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  • 1.
    Manhica, F
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lucas, C.
    Richards, T.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of the flow field in wood-fired bakery ovens2012In: International Journal of Applied Science and Technology, ISSN 2221-0997, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The circulation of hot gases within a bakery oven is used to describe and predict the exchange of heat and its influence on the final product. A bi-dimensional model was used, together with a CFD model, to estimate the flow pattern inside an oven by varying the velocity of the airflow in order to simulate changes in the combustion chamber. Acceptable agreement was found in the comparison between the models and the measured temperatures. The inlet velocity and the geometry affect the flow pattern in a baking oven. Low velocity cause low levels of circulation, which implies better conditions in the baking process. High velocities the temperature decreases in the oven due to excess air even with a high recirculation of gases. During the feeding process, the overall heat transfer was also affected by a changed effective thermal conductivity and recirculation of hot gases in the baking oven.

  • 2.
    Manhica, Fabiao
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lucas, Carlos
    Richards, Tobias
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Wood Consumption and Analysis of the Bread Baking Process in Wood-Fired Bakery Ovens2012In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 5, no 47, p. 63-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustion of biomass in small-scale furnaces is used widely in different applications. The technology used is often “fixed grate” combustion in small batch furnaces. The efficiency of such a furnace is often low, which results in a high environmental impact. The aim of this work was to analyse the performance of the existing wood-fired bakery ovens that can be used to improve the efficiency. The data collected from 15 semi-direct and 3 indirect bakeries consisted of: the dimensions of the oven, the temperature profiles of the combustion chamber and the baking oven, the baking time and the bread quality. It was found that as much as 60 tons/day of green wood are consumed in the bread baking process in the area investigated. Two types of bakery ovens are used most commonly: indirect and semi-direct. The specific consumption was found to be 0.55 and 0.90 kg of wood per kg of wheat flour baked for the indirect and the semi-direct respectively. The analyses of the bread baked show that the variation of the temperature profile during the baking process influences the quality of the bread produced.

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