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  • 1.
    Claesson, Frida
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, B-J
    Elled, Anna-Lena
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Johansson, A
    Chemical characterization of waste fuel for fluidized bed combustion2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combustible waste is very heterogeneous and the variation in chemical composition is of great significance for the performance of the combustors in terms of boiler availability and power efficiency. For example, the content of alkali, Chlorine and sulfur affect agglomeration, fouling and corrosion mechanisms, which often limits the steam data and requires counteracts such as soot blowing and outages. An increased knowledge on favorable levels and ratios of fuel components are therefore highly important when developing waste combustors, both existing and future. However, to be able to make good predictions of reactions, reliable fuel analyses are a necessity and they are difficult to perform because of the heterogeneity of waste. As a consequence, it is also difficult to complete pro-active measure to reduce unwanted reactions. This work has investigated the composition of the fuel during one year in a 40 MW commercial BFB waste plant. Twelve samples have been performed in order to estimate the variation of key components. The fuel samples were analyzed chemically for alkali and several other components of interest, such as Cl and S. Moreover, thermo-chemical multi-phase equilibrium calculations were performed for prediction of the chemical composition of the furnace in the temperature range 400-1000 ºC. In this temperature range NaCl and PbClx are formed as well as gas phase HCl and solid silicates. Furthermore, the calculations show that the chemistry is very sensitive to the input chemical composition, suggesting that already a minor shift in fuel mineral matter may change the behavior of the fuel radically in terms of its fouling and corrosion tendency.

  • 2.
    Claesson, Frida
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Wikström Blomqvist, E.
    Johansson, A.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, B.J.
    Andersson, Bengt-Åke
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Annual variation in elemental, dioxin and PCB content within Swedish waste fuels: results from two plants2009In: Proceedings Sardinia 2009, Twelfth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy; 5-9 October 2009, 2009, p. 347-348Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the annual variation of the composition of waste fuels fed to two different Waste to Energy (WtE) plants in Sweden. Twelve waste fuel samples from one year of sampling in each plant were analysed with Ion Chromatography and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy to study the variation of elements within and between the fuels of the two different plants and also to investigate any seasonal variations. The ultimate analyses show that the composition was rather similar throughout the sampling period for both plants, respectively. However, there was a larger variation in the content of ash forming elements within and between the plants. Trace metals, present in low concentrations, showed the widest relative variation. The samples were also analysed for dioxin and PCB content. The reported average value for all samples is 29 ± 15 ng I-TEQ dioxin per kilo dry waste. The calculated toxicity of twelve PCB congeners, reported as WHO-PCB, is less or close to the detection limit < 0.02 μg PCB WHO-TEQ per kilo dry waste.

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