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  • 1. Aronsson, Julia
    et al.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business. The Swedish School of Textiles.
    Tearing of post-consumer cotton T-shirts and jeans of varying degree of wear2020In: Journal of Engineered Fibers and Fabrics, E-ISSN 1558-9250, Vol. 15, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for textile fibres is growing quickly. However, global cotton production has stabilized around 25 Mton/year. This is a sound development since cotton cultivation causes major sustainable development issues. Even if regenerated cellulose fibre production steadily grows, it is still only from a sixth to a fifth of cotton volumes. Hence, it is essential to find resource-efficient routes to generate alternatives to virgin cotton. There are many promising research initiatives that discover the possibility to utilize waste streams of neat cotton and cotton in fibre blends as raw materials for dissolving pulp for regeneration into, for example, viscose or Lyocell. However, there is a much simpler and energy-efficient route at hand. If fabrics are disintegrated mechanically, the separated fibres can be turned into yarn again. However, since fibre length is a key parameter to accomplish strong and durable textiles, fibre length loss upon tearing should be minimized. This study evaluates how fibre length distribution alters upon tearing of post-consumer cotton waste of two different constructions: denim and single jersey; and different degrees of wear, rendering four different fractions: (1) barely worn denim, (2) rather worn denim, (3) barely worn single-jersey and (4) rather worn single-jersey. Before tearing, the garments were dissembled, their yarns were characterized, fibre length distributions were manually determined for (1)–(4). Length analysis of the recovered fibres after tearing revealed that the length drop was most severe for (a) the finer single-jersey and (b) the barely worn fractions. The findings suggest that significant wear does not exclude from mechanical recycling.

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  • 2. Garrote Jurado, Ramon
    et al.
    Pettersson, Tomas
    Baghaei, Behnaz
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Preparing for Masters´ Studies: A Web Based Tool For Self-Assessment and Knowledge Gap Mitigation2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a project, conducted by three European universities and a software company, funded by Erasmus +, Strategic Partnership. The project addresses the problem that sometime masters´ students do not get their degree within the allocated time, if at all. Apparently some students with the formal prerequisites to register for a master's programme still lacked the actual abilities to manage their studies.

    The solution was to design an online HTML5 platform to house self-assessment and learning resource modules for four different master's programmes in Europe. The modules were intended to illustrate the level and abilities that potential applicants were supposed to bring into their studies by a self-assessment test. In case lacking abilities were revealed, the modules offer learning resources to mitigate those gaps.

    The access modules provides potential students with a visualization of twelve different skills and knowledge as compared to those identified by lecturers as necessary for study on the master's course. If there are weak spots identified, the students are presented with a series of learning interventions designed to remedy their ability flaws.  

    The authors suggest that providing potential students with this kind of material can raise their awareness of what the programme really takes. In this way students with false expectations can be avoided and the ones who applies come better prepared, which the use of access modules potentially can leads to improved enrolment, completion rate, time-to-degree and retention in a wide range of academic programmes.

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  • 3.
    Johansson, Mats
    et al.
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Zetterblom, Margareta
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Pedagogiska aptitretare: Kortare PBL-projekt för textilingenjörer och textildesignstudenter2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna undersökning är att undersöka om korta moment inspirerade av problembaserat lärande under uppstarten av en längre kurs på högskolenivå kan förbättra förutsättningarna för lärande, inom det naturvetenskapliga ämnet och designämnet. För att undersöka frågeställningen genomfördes en enkätundersökning med studenter på Textilingenjörsprogrammet och Textildesignprogrammet på Textilhögskolan i Borås. Textilingenjörerna hade under inledningen av en längre kurs i Polymerteknologi ett introduktionsmoment där studenterna fick en konsumentprodukt tilldelad. Under inledningen av designprojekt hade studenterna på Textildesignprogrammet workshops där de arbetade individuellt eller i grupp. Uppgiften handlade om att utveckla en lösning för skyddad sömn vid en utsatt nödsituation eller att konstruera vävbindningar med hjälp av sin kropp. Enkätundersökningen visade att de flesta som deltagit i introduktionsmomentet av textil-ingenjörerna tyckte att det kändes stimulerande att gruppen själv styrde projektets genomförande vilket inte riktigt alla på textildesignprogrammet höll med om. Här hade man velat ha mer handledning under workshopen. Textilingenjörsstudenterna uppgav i enkäten att introduktionsmomentet hade avgörande betydelse för intresset av hela kursen medan textildesignstudenterna uppgav att introduktionsmomentet inte var lika avgörande för intresset under den fortsatta kursen. Slutligen visade enkätundersökningen att textilingenjörerna i högre grad ville se mer av studentcentrerat lärande utan lärarstyrning.

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  • 4.
    Lindström, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Investigation Of Staple Fibre To Fibre Cohesion By Tensile Test Of Web2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Friction and cohesion forces have great influence on the processability of a fibre as well as causing fibre breakage during mechanical recycling of textiles. Through pre-treatment of the fibres or textiles with a lubricant, the friction and cohesion forces can be decreased. However, the measurement of friction coefficient on staple fibres is challenging and needs special machinery. With the development of a new test method of the fibre cohesion force we can measure the effect of a treatment on fibre cohesion, predict the spinnability of a fibre as well as see the effect of a lubricant on the tearing efficiency in textile mechanical recycling.

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  • 5.
    Lindström, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Utility of conditioner for reduced interfibre friction as predictor of gentler shredding2018In: Aachen-Dresden-Denkendorf International Textile Conference, Aachen, November 29-30 2018, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 6. Lindström, Katarina
    et al.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Reuse of Waste Textiles For Composite Production2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amounts of cotton/PET textiles are wasted every year due to economically unfeasible separation of cotton and PET from waste textiles. These waste textiles were reused to form composites for technical applications and their properties were studied in this project. The waste textile, bed linen, used in this project comes from local hospital. The aim of this study is to produce composites from cotton/PET waste textiles and characterize by mechanical and thermal analysis. The effect of orientation of the fibers was studied and the processing parameters such as temperature, pressure and time of compression were optimized.

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  • 7.
    Lindström, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sjöblom, Therese
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Improving Mechanical Textile Recycling by Lubricant Pre-Treatment to Mitigate Length Loss of Fibers2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there has been some research on how to use short fibers from mechanically recycled textiles, little is known about how to preserve the length of recycled fibers, and thus maintain their properties. The aim of this study is to investigate whether a pre-treatment with lubricant could mitigate fiber length reduction from tearing. This could facilitate the spinning of a 100% recycled yarn. Additionally, this study set out to develop a new test method to assess the effect of lubricant loading. Inter-fiber cohesion was measured in a tensile tester on carded fiber webs. We used polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 aqueous solution as a lubricant to treat fibers and woven fabrics of cotton, polyester (PES), and cotton/polyester. Measurements of fiber length and percentage of unopened material showed the harshness and efficiency of the tearing process. Treatment with PEG 4000 decreased inter-fiber cohesion, reduced fiber length loss, and facilitated a more efficient tearing process, especially for PES. The study showed that treating fabric with PEG enabled rotor spinning of 100% recycled fibers. The inter-fiber cohesion test method suggested appropriate lubricant loadings, which were shown to mitigate tearing harshness and facilitate fabric disintegration in recycling.

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  • 8.
    Lindström, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Sjöblom, Therése
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Decreasing Inter-Fiber Friction With Lubricants For Efficient Mechanical Recycling Of Textiles2019In: Autex 19th World Textile Conference: Textiles at the Crossroads, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To decrease the environmental burden of the textile industry and at the same time reduce textile waste, the fibers of discarded textiles can be re-used into new yarns and fabrics. The shortening of fibers during mechanical shredding direct the use of the recovered fibers to low value products. With the use of a lubricant pre-treatment on cotton and polyester fabrics, we decreased the friction during shredding. The reduction in friction was shown with a developed inter-fiber friction test. Further, the pre-treatment was shown to give longer recovered fibers and eliminate melted areas in polyester material.

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  • 9.
    Lindström, Katarina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    van der Holst, Floor
    Saxion University of Applied Science.
    Berglin, Lena
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Investigation Of Abrasive Pre-Treatment To Mitigate Length Loss During Mechanical Textile Recycling2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental burden of the textile industry can be decreased with an increased use of mechanically recycled fibers. However, it is well known that the recycling process is harsh and shortens the fibers substantially. Still, little has been investigated about the influencing factors of the fiber length loss. 

    Previous research has shown that the parts of a garment that is more worn, lose less fiber length in the mechanical recycling process.1 One explanation could be that a loss of fibers during wearing create a more open structure of the textile. By removing fibers from the yarns in a textile, the yarn structure is partly broken down, and the yarn linear density is decreased. The strength of spun staple fiber yarns is dependent on the friction and contact surfaces between fibers. In addition, fiber migration, the variation of radial position of a fiber in the yarn, causes the fibers to lock between different helical layers and thus creates a self-locking mechanism giving strength to the yarn.2 Removal of any fiber in such a yarn affect all fibers in contact with that fiber. This in turn makes both the textile and yarns weaker and consequently more easily disentangles in a mechanical recycling process – keeping more of the fiber length. 

    The work at hand investigated this theory by subjecting woven cotton textiles with abrasion treatment prior to mechanical recycling. We compared two different methods of abrasion with unabraded textile. The two pre-treatment abrasion methods used were rubbing with sandpaper and raising with steel pins. By measuring the fiber length post mechanical recycling, we could estimate the efficiency of the recycling process in respect to preservation of the fiber. 

    Results showed that only the raising process had a positive impact in mitigating fiber length loss through the recycling process. During the rubbing with sandpaper, the fabric was pressed and thus became denser. On the contrary, the raising process pulled out the fibers and created a fuzzy surface. As the removal of any fiber affect all fibers in direct contact, even fibers in the center of the yarn are affected when surface fibers are pulled out or weakened. The raising process extracted fibers which opened up the fabric and affected the yarn structure. Hence, the yarns were more easily disentangled in the recycling process. The result gives great insight into the mechanisms of mechanical recycling and can be used for future development of the same. 

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  • 10.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Björquist, Stina
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Aronsson, Julia
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    re:newcell AB.
    Textile qualities of regenerated cellulose fibers from cotton waste pulp2017In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cotton is not the answer to meet the rapidly growing demand for textile fibers. Wood-based regenerated cellulosefibers are an attractive alternative. Since wood is a candidate to replace fossil raw materials in so many applications of thecircular economy, other sources need investigation. Cotton linters work in the viscose process – can cotton waste beused to make dissolving pulp? We describe the textile qualities of lyocell fibers from (i) pure cotton waste pulp and(ii) blending with conventional dissolving pulp. The staple fibers were tensile tested, yarns spun and tensile tested andknitted, and tested for shrinkage, water and dye sorption, abrasion resistance, fuzzing and pilling, staining and fastness.TENCEL staple fibers and off-the-shelf TENCEL yarn were used as references. The results show that the two studyfibers had tenacity and an E-modulus that exceeded the staple fiber reference. Also, the study yarns were at least as goodas the spun reference yarn and the commercial off-the-shelf yarn in terms of wet tenacity. Single jerseys made from thestudy yarns shrunk less upon laundering, which is surprising since they could absorb at least as much water at acomparable rate as the references. Dyeability, staining and color fastness, durability and pilling tendency showed thatthe two study fiber tricots performed at least as good as the references. This study suggests that cotton waste is apromising candidate for special grade pulp to suit niche regenerated fiber products or to spice up conventional woodbaseddissolving pulp.

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  • 11.
    Persson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Tanttu, Marjaana
    Aalto University.
    Michud, Anne
    Aalto University.
    Asaadi, Shirin
    Aalto University.
    Ma, Yibo
    Aalto University.
    Netti, Eveliina
    Aalto University.
    Kääriainen, Pirjo
    Aalto University.
    Berntsson, Anders
    Textilmuseet.
    Sixta, Herbert
    Aalto University.
    Hummel, Michael
    Aalto University.
    Ioncell-F: ionic liquid-based cellulosic textile fibers as an alternative to viscose and Lyocell2016In: Textile research journal, ISSN 0040-5175, E-ISSN 1746-7748, Vol. 86, no 5, p. 543-552Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ioncell-F, a recently developed process for the production of man-made cellulosic fibers from ionic liquid solutions by dry-jet wet spinning, is presented as an alternative to the viscose and N-methylmorpholine N-oxide (NMMO)-based Lyocell processes. The ionic liquid 1,5-diazabicyclo[4.3.0]non-5-ene acetate was identified as excellent cellulose solvent allowing for a rapid dissolution at moderate temperatures and subsequent shaping into continuous filaments. The highly oriented cellulose fibers obtained upon coagulation in cold water exhibited superior tenacity, exceeding that of commercial viscose and NMMO-based Lyocell (Tencel) fibers. The respective staple fibers, which have been converted into two-ply yarn by ring spinning technology, presented very high tenacity. Furthermore, the Ioncell yarn showed very good behavior during the knitting and weaving processes, reflecting the quality of the produced yarn. The successfully knitted and woven garments from the Ioncell yarn demonstrate the suitability of this particular ionic liquid for the production of man-made cellulosic fibers and thus give a promising outlook for the future of the Ioncell-F process.

  • 12.
    Pita Miguélez, Inés
    et al.
    Ghent University.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Blomberg, Pontus
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Kadi, Nawar
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Study of spinnability impediments for cottonrecycled fibres due to morphological alterations during simulated production2022Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 13.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Swedish School of Textiles.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Reusing Textile Waste As Reinforcements In Composites2014In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 131, no 17, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyester (PET) has wide applications in textile industries as textile fiber and its share continues to grow. Substantial quantities of cotton/polyester blend fabrics are disposed every year due to technical challenges, which pose a big environmental and waste-dumping problem. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of discarded cotton/PET fabrics as raw materials for composites. If their inherent reinforcement properties can be used in composites, an ecological footprint issue can be solved. In this study, we investigate three concepts for reuse of cotton/PET fabrics for composites: compression molding above the Tm of PETs, use of a matrix derived from renewable soybean oil, use of thermoplastic copolyester/polyester bi-component fibers as matrix. All three concepts have been explored to make them available for wider applications. The effects of processing parameters such as compression temperature, time and pressure are considered in all three cases. The third concept gives the most appealing properties, which combine good tensile properties with toughness; more than four times better tensile strength than the first concept; and 2.2 times better than the second concept.

  • 14.
    Ramamoorthy, Sunil Kumar
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Persson, Anders
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    A Review of Natural Fibers Used in Biocomposites: Plant, Animal and Regenerated Cellulose Fibers2015In: Polymer Reviews, ISSN 1558-3724, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 107-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural fibers today are a popular choice for applications in composite manufacturing. Based on the sustainability benefits, biofibers such as plant fibers are replacing synthetic fibers in composites. These fibers are used to manufacture several biocomposites. The chemical composition and properties of each of the fibers changes, which demands the detailed comparison of these fibers. The reinforcement potential of natural fibers and their properties have been described in numerous papers. Today, high performance biocomposites are produced from several years of research. Plant fibers, particularly bast and leaf, find applications in automotive industries. While most of the other fibers are explored in lab scales they have not yet found large-scale commercial applications. It is necessary to also consider other fibers such as ones made from seed (coir) and animals (chicken feather) as they are secondary or made from waste products. Few plant fibers such as bast fibers are often reviewed briefly but other plant and animal fibers are not discussed in detail. This review paper discusses all the six types of plant fibers such as bast, leaf, seed, straw, grass, and wood, together with animal fibers and regenerated cellulose fibers. Additionally, the review considers developments dealing with natural fibers and their composites. The fiber source, extraction, availability, type, composition, and mechanical properties are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of using each biofiber are discussed. Three fabric architectures such as nonwoven, woven and knitted have been briefly discussed. Finally, the paper presents the overview of the results from the composites made from each fiber with suitable references for in-depth studies.

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