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  • 1. Adriansson, C
    et al.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Bergbom, I
    The use of topical anaesthesia at children's minor lacerations: an experimental study2004In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 74-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In a great many situations within health care and treatment, children are subjected to unnecessary pain and suffering. When local anaesthetics is to be administered the child can experience this as incomprehensible especially when the nursing staff assures the child that no pain would be felt, only to discover soon after, that it actually did hurt at the moment of anaesthetic infiltration. The soothing of pain during the suturing of wounds in emergency wards can be reduced, ensuring that unnecessary pain in the cafe-and-treatment process is mot meted out to children. In order to prevent this (subjection to unnecessary pain), and by improving accepted practice, it was interesting to investigate whether children felt pain at the time of infiltration anaesthesia following the initial topical anaesthesia. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of introductory topical anaesthesia using Xylocain solution dropped in the wound prior to a definitive infiltration-anaesthesia. An experimental, prospective design was used where children were included in either an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group (n=10) were given a Xylocain solution while the control group (n=10) received physiological Sodium solution. Data collection for the study was made by making VAS estimates and by interviews. Result: The study shows that a certain alleviation of pain does occur when using Xylocain but no statistically significant difference exists between the two groups. Irrespective of whether the children received an introductory topical anaesthesia with Xylocain or Sodium solution at the time of infiltration anaesthesia, they expressed pain in connection with infiltration. The study also shows that many children express fear and anxiety. Conclusion: Current research highlights the difficulties involved in offering children a really satisfactory form of pain relief in connection with infiltration anaesthesia and suturing of wounds. It is urgent to throw more light on children’s pain, both from a nursing and from a medical point of view. No statistically significant difference was found in children’s reported pain, after treatment with Xylocain but the solution can have a positive effect at the time of the infiltration jab, but a larger study needs to be done in order to establish this firmly.

  • 2.
    Ahl, Caroline
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Hjälte, L
    Johansson, C
    Wireklint-Sundström, Birgitta
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Culture and care in the Swedish ambulance services2005In: Emergency Nurse, ISSN 1354-5752, E-ISSN 2047-8984, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Andersson-Gare, Boel
    Sjöqvist, Bengt-Arne
    Henricson, Maria
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    The effect of a Computerised Decision Support System (CDSS) on compliance with the prehospital assessment process: results of an interrupted time-series study2014In: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, ISSN 1472-6947, E-ISSN 1472-6947, Vol. 14, no 70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:Errors in the decision-making process are probably the main threat to patient safety in the prehospital setting. The reason can be the change of focus in prehospital care from the traditional "scoop and run" practice to a more complex assessment and this new focus imposes real demands on clinical judgment. The use of Clinical Guidelines (CG) is a common strategy for cognitively supporting the prehospital providers. However, there are studies that suggest that the compliance with CG in some cases is low in the prehospital setting. One possible way to increase compliance with guidelines could be to introduce guidelines in a Computerized Decision Support System (CDSS). There is limited evidence relating to the effect of CDSS in a prehospital setting. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of CDSS on compliance with the basic assessment process described in the prehospital CG and the effect of On Scene Time (OST).METHODS:In this time-series study, data from prehospital medical records were collected on a weekly basis during the study period. Medical records were rated with the guidance of a rating protocol and data on OST were collected. The difference between baseline and the intervention period was assessed by a segmented regression.RESULTS:In this study, 371 patients were included. Compliance with the assessment process described in the prehospital CG was stable during the baseline period. Following the introduction of the CDSS, compliance rose significantly. The post-intervention slope was stable. The CDSS had no significant effect on OST.CONCLUSIONS:The use of CDSS in prehospital care has the ability to increase compliance with the assessment process of patients with a medical emergency. This study was unable to demonstrate any effects of OST.

  • 4. Andreasson, J
    et al.
    Jonsson, A
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Åström, S
    Ambulance personnel should take pictures at the sites of accidents!2001In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 26-27, no 98, p. 3162-3163Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bror Gårdelöf och Thomas Blomberg ställer i Läkartidningen 8/01 (sidorna 856-8) frågan om vem som skall fotografera på olycksplats. Per Örtenwall ifrågasätter i Läkartidningen 15/01 (sidorna 1825-6) om olyckan överhuvudtaget skall fotograferas. Författarna är sedan ett år verksamma i ett av de forskningsprojekt i Västra Götalandsregionen som Per Örtenwall nämner. Syftet är att utröna om bilder tagna på olycksplats tillför patienten och vården något av värde.

  • 5. Andrews, RA
    et al.
    Austin, C
    Brown, R
    Chen, YZ
    Engindeniz, Z
    Girouard, R
    Leaman, P
    Masellis, M
    Nakayama, S
    Polentsov, YO
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Sharing international experiences in disasters: summary and action plan2001In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 42-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: The discussions in this theme provided an opportunity to share specific experiences with disasters that occurred outside of the Asia-Pacific Rim. METHODS: Details of the methods used are provided in the preceding paper. The chairs moderated all presentations and produced a summary that was presented to an assembly of all of the delegates. Since the findings from the Theme 7 and Theme 3 groups were similar, the chairs of both groups presided over one workshop that resulted in the generation of a set of action plans that then were reported to the collective group of all delegates. RESULTS: The main points developed during the presentations and discussion included: (1) disaster response planning, (2) predetermined command and organizational structure, (3) rapid response capability, (4) mitigation, and (5) communications and alternatives. DISCUSSION: The action plans presented are in common with those presented by Theme 3, and include: (1) plan disaster responses including the different types, identification of hazards, training based on experiences, and provision of public education; (2) improving coordination and control; (3) maintaining communications assuming infrastructure breakdown; (4) maximizing mitigation through standardized evaluations, creation of a legal framework, and recognition of advocacy and public participation; and (5) providing resources and knowledge through access to existing therapies, using the media, and increasing decentralization of hospital inventories. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the problems that occurred outside the Asia-Pacific rim relative to disaster management are similar to those experienced within it. They should be addressed in common with the rest of the world.

  • 6. Beillon, Lena Marie
    et al.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Karlberg, Ingvar
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Does ambulance use differ between geographic areas? A survey of ambulance use in sparsely and densely populated areas2009In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 202-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze possible differences in the use of ambulance service between densely and sparsely populated areas. Methods: This study was designed as a 2-step consecutive study that included the ambulance service in 4 different areas with different geographical characteristics. A specific questionnaire was distributed to the enrolled ambulance services. Completion of one questionnaire was required for each ambulance mission, that is, I per patient, during the study periods. For calculations of P values, geographic area was treated as a 4-graded ordered variable, from the most densely populated to the most sparsely populated (ie, urban-suburban-rural-remote rural area). Statistical tests used were Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman rank statistic, when appropriate. All P values are 2 tailed and considered significant if below .01. Results: The medical status of the patients in the prehospital care situation was more often severe in the sparsely populated areas. In addition, drugs were more often used in the ambulances in these areas. In the sparsely populated areas, ambulance use was more frequently judged as the appropriate mode of transportation compared with the more densely populated areas. Conclusions: Our study suggests that the appropriateness of the use of ambulance is not optimal. Furthermore, our data suggest that geographical factors, that is, population density, is related to inappropriate use. Thus, strategies to improve the appropriateness of ambulance use should probably take geographical aspects into consideration. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  • 7. Bruce, K
    et al.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    The hand-over process and triage of ambulance-borne patients: The experience of emergency nurses2005In: Nursing in Critical Care, ISSN 1362-1017, E-ISSN 1478-5153, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 201-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important tasks that a nurse faces in the emergency room, when receiving a patient, is handover and the triage function. The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of nurses receiving patients who were brought into hospital as emergencies by ambulance crews through an analysis of the handover and triage process. A qualitative descriptive interview study inspired by the phenomenological method was used with six emergency nurses. There are three elements to a handover: a verbal report, handing over documented accounts and the final symbolic handover when a patient is transferred from the ambulance stretcher onto the hospital stretcher. The study identified that the verbal communication between ambulance and emergency nurses was often very structured. The ideal handovers often involved patients with very distinct medical problems. The difficult handover or the ‘non-ideal’ one was characterized by a significantly more complicated care situation. The handover function was pivotal in ensuring that the patient received the correct care and that care was provided at the appropriate level. The most seriously afflicted patients arrived by ambulance; therefore, the interplay between pre-hospital and hospital personnel was vital in conveying this important information. To some extent, this functioned well, but this research has identified areas where this care can be improved.

  • 8.
    Bång, A
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Castrén, M
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Suserud, B-O
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Svensson, L
    Svensson, L (Editor)
    Forskning och utveckling2009In: Prehospital akutsjukvård, Liber AB , 2009, p. 461-468Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Bång, Angela
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Castrén, Maaret
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Svensson, Leif
    Forskning och utveckling2009In: Prehospital akutsjukvård / [ed] Leif Svensson, Stockholm: Liber AB , 2009, p. 461-469Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10. Dahlberg, Karin
    et al.
    Segesten, Kerstin
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Nyström, Maria
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Fagerberg, Ingegerd
    Att förstå vårdvetenskap2003Book (Other academic)
  • 11. Fortes Lähdet, E.
    et al.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Lundberg, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Analysis of Triage Worldwide2009In: Emergency Nurse, ISSN 1354-5752, E-ISSN 2047-8984, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 16-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several triage methods have been developed and adopted around the world but none has been devised for specific patient populations such as older people or those with special needs. This literature review outlines the development of triage since the 1950s, briefly discusses some of the models in use around the world, including one that is used in the care of older people, and outlines the issues that should be taken into account when deciding which method to adopt.

  • 12.
    Hagiwara Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Lundberg, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Henricson, Maria
    Sjökvist, Bengt-Arne
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Decision support system in prehospital care: a randomized controlled simulation study2013In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 143-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Prehospital emergency medicine is a challenging discipline characterized by a high level of acuity, a lack of clinical information and a wide range of clinical conditions. These factors contribute to the fact that prehospital emergency medicine is a high-risk discipline in terms of medical errors. Prehospital use of Computerized Decision Support System (CDSS) may be a way to increase patient safety but very few studies evaluate the effect in prehospital care. The aim of the present study is to evaluate a CDSS. Methods In this non-blind block randomized, controlled trial, 60 ambulance nurses participated, randomized into 2 groups. To compensate for an expected learning effect the groups was further divided in two groups, one started with case A and the other group started with case B. The intervention group had access to and treated the two simulated patient cases with the aid of a CDSS. The control group treated the same cases with the aid of a regional guideline in paper format. The performance that was measured was compliance with regional prehospital guidelines and On Scene Time (OST). Results There was no significant difference in the two group's characteristics. The intervention group had a higher compliance in the both cases, 80% vs. 60% (p < 0.001) but the control group was complete the cases in the half of the time compare to the intervention group (p < 0.001). Conclusion The results indicate that this CDSS increases the ambulance nurses' compliance with regional prehospital guidelines but at the expense of an increase in OST.

  • 13.
    Hagiwara, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Henricson, M
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Decision-Support Tool in Prehospital Care:A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials2011In: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, ISSN 1049-023X, E-ISSN 1945-1938, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the decision support tool (DST) on the assessment of the acutely ill or injured out-of-hospital patient. Methods: This study included systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCT) where the DST was compared to usual care in and out of the hospital setting. The databases scanned include: (1) Cochrane Reviews (up to January 2010); (2) Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials (1979 to January 2010); (3) Cinahl (1986 to January 2010); and (4) Pubmed/ Medline (1926 to January 2010). In addition, information was gathered from related magazines, prehospital home pages, databases for theses, conferences, grey literature and ongoing trials. Results: Use of the DST in prehospital care may have the possibility to decrease “time to definitive care” and improve diagnostic accuracy among prehospital personnel, but more studies are needed. Conclusions: The amount of data in this review is too small to be able to draw any reliable conclusions about the impact of the use of the DST on prehospital care. The research in this review indicates that there are very few RCTs that evaluate the use of the DST in prehospital care.

  • 14.
    Hagiwara, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Henricson, Mia
    Exclusion of context knowledge in the development of prehospital guidelines: results produced by realistic evaluation.2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 21, no 46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Prehospital work is accomplished using guidelines and protocols, but there is evidence suggesting that compliance with guidelines is sometimes low in the prehospital setting. The reason for the poor compliance is not known. The objective of this study was to describe how guidelines and protocols are used in the prehospital context. Methods This was a single-case study with realistic evaluation as a methodological framework. The study took place in an ambulance organization in Sweden. The data collection was divided into four phases, where phase one consisted of a literature screening and selection of a theoretical framework. In phase two, semi-structured interviews with the ambulance organization's stakeholders, responsible for the development and implementation of guidelines, were performed. The third phase, observations, comprised 30 participants from both a rural and an urban ambulance station. In the last phase, two focus group interviews were performed. A template analysis style of documents, interviews and observation protocols was used. Results The development of guidelines took place using an informal consensus approach, where no party from the end users was represented. The development process resulted in guidelines with an insufficiently adapted format for the prehospital context. At local level, there was a conscious implementation strategy with lectures and manikin simulation. The physical format of the guidelines was the main obstacle to explicit use. Due to the format, the ambulance personnel feel they have to learn the content of the guidelines by heart. Explicit use of the guidelines in the assessment of patients was uncommon. Many ambulance personnel developed homemade guidelines in both electronic and paper format. The ambulance personnel in the study generally took a positive view of working with guidelines and protocols and they regarded them as indispensable in prehospital care, but an improved format was requested by both representatives of the organization and the ambulance personnel. Conclusions The personnel take a positive view of the use of guidelines and protocols in prehospital work. The main obstacle to the use of guidelines and protocols in this organization is the format, due to the exclusion of context knowledge in the development process.

  • 15. Hamberger, B
    et al.
    Lundin, T
    Riddez, L
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Terrorattackerna mot World Trade Center 11 september 20012004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    New York är ett av världens ledande finanscentrum och USA:s främsta handels- och industristad. Ön Manhattan, stadens kärna och administrativa centrum, är ett av världens mest tätbefolkade områden. Där, i World Trade Center, inträffade den terrorattack som kan betecknas som den största katastrof som människan förorsakat under fredstid.

  • 16.
    Herlitz, Johan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Bång, Angela
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Wireklint-Sundström, Birgitta
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Axelsson, Christer
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Bremer, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Lundberg, Lars
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Ljungström, Lars
    Suspicion and treatment of severe sepsis. An overview of the prehospital chain of care.2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 20, no 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Sepsis is a life-threatening condition where the risk of death has been reported to be even higher than that associated with the major complications of atherosclerosis, i.e. myocardial infarction and stroke. In all three conditions, early treatment could limit organ dysfunction and thereby improve the prognosis. Aim To describe what has been published in the literature a/ with regard to the association between delay until start of treatment and outcome in sepsis with the emphasis on the pre-hospital phase and b/ to present published data and the opportunity to improve various links in the pre-hospital chain of care in sepsis. Methods A literature search was performed on the PubMed, Embase (Ovid SP) and Cochrane Library databases. Results In overall terms, we found a small number of articles (n=12 of 1,162 unique hits) which addressed the prehospital phase. For each hour of delay until the start of antibiotics, the prognosis appeared to become worse. However, there was no evidence that prehospital treatment improved the prognosis. Studies indicated that about half of the patients with severe sepsis used the emergency medical service (EMS) for transport to hospital. Patients who used the EMS experienced a shorter delay to treatment with antibiotics and the start of early goal-directed therapy (EGDT). Among EMS-transported patients, those in whom the EMS staff already suspected sepsis at the scene had a shorter delay to treatment with antibiotics and the start of EGDT. There are insufficient data on other links in the prehospital chain of care, i.e. patients, bystanders and dispatchers. Conclusion Severe sepsis is a life-threatening condition. Previous studies suggest that, with every hour of delay until the start of antibiotics, the prognosis deteriorates. About half of the patients use the EMS. We need to know more about the present situation with regard to the different links in the prehospital chain of care in sepsis.

  • 17.
    Herlitz, Johan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Hjälte, L
    Karlson, BW
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Karlsson, T
    Characteristics and outcome of patients with acute chest pain in relation to the use of ambulance in an urban and rural area2006In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 775-781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The aim of the study was to evaluate the rate of ambulance use and the long-term prognosis in acute chest pain in an urban and a rural area and whether there is a difference between an urban and a rural area. Procedures Patients with acute chest pain consecutively admitted to Sahlgrenska University Hospital (a city hospital) and Uddevalla County Hospital between November 1996 and April 1997 were followed up prospectively for 5 years. Results In the city hospital, 688 (36%) of 1907 patients were transported by ambulance as compared with 369 (44%) of 842 patients in the county hospital. The patients transported by ambulance were much older (mean, 71 vs 59 years in both areas), and the comorbidity was more severe among patients transported by ambulance in both areas. In the city hospital, the 5-year mortality was 41.8% among those transported by ambulance and 15.8% among those transported by other means (P < .0001). The corresponding figures for the county hospital were 38.7% and 11.0% with a P value of less than .0001. Conclusions During the 1990s, patients with acute chest pain who were transported to a hospital by ambulance differed markedly in characteristics and outcome when compared with patients transported by other means. Results did not differ with regard to area.

  • 18.
    Herlitz, Johan
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Hjälte, L
    Karlson, BW
    Suserud, BO
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Karlsson, T
    Characteristics and outcome of patients with acute chest pain in relation to the use of ambulances in an urban and a rural area.2006In: American Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 0735-6757, E-ISSN 1532-8171, Vol. 24, no 7, p. 775-781Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the rate of ambulance use and the long-term prognosis in acute chest pain in an urban and a rural area and whether there is a difference between an urban and a rural area. PROCEDURES: Patients with acute chest pain consecutively admitted to Sahlgrenska University Hospital (a city hospital) and Uddevalla County Hospital between November 1996 and April 1997 were followed up prospectively for 5 years. RESULTS: In the city hospital, 688 (36%) of 1907 patients were transported by ambulance as compared with 369 (44%) of 842 patients in the county hospital. The patients transported by ambulance were much older (mean, 71 vs 59 years in both areas), and the comorbidity was more severe among patients transported by ambulance in both areas. In the city hospital, the 5-year mortality was 41.8% among those transported by ambulance and 15.8% among those transported by other means (P < .0001). The corresponding figures for the county hospital were 38.7% and 11.0% with a P value of less than .0001. CONCLUSIONS: During the 1990s, patients with acute chest pain who were transported to a hospital by ambulance differed markedly in characteristics and outcome when compared with patients transported by other means. Results did not differ with regard to area.

  • 19. Hjälte, L
    et al.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Karlberg, I
    Initial emergency medical dispatching and prehospital need assessment2007In: European journal of emergency medicine, ISSN 0969-9546, E-ISSN 1473-5695, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 134-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the setting of priorities and patients' need for the ambulance service. Methods: A prospective, consecutive study was conducted during a 6-week period. The ambulance staff completed a questionnaire assessing each patient's need for prehospital care. In addition to the questionnaire, data were extracted from the ambulance medical records for each case. Results: The study included 1977 ambulance assignments. The results show that there is a substantial safety margin in the priority assessments made by the emergency medical dispatch operators, where the ambulance staff support the safety margin for initial priorities, despite the lack of at-the-scene confirmation. At-the-scene assessments indicated that 10% of all patients had potentially life-threatening conditions or no signs of life, but the advanced life support units were not systematically involved in these serious cases. The results even showed that one-third of the patients for whom an ambulance was assigned did not need the ambulance service according to the assessment made by the ambulance staff. Conclusion: Using the criteria-based dispatch protocol, the personnel at the emergency medical dispatch centres work with a safety margin in their priority assessments for ambulance response. Generally, this 'overtriage' and safety margin for initial priority settings were supported as appropriate by the ambulance staff. According to the judgement of the ambulance staff, one-third of all the patients who were assigned an ambulance response did not require ambulance transport.

  • 20. Hjälte, L
    et al.
    Suserud, BO
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Karlberg, I
    Initial emergency medical dispatching and prehospital needs assessment: a prospective study of the Swedish ambulance service.2007In: European journal of emergency medicine, ISSN 0969-9546, E-ISSN 1473-5695, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 134-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the setting of priorities and patients' need for the ambulance service. METHODS: A prospective, consecutive study was conducted during a 6-week period. The ambulance staff completed a questionnaire assessing each patient's need for prehospital care. In addition to the questionnaire, data were extracted from the ambulance medical records for each case. RESULTS: The study included 1977 ambulance assignments. The results show that there is a substantial safety margin in the priority assessments made by the emergency medical dispatch operators, where the ambulance staff support the safety margin for initial priorities, despite the lack of at-the-scene confirmation. At-the-scene assessments indicated that 10% of all patients had potentially life-threatening conditions or no signs of life, but the advanced life support units were not systematically involved in these serious cases. The results even showed that one-third of the patients for whom an ambulance was assigned did not need the ambulance service according to the assessment made by the ambulance staff. CONCLUSION: Using the criteria-based dispatch protocol, the personnel at the emergency medical dispatch centres work with a safety margin in their priority assessments for ambulance response. Generally, this 'overtriage' and safety margin for initial priority settings were supported as appropriate by the ambulance staff. According to the judgement of the ambulance staff, one-third of all the patients who were assigned an ambulance response did not require ambulance transport.

  • 21. Hjälte, L
    et al.
    Suserud, BO
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Karlberg, I
    Why are people without medical needs transported by ambulance? A study of indications for pre-hospital care.2007In: European journal of emergency medicine, ISSN 0969-9546, E-ISSN 1473-5695, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 151-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this report was to describe the characteristics of patients transported by ambulance, in spite of being evaluated by the ambulance staff at the scene as not requiring prehospital care. A second aim was to compare these patients with those judged as being in need of this care. METHODS: Three ambulance service districts located in different rural and metropolitan geographical areas were included in the study and all three were covered by a single emergency dispatch centre. Following the dispatch of ambulances, the staff assessed and recorded the medical needs of the patients at the scene, according to a questionnaire developed for the study. In addition to the questionnaire, data were extracted from the ambulance medical records database for each patient. If the patients were just transported by ambulance without receiving any other prehospital intervention, they were assessed as not being in need of the emergency service. The evaluation included events at the scene and during transportation. The ambulance staff making the needs assessments were emergency medical technicians and registered nurses. In this report, 604 patients who did not require prehospital care are described and compared with the remaining group of patients who required this care (1373). For analysis, descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: The ambulance staff assessed that, among patients reported by the emergency medical dispatch centre as having abdominal or urinary problems, 42% did not need the ambulance service. Even among intrahospital transports (patients for whom medical personnel made the request for an ambulance), 45% did not require ambulance transport, as judged by the ambulance staff. Among patients reported by the emergency medical dispatch centre as having chest pain or other heart symptoms or trauma/accidents, respectively, only small percentages (18%) and (17%) did not require the ambulance service, as assessed by the ambulance staff. Most of the patients without obvious medical needs had been allocated an ambulance response for nonurgent conditions, that is priority level 2 or 3, but patients without medical needs were even found at the highest priority level 1. Of the patients who did not require an ambulance, more than half (55%) would have been able to get to a hospital in their own car or by taxi, whereas the remainder of the patients needed a transport vehicle in which they could lie down, but which was not equipped and staffed like an ambulance. CONCLUSION: Among the patients transported by the emergency medical service system in the study areas, a significant percentage were judged by the ambulance staff as not being in need of prehospital interventions. The majority were transported by a fully equipped emergency medical ambulance to an emergency medical department at a hospital, without requiring any prehospital interventions either at the scene or during transportation. The emergency medical service organization has to develop clear criteria for the utilization of ambulance services that can be accepted and implemented by the dispatch centres and by healthcare personnel. These criteria need to include safety margins and at the same time enable the appropriate use of resources.

  • 22.
    Hjälte, Lena
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Karlberg, Ingvar
    Initial emergency medical dispatching and prehospital needs assessment: a prospective study of the Swedish ambulance service2007In: European journal of emergency medicine, ISSN 0969-9546, E-ISSN 1473-5695, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 134-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the setting of priorities and patients' need for the ambulance service. METHODS: A prospective, consecutive study was conducted during a 6-week period. The ambulance staff completed a questionnaire assessing each patient's need for prehospital care. In addition to the questionnaire, data were extracted from the ambulance medical records for each case. RESULTS: The study included 1977 ambulance assignments. The results show that there is a substantial safety margin in the priority assessments made by the emergency medical dispatch operators, where the ambulance staff support the safety margin for initial priorities, despite the lack of at-the-scene confirmation. At-the-scene assessments indicated that 10% of all patients had potentially life-threatening conditions or no signs of life, but the advanced life support units were not systematically involved in these serious cases. The results even showed that one-third of the patients for whom an ambulance was assigned did not need the ambulance service according to the assessment made by the ambulance staff. CONCLUSION: Using the criteria-based dispatch protocol, the personnel at the emergency medical dispatch centres work with a safety margin in their priority assessments for ambulance response. Generally, this 'overtriage' and safety margin for initial priority settings were supported as appropriate by the ambulance staff. According to the judgement of the ambulance staff, one-third of all the patients who were assigned an ambulance response did not require ambulance transport.

  • 23.
    Hjälte, Lena
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Karlberg, Ingvar
    Why are people without medical needs transported by ambulance? A study of indicatons for pre-hospital care2007In: European journal of emergency medicine, ISSN 0969-9546, E-ISSN 1473-5695, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 151-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this report was to describe the characteristics of patients transported by ambulance, in spite of being evaluated by the ambulance staff at the scene as not requiring prehospital care. A second aim was to compare these patients with those judged as being in need of this care. METHODS: Three ambulance service districts located in different rural and metropolitan geographical areas were included in the study and all three were covered by a single emergency dispatch centre. Following the dispatch of ambulances, the staff assessed and recorded the medical needs of the patients at the scene, according to a questionnaire developed for the study. In addition to the questionnaire, data were extracted from the ambulance medical records database for each patient. If the patients were just transported by ambulance without receiving any other prehospital intervention, they were assessed as not being in need of the emergency service. The evaluation included events at the scene and during transportation. The ambulance staff making the needs assessments were emergency medical technicians and registered nurses. In this report, 604 patients who did not require prehospital care are described and compared with the remaining group of patients who required this care (1373). For analysis, descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: The ambulance staff assessed that, among patients reported by the emergency medical dispatch centre as having abdominal or urinary problems, 42% did not need the ambulance service. Even among intrahospital transports (patients for whom medical personnel made the request for an ambulance), 45% did not require ambulance transport, as judged by the ambulance staff. Among patients reported by the emergency medical dispatch centre as having chest pain or other heart symptoms or trauma/accidents, respectively, only small percentages (18%) and (17%) did not require the ambulance service, as assessed by the ambulance staff. Most of the patients without obvious medical needs had been allocated an ambulance response for nonurgent conditions, that is priority level 2 or 3, but patients without medical needs were even found at the highest priority level 1. Of the patients who did not require an ambulance, more than half (55%) would have been able to get to a hospital in their own car or by taxi, whereas the remainder of the patients needed a transport vehicle in which they could lie down, but which was not equipped and staffed like an ambulance. CONCLUSION: Among the patients transported by the emergency medical service system in the study areas, a significant percentage were judged by the ambulance staff as not being in need of prehospital interventions. The majority were transported by a fully equipped emergency medical ambulance to an emergency medical department at a hospital, without requiring any prehospital interventions either at the scene or during transportation. The emergency medical service organization has to develop clear criteria for the utilization of ambulance services that can be accepted and implemented by the dispatch centres and by healthcare personnel. These criteria need to include safety margins and at the same time enable the appropriate use of resources.

  • 24. Jansson, Karl-Åke
    et al.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Olycksfall och trauma2009In: Prehospital akutsjukvård / [ed] Björn-Ove Suserud, Leif Svensson, Stockholm: Liber , 2009, p. 375-407Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Andreasson, Jörgen
    Suserud, B-O
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Åström, S
    Ambulance personnel should take pictures at the site of accidents.2001In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 3162-3, no 8, p. 26-27Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Forskning om ambulanssäkerhet2008In: Samverkan 112, ISSN 1650-7487, no 6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Jonsson, Anders
    et al.
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Forskning om ambulanssäkerhet2008In: Samverkan 112Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28. Karlberg, HI
    et al.
    Beillon, LM
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Herlitz, Johan
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    A cost-effectiveness study of transporting persons without medical needs by ambulance. A prospective study of ambulance service in Sweden.2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Källman, Ulrika
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Knowledge, attitudes and practices among nursing staff concerning pressure ulcer prevention and treatment: a survey in a Swedish healthcare setting2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 334-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate (i) attitudes among Registered Nurses (RNs) and Nursing Assistants (NAs) regarding pressure ulcer prevention, (ii) knowledge among RNs and NAs of pressure ulcer prevention and treatment, (iii) practice of risk assessment and documentation regarding pressure ulcers among RNs and NAs and (iv) to identify perceived possibilities and barriers in pressure ulcer prevention and treatment. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 230 questionnaires were distributed to an equal number of RNs and NAs in both municipality as well as hospital care settings. The response rate was 67% (n = 154). In general, all respondents displayed good knowledge on prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers and demonstrated a positive attitude towards this area of care. However, answers provided to some questions indicate that recent research findings and guidelines have not succeeded in reaching out to these occupational groups. Furthermore, only 37% (n = 55) of the participants said that they have an agreed strategy for the prevention of pressure ulcers in their unit. These shortcomings may affect the quality of care provided to the patient and lead to pressure ulcers developing as a consequence. Today, evidence-based methods for risk assessment are available but are not adopted and used in practice. The study highlights the need to further reduce the gap between research and practice.

  • 30. Lepp, M
    et al.
    Jehad, HO
    Olausson, Sepideh
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Learning Through Drama in the Field of Global Nursing2011In: Applied Theatre Researcher, ISSN 1443-1726, no 12, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how nurses (nurse educators, and doctoral and masters students) from three countries experienced learning through drama in the field of nursing education. In this era of internationalisation, there is an urgent need to prepare nurses with global perspectives. This qualitative study builds on the fourteen participants’ involvement in a drama workshop and their related reflective journals, which were the subject of a quality content analysis. Two categories and five sub-categories emerged in the analysis of the participants’ journals. This study has implications for nursing education and curriculum activities in nursing programs related to the preparation of nurses with a global perspective using drama as core pedagogy. Through drama, participants can access their lifeworlds and share them with one another. Drama makes the experience-based knowledge visible, and in addition develops knowledge about a certain topic depending on the group’s background and contribution.

  • 31. Melby, V
    et al.
    Deeny, P
    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Jonsson, Anders
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Kängström, Anna
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Kernohan, WG
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Patient comfort in pre-hospital emergency care: A challenge to clinicians.2012In: Journal of Paramedic Practice, ISSN 1759-1376, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 389-399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this paper is to report on a study that compared ambulance clinicians' views of two different types of patient coverings, focusing on core caring concepts such as comfort, dignity, and safety. Design: Ambulance clinicians' views were gathered in respect of two types of patient coverings, and 128 ambulance patients were randomly distributed into a control or experimental group receiving respectively either the traditional cotton blanket or a multi-layered TelesPro rescue covering. Views were gathered using a short questionnaire developed by the authors. Findings: Ambulance clinicians, in their own view, maintained the core caring concepts no matter which type of covering was used. Findings suggest strongly that the rescue covering provided for a superior patient experience in respect of all core concepts and one functional aspect. Conclusions: Ambulance clinicians undertake caring that encompasses the core caring concepts of comfort, safety, and dignity, while remaining vigilant to threats to these constituents of caring.

  • 32. Petzäll, K
    et al.
    Tällberg, J
    Lundin, T
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Threats and violence in the Swedish prehospital emergency care2011In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 5-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although acts of threats and violence are problems that have received increased attention in recent years within Swedish pre-hospital care, only a handful of scientific studies have been carried out in this field. Threats and violence have a negative influence on the well-being of ambulance personnel. The aim in this study was both to investigate the incidents of threats and violence within the Swedish ambulance service and to describe these situations. Data was collected with questionnaires answered by 134 registered nurses and paramedics from 11 ambulance stations located in four counties. The respondents’ experiences of pre-hospital care varied from 3 months to 41 years (mean = 12 years, median = 8 years). The results showed that 66% of the ambulance personnel experienced threats and/or violence during their work while 26% experienced threats and 16% faced physical violence during the last year. The most common kind of threat was threats of physical violence with 27% of the respondents experiencing threats involving weapons. Commonly occurring physical violence was in the form of pushes, punches, kicks and bites. In most cases, the perpetrator was the patient himself often under the influence of alcohol or drugs. The most serious situations occurred when the reason for raising the ambulance alarm was intoxication or a decreased level of consciousness.

  • 33. Petzäll, K
    et al.
    Tällberg, J
    Lunding, T
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Hot och våld inom prehospital vård i Sverige2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    A formação e a investigação em emergência2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    A new profession in the pre-hospital care field: the ambulance nurse2005In: Nursing in Critical Care, ISSN 1362-1017, E-ISSN 1478-5153, Vol. 10, no 6, p. 269-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historically, the ambulance service has been viewed as an organization responsible for the transportation of sick people into hospital, but as a result of advances in surgical techniques, resuscitation and pharmacology, this has led to the discipline of pre-hospital emergency care becoming established and recognized as an important part of the patient's total care. In addition, medical and technical developments have led to pre-hospital emergency care becoming a kind of advanced nursing and an important first link in the chain of care. This has resulted in the emergence of a new discipline of ambulance nurses. Their entrance onto the scene is gradually changing and developing the ambulance service. Nurses with a background in anaesthetics, intensive care and cardiology units have for many years been employed for pre-hospital work (Suserud et al. 1998). In Sweden, nurses, and in particular anaesthetic nurses, have been increasingly used for pre-hospital work in Mobile Intensive Care Units (MICU) and on medical emergency teams. These nurses have traditionally taken an active part in the intra-hospital routine treatment of patients with complex conditions and who are clinical unstable. Medical directors' and ambulance chiefs' views have been that those nurses who are used to working independently and have competence in advanced life support are suitable for this role. I also think that many of them, as well as many ambulance nurses, are attracted to working at the front line. However, I would say that most are not prepared for the diversity of patient they will meet outside the acute hospital.

  • 36.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Acting at a chaotic disaster site2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Agerande på en kaotisk katastrofplats2002In: Samverkan 112, ISSN 1650-7487, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Ambulance responses at a disaster site2002In: Emergency Nurse, ISSN 1354-5752, E-ISSN 2047-8984, Vol. 9, no 10, p. 22-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Ambulanspersonals erfarenheter av arbete i en katastrofsituation2001In: Transportmedicin, ISSN 0348-5765, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 33-46Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Care givers’ structure and responsibility in rescue services in Sweden2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Emergency Nursing in Sweden2001In: Emergency Nurse, ISSN 1354-5752, E-ISSN 2047-8984, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 10-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Experience of threats and violence in the Swedish Ambulance Service.2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Experiences of developing research in pre-hospital care in Sweden2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    How do ambulance personnel experience work at a disaster site?2001In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 56-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working at a major accident site is a complex matter where knowledge from various fields must be put into practice. In addition, the different situations at emergency and disaster sites place a variety of demands on personnel, equipment and organization. The aim of the present study is to investigate how the ambulance personnel perceived their own action and the functioning of the whole emergency organization at a major accident site (large discotheque fire) in 1998. Working from a list obtained from the fire department, a questionnaire with 57 questions was sent to the personnel (n = 36) who had participated at the accident site either as ambulance crew members or as members of a medical team sent out from the hospital. The response rate was 80 per cent. Despite the extreme situation, most of the ambulance personnel involved were satisfied with their own preparedness as well as the medical and nursing care performed at the site. Those who where not satisfied reported that the main reason for dissatisfaction was lack of time to calm and comfort people who were not injured or had only minor injuries. The need of more medical support for the medical team members at the site was also emphasized with regard to the care of the severely injured. The ambulance service crews from the suburbs, in comparison with the local city rescue service, were, in general, less satisfied with the co-operation from other rescue units.

  • 45.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Komfort för patienten viktigt under ambulansfärd2007In: Samverkan 112, ISSN 1650-7487, Vol. 6, p. 50-51Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, Faculty of Caring Science, Work Life and Social Welfare.
    Learning by simulation in prehospital emergency care - an integrative literature review.2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 234-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning by simulation in prehospital emergency care

    – an integrative literature review

    Background: Acquiring knowledge and experience on high-energy trauma is often difficult due to infrequent exposure. This creates a need for training which is specifically tailored for complex prehospital conditions. Simulation provides an opportunity for ambulance nurses to focus on the actual problems in clinical practice and to develop knowledge regarding trauma care. The aim of this study was to describe what ambulance nurses and paramedics in prehospital emergency care perceive as important for learning when participating in simulation exercises.

    Methods: An integrative literature review was carried out. Criteria for inclusion were primary qualitative and quantitative studies, where research participants were ambulance nurses or paramedics, working within prehospital care settings, and where the research interventions involved simulation.

    Results: It was perceived important for the ambulance nurses’ learning that scenarios were advanced and possible to simulate repeatedly. The repetitions contributed to increase the level of experience, which in turn improved the patients care. Moreover, realism in the simulation and being able to interact and communicate with the patient were perceived as important aspects, as was debriefing, which enabled the enhancement of knowledge and skills. The result is presented in the following categories: To gain experience, To gain practice and To be

    strengthened by others.

    Conclusion: Learning through simulation does not requireyears of exposure to accident scenes. The simulated learning is enhanced by realistic, stressful scenarios where ambulance nurses interact with the patients. In this study, being able to communicate with the patient was highlighted as a positive contribution to learning. However, this has seldom been mentioned in a previous research on simulation. Debriefing is important for learning as it enables scrutiny of one´s actions and thereby the possibility to improve and adjust one’s caring. The effect of simulation exercises is important on patient outcome.

  • 47.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Nurses man the Swedish response cars, can they replace the physician in the air ambulance service?2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Papel do Enfermeiro no Serviço de Emergência Sueco2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Patient Safety: European Perspectives – Sweden.2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calling for an ambulance is not something that a person would normally do without hesitating. He/she might fear that s/he will not handle the situation, neither on their own nor with help from relatives. He/she might even fear for their life. The answer to their call, “we will send an ambulance for you”, makes him/her being defined as a patient. Dealing with patients puts special demands on ambulance staff. They need to gather information from their patients and their relatives and conduct the first assessment. Thereafter they need to decide which treatment and care should be administered on the spot or if care and transport to hospital is more crucial. In these situations, patient safety is to make the right decision and perform the right measures with quality. In order to maintain good patient safety, strong governmental regulations are needed in many areas. Patient safety in prehospital emergency care concerns the whole ‘care chain’, from that first call to the hand-over at the receiving department. Previous research shows that in prehospital emergency care, patient safety is strongly connected to assessing the patient, having a good driver, performing care during transport, maintaining quality and adapting all medical equipment to mobile treatment and care. To maintain high standard, the ambulance staff should have good health status, both physically and mentally. Also, all regulations and rules must aim to support patient safety.

  • 50.
    Suserud, Björn-Ove
    University of Borås, School of Health Science.
    Photo documentation on the scene of an accident: a complement to the ordinary documentation2001Conference paper (Refereed)
12 1 - 50 of 78
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