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  • 1. Hooshmand, Saleh
    et al.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Electroconductive composite fibers by melt spinning of polypropylene/polyamide/carbon nanotubes2011In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 161, no 15-16, p. 1731-1737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the blends of polypropylene/polyamide with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been prepared and melt spun to as-spun and drawn fibers. Thermal analysis showed that increasing the polyamide content, decreased the degree of crystallinity in the blends. Characterization of fibers showed that both conductivity and tensile strength have been improved by increasing the amount of polyamide in the blends as well as the melt blending temperature; furthermore, the morphology, electrical and mechanical properties of the blends were significantly influenced by adding 1 phr compatibilizer to the blend. The comparison between as-spun fibers and drawn fibers proved that although mechanical properties were improved after drawing, the electrical conductivity was decreased from the order of E−02 to E−06 (S/cm), due to applied draw-ratio of three.

  • 2. Hooshmand, Saleh
    et al.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Preparation of conductive composite fibers made from polypropylene, polyamide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes: electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Seoane, Fernando
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    KTH, Medicinsk teknik.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH-School of Technology and Health.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Printed Electronics Enabling a Textile-friendly Interconnection between Wearable Measurement Instrumentation & Sensorized Garments2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Melt spinning of carbon nanotube modified polypropylene conducting nanocomposite fibres2009In: Solid State Phenomena, ISSN 1012-0394, E-ISSN 1662-9779, ISSN 1012-0394, Vol. 151, p. 43-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blends of polypropylene with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been prepared and melt spun to fibre filaments. The resulted filaments have been characterised regarding conductivity, thermal properties, and morphology. DSC suggests that carbon nanotubes act as nucleating sites in polypropylene and the TGA shows a high increase in thermal stability. Conductivity around 0.001 S/cm are achieved for both as-spun fibre and drawn fibre. A higher load of CNT up to 15 wt % increases the conductivity to 2.8 S/cm in as-spun fibre, but due to a high fibre diameter variation during spinning resulting in fibre breakage, melt spinning is very difficult. This is due to a non-uniform stress distribution during the drawing steps which can be a result of a non-homogeneous PP-CNT blend and the spinning machine process limitations. Differences in conductivities for extruded rods, as-spun fibre and drawn fibre which are made from the same blends, suggests that the crystallinity can affect the conductivity of the PP/CNT fibre.

  • 5.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Melt spinning of carbon nanotube modified polypropylene for electrically conducting nanocomposite fibres2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Preparation of conducting fibres by melt spinning of polyaniline-polyproplene blends modified with carbon nanotubes2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Strategies for the preparation of conductive textile fibres for smart and functional textiles2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation will discuss some on-going efforts regarding the development of conductive fibres by melt spinning of polyaniline-polypropylene blends. The blend was also modified with multi wall carbon nanotubes. The presentation will also review in the literature presented concepts regarding processing and manufacture of electrically conductive textile fibres.

  • 8.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bashir, Tariq
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Preparation of conductive textile fibres by melt spinning and coating methods by utilising carbon nanotubes and conjugated polymers2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Melt Spun Electro-Conductive Polymer Composite Fibers2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One interesting approach is the development of conductive polymer composite fibers for innovative textile applications such as in sensors, actuators and electrostatic discharge. In this study, conductive polymer composite fibers were prepared using several different blends containing conductive components: a conjugated polymer (polyaniline-complex) and/or carbon nanotubes. Different factors such as processing parameters, the morphology of the initial blends and the final fibers, fiber draw ratio and material selection were studied separately to characterize their effects on the fiber properties. In binary blends of PP/polyaniline-complex, the processing conditions, the matrix viscosity and the fiber draw ratio had substantial effects on the electrical conductivity of the fibers and linearity of resistance-voltage dependence. These factors were associated with each other to create conductive pathways through maintaining an appropriate balance of fibril formation and breakage along the fiber. The blend morphology was defined as the initial size of the dispersed conductive phase (polyaniline-phase), which depended on the melt blending conditions as well as the PP matrix viscosity. Depending on the initial droplet phase size, an optimum draw ratio was necessary to obtain maximum conductivity by promoting fibril formation (sufficient stress) and preventing fibril breakage (no excess stress) to create continuous pathways of conductive phase. Ternary blend fibers of PP/PA6/polyaniline-complex illustrated at least three-phase morphology with matrix/core-shell dispersed phase style. When ternary fibers were compared to binary fibers, the former could combine better mechanical and electrical properties only at a specific draw ratio; this showed that draw ratio was a more determinant factor for the ternary fibers, as both conductivity and tensile strength depended on the formation of fibrils from the core-shell droplets of the PA6/polyaniline-complex through the polypropylene matrix. The achieved maximum conductivity so far was in the range of 10 S/cm to 10 S/cm, which for different samples were observed at different fiber draw ratios depending on the mixing conditions, the matrix viscosity or whether the fiber was a binary or ternary blend. To improve the properties, PP/polyaniline-complex blends were filled with CNTs. The CNTs and the polyaniline-complex both had an increasing effect on the crystallization temperature and the thermal stability of PP. Furthermore, the maximum conductivity was observed in samples containing both CNTs and polyaniline-complex rather than the PP with either one of the fillers. Although increasing the content of CNTs improved the conductivity in PP/CNT fibers, the ease of melt spinning, diameter uniformity and mechanical properties of fibers were adversely affected. Diameter variation of PP/CNT as-spun fibers was shown to be an indication of hidden melt-drawings that had occurred during the fiber extrusion; this could lead to variations in morphology such as increases in the insulating microcracks and the distance between the conductive agglomerates in the drawn parts of the fiber. Variations in morphology result in variations in the electrical conductivity; consequently, the conductivity of such inhomogeneous fiber is no longer its physical property, as this varies with varying size.

  • 10.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hernández, Niina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Electrode placement in electrocardiography smart garments: A review2019In: Journal of Electrocardiology, ISSN 0022-0736, E-ISSN 1532-8430, Vol. 57, p. 27-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wearable Electrocardiography (ECG) sensing textiles have been widely used due to their high flexibility, comfort, reusability and the possibility to be used for home-based and real-time measurements. Textile electrodes are dry and non-adhesive, therefor unlike conventional gel electrodes, they don't cause skin irritation and are more user-friendly especially for long-term and continuous monitoring outside the hospital. However, the challenge with textile electrodes is that the quality and reliability of recorded ECG signals by smart garments are more sensitive to different factors such as electrode placement, skin humidity, user activities and contact pressure. This review will particularly focus on the research findings regarding the influence of electrode placement on the quality of biosignal sensing, and will introduce the methods used by researchers to measure the optimal positions of the electrodes in wearable ECG garments. The review will help the designers to take into account different parameters, which affect the data quality, reliability and comfort, when selecting the electrode placement in a wearable ECG garment.

  • 11.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Hernández, Niina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Wipenmyr, Jan
    Rise Acreo.
    Nierstrasz, Vincent
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Surface modification of textile electrodes to improve electrocardiography signals in wearable smart garment2019In: Journal of materials science. Materials in electronics, ISSN 0957-4522, E-ISSN 1573-482X, Vol. 30, no 17, p. 16666-16675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recording high quality biosignals by dry textile electrodes is a common challenge in medical health monitoring garments. The aim of this study was to improve skin–electrode interface and enhance the quality of recorded electrocardiography (ECG) signals by modification of textile electrodes embedded in WearItMed smart garment. The garment has been developed for long-term health monitoring in patients suffering from epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. A skin-friendly electro-conductive elastic paste was formulated to coat and modify the surface of the knitted textile electrodes. The modifications improved the surface characteristics of the electrodes by promoting a more effective contact area between skin and electrode owing to a more even surface, fewer pores, greater surface stability against touch, and introduction of humidity barrier properties. The modifications decreased the skin–electrode contact impedance, and consequently improved the recorded ECG signals obviously when low pressure was applied to the electrodes, therefore contributed to greater patient comfort. The created contact surface allowed the natural humidity of the skin/sweat to ease the signal transfer between the electrode and the body, while introducing a shorter settling time and retaining moisture over a longer time. Microscopic images, ECG signal measurements, electrode–skin contact impedance at different pressures and times, and water absorbency were measured and reported.

  • 12.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Jakubowicz, Ignacy
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Recycling of bioplastics, their blends and biocomposites: A review2013In: European Polymer Journal, ISSN 0014-3057, E-ISSN 1873-1945, Vol. 49, no 10, p. 2839-2858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review presents scientific findings concerning the recycling of bioplastics, their blends and thermoplastic biocomposites, with special focus on mechanical recycling of bio-based materials. The paper does not include bio-based commodity plastics such as bio-derived polyolefins that are identical to their petroleum-based counterparts and that can be recycled in the same way. During the past few years, recycling of biopolymers and their blends has been studied using both mechanical and chemical methods, whereas in biocomposites, the focus has been on mechanical recycling. This review goes through the findings on the recyclability of various materials, the strengths and weaknesses of applied methods, as well as the potential strategies and opportunities for future improvements. There are still many blends that have not been investigated for their recyclability. Information about commercially available blends containing bioplastics is summarised in the Appendix because of the importance of their possible effects on the conventional plastic recycling streams.

  • 13.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Conductive polyblend fibers made of polyamide-6/ polypropylene/ polyaniline for smart textile applications: electrical and mechanical properties2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ternary blends of polypropylene/polyamide-6/Polyaniline-complex and binary blends of PP/ Polyaniline-complex were prepared and melt spun to conductive fibers under different solid-state draw ratios. Both blends showed a dependency of the conductivity to the fiber draw ratio. Compared to the binary blend fibers, the ternary blend fibers showed a more linear voltage-resistance relationship, a smoother surface and more even fiber in SEM images, and could combine a good conductivity with a good mechanical strength, because their maximum conductivity was observed in fibers made under a higher draw-ratio where the fibers show a better mechanical strength. The mechanical properties were promising to be used in a knitted network.

  • 14.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. University of Boras.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Electro-conductive polyblend fibers of Polyamide-6/polypropylene/polyaniline: electrical, morphological and mechanical characteristics2012In: Polymer Engineering and Science, ISSN 0032-3888, E-ISSN 1548-2634, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 1606-1612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Melt spun drawn fibers were prepared using a ternary blend of PP/PA6/PANI-complex (polypropylene/polyamide-6/polyaniline-complex). Their electrical and mechanical properties were compared to those of binary blend fibers of PP/PANI-complex. The results of the morphological studies on 55:25:20 PP/PA6/PANI-complex ternary fibers were found to be in accordance with the predicted morphology for the observed conductivity vs. fiber draw ratio. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of the ternary blend illustrated at least a three-phase morphology of a matrix/core-shell dispersed phase style, with widely varying sizes of droplets. This resulted in a dispersed morphology that, in some parts of the blend, approached a bicontinuous/dispersed phase morphology due to coalescence of the small droplets. The matrix was PP and the core-shell dispersed phase was PA6 and PANI-complex, in which a part of the PANI-complex had encapsulated the PA6 phase and the remaining was solved/dispersed in the PA6 core, as later confirmed by X-ray mapping. When the ternary blend fibers were compared to the binary fibers, the formers were able to combine better conductivity (of an order of 10−3 S cm−1) with a greater tensile strength only at a draw ratio of 5. This indicated that the draw ratio is more critical for the ternary blend fibers, because both conductivity and tensile strength depended on the formation of fibrils from the core-shell dispersed phase of the PA6/PANI-complex.

  • 15.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Fabrication of melt spun electro-conductive fibres using multi-walled carbon nanotubes, polypropylene and compatibilizers2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Melt blending of carbon nanotubes/polyaniline/polypropylene compounds and their melt spinning to conductive fibres2010In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 160, no 11-12, p. 1143-1147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blends of polypropylene with polyaniline and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have been prepared and melt spun to fibre filaments. The resulted filaments have been characterised regarding conductivity, morphology, thermal and mechanical properties. DSC suggests that carbon nanotubes act as nucleating sites for PP/polyaniline blend. Electrical conductivity has been measured for blends with extruded rod shape, as-spun fibre filaments and fibres made under draw ratio of four. Polypropylene containing 20 wt% polyaniline polymer modified with 7.5 wt% carbon nanotubes shows the maximum conductivity among all the samples, about 0.16 S/cm.

  • 17.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Preparation of conductive polyaniline/polypropylene blends and their melt spinning to fibre filaments2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Preparation of melt spun conductive polypropylene/polyaniline fibres for smart textile applications2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ternary composites made of carbon nanotubes/polypropylene/Polyaniline and melt spinning to conductive fibers2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ternary blends of polyaniline-complex, polypropylene and multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been prepared and melt spun to fibre filaments. Prepared filaments have been characterised regarding electrical and thermal properties as well as microscopic morphology. Electrical conductivity measurements showed that the maximum conductivity is obtained in polypropylene containing both CNT and Polyaniline rather than polypropylene with only one of the conductive materials. In SEM images for cross section of as-spun fibres, PP/polyaniline-complex/CNT shows much more homogeneous structure than PP/polyaniline-complex prepared at the same blending and spinning conditions. Fibres made of PP/CNT and PP/ CNT/polyaniline-complex show the electrical resistance dependency on time as well as applied voltage within the chosen range of measurements.

  • 20.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    The influence of matrix viscosity on properties of polypropylene/polyaniline composite fibers: Rheological, electrical, and mechanical characteristics2010In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 119, no 5, p. 2800-2807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrically conductive composites containing polypropylene (PP) and polyaniline (PANI) were prepared using PP with three different melt flow rates (MFRs) and a commercial PANI-complex in proportions of 80% by weight and 20%, respectively. Composite blends were melt-spun to fibers under different solid-state draw ratios. Rheological studies of dynamic viscosity, as well as the storage modulus and loss modulus showed that the prepared PANI-complex/PP blends exhibit different dynamic rheological behavior, depending on the PP used. This confirms the blends' morphological differences. PP matrix viscosity was found to play an important role in the electrical properties of the prepared fibers. Fibers prepared using the matrix with the lowest viscosity, showed a larger dispersed phase size in the cross-sectional SEM micrographs, maximum conductivity observed at higher draw ratios and a more linear resistance–voltage relationship than those of the fibers prepared using the higher viscosity matrices.

  • 21.
    Soroudi, Azadeh
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Liu, Hewen
    Polyaniline: polypropylene melt-spun fiber filaments: The collaborative effects of blending conditions and fiber draw ratios on the electrical properties of fiber filaments2011In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 119, no 1, p. 558-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A melt-processable polyaniline complex was blended with polypropylene under different mixing conditions and melt-spun into fiber filaments under different draw ratios. The conductivity, electrical resistance at different voltages, and morphological characteristics of the prepared fibers were investigated. The morphology of this two-phase blend was demonstrated to have a large effect on the conductivity level and the linearity of the resistance–voltage relationship of the blend fibers. Two factors had substantial effects on the morphology and electrical properties of the fibers. They were the size of the initial dispersed conductive phase, which depended on the melt blending conditions, and the stress applied to orient this phase to a fibril-like morphology, which was controlled by the draw ratio of the fiber. The two factors were shown to be associated with each other to maintain an appropriate balance of fibril formation and breakage and to create continuous conductive pathways.

1 - 21 of 21
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