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  • 1.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Jansson, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    A Dynamic Approach to Causal Ambiguity: How Organizational Learning Affects Causal Ambiguity2015In: Proceedings of ICICKM 2015 The 12th International Conference on Intellectual Capital Knowledge Management and Organisational Learning / [ed] Vincent Ribière & Lugkana Worasinchai, Academic Conferences and Publishing International Limited , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Jansson, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    A model for measuring resource immobility2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Jansson, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Can environmentally oriented CEOs and environmentally friendly suppliers boost the growth of small firms?2020In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 325-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The core question addressed in the natural resource‐based view (NRBV) of the firm is how to develop and exploit resources beneficial for both the natural environment and firm performance. Due to the resource constraints and increased competition facing small manufacturing firms, achieving this is a challenge for such companies. Building on the NRBV and resource orchestration literatures, we examine the relationship between green purchasing capabilities (GPCs), CEO's environmental orientation(EO), and firm growth. Results from 304 Swedish small manufacturing firms indicate a significant relationship between GPC and growth, and this relationship is positively moderated by the EO of the CEO.

  • 4.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Jansson, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Rent appropriation management of strategic human capital in practice2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Jansson, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Resource immobility and sustained performance: A systematic assessment of how immobility has been considered in empirical resource-based studies2016In: International journal of management reviews (Print), ISSN 1460-8545, E-ISSN 1468-2370, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 371-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The core notion of the resource-based view (RBV) is that the possession of certain resources can result in superior performance and, in order for this performance to be sustained, these resources cannot be perfectly mobile. Whereas previous reviews have mainly focused on the relationship between resources and temporary performance, no studies have systematically analyzed the extent to which empirical RBV studies have specifically considered immobility of resources. By analyzing a sample of 218 empirical RBV studies, the authors found that 17% of the studies directly measured some dimension of immobility (by, for example, actually measuring the level of social complexity, unique history, tacitness or tradability). Fewer than 2% of the studies measured the outcome of resource immobility, i.e. sustained performance differences. Based on these results, this paper discusses the consequences of overlooking this key dimension of the RBV (i.e. immobility) and suggests that, and discusses how, future research should consider resource immobility to a greater extent.

  • 6.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Entrepreneurial orientation and employee well-being2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Resource orchestration for team-based innovation: A case study of the interplay between teams, customers, and top management2021In: R&D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 147-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The resource orchestration concept has attracted considerable interest in contemporary innovation research. However, resource orchestration is a manager-centric framework and not all of its components necessarily reflect the value-creation processes of organizations focusing on team-based innovation. Drawing on a single-case study of an innovative Swedish software company, we illustrate the roles of autonomous teams, customers, and top managers in orchestrating resources for team-based innovation. Moreover, we introducethe concept of resource flocculation to describe how key actors co-orchestrate various resource orchestration processes. The study contributes to research on resource orchestration by adapting the model to the conditions characterizing team-based innovation, and to research on team-based innovation by addressing how innovative teams are related to overall resource orchestration processes and, ultimately, organizational innovation outcomes.

  • 8.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Jansson, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    An integrated approach to rent appropriation and rent generation2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Andersén, Jim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Svensson, Lotten
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Entrepreneurially oriented in what?: A business model approach to entrepreneurship2015In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 433-449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and argue for the necessity of deconstructing the entrepreneurship concept by analyzing entrepreneurial orientation (EO) at various levels of the business model. Design/methodology/approach – Literature review supplemented with five illustrative cases. Findings – A business model approach to entrepreneurship enables identification of the component of the business model in which entrepreneurship was started. This has several implications for analysis of the EO-performance relationship and for the identification of antecedents to EO. Originality/value – The EO of firms has generally been analyzed at a generic level, i.e. the concept has been used to measure and analyze the overall entrepreneurship of firms. In this paper, the authors argue that EO can be present in various dimensions of a business and that firms can be entrepreneurial in certain areas and conservative in other areas.

  • 10.
    Behre, Martin
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Löfström, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Undervisning för och examination av dyslektiker2009In: PUH – pedagogiska utvecklingsprojekt i högskolan: Ett samarbete mellan Västra Götalands högskolor, ISSN 1653-1396, no 7, p. 19-24Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    A founder's heritage: the development of organizational identity2019In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 73-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to understand how a former family firm strategically makes use of the founder's legacy to preserve its organizational identity. Following a single case study approach, it draws on rich empirical material from semi-structured interviews and extensive archival data. We show how central organizational activities are affected by a founder's heritage long after the formal exit has taken place, illustrating the central, enduring, and distinctive elements of organizational identity a founder has. Regardless of ownership forms, the family company founder's legacy is used to legitimize new owners and maintain the organization's identity. However, centripetal moves complicate the preservation of the organizational identity, whereas a high focus on value leveraging in another ownership form opens up for centrifugal approaches which strengthen the entrepreneurial dimension of organizational identity.

  • 12.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    A founder’s heritage: the development of psychological ownership2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectivesIs a founder “leaving” an organization by selling it, or are there aspects of the founder left even though, the founder does not have a formal occupation or ownership in the organization?Will there be a legacy of the founder and how will this affect the psychological ownership? What is the founder’s heritage from a psychological ownership perspective?The purpose is to understand the consequences of a business sale of the founder and from a psychological ownership perspective. Prior WorkDrawing on the work of psychological ownership and founder heritage, the work combines important literatures to shed light on an important empirical phenomenon, i.e. the exit of a founder/entrepreneur and its consequences for the organization. ApproachThis study follows a single case study approach and draws on rich empirical material from semi-structured interviews and extensive archival data. ResultsWe show how central activities are affected by a founder’s heritage over long time after the formal exit has taken place. We illustrate the development of a founder’s psychological ownership before and after he has formally sold the legal ownership. Implications and ValueThe paper aims at contributing to the entrepreneurial and founder exit-literature by adding a process perspective. Unlike it is sometimes assumed in the entrepreneurship literature is an exit not necessarily a clear-cut and once and for all decision. The paper contributes also psychological ownership literature by highlighting its continuity after the formal sale of the legal ownership and its consequences for the organization.

  • 13.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Distinguishing VCFB, Family Offices and other devices for wealth transition and sustainability of owning families2021In: / [ed] María Concepción Lopéz-Fernandéz; Unai Azurbiaga; José C. Casillas, 2021, p. 85-85Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares and distinguishes different devices, which family owners use to manage and develop their wealth over time. The paper addresses similarities and differences and states research questions for future development.

  • 14.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Family business, resilience and regional culture: Examples from Sweden2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines two regions in the south west of Sweden. A number of factors which are of significant importance in creating resilient family businesses as well as regions are identified. The study is based on a literature investigation and on 60 interviews of leaders in business and communities. Thereby, the study contributes to the scarce literature on resilience in family businesses and the interdependence with regional culture. Resilience in this paper refers to a particular type of economic and structural crisis which has not been considered before. We highlight similarities and differences of two regions in Sweden which have distinct regional cultures. These cultures support the development of resiliency. However, owning families as facilitators for organizational resilience play the central role. Their closeness and involvement in the business allows them to act fast and take decisions quickly which makes them more resilient.

  • 15.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Family businesses as venture capitalists: the exception that proves the rules?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Remembering the Founder in Times of Ownership and Leadership Changes2016In: RENT Proceedings 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Is a founder “leaving” an organization by selling it, or are there aspects of the founder left even though, the founder does not have a formal occupation or ownership in the organization? What are the motives of a founder to sell his organization? Will there be a legacy of the founder and how will this affect the organization’s identity? By questioning ‘who were we?’ or ‘who have we been?’ the relevance of organizational history becomes apparent. But how does this work in practice when a founder is not any longer part of the dominant coalition of the organization? The purpose is to understand the heritage of a founder, and the consequences for the organizational identity when the founder exits.

    Prior Work: Drawing on the work of entrepreneurial exit and organizational identity, including imprinting, the work combines important literatures to shed light on an important empirical phenomenon, i.e. the exit of a founder/entrepreneur.

    Approach: This study follows a single case study approach and draws on rich empirical material from semi-structured interviews and extensive archival data.  

    Results: We show how central activities are affected by a founder’s heritage over long time after the formal exit has taken place. We illustrate this by analyzing the consequences of changes in ownership and leadership after the founder’s exit. The founder becomes an artefact which allows to signal continuity and discontinuity depending on the different owners’ perspectives.

    Implications and Value: The paper aims at contributing to the entrepreneurial and founder exit-literature by adding a process perspective. Unlike it is sometimes assumed in the entrepreneurship literature is an exit not necessarily a clear-cut and once and for all decision. The paper contributes also to the organizational identity literature by highlighting the central role a founder can have for an organization.

  • 17.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Social value creation and family entrepreneurship in communities2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigate social value creation in family firms in a region in Sweden. The purpose of this study is tocompare two family firms that are embedded in a strong regional entrepreneurial culture and understand howthe owners contribute to value creation. A case study approach is used to understand the value creation. Thestudy finds different forums and means of interaction between the firms and the community, such as the localuniversity and the local sports club. The owners become engaged citizens which allows extending earlier discussionson the subject. Thereby, the student develops the concept of social value creation at the interconnectionof family firms and communities. The study draws on prior discourses from the entrepreneurship literature.

  • 18.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Brunninge, Olof
    Jönköping University.
    Giving Up The Family Name While Staying A Family Business: The Family Business As Acquirer2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Brunninge, Olof
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Going private: A socioemotional wealth perspective on why family controlled companies decide to leave the stock-exchange2017In: The Journal of Family Business Strategy, ISSN 1877-8585, E-ISSN 1877-8593, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 74-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our purpose is to understand the process of ‘going private’ decisions in family firms by applying a socioemotional wealth (SEW) perspective, specified in the following research questions: how do socioemotional wealth considerations influence owning families’ decisions to delist their publicly-listed companies? How do socioemotional wealth considerations change after the delisting of a firm? Based on case studies of two family firms, we elaborate upon the balancing of socioemotional and financial wealth considerations by the family owners, the assessment of which changes over time. Ultimately, we propose that the experiences from being listed can lead to the reevaluation of financial, as well as socioemotional, wealth considerations. By delisting, the companies reclaim independence and control, and the identity as a private family-owned firm becomes once again pronounced. We develop the SEW-perspective by viewing the decision to delist as a mixed gamble, in that owning families have to weigh personal and financial losses against SEW gains, thereby indicating how SEW-considerations change over time. We find that owning families are willing to sacrifice current SEW, accepting current financial losses for prospective increased SEW. Additionally, in this study we extend the argument that decisions to leave the stock market are tradeoffs between competing factors.

  • 20.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Brunninge, Olof
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Going private: Why family controlled, publicly-listed companies decide to leave the stock-exchange2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Boers, Börje
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Evansluong, Quang
    Umeå Universitet, Göteborgs universitet.
    The family influences of EO development in immigrant family businesses2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how family influences the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) process in immigrant family business. To fulfill the purpose, we employ inductive multiple case studies using fifty-six in-depth interviews. We rely on seven cases of immigrant entrepreneurs of Chinese, Icelandic, Turkish, Cameroonian, Mexican and Libanese who established firms in Sweden. Our results suggest that EO development trajectories vary in regard to first and second generation immigrant entrepreneurs, low and high-tech sectors and host and home contries. Thus, family dynamics facilitates the development of entrepreneurial orientation over time through transfering across generations and contexts. Our study indicates that, through family dynamics, EO is developed as a transferring process of the founders' proactiveness, risk-taking and innovativeness between the family in the home and host country.

  • 22.
    Brorström, Björn
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Edström, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Oudhuis, Margareta
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Uthålligt företagande. Om regionala förutsättningar och förhållningssätt2012Book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Edström, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Oudhuis, Margareta
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Brorström, Björn
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Knalleandan i gungning?2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten består av tre kapitel omgärdade av en inledning och en avslutning. Kapitel ett är en jämförelse mellan företagsledares beskrivningar av knalleandans innebörd och betydelse och ekonomi- och personalchefernas uppfattningar. Kapitlet är författat av Torbjörn Ljungkvist under viss medverkan av Björn Brorström. Kapitel två jämför två företag med avseende på vilka strategier som används och hur knalleandan påverkar strategival och utveckling. Det ena företaget är benämnt ”Värdeökning” och det andra ”Tillväxt”. Kapitlet är författat av Margareta Oudhuis. Det tredje kapitlet är författat av Anders Edström och behandlar textil- och modebranschens utveckling i Sjuhäradsbygden. Den fråga som ställs är huruvida ett textilt kluster håller på att utvecklas eller om det enbart handlar om en förtätning av företag.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 24.
    Edström, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Oudhuis, Margaretha
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Brorström, Björn
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Regional Resilience: Organizing for Sustained Viability2017In: The Resilience Framework: Organizing for Sustained Viability / [ed] Stefan Tengblad & Margareta Oudhuis, Singapore: Springer Nature , 2017, 1, p. 213-232Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Evansluong, Quang
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ujvari, Sandor
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    The family influences of EO development in immigrant family businesses2018In: Sustainable entrepreneurship: A win-win strategy for the future, Toledo, 2018, Toledo, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores how family influences the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) process in immigrant family business. To fulfill the purpose, we employ inductive multiple case studies with in-depth interviews.  We rely on seven cases of immigrant entrepreneurs of Chinese, Icelandic, Turkish, Cameroonian, Mexican and Lebanese who established firms in Sweden. Our results suggest that EO development trajectories vary in regard to first and second immigrant entrepreneurs, low and high-tech sectors and host and home countries. Thus, family dynamics facilitates the development of entrepreneurial orientation over time through transforming, translating and transferring across generations and contexts. Our study indicates that, through family dynamics, EO is developed as a (1) transferring process of the founders’ proactiveness between the family in the home and host country; (2) translating process of risk-taking between the family companies in the home country to immigrant family company in the host country and (3) transforming process of innovativeness between the home and the host country.

  • 26.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Affärsrådgivning: samspel mellan entreprenör och experter2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A frequent subject in the domestic as well as in the international political debate is the discussion about economic growth. In these discussions entrepreneurship is often pointed out as one of the most important factors for economic growth. To stimulate entrepreneurship a number of networks have been arranged, which support the entrepreneur with business competence. One of these networks is the international network of CONNECT. The core activity in this network is the springboard. During the springboard session the entrepreneur meets a number of different experts who judge the entrepreneur’s business idea and business concept. Will it stand for commercialisation? The purpose of this study is to describe and analyse the form of competence support which occurs during meetings between entrepreneurs and experts. The analysis focuses on the interaction which appears during these meetings and the effects that it creates. 11 springboards where examined closely. These springboards were videotaped and their actors were interviewed. This study has a constructive perspective. A combination of conversation analysis (CA) and discourse analysis (DA) is used to examine the interaction during these springboards. To get a deeper understanding of the interplay between the entrepreneur and the springboard panel theoretical concepts of institutional theory, institutionalised conversation, boundary objects, group polarisation are used. The logic which the springboard builds on is also discussed. In this case the notions of causation and effectuation play a central role. The patterns of interaction differed between the springboards which concerned venture capital and those which only concerned strategic advice. These differences could also be connected to the company’s stage of development. The interaction differences seem to be inherent in the discursive practice which appears between the entrepreneur and the springboard panel. The entrepreneurs, who applied for venture capital, generally experienced the springboard as less constructive. In these springboards, the panel were highly focused on the risks and the problems connected with the business project. This criticism could be related to the term group polarisation and institutional factors. A proposal of how these negative effects could be reduced is presented. According to research, companies which build their activities on a new business idea or are in an early stage of development, have more use of a logic which pays more attention to contingencies and the creation of strategic alliances. The conclusion is that the springboard should adjust to the company’s situation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 27.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Constructive business advice?: Different trajectories between family businesses and startups2017In: Journal of Family Business Management, ISSN 2043-6238, E-ISSN 2043-6246, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 309-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the verbal content and its impact on panel-basedbusiness advice meetings (springboards) for family business owners and startup entrepreneurs. Further,the study also investigates how panel-based advising assists entrepreneurship.Design/methodology/approach – The investigated springboards concern family business owners whorun established firms and startup entrepreneurs who are applying for venture capital. Data from 12 differentspringboards are collected and studied by content analysis.Findings – The outcomes indicate that advising is more constructive for the family business owners than forthe startup entrepreneurs. This can mainly be explained by the rational screening that follows the businessplan concept and group dynamics which appear in these meetings.Research limitations/implications – The study was conducted in Sweden and concerns Swedish familybusiness owners and startup entrepreneurs. It reveals different speech patterns that appear during organizedadvice-giving and its implications depending on the type of entrepreneur.Practical implications – This study provides potential input to change the institutional practice ofpanel-based business advice, which will likely support entrepreneurs in their business development andnetwork building.Originality/value – This study is the first to investigate the verbal content in panel-based business advicefor family business owners. Further, it provides a deeper understanding of the institutionalized conditionsthat this kind of advising builds on.

  • 28.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Effekter av kompetensstöd: samspel mellan entreprenör och experter2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Ljunkvist, Torbjörn
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Oudhuis, Margareta
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Brorström, Björn
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Knalleandan enligt ekonomi- och personalchefer2010In: Vetenskap för profession, ISSN 1654-6520, no 14, p. 9-19Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet inleds med en beskrivning av knalleandans innebörd baserat på utsagor från intervjuade ekonomi- och personalchefer. Därefter redovisas de avtryck som knalleandan uppfattas leda till. Avtrycken beskrivs utifrån aspekterna kundorientering, nätverk och samarbete, management och arbetsplatskultur. Därefter jämförs ekonomi- och personalchefernas uppfattning om knalleandan med företagsledarnas och ett resonemang förs om skillnaderna mellan dessa två grupper. Avsnittet avslutas med att knalleandans framtid problematiseras mot bakgrund av de framkomna resultaten. Några omständigheter är viktiga att beakta när de båda studierna jämförs. Företagsledarna och ekonomi- och personalcheferna skiljer sig från varandra på flera olika sätt. Företagsledarna är entreprenörer och har ett övergripande ansvar för lönsamhet och utveckling. Ekonomi- och personalcheferna är tjänstemän med uppgift att bedriva en effektiv stödverksamhet. En annan viktig skillnad är att medan företagsledarstudien omfattade ett flertal mindre företag baseras föreliggande studie på intervjuer i sex större företag. Fyra av dessa utvecklar, tillverkar och säljer produkter i egen regi medan två är så kallade varumärkesföretag, som innebär att företaget sköter design, inköp och distribution medan ett annat företag anlitas för tillverkning, som regel placerat i ett lågkostnadsland. Trots de begränsningar som råder för att kunna göra jämförelser är skillnader som finns viktiga att beskriva och tolka. Skillnader kan förklaras av andra saker. Den tid som förflutit sedan den förra studien kan till exempel antas ha betydelse i sammanhanget.

  • 30. Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Resiliens genom regional företagskultur2014In: Organisatorisk resiliens: Vad är det som gör företag och organisationer livskraftiga?, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, p. 235-251Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Andersén, Jim
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    A taxonomy of ecopreneurship in small manufacturing firms: A multidimensional cluster analysis2021In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 1374-1388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a multidimensional taxonomy of “ecopreneurship” for small manufacturing firms. Based on a cluster analysis of 312 Swedish firms, four distinct clusters are identified: pioneers, green dumpers, overlookers, and recyclers. These clusters are compared regarding their level of entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance. Based on the results, and because of the resource constraints associated with small firms, managers of such companies are advised to examine the economic consequences of specific environmental business practices and to adopt a less aggregated approach to ecopreneurship. This study illustrates the usefulness of a multidimensional scale when researching environmental behaviors and is a response to the lack of an empirically based classification of ecopreneurship configurations.

  • 32.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Andersén, Jim
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    The impact of business advice: interplay between entrepreneur and experts2016In: Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 0827-6331, E-ISSN 2169-2610, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 285-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During a springboard session, the entrepreneur meets an expert panel which gives himor her strategic advice. How these meetings transpire is of great importance when itcomes to the support of regional, as well as national entrepreneurship and economicgrowth. The purpose of this paper is to investigate what is verbally expressed duringthese meetings and how this can assist entrepreneurship. Eleven different springboardsare investigated via the method of content analysis. These springboards concernedentrepreneurs who merely sought strategic business advice or those who applied forventure capital. The results indicate that the entrepreneurs who applied for venturecapital had less use for the advice than the other group. This can partly be explainedby panel members’ focus on risk and the institutionalized conditions which build on arational discourse.

  • 33.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    A theory of venture capital family business (VCFB): professionalization trajectories2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Venture capital as well as family firms are very heterogeneous populations of firms. Extant literature has studied the interaction and connection between the groups of firms. However, only recently, researcher began to look at those firms which are part of both group at the same. Firms which are labeled venture capital family businesses (VCFB) (Ljungkvist & Boers, 2017). Recent research suggests that the interaction of family firms and VC firms can be distinguished into three separate phases (Schickinger, et al., 2018). Based on these phases, the paper develops propositions on how VCFB firms develop their professionalization trajectories in these phases. Thus, the presented propositions highlight how the family owners’ actions and behavior are related to professionalism and how it influences the three phases of investing.

  • 34.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Another hybrid?: Family businesses as venture capitalists2017In: Journal of Family Business Management, ISSN 2043-6238, E-ISSN 2043-6246, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 329-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This paper addresses the phenomenon of venture capital firms which are also family businesses(VCFBs). The purpose of this paper is to explore and understand the phenomenon of VCFB by answering thefollowing questions: What are the features of professionalization in VCFBs? And, how do professionalizationand types of family businesses explain the strategies and governance of VCFBs?Design/methodology/approach – As an explorative case study, it maps the Swedish venture capital (VC)industry and compares two VCFBs and their business investments with regard to strategy and governance.Findings – By suggesting two major configurations, the study explains how family business developmentand levels of professionalization relate to differences in VCFBs’ strategies, which in turn, affect theirgovernance. The personal VCFB features active owners who personally take responsibility roles and stronglyfocus on customers and relationships. The administrative VCFB strongly focuses on predetermined financialmetrics, high ethical awareness among board members, and ongoing interplay between the active familyboard members and minority shareholders.Research limitations/implications – The study was conducted in Sweden and concerns Swedish VCFBs.The paper contributes to the literature by combining the two currently separate research streams, i.e. familybusiness and VC, highlighting the importance and consequences of family ownership in VC businesses.Practical implications – The present study provides stock market investors and stock analysts with adeeper understanding of VCFBs’ strategy incentives. By identifying the kind of VCFB and its relation tostrategy, more reasonable assessments and analyses of the VCFBs’ actions will be possible. Family firms willingto accept VC-finance should consider the type of VC and the potential consequences of family ownership.Originality/value – This study is the first to classify VC firms as family businesses. Moreover, it shows thefeatures of professionalization in VCFBs by suggesting a set of configurations.

  • 35.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Resilience and family businesses and regional culture2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Structural crisis?: Regional culture and resilience in family business-dominated regions in Sweden2016In: Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, ISSN 1750-6204, E-ISSN 1750-6212, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 425-446Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThe purpose of this study is to understand the interdependence between regional culture and resilience in family business-dominated regions. Design/methodology/approachThe study is based on a literature review and helps to fill the knowledge gap regarding regional culture and resilience in family business-dominated contexts. FindingsWe highlight similarities and differences between two regions of Sweden with distinct regional cultures that support resilience. A number of norms that are significant in generating resilient regions are identified. One key finding is that the regional culture developed during the proto-industrial era, in connection with home production, still affects and contributes to resilience in these family business-dominated regions. Research limitations/implicationsThe study is based on two case studies, so no generalizable conclusions can be drawn. Practical implicationsFor policy-makers, our study shows that structural crises can be overcome with a strong regional culture, as it can foster resilience. However, regional culture is hard to implement by political decisions. For owners and managers of organizations, our study suggests that it is essential to consider regional culture as an important factor for the organization. Originality/valueThis study draws on a comparison of two regions in Sweden with explicit regional cultures.

  • 37.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    The founder’s psychological ownership and its strategic implications2020In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 85-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the change of the founder’s psychological ownershipwhen s/he sells the business and its implications for the organization’s strategy.Design/methodology/approach – The study contributes with a longitudinal study of psychologicalownership, accounting for its development over time in a Swedish e-commerce company. By applying a casestudy methodology, conclusions are drawn from a vast amount of archival data and interviews. The empiricalmaterial covers the transition from a founder-run, family-owned to a first foreign-owned, and currentlyprivate-equity owned company.Findings – Theoretically, it extends understandings of psychological ownership and its strategicimplications by including former legal owners; that is, how psychological ownership changes after legalownership ceases. Thereby, it develops the individual dimension (founder and former owner) of psychologicalownership as well as its collective dimension (employees toward founder). The paper contributes to thepsychological ownership founder and exit-literatures by highlighting continuity after the formal sale of legalownership and its consequences for the organization.Practical implications – It finds that new legal owners can use this heritage to signal continuity andlaunch strategic changes by transforming it into artifacts.Originality/value – This study extends the understanding of development of psychological ownership offounders from foundation to exit and its consequences for the organization’s strategy. This extension shedsnew light on founders as artifacts of organizations and thereby their role for the organizational heritage.

  • 38.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Andersén, Jim
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Family firm versus non-family firm: the role of resource orchestration in fast-growing high-tech SMEs2022In: Journal of Family Business Management, ISSN 2043-6238, E-ISSN 2043-6246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    This paper strives to understand the role of resource orchestration (RO) in the rapid growth of high-tech small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).

    Design/methodology/approach

    Based on a comparative case study, RO is compared between a high-tech family firm and a high-tech non-family firm. To capture the complexity of RO, this study applies a longitudinal approach using a large volume of archival and interview data gathered over ten years.

    Findings

    The configuration of family-firm paradoxical growth-oriented RO emphasizes RO based on collectivism and responsibility, although relying on large-scale conforming normative control. In contrast, the configuration of non-family-firm growth-oriented RO emphasizes administrative-based delegation and management-supported value creation.

    Originality/value

    By suggesting ownership-based RO configurations, this study provides insights into how ownership types, i.e. family firms and non-family firms, affect RO in firms operating in complex and dynamic environments. These configurations explain how and why RO is arranged in a growth context.

  • 39.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Andersén, Jim
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    The management of resource orchestration in fast-growing owner-led companies2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of resource orchestration in rapidly growing owner-ledcompanies in dynamic environments. Based on a comparative case study of owner-led companies, the resource orchestration in a owner-led familyfirm is compared with an owner-led one. A large amount of archival data and interviews are used. By uncoveringthe resource management process, the findings indicate a difference in focus between the owner-led familyfirm and the owner-led firm. The resource orchestration in the family firm focuses to a greater extent on therecruitment of new staff, the incorporation and the control of “right” values and norms. On the other hand, theowner-led business puts a higher focus on performance metrics and the documented coordination of teams andcustomers. By revealing the management role in a dynamic industry, the present study criticizes and extendsgeneral findings of the resource orchestration literature.

  • 40.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Andersén, Jim
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Nordqvist, Mattias
    Jönköping International Business School - JIBS.
    Rapid growth of founder-led companies: the role of resource orchestration2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the role of resource orchestration in rapidly growing founder-led companies.   Design/methodology/approach – Based on a comparative case study of founder-led companies, the resource orchestration in a founder-led family firm is compared with a founder-led one. To comprehend the complexity of resource orchestration, a large amount of archival data and interviews are used. By using data derived from a period of ten years, the present study has a longitudinal approach. Findings – By uncovering the resource management process, the findings indicate a difference in focus between the founder-led family firm and the founder-led firm. The resource orchestration in the family firm focuses to a greater extent on the early stages of the resource management process, i.e. the recruitment of new staff, the incorporation and the control of “right” values and norms. On the other hand, the founder-led business puts a higher focus on performance metrics and the documented coordination of teams and customers. However, both companies rely largely on self-organizing teams. By revealing the management role in a dynamic industry, the present study criticizes and extends general findings of the resource orchestration literature. Moreover, it contributes to the organizational culture and firm growth entrepreneurship literature.       Practical implications – The study shows how founder-based companies can grow successfully in a dynamic environment. Furthermore, it reveals how software companies’ resources can be managed and bundled in a successful manner. Originality/value – the present study conveys fine-grained insights in complex management processes operating in a dynamic environment.

  • 41.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Boers, Börje
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Samuelsson, Joachim
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Three stages of Entrepreneurial Orientation: The Founder’s role2019In: International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, ISSN 1355-2554, E-ISSN 1758-6534, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 285-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand the development of the five dimensions ofentrepreneurial orientation (EO) over time by taking a founder’s perspective.Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on an in-depth single-case study. It combinessemi-structured interviews in the company with archival data, such as annual reports, press clips andinterviews in business magazines.Findings – The results indicate that the EO dimensions change from being personalized and directlysolution-oriented to being intangible value-creation-oriented.Originality/value – By suggesting ownership-based EO configurations, this study contributes insights intohow different ownership forms propel EO. These configurations – that is, personal, administrative based andintangible focused – show the impact of the EO dimensions and provide a systematic and theoreticalunderstanding of EO change over time.

  • 42.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Österlund, Urban
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Dubious entrepreneurship and abnormal growth in a quasi-market2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43. Pashang, Hossein
    et al.
    Österlund, Urban
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Johansson, Kjell
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Accounting principles and judgement2015In: International Journal of Business Strategy, ISSN 1553-9563, E-ISSN 2378-8585, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 69-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting principles are a set of ethical constructs that primarily serve to shift accounting towards the locus of ethical judgment. As such, principles help putting the ethical accountability at the “fields” of the entities and provide judgmental relationships or “fit” between ethical consideration and standards as well as various practices of accounting in innumerable ways. However, the current research debates of the ethical issues in accounting have been discursively shaped upon a set of distinctions that researchers make between two sets of dominant standards. These standards are drawn from the contexts of U.S, respectively International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) codifications. This notion should be added that these standards are uncritically defined as being either rules-based or principles-based. In fact, the current accounting debate treats the ethical issues in accounting through the focus on the technical features of the standards. This study will argue that the ethical problem of accounting cannot be adequately approached by the repeated references into the technical natures of the rules-based and principles-based standards. By highlighting the ethical roots of the accounting principles, we will emphasize that analysis of the standards and ethical issues in accounting needs to be judgmentally associated with the propositional promises of the accounting principles.

  • 44.
    Samuelsson, Joachim
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Andersén, Jim
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Jansson, Christian
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Formal accounting planning in SMEs: the influence of family ownership and entrepreneurial orientation2016In: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, ISSN 1462-6004, E-ISSN 1758-7840, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 691-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeSeveral studies have highlighted the importance of management accounting practices such as formal short-term planning and formal long-term planning for SME performance. However, few studies have considered what actually explains differences in the use of formal planning (from a management accounting approach) in SMEs. Family ownership and EO are two plausible explanations for such differences. The aim of this study is therefore to examine how family ownership and EO are correlated to the use of formal short-term planning and formal long-term planning in SMEs. Design/methodology/approachIn this study, we examined how family ownership and entrepreneurial orientation affect the use of formal planning by analyzing a sample of 156 Swedish manufacturing SMEs, using multivariate regression analysis. FindingsAs could be expected, we were able to validate the notion that family firms use less formal planning than non-family firms. However, in contrast to some previous studies, we found that there is a strongly positive relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and the use of formal short-term planning and long-term planning. Originality/valueWhereas many previous studies on family business have assumed that family firms use less formal planning than non-family firms, the present study is one of few to actually confirm this notion. Also, this study has provided strong evidence that EO is positively correlated to the use of formal planning, in the short term and in the longer term.

  • 45.
    Österlund, Urban
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Effects of capital structure, composition of managament team and performance among Swedish SME companies2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Österlund, Urban
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. Jönköping University.
    Ljungkvist, Torbjörn
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Quasi-markets and abnormal growth: The case of the Swedish personal assistant industry2018Conference paper (Refereed)
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