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  • 1.
    Alm, Håkan
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Culture Shock in Bangkok: Little anecdotes from Bangkok and Thailand2000Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Alm, Håkan
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Self Services and Disservices: Improving Avatars with Co-Design2014Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporations and government agencies that use Avatars claim there are substantial benefits for using them in their respective organizations; including 24/7 service availability, quick answers without a phone queue, and improved consistency in the responses provided. “There are also potential cost savings by having an Avatar answering questions compared to using personnel” (Lind and Salomonson, 2006). However, these benefits may not be great enough as the lack of possible human communication may lead to alienation between individuals and organisations. Furthermore, a robot may “miss out” on business opportunities that a human would act on. A robot will not hear and understand nuances in speech, with the risk that a potentially problematic situation may not be adequately resolved, leading to dissatisfaction with products and services delivered. Many companies measure the satisfaction with Avatars by analysing question and answer logs to see if the Avatar appears to give satisfactory answers. Few of these companies have actually asked their customers (e.g. IKEA and SAS until recently) what they really feel about the quality of the answers they receive. User Centered Design, Participatory Design and other methods are the preferred ways of developing such systems, but these do not include all stakeholders. This thesis addresses this exclusion of all stakeholders by applying a co-design research approach for developing avatars for e-Services. Case studies from Mark Municipality, Sweden and Scandinavian Airlines Systems (SAS) are presented in this thesis showing how improvements of service quality aspects with Avatars can be managed by applying a four-step Co-Design research approach. From the first step of Co-Design, through interviews, log analysis and a channel survey, findings show that the failed dialogues with Avatars Eva (SAS) and Elin (Mark) are mainly concerned with five factors: interactivity; dialogue capability; consistency; knowledge; and synonyms. In the second step of carrying out customer workshops, a number of ideal scenarios are suggested for the Avatars to perform better. In the third step, SAS decision makers decided to implement the first three scenarios: Eva’s synonyms, knowledge and consistency. Mark decision makers decided to shut down their Avatar Elin, as they did not believe they had the necessary resources. In the fourth step, another channel survey was carried out for SAS as well as a new log analysis in order to know the impact of the redevelopment of the above three scenarios. An important result of the study was that the company adopted the continuous use of Co-Design as an approach to continuous improvement of the service quality performed by the Avatar Eva. This, for example, led to an increase of 14 percentage points on the users overall satisfaction level. The results also open a new set of questions framing the relation and transformation between Co-Design as a research approach for knowledge creation and Co-Design as a method for innovation and service quality improvements. This thesis also presents an Extended Co-Design Model, which illustrates how Co-Design inspires SAS staff. In addition, the staff of the supplier of the Avatar use it for other functions within and without SAS.

  • 3.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Forsgren, Olov
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Successful use of avatar/e-services: powerful, but needs a knowledge manager with proper methods2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we are presenting some theoretical background, some practical applications and some future scenarios of the use of the human being as a metaphor for design and implementation of e-services/avatars. The main conclusion is that e-services/avatars technology is a powerful concept but without a new profession as knowledge manager in the background, there’s a big risk for failure. We are also presenting a co-design model as a tool for the knowledge manager.

  • 4.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Forsgren, Olov
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Johansson, Torbjörn
    Göbel, Hannes
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    X-services: eXtended avatar-services with integrated human – driven knowledge management – a new service galaxy2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Janecek, Paul
    Forsgren, Olov
    Co-design Research and Business Development: Case of Scandinavian Airlines (SAS)2014Inngår i: Systemic Practice and Action Research, ISSN 1094-429X, E-ISSN 1573-9295, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 465-483Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Co-design practices are carried out in different fields of studies. Some of the key advocates of Co-design originate from business. In this study the four steps of Co-design approach is applied. From the first step of Co-design, through interviews, log analysis and a channel survey, findings show that the failed dialogues with Avatar Eva are mainly concerned with five factors: interactivity; dialogue capability; consistency; knowledge; and synonyms. In the second step, carrying out customer workshops, we suggested ten ideal scenarios for Avatar Eva to perform better. In the third step, SAS decision makers decided to implement the first three scenarios: Eva’s synonyms; knowledge and Eva’s consistency. In the fourth step, another channel survey was carried out as well as a new log analysis to know the impact of the redevelopment above three scenarios. An important result of the study was that the company adopted a continuous use of Co-design as an approach of continuous improvement of the service quality performed by the Avatar Eva. It also opens a new set of questions framing the relation and transformation between Co-design as a research approach for knowledge creation and Co-design as a method for innovation and service quality improvements. The study presents an Extended Co-design Model, which illustrates how the Co-design inspires staff to use it for other functions within and without the SAS.

  • 6.
    Alm, Håkan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Lind, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Brems, Mikael
    Guth, Kerstin
    Karlsson, Pia
    Sundhäll, Ralf
    Metod för utveckling av medborgarkontakter i Marks kommun2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    Alm, Klas Håkan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Academic Portfolio2016Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Alm, Klas Håkan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Mobile Payments: A Game Changer?2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Alm, Klas Håkan
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Söderholm, Jonas
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    International Higher Education: Local Initiatives Enabling Global Citizens2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Education at University of Borås is internationally connected to varying degree and form. This report looks at a selection of initiatives in order to explore the past, present and future role of UB internationalization. As a basis for the review, 7 students are interviewed on their international experience in their education – exchange studies and minor field studies (MFS) respectively. The participants stress the role of personal development and career enablement, and perceive their international experience as a distinct, unique element of their education. Possibilities and problems are then identified and related to the current literature on international education, learning and pedagogics. The study lands in a critical discussion on the future development of UB education. Key points of development: To meet the Bologna 20 percent commitment, more efforts need to be made on promoting and enabling internationalization to students, faculty and administrators. Curricular hurdles need to be removed as not to hamper students’ programme progression for going abroad. Teachers’ competency building efforts such as the Teaching and learning in higher education course could benefit from further elements of internationalization.

  • 10.
    Radon, Anita
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Alm, Håkan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Sundström, Malin
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Asymmetrical Relationships in Online Payment Solutions2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Dahlberg et al. (2008:165) in their paper proposed a definition for mobile payments as "payments for goods, services, and bills with a mobile device by taking advantage of wireless and other communication technologies", this in order to clarify the concept of mobile payments in particular, that had been subject to different interpretations. In this paper mobile payments are not specifically distinguished from other types of payments that occur online.

    After Dahlberg et als review (2008) several other literature reviews about mobile payments have been written. Such as Slade et al. (2013), de Albuquerque et al. (2014) and Dennehy and Sammon (2015) but the literature on relationships between payment provider and customer in an online context is quite scares.

    Asymmetrical relationships have been identified in the context of online payment solutions. Providers are turning more to service and debating how to offer better service and how to keep the customer as a customer for longer and how the customer can benefit more from the payment provider. The question of when a customer is converted into an actual customer arises. Some claiming it is when the transaction is completed, others that it is long after payment has been made. In light of this it is hard to see how the role online payment providers can expand but also how it will change when moving into a cashless society. The aim of this paper is to view online payment solutions in light of the relationships payment providers wish to establish and strengthen with their customer.

    Data has been generated through two focus groups, an online questionnaire and individual interviews. The in depth focus groups (2 with 5 participants in each) were analyzed and key areas were identified and a questionnaire was developed and distributed to customers of a provider of payment solutions (394 responses were gathered). After the questionnaire was analyzed and conclusions drawn, areas that needed to be further explored in-depth were identified. These areas were further explored through individual interviews. The methodology is characterized by using both qualitative and quantitative approaches to generate data.

    The results of the empirical material shows a desire, on the part of the provider of the payment solution to prolong the relationship but also that the customer has no wish to have a relationship with the provider or in some cases, doesn’t even view the provider as a partner/brand/etc. but merely as a means to and end or a facilitator of receiving a good or a service.

    This study is a comprehensive empirical framework on customer insight into online payments and issues connected to purchase as well as payment and potential relationships with payment solutions providers.

    References

    Dahlberg, T., Mallat, N., Ondrus, J., Zmijewska, A., 2008b. Past, present and future of mobile payments research: {A} literature review. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications 7 (2), 165–181.

    de Albuquerque, J. P., Diniz, E. H., Cernev, A. K., 2014. Mobile payments: A scoping study of the literature and issues for future research. Information Development, 1–27.

    Dennehy, D., Sammon, D., 2015. Trends in mobile payments research: A literature review. Journal of Innovation Management 3 (1), 49–61.

    Slade, E. L., Williams, M. D., Dwivedi, Y. K., 2013. Mobile payment adoption: Classification and review of the extant literature. The Marketing Review 13 (2), 167–190

  • 11.
    Radon, Anita
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Johansson, Pia
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Sundström, Malin
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Alm, Håkan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Behre, Martin
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Göbel, Hannes
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Hallqvist, Carina
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Hernandez, Niina
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Hjelm-Lidholm, Sara
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    König, Rikard
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Lindberg, Ulla
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    Löfström, Tuwe
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Sundell, Håkan
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för bibliotek, information, pedagogik och IT.
    Wallström, Stavroula
    Högskolan i Borås, Akademin för textil, teknik och ekonomi.
    What happens when retail meets research?: Special session2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    special session Information

    We are witnessing the beginning of a seismic shift in retail due to digitalization. However, what is meant by digitalization is less clear. Sometimes it is understood as means for automatization and sometimes it is regarded as equal to e-commerce. Sometimes digitalization is considered being both automatization and e-commerce trough new technology. In recent years there has been an increase in Internet and mobile devise usage within the retail sector and e-commerce is growing, encompassing both large and small retailers. Digital tools such as, new applications are developing rapidly in order to search for information about products based on price, health, environmental and ethical considerations, and also to facilitate payments. Also the fixed store settings are changing due to digitalization and at an overall level; digitalization will lead to existing business models being reviewed, challenged and ultimately changed. More specifically, digitalization has consequences for all parts of the physical stores including customer interface, knowledge creation, sustainability performance and logistics. As with all major shifts, digitalization comprises both opportunities and challenges for retail firms and employees, and these needs to be empirically studied and systematically analysed. The Swedish Institute for Innovative Retailing at University of Borås is a research centre with the aim of identifying and analysing emerging trends that digitalization brings for the retail industry.

  • 12.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Allwood, Jens
    Lind, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Alm, Håkan
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Comparing Human-to-Human and Human-to-AEA Communication in Service Encounters2013Inngår i: Journal of Business Communication, ISSN 0021-9436, E-ISSN 1552-4582, Vol. 50, nr 1, s. 87-116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of companies are introducing artificial agents as self-service tools on their websites, often motivated by the need to provide cost-efficient interaction solutions. These agents are designed to help customers and clients to conduct their business on the website. Their role on commercial websites is often to act as online sales/shopping assistants with the hope of replacing some of the interactions between customers and sales staff, thus supplementing or replacing human-to-human communication. However, research on artificial agents and comparisons with human-to-human communication, in particular, is still scarce. The purpose of this article is to explore the similarities and differences in communication between an artificial agent and customers compared with face-to-face communication between human service providers and customers. The method employed is a qualitative comparison of face-to-face human service provision in a travel agency setting and logs of interactions between customers and an artificial agent on an airline company website. The analysis is based on the theory of “activity-based communication analysis” and makes use of a framework of specific communication features provided by this theory. The article demonstrates a number of deficiencies in communication between artificial embodied agents and humans, suggesting that artificial embodied agents still lack many of the desirable communicative aspects of human-to-human service encounters.

  • 13.
    Salomonson, Nicklas
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Lind, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    Alm, Håkan
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Handels- och IT-högskolan.
    “How can I help you?”: The role of a virtual servant in a municipal context2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
1 - 13 of 13
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  • en-GB
  • en-US
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