in Atlantic cod and saithe in a large public aquarium—A case study2023In: Aquaculture, Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 2693-8847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Investigating the effects of underwater noise on aquatic animals is a research field that is receiving rapidly increasing attention. Despite this, surprisingly few studies have addressed the potential impacts of noise in a marine animal husbandry setting. In this regard, the behaviour of fish in public aquariums can be used as an indicator of well-being, and noise is known to cause behavioural changes. This case study investigates the behaviour of cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens) in a large public aquarium when exposed to increased noise levels originating from an aquarium renovation carried out by construction divers. Swimming behaviour, group formation and vertical distribution, along with yawning and scratching frequencies of the fish, were analysed from video recordings made before, during and after the exposure to increased noise levels. The same parameters were also analysed to evaluate potential effects of the presence of divers when not making renovation noise, compared to fish behaviour prior to the renovation. There was a slight change in the depth distribution of both species and a decrease in the number of scratches in cod due to the presence of divers that were not making renovation noise. In the presence of construction noises in the tank, however, both cod and saithe showed a wider array of behavioural changes, including increased swimming speed, changes in depth distribution and increased yawning frequencies. The results from this case study demonstrate that an underwater renovation with increased noise levels impacts fish behaviour and suggests that underwater noise should be considered during the management of aquatic environments, including public aquaria.

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  • 5.
    Asnicar, Davide
    et al.
    University of Padova, Italy; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ašmonaitė, Giedrė
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Birgersson, Lina
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Ola
    Södertörns högskola, Matematikens didaktik.
    Sturve, Joachim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sand Goby: An Ecologically Relevant Species for Behavioural Ecotoxicology2018In: Fishes, E-ISSN 2410-3888, Vol. 3, no 1, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Locomotion-based behavioural endpoints have been suggested as suitable sublethal endpoints for human and environmental hazard assessment, as well as for biomonitoring applications. Larval stages of the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) possess a number of attractive qualities for experimental testing that make it a promising species in behavioural ecotoxicology. Here, we present a study aimed at developing a toolkit for using the sand goby as novel species for ecotoxicological studies and using locomotion as an alternative endpoint in toxicity testing. Exposure to three contaminants (copper (Cu), di-butyl phthalate (DBP) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was tested in the early life stages of the sand goby and the locomotion patterns of the larvae were quantified using an automatic tracking system. In a photo-motor test, sand goby larvae displayed substantially higher activity in light than in dark cycles. Furthermore, all tested compounds exerted behavioural alterations, such as hypo- and hyperactivity. Our experimental results show that sand goby larvae produce robust and quantifiable locomotive responses, which could be used within an ecotoxicological context for assessing the behavioural toxicity of environmental pollutants, with particular relevance in the Nordic region. This study thus suggests that sand goby larvae have potential as an environmentally relevant species for behavioural ecotoxicology, and as such offer an alternative to standard model species.

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  • 6.
    Blom, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE-405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE-405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden The Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Box 460, SE-405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Amorim, M. Clara
    Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal MARE – Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ISPA-Instituto Universitário, Rua Jardim do Tabaco, 34, 1149-041, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Svensson, Ola
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE-405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden The Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Box 460, SE-405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Continuous and intermittent noise has a negative impact on reproductive success and early life survival in marine fish2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic underwater noise is a global pollutant of increasing concern and its effect on marine organisms is largely unknown. Importantly, direct assessments of fitness consequences are lacking especially in fish. The effect of noise pattern with continuous or intermittent noise are poorly understood and the few existing studies investigating the effect highlight contradictory responses in fish. Working in aquaria, we experimentally tested the impact of broadband noise exposure (similar frequency range as anthropogenic boat noise; added either continuously or intermittently) on the behaviour and reproductive success, assessed by the number of obtained eggs, of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps), a vocal fish with exclusive paternal care.  The continuous noise treatment had the most detrimental effect by reducing spawning probability and females took longer to spawn under continuous noise. Males exposed to continuous noise got significantly fewer egg clutches (4 compared to 11 and 15 in the intermittent noise and silence treatments).  Clutch area did not differ among treatments but clutches in the intermittent and continuous noise treatment had significantly more eggs per cm2. In addition, eggs in the control tanks hatched earlier than in the intermittent and noisy treatments. Larvae reared in continuous noise treatment were larger and had a smaller yolk-sac at hatching than larvae in the intermittent noise treatment and the control. Taken together, we show that noise, particularly a continuous noise exposure, negatively affects reproductive success and early life survival in fish larvae.

  • 7.
    Blom, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    University of Gothenburg.
    Dekhla, Isabelle
    University of Gothenburg.
    Schöld, Sofie
    University of Gothenburg.
    Andersson, Mathias H.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency.
    Svensson, Ola
    Södertörns högskola, Matematikens didaktik.
    Amorim, M Clara P
    ISPA-Instituto Universitário, Lisboa, Portugal; Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Continuous but not intermittent noise has a negative impact on mating success in a marine fish with paternal care2019In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 5494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic underwater noise is a global pollutant of increasing concern but its impact on reproduction in fish is largely unknown. Hence, a better understanding of its consequences for this important link to fitness is crucial. Working in aquaria, we experimentally tested the impact of broadband noise exposure (added either continuously or intermittently), compared to a control, on the behaviour and reproductive success of the common goby (Pomatoschistus microps), a vocal fish with exclusive paternal care. Compared to the intermittent noise and control treatments, the continuous noise treatment increased latency to female nest inspection and spawning and decreased spawning probability. In contrast, many other female and male pre-spawning behaviours, and female ventilation rate (proxies for stress levels) did not differ among treatments. Therefore, it is likely that female spawning decisions were delayed by a reduced ability to assess male acoustic signals, rather than due to stress per se and that the silent periods in the intermittent noise treatment provided a respite where the females could assess the males. Taken together, we show that noise (of similar frequency range as anthropogenic boat noise) negatively affects reproductive success, particularly under a continuous noise exposure.

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  • 8. Blom, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    Mueck, Isabel
    Heubel, Katja
    Svensson, Ola
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, Gothenburg, SE-405 30, Sweden.
    Acoustic and visual courtship traits in two sympatric marine Gobiidae species - Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus2016In: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 99, no 12, p. 999-1007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Divergence in courtship traits across species can evolve as adaptations to different environments, and also through avoidance of reproductive interference and character displacement. Differences may also be explained by phylogenetic relationships. We compared different courtship traits, including male courtship sounds, in two sympatric Pomatoschistus species. Both species are characterised by having male and female courtship, and paternal care of eggs in nests under mussel shells and rocks. In addition to presenting novel observations, we reviewed the literature on courtship traits for both species and complemented it with new observations. We found that courting males of the common goby P. microps sing louder and produce sounds of shorter duration than males of the sand goby P. minutus. Furthermore, males of P. microps swim faster towards females during courtship than males of P. minutus. The eyes of P. minutus females turn black during courtship attempts, whereas this is not the case for females of P. microps. Species-specific differences in courtship sounds and behavior may lead to different susceptibility of the two species to environmental change such as noise pollution and turbidity.

  • 9.
    Blom, Eva-Lotta
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden; .
    Wilson, Joanna R.
    Department of Biology, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada; The Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Box 460, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden; The Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Box 460, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Amorim, M. Clara P.
    MARE – Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre / ARNET - Aquatic Research Network, ISPA, Instituto Universitário, Lisbon, Portugal; Departamento de Biologia Animal, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal..
    Svensson, Ola
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden; The Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Box 460, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Male acoustic display in the sand goby – Essential cue in female choice, but unaffected by supplemental feeding2022In: Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, ISSN 0022-0981, E-ISSN 1879-1697, Vol. 556, article id 151791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many teleost fishes use acoustic and visual signalling during courtship. Such displays may convey information about body condition. Here we experimentally altered body condition of sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) males to examine effects on acoustic and visual courtship and subsequent spawning decisions. Over two weeks, males fed in excess were fed daily, whereas food-deprived males were fed once a week. Females only spawned with males that produced courtship sound. However, there were no treatment effects on the occurrence of spawning and males fed in excess did not invest more in visual or acoustic courtship than food-deprived males. That said, males fed in excess built more well-covered nests, with more sand piled on top, compared to food-deprived males. Male condition measured as lipid content differed significantly between treatments. However, only males fed in excess differed in lipid content from wild caught males, indicating that in nature, males are of similar condition to males in the low condition treatment group. Apart from the importance of courtship sound, the only male or female behaviour predicting reproductive success was if male displayed in the nest opening. Males often produce courtship sounds together with a visual display in this position. A female dark-eye display did not associate with reproductive success which, together with previous results, suggest a non-ornamental function of this trait. We conclude that male courtship sounds appear to be crucial in female mate choice, but the information content of the courtship sounds and how it relates to male condition remains elusive.

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  • 10.
    Green, L
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Faust, E
    University of Gothenburg.
    Hinchcliffe, J
    University of Gothenburg.
    Brijs, J
    University of Hawaii at Manoa.
    Holmes, A
    University of Gothenburg.
    Englund-Örn, F
    University of Gothenburg.
    Svensson, Ola
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Roques, J.A.C.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Leder, E.H.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sandblom, E
    University of Gothenburg.
    Kvarnemo,
    University of Gothenburg.
    Data supporting: Invader at the edge - genomic origins and physiological differences of round gobies across a steep urban salinity gradient2022Data set
    Abstract [en]

    Species invasions are a global problem of increasing concern, especially in highly connected aquatic environments. Despite this, salinity conditions can pose physiological barriers to their spread and understanding them is important for management. In Scandinavia’s largest cargo port, the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), is established across a steep salinity gradient. We used 12 937 SNPs to identify the genetic origin and diversity of three sites along the salinity gradient and round goby from western, central and northern Baltic Sea, as well as north European rivers. Fish from two sites from the extreme ends of the gradient were also acclimated to freshwater and seawater, and tested for respiratory and osmoregulatory physiology. Fish from the high salinity environment in the outer port showed higher genetic diversity, and closer relatedness to the other regions, compared to fish from lower salinity upstream the river. Fish from the high salinity site also had higher maximum metabolic rate, fewer blood cells and lower blood Ca2+. Despite these genotypic and phenotypic differences, salinity acclimation affected fish from both sites in the same way: seawater increased the blood osmolality and Na+ levels, and freshwater increased the levels of the stress hormone cortisol. Our results show genotypic and phenotypic differences over short spatial scales across this steep salinity gradient. These patterns of the physiologically robust round goby are likely driven by multiple introductions into the high salinity site, and a process of sorting, likely based on behaviour or selection, along the gradient. Since this euryhaline fish risks spreading from this area, seascape genomics and phenotypic characterisation can inform management strategies even within an area as small as a coastal harbour inlet.

  • 11.
    Green, Leon
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg Gothenburg Sweden;Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology University of Gothenburg Strömstad Sweden; Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg Sweden.
    Faust, Ellika
    Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology University of Gothenburg, Strömstad Sweden; Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre University of Gothenburg Gothenburg Sweden;Tjärnö Marine Laboratory, Department of Marine Sciences University of Gothenburg, Strömstad Sweden.
    Hinchcliffe, James
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg Sweden.
    Brijs, Jeroen
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg Sweden; Institute of Marine Biology University of Hawai'i, Kaneohe Hawai'i USA.
    Holmes, Andrew
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg Sweden; Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology University of Gothenburg, Strömstad Sweden.
    Englund Örn, Felix
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg Gothenburg Sweden; Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology University of Gothenburg, Strömstad Sweden.
    Svensson, Ola
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology University of Gothenburg, Strömstad Sweden.
    Roques, Jonathan A. C.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg Sweden.
    Leder, Erica H.
    Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology University of Gothenburg, Strömstad Sweden; Tjärnö Marine Laboratory, Department of Marine Sciences University of Gothenburg Strömstad Sweden;Natural History Museum University of Oslo, Oslo Norway.
    Sandblom, Erik
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg Sweden.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg Sweden; Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology University of Gothenburg, Strömstad Sweden.
    Invader at the edge — Genomic origins and physiological differences of round gobies across a steep urban salinity gradient2023In: Evolutionary Applications, E-ISSN 1752-4571, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 321-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species invasions are a global problem of increasing concern, especially in highly connected aquatic environments. Despite this, salinity conditions can pose physiological barriers to their spread, and understanding them is important for management. In Scandinavia's largest cargo port, the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is established across a steep salinity gradient. We used 12,937 SNPs to identify the genetic origin and diversity of three sites along the salinity gradient and round goby from western, central and northern Baltic Sea, as well as north European rivers. Fish from two sites from the extreme ends of the gradient were also acclimated to freshwater and seawater, and tested for respiratory and osmoregulatory physiology. Fish from the high-salinity environment in the outer port showed higher genetic diversity, and closer relatedness to the other regions, compared to fish from lower salinity upstream the river. Fish from the high-salinity site also had higher maximum metabolic rate, fewer blood cells and lower blood Ca2+. Despite these genotypic and phenotypic differences, salinity acclimation affected fish from both sites in the same way: seawater increased the blood osmolality and Na+ levels, and freshwater increased the levels of the stress hormone cortisol. Our results show genotypic and phenotypic differences over short spatial scales across this steep salinity gradient. These patterns of the physiologically robust round goby are likely driven by multiple introductions into the high-salinity site, and a process of sorting, likely based on behaviour or selection, along the gradient. This euryhaline fish risks spreading from this area, and seascape genomics and phenotypic characterization can inform management strategies even within an area as small as a coastal harbour inlet. 

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  • 12. Jarvi-Laturi, M.
    et al.
    Lindstrom, K.
    Kvarnemo, C.
    Svensson, Ola
    Department of Zoology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sand goby males trade off between defence against egg predators and sneak intrusions2011In: Journal of Zoology, ISSN 0952-8369, E-ISSN 1469-7998, Vol. 283, no 4, p. 269-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to life-history theory, a care-taking parent should balance investment in current and future reproduction in such a way that it maximizes lifetime reproductive success. In the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, a small marine fish with paternal care, nest-guarding males may lose current reproductive success to both parasitically fertilizing males and egg predators. Here, we observed sand gobies at a marine and a brackish site, two geographically distant and ecologically different habitats. In a field experiment, we found that sand gobies at the marine site suffered from severe egg predation by netted dogwhelks Nassarius nitidus, which are lacking at the brackish site. Because egg laying takes hours and several females often lay eggs sequentially in one nest, the risk of parasitic spawnings and egg predation overlaps in time during breeding activities. Hypothesizing that egg predators might influence the success of parasitic spawnings, we then simulated these natural conditions in a laboratory experiment with the presence or absence of egg predators, combined with the presence of sneaker males. As expected, in the egg predator treatment, egg-guarding males had to compromise between defence behaviours and thus had less time to devote to defence against sneaker males. Sneaker males took advantage of the situation and approached the nests more actively than in the predator-free treatment. However, the increase in approaches did not result in more successful parasitic fertilizations by sneaker males, as determined using microsatellite DNA. Nevertheless, in nature the adjustment of time budgets by the egg-guarding male are likely to have serious fitness consequences, both if the male fails to defend his paternity and if he fails to defend his offspring.

  • 13. Kvarnemo, C.
    et al.
    Svensson, Ola
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Forsgren, E.
    Parental behaviour in relation to food availability in the common goby1998In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 56, p. 1285-1290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the common goby, Pomatoschistus microps (Pisces, Gobiidae), males build nests under mussel shells where they care for the eggs until hatching. To investigate why male common gobies cannibalize their own eggs (filial cannibalism), we conducted a feeding experiment. Males given little food ate from their eggs more often than males given food in excess. However, males given mussel meat in excess did not eat more of their eggs than males fed with both mussel meat in excess and goby eggs. This may suggest that male common gobies cannibalize their eggs to obtain energy rather than essential nutrients lacking in other diets. Moreover, males ate their whole clutch if it was exceptionally small regardless of food treatment, suggesting that males stop investing in their clutch if its reproductive value is less;than the cost of guarding it. Thus, whole clutch cannibalism and partial clutch cannibalism seem to be governed by different factors. Furthermore, poorly built nests were associated with starved males, suggesting that nest concealing is costly. There was an association between how well the nest was built and partial clutch filial cannibalism, suggesting that the appearance of the nest may indicate the condition of the male, and thus the risk of filial cannibalism. (C) 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  • 14. Kvarnemo, C.
    et al.
    Svensson, Ola
    Department of Zoology, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Manson, W.
    Investment in testes, sperm-duct glands and lipid reserves differs between male morphs but not between early and late breeding season in Pomatoschistus minutus2010In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 76, no 7, p. 1609-1625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus, a nest-holding fish with paternal care, focused on gonadal investment among males of different sizes collected early and late in the breeding season. All males caught at the nest had breeding colour, whereas trawl-caught fish consisted of males both with and without colour. The absence or presence of breeding colour was a good predictor of testes investment. Compared to males with breeding colour, males without colour were smaller in body size but had extraordinarily large testes. In absolute terms, testes mass of males without breeding colour was on average 3.4 times greater than those of males with breeding colour. Since small colourless males are known to reproduce as sneaker males, this heavy investment in testes probably reflects that they are forced to spawn under sperm competition. Contrary to testes size, sperm-duct glands were largest among males with breeding colour. These glands produce mucins used for making sperm-containing mucous trails that males place in the nest before and during spawning. Since both sneakers and nest-holders potentially could benefit from having large glands, this result is intriguing. Yet, high mucus production may be more important for nest-holders, because it also protects developing embryos from infections. There was no significant effect of season on body size, testes or sperm-duct glands size, but colourless males tended to be less common late in the season. Possibly this may indicate that individual small colourless males develop into their more colourful counterparts within the breeding season. (C) 2010 The Authors Journal compilation (C) 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles

  • 15.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    et al.
    Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Green, Leon
    Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Ola
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindström, Kai
    Environmental and Marine Biology Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Schöld, Sofie
    Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Griful‐Dones, Martina
    Department of Biology and Environmental Sciences University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Biology University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Havenhand, Jonathan N.
    Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Marine Sciences University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Leder, Erica H.
    Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Marine Sciences University of Gothenburg Gothenburg Sweden;Department of Biology University of Turku Turku Finland;Natural History Museum University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Molecular, behavioural and morphological comparisons of sperm adaptations in a fish with alternative reproductive tactics2023In: Evolutionary Applications, E-ISSN 1752-4571, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 338-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In species with alternative reproductive tactics, there is much empirical support that parasitically spawning males have larger testes and greater sperm numbers as an evolved response to a higher degree of sperm competition, but support for higher sperm performance (motility, longevity and speed) by such males is inconsistent. We used the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus) to test whether sperm performance differed between breeding-coloured males (small testes, large mucus-filled sperm-duct glands; build nests lined with sperm-containing mucus, provide care) and parasitic sneaker-morph males (no breeding colouration, large testes, rudimentary sperm-duct glands; no nest, no care). We compared motility (per cent motile sperm), velocity, longevity of sperm, gene expression of testes and sperm morphometrics between the two morphs. We also tested if sperm-duct gland contents affected sperm performance. We found a clear difference in gene expression of testes between the male morphs with 109 transcripts differentially expressed between the morphs. Notably, several mucin genes were upregulated in breeding-coloured males and two ATP-related genes were upregulated in sneaker-morph males. There was a partial evidence of higher sperm velocity in sneaker-morph males, but no difference in sperm motility. Presence of sperm-duct gland contents significantly increased sperm velocity, and nonsignificantly tended to increase sperm motility, but equally so for the two morphs. The sand goby has remarkably long-lived sperm, with only small or no decline in motility and velocity over time (5 min vs. 22 h), but again, this was equally true for both morphs. Sperm length (head, flagella, total and flagella-to-head ratio) did not differ between morphs and did not correlate with sperm velocity for either morph. Thus, other than a clear difference in testes gene expression, we found only modest differences between the two male morphs, confirming previous findings that increased sperm performance as an adaptation to sperm competition is not a primary target of evolution. 

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    fulltext
  • 16.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Green, Leon
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Ola
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Lindström, Kail
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Schöld, Sofie
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Griful-Dones, Marina
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Havenhand, Jonathan N.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Leder, Erica
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fish ART & sperm performance2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In species with alternative reproductive tactics (ART), parasitically spawning males have larger testes and greater sperm numbers as an evolved response to a higher degree of sperm competition. But do they also have higher sperm performance? We used sand gobies to test if it differs between breeding-coloured and sneaker-morph males. We compared sperm motility, velocity, longevity, morphometrics and gene expression of testes between the two morphs. We found 109 transcripts differentially expressed between the morphs. Notably, several mucin genes were upregulated in breeding-coloured males and two ATP-related genes were upregulated in sneaker-morph males. There was partial evidence of higher sperm velocity in sneaker-morph males, but no difference in sperm motility. Sand gobies have remarkably long-lived sperm, with almost no decline in motility and velocity over 22 hours, but again, this was equally true for both morphs. Sperm length did not differ between morphs and did not correlate with sperm velocity for either morph. Thus, other than a clear difference in testes gene expression, we found only modest differences between the two male morphs, confirming previous findings that increased sperm performance as an adaptation to sperm competition does not appear to be a primary target of evolution.

  • 17.
    Leder, Erica H.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Le Moan, Alan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Töpel, Mats
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Anders
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Havenhand, Jonathan N.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindström, Kai
    Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Volckaert, Filip A. M.
    KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Kvarnemo, Lotta
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson,
    Data from: Post‐glacial establishment of locally adapted fish populations over a steep salinity gradient2020Data set
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of colonization of new habitats that appear from rapidly changing environments are interesting and highly relevant to our understanding of divergence and speciation. Here, we analyse phenotypic and genetic variation involved in the successful establishment of a marine fish (sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus) over a steep salinity drop from 35 PSU in the North Sea (NE Atlantic) to two PSU in the inner parts of the post-glacial Baltic Sea. We first show that populations are adapted to local salinity in a key reproductive trait, the proportion of motile sperm. Thereafter, we show that genome variation at 22,190 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shows strong differentiation among populations along the gradient. Sequences containing outlier SNPs and transcriptome sequences, mapped to a draft genome, reveal associations with genes with relevant functions for adaptation in this environment but without overall evidence of functional enrichment. The many contigs involved suggest polygenic differentiation. We trace the origin of this differentiation using demographic modelling and find the most likely scenario is that at least part of the genetic differentiation is older than the Baltic Sea and is a result of isolation of two lineages prior to the current contact over the North Sea–Baltic Sea transition zone.

  • 18.
    Leder, Erica H.
    et al.
    Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    André, Carl
    Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Le Moan, Alan
    Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Töpel, Mats
    Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Havenhand, Jonathan N.
    Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindström, Kai
    Environmental and Marine Biology, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Folckaert, Filip A. M.
    Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Kerstin
    Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Ola
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Post‐glacial establishment of locally adapted fish populations over a steep salinity gradient2021In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 138-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of colonization of new habitats that appear from rapidly changing environments are interesting and highly relevant to our understanding of divergence and speciation. Here, we analyse phenotypic and genetic variation involved in the successful establishment of a marine fish (sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus ) over a steep salinity drop from 35 PSU in the North Sea (NE Atlantic) to two PSU in the inner parts of the post‐glacial Baltic Sea. We first show that populations are adapted to local salinity in a key reproductive trait, the proportion of motile sperm. Thereafter, we show that genome variation at 22,190 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shows strong differentiation among populations along the gradient. Sequences containing outlier SNPs and transcriptome sequences, mapped to a draft genome, reveal associations with genes with relevant functions for adaptation in this environment but without overall evidence of functional enrichment. The many contigs involved suggest polygenic differentiation. We trace the origin of this differentiation using demographic modelling and find the most likely scenario is that at least part of the genetic differentiation is older than the Baltic Sea and is a result of isolation of two lineages prior to the current contact over the North Sea–Baltic Sea transition zone.

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    Leder et al., 2020
  • 19.
    Lindsay, Willow R.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Andersson, Staffan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bererhi, Badreddine
    University of Gothenburg.
    Höglund, Jacob
    Uppsala University.
    Johnsen, Arild
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    University of Gothenburg.
    Leder, Erica H.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Lifjeld, Jan T.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Ninnes, Calum E.
    University of Gothenburg / University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
    Olsson, Mats
    University of Gothenburg.
    Parker, Geoff A.
    University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
    Pizzari, Tommaso
    University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
    Qvarnstrom, Anna
    Uppsala University.
    Safran, Rebecca J.
    Univrsity of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA.
    Svensson, Ola
    Södertörns högskola, Matematikens didaktik.
    Edwards, Scott, V
    Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA / Chalmers University of Technology.
    Endless forms of sexual selection2019In: PeerJ, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 7, article id e7988Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the field of sexual selection has exploded, with advances in theoretical and empirical research complementing each other in exciting ways. This perspective piece is the product of a "stock-taking'' workshop on sexual selection and sexual conflict. Our aim is to identify and deliberate on outstanding questions and to stimulate discussion rather than provide a comprehensive overview of the entire field. These questions are organized into four thematic sections we deem essential to the field. First we focus on the evolution of mate choice and mating systems. Variation in mate quality can generate both competition and choice in the opposite sex, with implications for the evolution of mating systems. Limitations on mate choice may dictate the importance of direct vs. indirect benefits in mating decisions and consequently, mating systems, especially with regard to polyandry. Second, we focus on how sender and receiver mechanisms shape signal design. Mediation of honest signal content likely depends on integration of temporally variable social and physiological costs that are challenging to measure. We view the neuroethology of sensory and cognitive receiver biases as the main key to signal form and the 'aesthetic sense' proposed by Darwin. Since a receiver bias is sufficient to both initiate and drive ornament or armament exaggeration, without a genetically correlated or even coevolving receiver, this may be the appropriate 'null model' of sexual selection. Thirdly, we focus on the genetic architecture of sexually selected traits. Despite advances in modern molecular techniques, the number and identity of genes underlying performance, display and secondary sexual traits remains largely unknown. In-depth investigations into the genetic basis of sexual dimorphism in the context of long-term field studies will reveal constraints and trajectories of sexually selected trait evolution. Finally, we focus on sexual selection and conflict as drivers of speciation. Population divergence and speciation are often influenced by an interplay between sexual and natural selection. The extent to which sexual selection promotes or counteracts population divergence may vary depending on the genetic architecture of traits as well as the covariance between mating competition and local adaptation. Additionally, post-copulatory processes, such as selection against heterospecific sperm, may influence the importance of sexual selection in speciation. We propose that efforts to resolve these four themes can catalyze conceptual progress in the field of sexual selection, and we offer potential avenues of research to advance this progress.

  • 20.
    Lindström, Kai
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University,.
    Havenhand, Jonathan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Leder, Erica
    University of Gothenburg.
    Schöld, Sofie
    University of Gothenburg.
    Svensson, Ola
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sperm adaptation in relation to salinity in three goby species2021In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In externally fertilizing species, the gametes of both males and females are exposed to the influences of the environment into which they are released. Sperm are sensitive to abiotic factors such as salinity, but they are also affected by biotic factors such as sperm competition. In this study, the authors compared the performance of sperm of three goby species, the painted goby, Pomatoschistus pictus, the two-spotted goby, Pomatoschistus flavescens, and the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus. These species differ in their distributions, with painted goby having the narrowest salinity range and sand goby the widest. Moreover, data from paternity show that the two-spotted goby experiences the least sperm competition, whereas in the sand goby sperm competition is ubiquitous. The authors took sperm samples from dissected males and exposed them to high salinity water (31 PSU) representing the North Sea and low salinity water (6 PSU) representing the brackish Baltic Sea Proper. They then used computer-assisted sperm analysis to measure the proportion of motile sperm and sperm swimming speed 10 min and 20 h after sperm activation. The authors found that sperm performance depended on salinity, but there seemed to be no relationship to the species' geographical distribution in relation to salinity range. The species differed in the proportion of motile sperm, but there was no significant decrease in sperm motility during 20 h. The sand goby was the only species with motile sperm after 72 h.

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    Lindström et al 2021 Sperm adaptation in 3 gobies
  • 21. Lissaker, M.
    et al.
    Kvarnemo, C.
    Svensson, Ola
    University of Gothenburg.
    Effects of a low oxygen environment on parental effort and filial cannibalism in the male sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus2003In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 374-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In fish, brood cycling parental males sometimes eat some or all of their eggs, a behavior termed filial cannibalism. We tested predictions of filial cannibalism models related to the cost of parental care in the male sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus, by increasing the parental effort (fanning expenditure) through reduced levels of dissolved oxygen to 39% in an experimental group, whereas a control group had fully saturated water. Males showed both full-clutch cannibalism and partial-clutch cannibalism in both treatments. Giving the males one to three females to spawn with, we found that small clutches were completely eaten more often than were larger ones, whereas partial-clutch cannibalism was not affected by clutch size. Although treatment did not affect filial cannibalism, it did affect a male's energy state such that males in the low oxygen treatment lost more body fat, indicating a greater fanning effort. This shows that males in the low oxygen treatment allocated more energy to the present brood, potentially at the expense of future reproductive success. Our study strongly suggests that filial cannibalism in male sand gobies represents a strategic life-history decision as an investment in future reproductive success, and is not triggered by a proximate need for food necessary for the male's own survival. Furthermore, males in the low oxygen treatment built nests with larger entrances, and were less likely to rebuild their nests after destruction. Presumably, this makes fanning easier but the nest more vulnerable to predators, suggesting a trade-off between fanning and nest defense.

  • 22. Lissaker, Maria
    et al.
    Svensson, Ola
    Department of Zoology, University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 463, Gothenburg 405 30, Sweden.
    Cannibalize or care? The role of perceived paternity in the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus2008In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 62, no 9, p. 1467-1475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parental care is a costly part of reproduction. Hence, natural selection should favor males which avoid caring for unrelated young. However, the decision to abandon or reduce care requires cues which are evaluated to give information on potential reproductive value of the offspring. The prediction that male sand gobies, Pomatoschistus minutus, care for foreign eggs as long as they were spawned in their own nest and at least some of such cues are fulfilled was tested. Egg-guarding males that had recently taken part in a spawning event were given a clutch of eggs that was sired either by themselves or another male, in either their own or another male's aquarium. Males that had not taken part in a spawning event were used as controls and were given eggs sired by another male. We measured the amount of filial cannibalism and nest building. Control group males did not care for eggs and ate them all before rebuilding the nest. In the other treatments, there were no significant effects of paternity, though males moved to another male's aquarium increased their clutch area threshold and completely consumed larger clutches than males that were not moved. There was no intermediate response in any treatment in the form of increased partial filial cannibalism or less well-constructed nests. Our results suggest that egg-guarding males cannot distinguish between eggs sired by themselves and those sired by other males but are able to react to cues indicating paternity state. Males do not adopt eggs to attract females in P. minutus.

  • 23. Nyman, A.
    et al.
    Kvarnemo, C.
    Svensson, Ola
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The capacity for additional matings does not affect male mating competition in the sand goby2006In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 71, p. 865-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models of sexual selection predict that mating competition within a population will increase with a biased operational sex ratio (OSR). However, these models do not consider any influence of the individuals' capacity for additional matings. Using the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus, we tested whether intensity of mating competition (measured as the fraction of time spent displaying) is influenced by a male's imminent capacity for additional matings (nest capacity, i.e. additional space available for egg laying in the nest). We manipulated nest size and number of females (zero to three) allowed to spawn in each male's nest, and then used display rate to estimate the male's intensity of mating competition. The nests were never filled completely, but always had room for eggs from at least one more mating. We found no significant difference in display rate between males with large or small nests, whether nest size was measured as nest capacity or area already covered by eggs. In fact, males with many eggs in their nests displayed as much as males with empty nests. However, male display decreased significantly with time. As male display behaviour was not influenced by whether the nest was empty or was partially filled, the number of males and females ready to mate (i.e. the OSR) provides a good estimate of the intensity of male mating competition. Nevertheless, many other species may adjust mating competition to their capacity for additional matings, which may thus influence the accuracy of OSR-based estimates of mating competition and sexual selection. (c) 2006 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 24.
    Olsson, Karin H
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Johansson, Sandra
    University of Gothenburg.
    Blom, Eva-Lotta
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lindström, Kai
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Svensson, Ola
    University of Gothenburg.
    Nilsson Sköld, Helen
    University of Gothenburg.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    University of Gothenburg.
    Dark eyes in female sand gobies indicate readiness to spawn2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, article id e0177714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In animals, colorful and conspicuous ornaments enhance individual attractiveness to potential mates, but are typically tempered by natural selection for crypsis and predator protection. In species where males compete for females, this can lead to highly ornamented males competing for mating opportunities with choosy females, and vice versa. However, even where males compete for mating opportunities, females may exhibit conspicuous displays. These female displays are often poorly understood and it may be unclear whether they declare mating intent, signal intrasexual aggression or form a target for male mate preference. We examined the function of the conspicuous dark eyes that female sand gobies temporarily display during courtship by experimentally testing if males preferred to associate with females with artificially darkened eyes and if dark eyes are displayed during female aggression. By observing interactions between a male and two females freely associating in an aquarium we also investigated in which context females naturally displayed dark eyes. We found that dark eyes were more likely to be displayed by more gravid females than less gravid females and possibly ahead of spawning, but that males did not respond behaviorally to dark eyes or prefer dark-eyed females. Females behaving aggressively did not display dark eyes. We suggest that dark eyes are not a signal per se but may be an aspect of female mate choice, possibly related to vision.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 25. Olsson, Karin H.
    et al.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Svensson, Ola
    Department of Zoology, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Relative costs of courtship behaviours in nest-building sand gobies2009In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 541-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Courting males often use multiple signals to advertise their quality to females. Assuming that courtship traits are energetically costly, one would expect a limit to the overall courtship effort of an individual and that a high courtship effort takes its toll on individual condition. We tested this experimentally using a small marine fish, the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus, whose males attract females through courtship displays and well-built nests (mussel shells covered with sand). At the end of a 5-day period of supplemental food, or repeatedly induced courtship or construction of nests (or none of these, as a control), we tested whether male display intensity, nest quality (nest cover and nest opening size) and body condition were affected. Males provided with food in excess were in significantly better condition and had significantly higher nest quality than control males. Display rate, however, was not significantly affected by feeding regime. Fish that had been manipulated to perform increased courtship or nest building did not suffer in terms of reduced condition, display rate or nest quality. However, individual fish that displayed intensely after treatment also built better-covered nests. Both of these traits are important in female choice. Moreover, fish that displayed intensely before the treatment continued to do so after treatment, a result that is compatible with signalling of genetic or phenotypic quality. Our results suggest that (1) nest cover is an honest signal of male condition, although we found no cost of nest building per se and (2) courtship display does not signal male condition. (C) 2008 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 26. Pedroso, Silvia S.
    et al.
    Barber, Iain
    Svensson, Ola
    Department Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenbur.
    Fonseca, Paulo J.
    Amorim, Maria Clara P.
    Courtship Sounds Advertise Species Identity and Male Quality in Sympatric Pomatoschistus spp. Gobies2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acoustic signals can encode crucial information about species identity and individual quality. We recorded and compared male courtship drum sounds of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus and the painted goby P. pictus and examined if they can function in species recognition within sympatric populations. We also examined which acoustic features are related to male quality and the factors that affect female courtship in the sand goby, to determine whether vocalisations potentially play a role in mate assessment. Drums produced by the painted goby showed significantly higher dominant frequencies, higher sound pulse repetition rates and longer intervals between sounds than those of the sand goby. In the sand goby, male quality was predicted by visual and acoustic courtship signals. Regression analyses showed that sound amplitude was a good predictor of male length, whereas the duration of nest behaviour and active calling rate (i.e. excluding silent periods) were good predictors of male condition factor and fat reserves respectively. In addition, the level of female courtship was predicted by male nest behaviour. The results suggest that the frequency and temporal patterns of sounds can encode species identity, whereas sound amplitude and calling activity reflects male size and fat reserves. Visual courtship duration (nest-related behaviour) also seems relevant to mate choice, since it reflects male condition and is related to female courtship. Our work suggests that acoustic communication can contribute to mate choice in the sand goby group, and invites further study.

  • 27. Singer, A.
    et al.
    Kvarnemo, C.
    Lindstrom, K.
    Svensson, Ola
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Genetic mating patterns studied in pools with manipulated nest site availability in two populations of Pomatoschistus minutus2006In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 1641-1650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pomatoschistus minutus show paternal care in a resource defence mating system. We investigated the effect of nest-site availability on parasitic spawning. Each experimental pool contained four potentially nest-building males, four females and nests-sites in shortage (2) or excess (6). Both treatments were conducted in two populations; one with natural nest-sites in excess, one with a nest-site shortage. Microsatellite-DNA revealed that all nest-holders had fertilized most of the eggs they tended. Yet, 35% of the nests contained eggs fertilized by another male and 14.4% of the males had performed parasitic spawning. There was no site or treatment effect. Several females spawned in two nests, which coincided with parasitic spawnings, suggesting a cost to the nest-holder in terms of lost mating success. Nest-holders with and without eggs and non-nesting males all spawned parasitically, generating a significantly lower opportunity for sexual selection compared to if there had been no parasitic spawning.

  • 28.
    Svensson, Ola
    Södertörns högskola, Matematikens didaktik.
    Bokrecension: Field Guide to the Fishes of the Amazon, Orinoco, and Guianas2018In: Ciklidbladet, ISSN 0349-2362, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 50-51Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En bok med alla 564 fisksläkten från ”Storamazonas” det vill sägaAmazonas, Orinoco och kustfloderna i Guayana, Surinam och FranskaGuyana verkar onekligen lovande. Frågan är vad den har atterbjuda en akvarist.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 29.
    Svensson, Ola
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Referenser och referenslistor2021In: Ciklidbladet, ISSN 0349-2362, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 14-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Som ni säkert har sett finns det en litteraturlista i slutet av en del artiklar i Ciklidbladet. Vi kallar denna lista för Referenser. Jag tänkte i den här texten förklara vad en referens är och hur en referenslista skiljer sig från en lista med litteratur samt vad som krävs för att en referens ska tas med i referenslistan. Sedan 2021 är dessutom listan formaterad enligt APA-stilen. APA står för American Psychological Association som ger ut flera vetenskapliga tidskrifter. APA-stilen är en formatering enligt Harvardsystemet där författare och årtal skrivs ut i texten och referenslistan i bokstavsordning kommer sist i texten. Slutligen kommer jag avsluta med hur det går att hitta dessa artiklar.

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    fulltext
  • 30.
    Svensson, Ola
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, miljö och teknik.
    Vetenskapskrönikan2017In: Ciklidbladet, ISSN 0349-2362, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 50-51Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här numret skriver jag om lite olika ciklider från olika delar av Amerika och Afrika. Det handlar om ciklider som kissar, slåss och bildar nya arter nästan medan vi tittar på dem.

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  • 31.
    Svensson, Ola
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Vetenskapsårskrönikan 2020 – Varifrån kommer cikliderna?2020In: Ciklidbladet, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 26-28Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I Warilsjön fanns en liten artflock av haplochromina ciklider i släktet Baringochromis. Där fanns även Warilochromis – rovciklider släkt med Pseudocrenilabrus – och Tugenchromis som hörde till Tanganyikasjöns artflock.

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  • 32.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    Evolutionary Biology Group, Biological Sciences, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX, UK.
    Egger, Bernd
    Gricar, Boye
    Woodhouse, Katie
    van Oosterhout, Cock
    Salzburger, Walter
    Seehausen, Ole
    Turner, George F.
    Segregation of species-specific male attractiveness in f(2) hybrid lake Malawi cichlid fish2011In: International journal of evolutionary biology, Vol. 2011, p. 426179-426179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among the huge radiations of haplochromine cichlid fish in Lakes Malawi and Victoria, closely related species are often reproductively isolated via female mate choice although viable fertile hybrids can be produced when females are confined only with heterospecific males. We generated F(2) hybrid males from a cross between a pair of closely related sympatric cichlid fish from Lake Malawi. Laboratory mate choice experiments using microsatellite paternity analysis demonstrated that F(2) hybrid males differed significantly in their attractiveness to females of the two parental species, indicating heritable variation in traits involved in mate choice that may contribute to reproductive isolation between these species. We found no significant correlation between male mating success and any measurement of male colour pattern. A simple quantitative genetic model of reproductive isolation suggests that there may be as few as two chromosomal regions controlling species-specific attractiveness. We propose that adaptive radiation of Lake Malawi cichlids could be facilitated by the presence of genes with major effects on mate choice and reproductive isolation.

  • 33.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Forsgren, E.
    Male mating success in relation to food availability in the common goby2003In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 62, no 5, p. 1217-1221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a feeding experiment with the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, there was no female preference for well-fed males, although these males had a higher mating success. This suggests that care should be taken about drawing conclusions regarding mate choice and mating success based on mate preference tests alone. (C) 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  • 34.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Matematikens didaktik.
    Gräns, Johanna
    University of Gothenburg.
    Celander, Malin C
    University of Gothenburg.
    Havenhand, Jonathan
    University of Gothenburg.
    Leder, Erica H
    University of Gothenburg / University of Turku, Turun yliopisto, Finland.
    Lindström, Kai
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Schöld, Sofie
    University of Gothenburg / Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    van Oosterhout, Cock
    University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    University of Gothenburg.
    Immigrant reproductive dysfunction facilitates ecological speciation2017In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 71, no 10, p. 2510-2521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distributions of species are not only determined by where they can survive - they must also be able to reproduce. Although immigrant inviability is a well-established concept, the fact that immigrants also need to be able to effectively reproduce in foreign environments has not been fully appreciated in the study of adaptive divergence and speciation. Fertilization and reproduction are sensitive life history stages that could be detrimentally affected for immigrants in non-native habitats. We propose that 'immigrant reproductive dysfunction' is a hitherto overlooked aspect of reproductive isolation caused by natural selection on immigrants. This idea is supported by results from experiments on an externally fertilizing fish (sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus). Growth and condition of adults were not affected by non-native salinity whereas males spawning as immigrants had lower sperm motility and hatching success than residents. We interpret these results as evidence for local adaptation or acclimation of sperm, and possibly also components of paternal care. The resulting loss in fitness, which we call 'immigrant reproductive dysfunction', has the potential to reduce gene flow between populations with locally adapted reproduction, and it may play a role in species distributions and speciation.

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  • 35.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kvarnemo, C.
    Sexually selected nest-building - Pomatoschistus minutus males build smaller nest-openings in the presence of sneaker males2003In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 896-902Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both natural selection and sexual selection may act on nest-building. We tested experimentally how different regimes of egg-predation and male-male competition influence nest-building before mating, using the marine fish sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus. Males with sneaker males present built the smallest nest-openings, smaller than males held alone or with Pomatoschistus microps males (which may predate eggs and compete over nest-sites but not compete over fertilizations). Males with visual access to other nest-building males tended also to build smaller openings than males held alone or with P. microps. Males with egg-predators present built nests with openings not differing significantly from any other treatment. Our results indicate that the small nest-openings found in the sneaker male treatment are sexually selected through protection against sneaking or by female choice. Across treatments, time span before a male started to build his nest also explained variation in nest-opening width; males starting late built larger nest-openings.

  • 36.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kvarnemo, C.
    The importance of sperm competition risk and nest appearance for male behavior and female choice in the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus2005In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 16, no 6, p. 1042-1048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To test if an increased sperm competition risk affects male behavior and mating decisions of both sexes, we performed two experiments using the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus, a nest-building fish with exclusive paternal care. In our first experiment, a nest-holding male, with a confined female, was sequentially exposed to a vial with a sneaker male or an empty vial. While male courtship, nest building, displacement fanning, and time outside the nest were unaffected, individual males showed a higher mucus preparation effort inside the nest in the presence of a sneaker male than when alone. We found such mucus to contain sperm, thus clearly suggesting an importance in sperm competition. In our second experiment, a female was free to spawn with two different males, one of which was exposed to a confined sneaker male. Male mating success was not affected by the presence of a sneaker male. However, the volume of sand the male had put on his nest was positively associated with female spawning decision, while nest-opening width was not. In a partial correlation of five traits thought to attract females (nest-opening width, sand volume, male courtship display, displacement fanning, and male size), males that fanned well were found to also build large nests or display intensely, but not both. This indicates that rather than being jacks-of-all-trades, individual males focus on a subset of traits for attracting females.

  • 37.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden;University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    How sexual and natural selection interact and shape the evolution of nests and nesting behaviour in fishes2023In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 378, no 1884Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among ray-finned fishes that provide parental care, many spawn in constructed nests, ranging from bowls, burrows and ridges to nests made of algae or bubbles. Because a nest by definition is a construction that enhances the nest-builder's fitness by helping it meet the needs of the developing offspring, nest-building behaviour is naturally selected, as is a preference for spawning with mates that provide well-built nests. However, nest-building behaviour can also be sexually selected, when nest traits increase mating success, protect against sperm competition or nest take-overs by conspecifics. Here, we offer a systematic review, with examples of how competition for sites and location of fish nests relates to sexual selection. We examine direct and indirect benefits of mate choice linked to nest traits, and different types of nests, from a sexual selection perspective. Nest-related behaviours are often under both natural and sexual selection, and we disentangle examples where that is the case, with special attention to females. We highlight some taxa in which nest building is likely to be sexually selected, but lack of research has left them uninvestigated. Some of them are established aquarium species, making them particularly amenable for future research. Finally, we compare with arthropods, amphibians and birds.

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  • 38.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Parasitic spawning in sand gobies: an experimental assessment of nest-opening size, sneaker male cues, paternity, and filial cannibalism2007In: Behavioral Ecology, ISSN 1045-2249, E-ISSN 1465-7279, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 410-419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sneaking is common in nest-building fish with paternal care, but the role of nest-opening size in protecting against entry by sneaker males has never been tested before. Using the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a fish with exclusive paternal care, experimental manipulations of nest openings provided no support for the hypothesis that nest openings serve as physical or visual defense or that sneaker males prefer to parasitize nests with wide openings. Female mating preference was also not influenced by nest-opening size. However, female courtship behavior and visibility were important cues for sneaker males. Most sneak entries occurred when the nest holder was occupied with courtship, chasing another sneaker male or nest building. In half the cases of observed sneak entry, the sneaker male fertilized eggs, also when sneaking only occurred before spawning. Sneak entry and its duration were good estimates of stolen paternity, but neither sneak entries nor degree of fertilizations were correlated with filial cannibalistic behavior. Testes size did not explain parasitic spawning success in replicates with genetically determined sneaking. However, all sneaker males without breeding coloration had huge testes and small sperm duct glands, whereas nest-holding males had small testes and large sperm duct glands, and sneaker males with breeding coloration were intermediate.

  • 39.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Supplementary material from "How sexual and natural selection interact and shape the evolution of nests and nesting behaviour in fishes"2023Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among ray-finned fishes that provide parental care, many spawn in constructed nests, ranging from bowls, burrows and ridges to nests made of algae or bubbles. Because a nest by definition is a construction that enhances the nest-builder's fitness by helping it meet the needs of the developing offspring, nest-building behaviour is naturally selected, as is a preference for spawning with mates that provide well-built nests. However, nest-building behaviour can also be sexually selected, when nest traits increase mating success, protect against sperm competition or nest take-overs by conspecifics. Here, we offer a systematic review, with examples of how competition for sites and location of fish nests relates to sexual selection. We examine direct and indirect benefits of mate choice linked to nest traits, and different types of nests, from a sexual selection perspective. Nest-related behaviours are often under both natural and sexual selection, and we disentangle examples where that is the case, with special attention to females. We highlight some taxa in which nest building is likely to be sexually selected, but lack of research has left them uninvestigated. Some of them are established aquarium species, making them particularly amenable for future research. Finally, we compare with arthropods, amphibians and birds.This article is part of the theme issue ‘The evolutionary ecology of nests: a cross-taxon approach’.

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  • 40.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Högskolan i Borås.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Amorim, M. Clara
    ISPA-Instituto Universitário, Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal,.
    Blom, Eva-Lotta
    Department of Aquatic Resources, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sand goby females do not spawn with silent males - but do males sing out their condition and can female hear the song in a noisy environment?2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Males of sand gobies (Pomatoschistus spp.) spawn in shallow water and produce a courtship sound to entice females to spawn. Previous work on field-caught males shows that courtship sounds differ between males of different body condition and between species suggesting that females use acoustic information in mate choice. Here, we manipulated male body condition via feeding regimes and measured courtship and subsequent spawning decisions. Although male condition measured as lipid content differed significantly between feeding regimes, neither male visual courtship, acoustic courtship nor spawning success were affected. However, comparing the lipid content of the experimental males to field-caught males show that in nature, males are of similar condition to males in the low condition treatment group. Acoustic signals might be masked by anthropogenic noise. Thus, to test if noise may affect spawning success we exposed courting males to experimental noise, resembling boat noise. We found that females only spawned with males that produced courtship sounds and significantly less often when exposed to noise. We conclude that the information content of male courtship sound and how it relates to male condition remains elusive, but that acoustic courtship is essential for mating success, making sand gobies potentially vulnerable to noise pollution. These results will be discussed in the light of preliminary data from a field experiment using the same noise set-up where male mating success was unaffected by treatment, and a pond experiment where variation in male mating success was affected by low levels of playback noise.

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  • 41.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Leder, Erica
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindström, Kai
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Behavioural and genomic analyses of locally adapted sand goby populations over a steep salinity gradient2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of colonization of new habitats appearing from rapidly changing environments increase our understanding of populations’ potential to cope with environmental changes. Here, we analyse behavioural, phenotypic and genetic variation involved in the successful establishment of the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus, over a steep salinity drop from 35 PSU in the North Sea (NE Atlantic) to two PSU in the inner parts of the post-glacial Baltic Sea. We show e.g. that populations are adapted to local salinity in a key reproductive trait, the proportion of motile sperm, which in itself may result in reproductive isolation caused by natural selection on immigrants. Genome variation shows strong differentiation among populations along the gradient. Sand gobies in the current Baltic Sea lineage is adapted to the low salinity in traits related to osmoregulation and reproduction, but also to both abiotic and biotic environmental factors correlated to salinity evident in traits such as vision and immune function. The salinity-biotic factors correlation is omnipresent in behavioral studies. Many loci also appear to be involved in these traits, but the specific functional mechanism (e.g., coding sequence, regulatory loci) remains to be clarified. We conclude that the first steps on the speciation continuum trajectory have been taken.

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  • 42.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Leder, Erica
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindström, Kai
    Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Kvarnemo, Charlotta
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Post-glacial establishment of locally adapted sand goby populations over a steep salinity gradient2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of colonization of new habitats that appear from rapidly changing environments are interesting and highly relevant to our understanding of divergence and speciation. Here, we analyse phenotypic and genetic variation involved in the successful establishment of a marine fish (sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus) over a steep salinity drop from 35 PSU in the North Sea (NE Atlantic) to two PSU in the inner parts of the post-glacial Baltic Sea. We first show that populations are adapted to local salinity in a key reproductive trait, the proportion of motile sperm, which in itself may result in reproductive isolation caused by natural selection on immigrants. Thereafter, we show that genome variation at 22,190 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shows strong differentiation among populations along the gradient. Sequences containing outlier SNPs and transcriptome sequences, mapped to a draft genome, reveal associations with genes with relevant functions for adaptation in this environment.

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  • 43.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, University of Gothenburg, Box 463, SE-405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lissaker, Maria
    Mobley, Kenyon B.
    Offspring recognition and the influence of clutch size on nest fostering among male sand gobies, Pomatoschistus minutus2010In: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, ISSN 0340-5443, E-ISSN 1432-0762, Vol. 64, no 8, p. 1325-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When parental care is costly, parents should avoid caring for unrelated young. Therefore, it is an advantage to discriminate between related and unrelated offspring so that parents can make informed decisions about parental care. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that male sand gobies (Pomatoschistus minutus) recognize and differentially care for their own offspring when given a choice between a nest with sired eggs and a second nest with eggs sired by an unrelated male. The sand goby is a species with exclusive and costly paternal care. Male parasitic spawnings (e.g., sneaking) as well as nest takeovers by other males are common. Our results show that nests containing sired eggs were preferred and received significantly more care, as measured by nest building and nest occupancy, than nests with foreign eggs even when males cared for both nests. These findings suggest that males respond to paternity cues and recognize their own clutches. Relative clutch size also had a significant effect on male parental care. When sired clutches were larger than foreign clutches, males preferred to care for their own nest. In the few cases where males chose to take care of foreign nests, the foreign clutch was larger than their own clutch. Taken together, our results provide evidence that both paternity cues and clutch size influence parenting decisions among male sand gobies.

  • 44.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Zoology, Uppsala University, Villavägen 9, S-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Magnhagen, C.
    Forsgren, E.
    Kvarnemo, C.
    Parental behaviour in relation to the occurrence of sneaking in the common goby1998In: Animal Behaviour, ISSN 0003-3472, E-ISSN 1095-8282, Vol. 56, p. 175-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate whether male common gobies, Pomatoschistus microps (Pisces, Gobiidae), treat their offspring differently depending on confidence of paternity, we conducted an experiment in which randomly chosen males either spawned alone with a female, or with a sneaking male present. Males did not treat their brood differently whether they had experienced sneaking or not. Our estimates of parental care, nest defence against potential egg predators and fanning rate were the same for the two treatments. Furthermore, there was no difference in filial cannibalism (eating their own progeny) between males that had been sneaked upon and males that had not. However, nest-guarding males that ate some of their brood had a smaller original brood area than other males. This suggests either an increase in paternal expenditure with increased brood size or a threshold value (absolute brood size or proportion of nest space covered) above which males do not cannibalize eggs. (C) 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  • 45.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Nyman, A.
    Kvarnemo, C.
    Costly courtship or dishonest display? Intensely displaying sand goby males have lower lipid content2004In: Journal of Fish Biology, ISSN 0022-1112, E-ISSN 1095-8649, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 1425-1429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensely displaying sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus males had lower lipid content, indicating that signalling increased energy expenditure, or that low condition males increased their signalling effort. Display intensity correlated positively with nest-defence and tended to correlate positively with filial cannibalism. (C) 2004 The Fisheries society of the British Isles.

  • 46.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    School of Biological, Biomedical and Environmental Sciences, University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom.
    Smith, Alan
    Garcia-Alonso, Javier
    van Oosterhout, Cock
    Hybridization generates a hopeful monster: a hermaphroditic selfing cichlid2016In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 3, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared with other phylogenetic groups, self-fertilization (selfing) is exceedingly rare in vertebrates and is known to occur only in one small clade of fishes. Here we report observing one F-1-hybrid individual that developed into a functional hermaphrodite after crossing two closely-related sexually reproducing species of cichlids. Microsatellite alleles segregated consistent with selfing and Mendelian inheritance and we could rule out different modes of parthenogenesis including automixis. We discuss why selfing is not more commonly observed in vertebrates in nature, and the role of hybridization in the evolution of novel traits.

  • 47.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. The Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Woodhouse, Katie
    Department of Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of Hull , Hull , United Kingdom.
    Smith, Alan
    Department of Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of Hull , Hull , United Kingdom.
    Seehausen, Ole
    Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Center for Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, Eawag—Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology , Kastanienbaum , Switzerland;Division of Aquatic Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland..
    Turner, George F
    School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Bangor University , Bangor , United Kingdom.
    Data from: Sympatry and parapatry among rocky reef cichlids of Lake Victoria explained by female mating preferences [Dataset]2024Data set
    Abstract [en]

    Work on the Lake Victoria cichlids Pundamilia nyererei (red dorsum males, deeper water), Pundamilia pundamilia (blue males, shallower water) and related species pairs has provided insights into processes of speciation. Here, we investigate female mating behaviour of five Pundamilia species and four of their F1-hybrids through mate choice trials and paternity testing. We discuss the results in the context of the geography of speciation and coexistence. Complete assortative mating was observed among all sympatric species. Parapatric species with similar depth habitat distributions interbred whereas other parapatric and allopatric species showed complete assortative mating. F1-hybrids mated exclusively with species accepted by females of the parental species. Although consistent with reinforcement in sympatry, a closer look at our results suggests otherwise and it is more likely that pre-existing female preferences influence which taxa can co-exist in sympatry. Regardless of the mechanism, mating preferences may influence species distribution in potentially hybridizing taxa, such as in the adaptive radiations of cichlid fish. We suggest that this at least partly explains why some species fail to establish breeding populations in locations where they are occasionally recorded. Our result support the notion that mating preferences of potentially cross-breeding species ought to be included in coexistence theory.

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  • 48.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Woodhouse, Katie
    Department of Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of Hull , Hull , United Kingdom.
    Smith, Alan
    Department of Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of Hull , Hull , United Kingdom.
    Seehausen, Ole
    Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Center for Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, Eawag—Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland;Division of Aquatic Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Turner, George F
    School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom.
    Supporting information about Pundamilia azurea, Pundamilia igneopinnis, Pundamilia nyererei, Pundamilia pundamilia and Pundamilia sp. ‘red head’: Supplementary Material S12023Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among all known Lake Victoria haplochromines, females alone brood the eggs and fry in their mouths, occasional exceptions in the lab notwithstanding (Seehausen 1996). Free-swimming fry are guarded for a few days (Seehausen, 1996). Long-term pair bonds are unknown, and the offspring of a single clutch may be sired by multiple males (Svensson et al., 2017). Females are generally more cryptic, whereas males are larger, more conspicuous and aggressively territorial (Seehausen, 1996). The males have bright nuptial colouration of either one of three patterns that are widespread among Lake Victoria cichlid species and referred to as ‘blue’, ‘red dorsum’ or ‘red chest’ (Seehausen et al., 1998; Seehausen and van Alphen, 1999), each of which also exists in melanic forms where the underlying colour pattern can be largely disguised. Among rocky shore cichlids, these different colour pattern groups are associated with different habitats: ‘blue’ and ‘red chest’ males breed in shallow water over gently sloping substrate, ‘red dorsum’ males breed in similar habitats but deeper, and melanic forms breed even deeper or at steeply dropping rock faces (Seehausen, 1996). The five species of the present study belong to a complex of more than 20 congeneric taxa (Seehausen, 1996; Seehausen et al., 1998). They originate from south-eastern Lake Victoria (Tanzania) around islands in the Speke Gulf; Igombe Island, Makobe Island, Ruti Island, Zue Island, not further apart than 50km (Figure 1). All have similar ecology, inhabiting rocky shores and reefs and feeding largely on plankton and benthic invertebrates (Bouton et al., 1997; Maan et al., 2008; Seehausen, 1996; Seehausen et al., 1998). Their phylogenetic relationships are complicated and characterized by lineage fusion through admixture and lineage fission through speciation (Meier et al., in press).

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  • 49.
    Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT. The Linnaeus Centre for Marine Evolutionary Biology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Woodhouse, Katie
    Department of Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of Hull , Hull , United Kingdom.
    Smith, Alan
    Department of Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of Hull , Hull , United Kingdom.
    Seehausen, Ole
    Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Center for Ecology, Evolution and Biogeochemistry, Eawag—Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology , Kastanienbaum , Switzerland;Division of Aquatic Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern , Bern , Switzerland.
    Turner, George F
    School of Natural and Environmental Sciences, Bangor University , Bangor , United Kingdom.
    Sympatry and parapatry among rocky reef cichlids of Lake Victoria explained by female mating preferences2023In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work on the Lake Victoria cichlids Pundamilia nyererei (red dorsum males, deeper water), Pundamilia pundamilia (blue males, shallower water) and related species pairs has provided insights into processes of speciation. Here, we investigate the female mating behaviour of 5 Pundamilia species and 4 of their F1 hybrids through mate choice trials and paternity testing. Complete assortative mating was observed among all sympatric species. Parapatric species with similar depth habitat distributions interbred whereas other parapatric and allopatric species showed complete assortative mating. F1 hybrids mated exclusively with species accepted by females of the parental species. The existence of complete assortative mating among some currently allopatric species suggests that pre-existing mating barriers could be sufficient to explain current patterns of co-existence, although, of course, many other factors may be involved. Regardless of the mechanism, mating preferences may influence species distribution in potentially hybridizing taxa, such as in the adaptive radiation of cichlid fish. We suggest that this at least partly explains why some species fail to establish breeding populations in locations where they are occasionally recorded. Our results support the notion that the mating preferences of potentially cross-breeding species ought to be included in coexistence theory.

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  • 50. Svensson, Ola
    et al.
    Woodhouse, Katie
    University of Hull, UK.
    van Oosterhout, Cock
    University of East Anglia, UK.
    Smith,
    University of Hull, UK.
    Turner,
    Bangor University, UK.
    Seehausen, Ole
    University of Bern, UK.
    Data from: The genetics of mate preferences in hybrids between two young and sympatric Lake Victoria cichlid species2017Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The genetic architecture of mate preferences is likely to affect significant evolutionary processes, including speciation and hybridization. Here, we investigate laboratory hybrids between a pair of sympatric Lake Victoria cichlid fish species that appear to have recently evolved from a hybrid population between similar predecessor species. The species demonstrate strong assortative mating in the laboratory, associated with divergent male breeding coloration (red dorsum versus blue). We show in a common garden experiment, using DNA-based paternity testing, that the strong female mate preferences among males of the two species are fully recovered in a large fraction of their F2 hybrid generation. Individual hybrid females often demonstrated consistent preferences in multiple mate choice trials (more than or equal to five) across a year or more. This result suggests that female mate preference is influenced by relatively few major genes or genomic regions. These preferences were not changed by experience of a successful spawning event with a male of the non-preferred species in a no-choice single-male trial. We found no evidence for imprinting in the F2 hybrids, although the F1 hybrid females may have been imprinted on their mothers. We discuss this nearly Mendelian inheritance of consistent innate mate preferences in the context of speciation theory.

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