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  • 1.
    Baldwin, Richard
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Changing practice by reform: the recontextualisation of the Bologna process in teacher education2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to investigate a specific case of curriculum change; that of organizing teacher training courses around learner outcomes in line with the Bologna process. The investigation is an example of a practitioner research case study and looks at how official Bologna policy messages are re-interpreted and recontextualised at the local micro level. A variety of methods are used to collect and analyse the data produced. A form of discourse analysis, as well as a survey of research literature, is used to identify policy discourses connected with the Bologna process. At the local micro level, local documentation as well as teacher talk in planning meetings are analysed to throw light on how the Bologna process was implemented. A number of discourses were found in policy documents; including the need to modernize higher education and to move towards a more student centred approach to learning. The thesis shows that these discourses were mediated locally by a regulative discourse portraying teachers as role models who have the task of passing on knowledge that is essential for the students to obtain before entering the profession. Instead of challenging the pedagogic identities for teachers and students, the introduction of learning outcomes acted to strengthen the fundamental vertical relations between teachers and students, cementing and confirming the level of control that teachers had over all aspects of the curriculum. Changes made in connection with the introduction of learning outcomes had a minimal influence on practice and were contested by some teacher educators. Teacher educators resisted and mediated the changes made by continuing to use their traditional practices.

  • 2.
    Baldwin, Richard
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Educational policy enactment2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Baldwin, Richard
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Student learning outcomes and their influence on a learning culture2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    My paper describes the changes in the focus of my PhD research; from a vague intention to investigate the learning benefits of organising student learning around learning outcomes to a more critical approach investigating the influence of learning outcomes on a learning culture. The research is a form of praxis related enquiry, and concerns a Swedish university level teacher training course for prospective English language teachers, for which I am the course co-ordinator. From July 2007 all higher education degrees in Sweden, as well as in the rest of Europe, have to be expressed through so-called learning outcomes. The introduction of learning outcomes into higher education are a key part of the 1999 Bologna declaration, that emphasises the need to express the knowledge, understanding, competences and other attributes contained within courses and their components. The course concerned was organised around student learning outcomes from the beginning of 2008. The paper outlines my own learning and understanding of the research process and learning culture; from a technical rational approach of trying to “prove” that improvements in student learning had occurred, to a second stage of trying to open up the research process to other stakeholders and then to an understanding of why this “democratisation “ process had only a limited success. The final research stage involves a more critical understanding of the introduction of student learning outcomes when put into the context of the complexities of the local (and global) learning culture. James and Biesta describe learning cultures as the social practices through which people learn, and the combination of the theory of learning cultures and the cultural theory of learning necessitates a different approach towards the improvement of teaching and learning, one which focuses on changing the culture rather than on only one element of it. This involves interpreting the interplay between teaching, teachers, learning, learners, learning situations and wider historical economic social and political influences. While I have only just begun to analyse my data, initial reflections suggest that the introduction of student learning outcomes has only had a limited influence on the local learning culture. Whilst there has been a positive influence on synergy (increasing cooperation and openness between teachers, and also between teachers and learners ) this has had only a limited influence on practice. Other aspects of the learning culture have not been greatly improved. As far as learning opportunities are concerned ( what is allowed, disallowed, encouraged or discouraged in the name of learning) there still exists a culture where examinations tasks tend to encourage the transmission of factual knowledge . Students have very few opportunities to express a critical voice, there has been only a very limited move towards increasing student levels of empowerment; with little or no flexibility for students to decide on the method and content of their studies.

  • 4.
    Baldwin, Richard
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    The recontextualisation of the Bologna process in teachereducation2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Baldwin, Richard
    University of Borås, School of Education and Behavioural Science.
    Using the CEFR to organise teaching and assessment in teacher training2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Common European Framework of References for Languages Framework, along with the European Language Portfolio are used increasingly today in all levels of foreign language learning. Research has shown them to have positive effects on language learning. Despite this they have only had a limited use at university level. This paper describes problems involved in trying to use the Framework descriptors as the starting point for organising teaching and assessing teacher trainer students’ language proficiency and suggests that resistance to its use are because of the characteristics of the local learning culture. The results in this paper suggest that the introduction of the Framework descriptors has only had a limited influence on teacher practice. Whilst the learner outcomes connected to the Framework have made more explicit the expectations put on students, traditional views amongst teachers about teaching,learning and assessment mean that there has only been a limited influence on reporting student progress and in making decisions about teaching. These views and practices are closely related to what Bernstein has described as the dominant curriculum model in universities, the disciplinary model; characterized by vertical pedagogic relations between teachers and students, with the rules of selection of curriculum content and of evaluation residing in the hands of the teachers. The transmitter (the teacher) has explicit control and education implies a strong emphasis on students’ acquisitions of theoretical knowledge.These charcteristics are in contrast to the ideas behind the Framework, which are closer to Bernstein’s other curriculum model the vocational model, which emphasises the development of specific skills relevant for specific situations and the ability to combine concepts and skills in practice.

  • 6.
    Baldwin, Richard
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Using Video for self- reflection in Teacher Training Education2019In: Transforming Teacher Education with Mobile Technologies, Bloomsbury Publishing , 2019Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Baldwin, Richard
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Using videopapers in teacher education2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Baldwin, Richard
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Videopapers: A way of bridging the gap between theory and practice in teacher education2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Baldwin, Richard
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Apelgren, Britt Marie
    Teachers’ and Students’ Thinking and Acting on Changes in Language Teacher Education: A Case Study on Policy Implementation and Enactment2015In: Transformative Teacher Research. Theory and Practice for the C21st, Sense Publishers, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Baldwin, Richard
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Librarianship, Information, Education and IT.
    Apelgren, Britt-Marie
    University of Gothenburg.
    Can Do and Cannot Do – CEFR inspired examination and assessment in a Swedish higher education context2018In: Apples - Journal of Applied Language Studies., ISSN 1457-9863, Vol. 12, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus in this paper is on the introduction and implementation of learning outcomes based on the descriptors in the Common European Framework of References for Languages (CEFR). It discusses reaction to the introduction by teacher educators as well as the influence on teacher assessment practice in courses for prospective teachers of English as a foreign language. The paper presents some of the results from a case study concerning changes made in connection with the Bologna process in a department of education within a university college in Sweden. The results show that the adoption of the CEFR descriptors was contested and had a minimal influence on assessment practice. The aim of the paper is to explore possible reasons for the lack of influence, something that was not developed fully in the original case study.

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  • de-DE
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  • en-US
  • fi-FI
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  • Other locale
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